Police Intelligence

July 20, 2017 | Author: Paul Espinosa | Category: Counterintelligence, Espionage, Federal Security Service, Police, Military Intelligence
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POLICE INTELLIGENCE LAW ENFORCEMENT ADMINISTRATION (20%) Subjects: Police Organization and Administration with Police Planning -5.0% Industrial Security Management -2.0% Police Patrol Operations with Police Communication System -4.0% Police Intelligence -3.0% Police Personnel and Records Management -4.0% Comparative Police System -2.0 % 20% Nature of Intelligence Function Intelligence is responsible in procuring and obtaining political, economic, psychological, sociological, military and other information which may bear upon, national interest and which had been collected by the different government and agencies. Intelligence is knowledge and powerful it can prevent war and cause one it can help in crime control and crime prevention. Intelligence As an activity- The organized effort to collect information, to assess it little by little, and piece it together until it forms larger and clear patterns. As a product- The end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration, and interpretation of all available information which may have immediate or potential significance to the development and execution of plan, policies and programs of the user. As an organization- An institution composes of persons who pursue of preparing plans or formulating policies. B. Police Intelligence – The end product resulting from the collection, evaluation, analysis, integration and interpretation of all available information regarding the activities of criminals and other law violators for the purpose of affecting their arrest, obtaining evidence, and forestalling plan to commit crimes. Historical Developments of Intelligence A. Number 13:17-32, Old Testament (Holy Bible) - Moses sent twelve (12) scouts to the land of Canaan where he detected directed them to spy the land, the people and their location and the nature of their cities. B. Sun Tzu - “Those who know themselves as well they know their enemies will never suffer defeat". In his book "Art of War". C. Alexander the Great- A renowned Greek conqueror had his share of advance information when rumors of discontent circulated from among the ranks of his men. He was able to identify those disloyal ones by ordering the communication letters opened and was successful in curtailing the decline of esprit de corps and morale of his men. D. Delilah- A biblical personality who was able to gain information by using her beauty and charm. She was responsible for the fall of Samson a known Israelite leader who terrorized the Philistines. E . Karl Schulmeister - Renowned as " Napoleon's Eye ". He was credited for establishing counter intelligence conducted against spies. He is a master of deceit who used black mail to obtain vital information pertaining to the personality and identify of the enemies of Napoleon during the 18th Century F. Frederick the Great - "Father of Organized Military Espionage". He divided his agents into four classes.

G. Julius Ceasar - During his time, the staff of each legion includes ten "speculators" who served as an information-collecting agency. The "speculators" were the first intelligence personnel to appear definitely in a military organization. Military success of the Romans was aided by communication system. Made use of carrier pigeons, which made possible the amazing speed with which intelligence of the Imperial Rome was transmitted. Most Outstanding Intelligence Agencies Intelligence Agency is an effective instrument of a national power. Aggressive intelligence is its primary weapon to destabilize the target. Indeed, no one knows what the intelligence agencies actually do so figuring out who the best intelligence service is can be difficult. 10 th - Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) - Australian Secret Intelligence Service (ASIS) Government intelligence of Australia which is responsible for collecting foreign intelligence undertaking counter-intelligence activities and cooperation with other intelligence agencies overseas. Its primary responsibility is gathering intelligence from mainly Asian and Pacific interests using agents stationed in a wide variety of areas. Its main purpose, as with most agencies, is to protect the country’s political and economic interests while ensuring safety for the people of Australia against national threats. 9 th - Research and Analysis Wing ( R&AW or RAW) Research and Analysis Wing is India’s external intelligence agency. Its primary function is collection of external intelligence, counter-terrorism and covert operations. In addition, it is responsible for obtaining and analyzing information about foreign governments, corporations, and persons, in order to advise Indian foreign policymakers. Until the creation of R&AW, the Intelligence Bureau handled both internal and external intelligence. 8 th General Directorate for External Security -General Directorate for External Security Directorate General for External Security is France’s external intelligence agency . Operating under the direction of the French ministry of defense . 7 th Federal Security Service of the Russian Federation – Federal Security Service of Russian Federation (FSD) The Federal Security Service of Russian Federation (FSD) is the main domestic security agency of the Russian Federation and the main successor agency of the Soviet-era Cheka , NKVD and KGB. The FSB is involved in counter-intelligence, internal and border security, counter-terrorism, and surveillance. The FSD is responsible for internal security of the Russian state, counterespionage, and the fight against organized crime, terrorism, and drug smuggling. 6th Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) ( Federal Intelligence Service) – Bundesnachrichtendienst (BND) The Bundesnachrichtendienst is the foreign intelligence agency of the German government, The BND acts as an early warning system to alert the German government to threats to German interests from abroad. 5 th - Ministry of State Security (MSS) Ministry of State Security is the security agency of the People’s Republic of China. Article 4 of the Criminal Procedure Law gives the MSS the same authority to arrest or detain people as regular police for crimes involving state security with identical supervision, one of the primary missions of the MSS is undoubtedly to gather foreign intelligence from targets in various countries overseas. Many MSS agents are said to have operated in the Greater China region (Hong Kong, Macau, and Taiwan). 4 th – Central Intelligence Agency (CIA) CIA is the largest of the intelligence agencies and is responsible for gathering data from other countries that could impact U.S. policy. It is a civilian intelligence agency of

the United States government responsible for providing national security intelligence to senior United States policymakers. The agency conducts covert operations and paramilitary actions, and exerts foreign political influence through its Special Activities Division. It has failed to control terrorism activities including 9/11, Not even a single top level Al-Qaeda leader captured own its own in the past 13 years –. Highly funded and technologically most advanced Intelligence set-up in the world. 3 rd – Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) MI-6 The British have had a long public perception of an effective intelligence agency. This perception matches reality. MI6, the British equivalent to the CIA, has had two big advantages in staying effective: The British Official Secrets Act and D notices can often prevent leaks (which have been the annoyance of the CIA’s existence). The Secret Intelligence Service (SIS) supplies the British Government with foreign Intelligence. 2 nd Mossad short for HaMossad leModi'in uleTafkidim Meyuchadim (Institute for Intelligence and Special Operations) The Mossad is responsible for intelligence collection and covert operations including paramilitary activities. It is one of the main entities in the Israeli Intelligence Community, along with Aman (military intelligence) and Shin Bet (internal security), but its director reports directly to the Prime Minister. 2 nd – Mossad 1 st - Inter-Services Intelligence (ISI) With the lengthiest track record of success, the best know Intelligence so far on the scale of records is ISI. The Inter-Services Intelligence was created as an independent unit in 1948 in order to strengthen the performance of Pakistan’s Military Intelligence during the Indo-Pakistani War of 1947. Its success in achieving its goal without leading to a full scale invasion of Pakistan by the Soviets is a feat unmatched by any other throughout the intelligence world. KGB, The best of its time, failed to counter ISI and protect Soviet interests in Central Asia. It is above All laws in its host country Pakistan ‘A State, with in a State’. Its policies are made ‘outside’ of all other institutions with the exception of The Army. Its personnel have never been caught on camera. It is believed to have the highest number of agents worldwide, close to 10,000. The most striking thing is that it’s one of the least funded Intelligence agencies out of the top 10 and still the strongest. National Intelligence Coordinating Agency -National Intelligence Coordinating Agency ( NICA) It is the primary intelligence gathering and analysis arm of the Philippine government, in charge of carrying out overt, covert, and clandestine intelligence programs. Its motto is: "Knowledge is Safety”. Presently, NICA is in close coordination with the CIA, Mossad , Secret Intelligence Service and intelligence services of ASEAN countries to counter the threat of terrorism. -The agency is led by a Director-General and is assisted by a Deputy Director-General. The former reports directly to the President. The NICA has a National Intelligence Board that serves as an advisory board to the Director-General before he would submit his findings to the President relating to national security matters affecting the Philippines. -Current Tasks EO 492, issued on February 1, 2006, orders the NICA to activate the National Maritime Aerial Reconnaissance and Surveillance Center or NMARSC . The NMARSC shall serve as the primary Intel provider for the Philippine intelligence community. Under the supervision and oversight of the National Security Adviser, the NICA-directed NMARSC will operate unmanned aerial vehicles or UAVs to cater to the imagery intelligence demands of various government agencies. 52

-NICA agents were also responsible for the arrest of several Abu Sayyaf members, including Al Qaedalinked bomber Abdulmukim Edris as well as the imprisonment of the Maguindanao massacre mastermind, Andal Ampatuan . The NICA is also active in the Philippines' Anti-Terrorism Council, established recently, in order to set guidelines in passing a proposed Anti-Terrorism Law, known as the Human Security Act, signed by Former President GMA on February 8, 2007. In 2005, it started activation of two directorates involving economic intelligence and counterintelligence. NICA liaison officers are official part of the Philippine diplomatic missions in major cities and key consular sites. Principles of Intelligence A. Intelligence and operation are Interdependent Intelligence provides valuable inputs for effectiveness of police operation on the Other hand operation likewise is needed for continuity of intelligence activities. Operation and intelligence planners work hand and hand to Attain greater degree of success in their common effort. B. Intelligence is Continuous The basic principle of intelligence operations is that intelligence activities follow a simple cycle, which is continuous at the same time that new information is being collected in response to direction, other information is being processed and intelligence is being used. C. Intelligence must be useful It must serve the commander’s need and requirements so that effort will not be wasted. It should have an application and significance to the operation. D. Intelligence operations requires imagination and foresight The success of objective is paramount importance. Intelligence personnel are reminded to refrain from utilizing criminal elements in Intel operation. They must use their resourcefulness to obtain more than what is normally. E .Intelligence must be available on time Intelligence must be communicated to the decision maker at the appropriate time to permit its most effective use. It must reach the user in time to serve as basis for appropriate action. Intel data must be disseminated on time because late arrival is as good as useless. F . Intelligence must be flexible Intelligence Operations must be changeable according to the present situation, condition and other factors, Intelligence Operations are based on reason and sound judgment. Procedures which do not readily adapt to a given situation are generally discarded. G. Intelligence requires continuous security measures Deny unauthorized personal information about operation and intelligence product, its source and organization itself. In the handling of classified materials there should be a working balance between secrecy and operational convenience. Categories of Intelligence A. National Intelligence I ntegrated product of intelligence developed by all government departments concerning the broad aspect of national policy and national Security B. Departmental Intelligence The intelligence required by department or agencies of the government to execute its mission and discharge its responsibilities. C. Military Intelligence – refers to the knowledge by the military institution essential in the preparation and execution of military plans, policies and programs. Intelligence Cycle A. Planning and Directing the Collection Efforts Determination of Requirements Enemy capabilities, including time, place, strength, or other details Enemy vulnerabilities, including nature, extent,

performance and other details Enemy order of battle and factors Terrain, including natural and artificial obstacles Weather Information desired by higher, lower or adjacent headquarters B. Collection of Information To effectively plan and execute the collection effort, the intelligence officer must have thorough knowledge of the available sources of information and collecting agencies and the type of information they can provide and consider the following: Determine collecting agency Send orders or request Supervise collection efforts Use tools or technique in collection Ensure timely collection C. Processing the Collected Information Five steps in processing collected information which is then converted into Intelligence 1. Recording – is the reduction of information into writing or some other form of graphical representation and the arranging of this information into groups related items. Counter-Intelligence Counter intelligence – phase of intelligence covering the activity devoted in destroying the effectiveness of hostile foreign activities and the protection of information against espionage, subversion and sabotage. Types of Counter intelligence Passive CI Measures – protection of classified and sensitive information to the unauthorized through secrecy, communication security, and other various safeguards. Active CI Measures – are those measures, which seek actively to block the enemies’ effort to gain information or engage in espionage, subversion, and sabotage. B. Objectives and Importance of Counter-Intelligence It Denies information to the enemy It Reduces the risk of a command Aids in achieving surprises Increases the security of the command Decreases the enemy ability to create information about the forces. C. Activities and Function of Counter-Intelligence Protection of information against espionage Protection of personnel against subversion Protection of installations and materials against sabotage Cont.. 84 D. Categories of Counter-Intelligence Operation 1. Military Security – it encompasses the measures taken by a command to protect itself against espionage, enemy operation, sabotage, subversion or surprise. 2. Port boundary and Travel Security – has to do with the application of both military and civil security measures for counterintelligence control at point of entry and departure, international borders and boundaries. 3. Civil Security – it encompasses active and passive counterintelligence measures affecting the nonmilitary nationals permanently or temporarily residing in an area under military jurisdiction. 4 . Special Operations – counter subversion, sabotage and espionage. Police Intelligence Operations Categories of Police Intelligence 1. Strategic Intelligence – knowledge pertaining to the capabilities and vulnerabilities of a foreign nation, which is required by the National Planners for the formulation of an adequate National Defense in peace and forms the basis for, projected. This is intelligence information which is not immediate operational but rather long range.

Components of Strategic Intelligence A. Political Intelligence – deals with Domestic and Foreign affairs and relation of government operations; Basic Principles of the Government, Government Structures, Public Order and Safety,Subversion, Intelligence and Security Organization B. Economic Intelligence – deals with the extent and utilization of Natural and Human resources to the industrial potential of the Nations C. Transportation and Telecommunication Intelligence - concerned with the operations and facilities not only the Military but also the Civilians. 2. Counter-Intelligence- preparation and execution of plans and programs to neutralize or prevent any activities undesirable to the police organization. 3. Line or Tactical Intelligence – it is the intelligence information which directly contributes to the accomplishment of specific objectives and immediate in nature, necessary for more effective police planning and operation. B. Functional Classifications of Police Intelligence 1.Criminal Intelligence (CRIMINT) – refers to the knowledge essential to the prevention of crimes and the investigation, arrest, and prosecution of criminal offenders. 2. Internal Security Intelligence (INSINT) – refers to the knowledge essential to the maintenance of peace and order. 3. Public Safety Intelligence (PUSINT) – refers to the knowledge essential to ensure the protection of lives and properties. Methods and Techniques of Collecting Information 1. Information – All evaluated materials of every description including those derived from observation, reports, rumors, imagery, and other sources from which intelligence is produced. Types of Agent used in collecting of Information Agent of Influence- Agent who uses authority to gain information Agent in 2. Place - Agent who has been recruited within a highly sensitive target 3. Penetration Agent- Agent who have reached to the enemy, gather information and able to get back without being caught. 4. Expendable Agent- Agent who leaks false information to the enemy. 5. Double Agent- An enemy agent, who has been taken into custody, turned around and sent back where he came from as an agent of his captors. Classifications of Sources of Information A. Open Sources – 99% of the information collected are coming from open sources or obtained from Overt Operation.     

Enemy Activities Captured Documents Map Weather Forecast, Studies, Reports Agencies

B. Close Sources – Only 1% of information are obtained from Covert Operation Close/Covert Method Elements of Clandestine Operation 1. Sponsor -directs the organization conducting the clandestine activity. 2. Target- Person, place or things against which the clandestine activity is to be conducted. 3. Agent - It refers to a person who conducts the clandestine Operations to include Principal Agents, Action Agents, and Support Agents. Principal Agent- Leader or management Agent in clandestine operation usually undertaken by the case officer. Action Agent - The who one who conducts the clandestine Operation that includes:  

Espionage Agent- Agent who clandestinely procure or collect information. Propagandist - Agents who molds the attitudes, opinions, and actions of an individual group or nation.

Support Agent - Agent who is engaged in activities which supports the clandestine operations and or the action agent in his operations that includes the following:  

Surveillant - Agent who observes persons and places of operations of interest. Investigato r- Agent who undertake to procure information or things of clandestine operation.

Procurer of Funds - Agent who obtain money when needed for operational use. Safe house Keeper - Agents who manages and maintains a safe house for clandestine operations like meetings, safe heavens, training, briefing, and debriefing. Communication Agent- Agent who is detailed as securing of clandestine communications. Cont.. Kinds of Covert Operation 1. Surveillance – is the covert, discreet observation of people and places for the purpose of obtaining information concerning the identities or activities of subjects. Terms to remember in Surveillance     

Surveillant – is the plainclothes investigator assigned to make the observation. Subject – is who or what is observed. It can be a person, place, property, and vehicle, group of people, organization or object. Safe house - Refers to a place where agents meet each other for purposes of de-briefing and reporting. Live Drop - Refers to a place where agents or informants leave their messages to the other Agents. Decoy- A person or object used by the subject in attempt to elude Surveillant .

Log – chronological records of activities that took place in the establishment under surveillance. Convoy - An associate of the subject who follows him to detect surveillance . Cont.. 105 Methods of Surveillance a. Stationary Surveillance – also referred to as Fixed and Stakeout Surveillance – is used when you know or suspect that a person is at or will come to a known location when you suspect that stolen goods are to be dropped or when informants have told you that a crime is going to be committed.

b. Moving Surveillance or Shadowing or tailing – simply the act of following a person. Forms: Loose tail – employed where a general impression of the subject’s habits and associates is required. Rough Shadowing – employed without special precautions, the subject maybe aware of the surveillance; employed also when the subject is a material witness and must be protected from harm or other undesirable influences. Close tail – extreme precautions are taken against losing the subject is employed where constant surveillance is necessary. 2. Casing- It is the careful inspection of a place to determine its suitability for a particular operational purpose. 3. Elicitation - The process of extracting information from a person believes to be in possession of vital information without his knowledge or suspicion 4. Employment of Technical Means Bugging- The use of an equipment or tool to listen and record discreetly conversations of other people. Wire Tapping - A method of collecting information thru interception of telephone conversation. 5. Tactical Interrogation- It is a process or method of obtaining information from a captured enemy who is reluctant to divulge information. 6. Observation and Description - It is a method of collecting information by just merely using the different senses. Cover and Undercover Operations Undercover Operations- also referred to as “Roping” - Undercover is disguising one's own identity or using an assumed identity for the purposes of gaining the trust of an individual or organization to learn secret information or to gain the trust of targeted individuals in order to gain information or evidence.

Types of Cover Artificial - altering the background that will correspond to the operation Multiple - Includes different cover Natural - Actual or True Background. Cover- It refers to the changing, forging or falsifying agent’s real personality including but not limited to things, location, job, and others that will be used in undercover assignment. Hazards of Undercover Operations  

Reintegration back into normal duty Maintenance of identity

Uses and Types of Undercover Assignment

1. Residential Assignment- It is related to the neighborhood of the subject, where the agent will live as a new resident without making any suspicion. His mission is to make friends within its neighborhood and gather information regarding the subject and possibly getting closer to the subject. 2. Social Assignment - The agent will gain access to the subject by going to the different hang out places of the subject and gather information like knowing how to drink socially without getting drunk. 3. Work Assignment- The agent will be employed where the subject work to acquire information. The agent must know his work and focus his mind set and habit to his work assignment. 4. Subversive Organization- This is the most dangerous of all the undercover assignment; the agent will join the organization of the subject itself he must know the ideologies of the group and the actions while inside should conform to the organization to avoid any suspicion Informers and Informants A. Informants - Any person who hand over information to the agents which is relevant to the subject. The informant may openly give the information clandestinely and choose to remain anonymous. Types of Informants 1. Anonymous- Unidentified or unknown informants 2. False Informant- reveals information of no consequences, value or stuff connected within thin air. 3. Frightened Informants- weakest link in criminal chain, motivated by anxiety. 4. Self-Aggrandizing - moves around the center of criminals delight in surprising the police about bits of information. 5. Mercenary- Information for sale needed something for exchange of information. reasons. Cont.. 121 6. Double-Crosser- He wants to get more information from the police more than he gives. 7. Women- Most dangerous 8. Legitimate - operators of business desire to give information for legitimate Motives of Informants Vanity – conceited act/character of the criminal resulting to self - betrayal or tantamount to guilt, gaining favorable attention and importance by the police. Civic-mindedness – sense of duty and obligation to assist the police. Fear – A person under an illusion of oppression by enemies or of other impending danger. Repentance – One who has a change of heart and wishes to report a crime that is preying on his conscience. Gratitude or gain – An expression of appreciation to obtain a privilege or an interest in the welfare of his family during his detention. Revenge – To settle a grudge due to settle a previous injury Jealousy – envious of the accomplishments or possessions of another and wishes to humiliate him. Remuneration – a person who informs solely for the pecuniary or other material gain he is to receive.

B. Informers- refers to any person who provides information to the agents in a regular basis regarding to the subject they are either paid regularly or in base-to-case basis. Cryptography A. Cryptography- It is defined as an art and science of codes and ciphers. This is done through the use of “Speech Inverter” whereby essential speech frequencies are divide into several ranges by filters then inverted to produce it scrambled speech when intercepted. B. Crypto Analyst - Refers to those persons who break intercepted codes. C. Cryptographer- It refers to a person who is highly skilled in converting message from clear to unintelligible forms by use of codes and cipher.

D. Coding- It is the changing of message from plain clear text to unintelligible form also known as “Encrypting”. E. Decoding- Transforming of coded message into plain text also known as “Decrypting”,

Security Measures and Operations in relation to Intelligence A. Physical Security- The broadest type of security that is concerned with the physical measures designed to safeguard personnel and prevent unauthorized access to equipment, facilities, materials, documents, and to protect them from espionage, sabotage, damage or theft. B. Communication Security- The protection resulting from the application of various measures which prevent or delay the enemy or unauthorized person in gaining information through communication. This includes transmission, cryptographic and physical security. C. Document Security- Protection of documents, classified matters and vital records from loss, access to unauthorized persons, damage, theft and compromise through proper storage and procedures. Classifications of Documents 1. Top Secret – Top Secret documents calls for the utmost degree of protection. Unauthorized revelation of this materials and information would cause extremely severe damage to the nation, politically, economically, or militarily. 2. Secret - Unauthorized disclosure of this documents or things may put at risk the nation security, cause serious injury to the reputation of the nation, the reproduction of which will be considerable cost and labor, or significant delay 3. Confidential - Unauthorized revelation of which may be injurious to the reputation of the nation or governmental activity or would cause administrative humiliation or unnecessary injury. 4. Restricted - This are information which should not be published or communicated to anyone except for official purposes, These records are daily files, routine in nature even if lost or destroyed, will not affect operation or administration. D. Personnel Security- the sum total procedures followed, inquiries conducted and criteria applied to determine the work suitable to a particular applicant or the retention or transfer of a particular employee.

Personnel Security Investigation – is an inquiry into the character, reputation, discretion, integrity, morals and loyalty of an individual in order to determine a person’s suitability for appointment access to classified matter. Types of PSI A. Local Agency Check- Refers to the investigation of the records and files of agency in the area of principal residence of the individual being investigated: Mayor, Polic , Fiscal, where the individual is a resident. B. National Agency Check- It consists of LAC supplemented by investigation of the records and files of the following agencies: PNP, ISAFP, NBI, CSC, Bureau of Immigration and Deportation and other agency. C. Background Investigation – a check made on an individual usually seeking employment through subjects records in the police files, educational institutions, place of residence, and former employers.

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