Police Ethics and Values Ppt 1

August 5, 2017 | Author: Donnie Ray Olivarez Solon | Category: Natural And Legal Rights, Police, Crimes, Crime & Justice, Norm (Social)
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• Indispensable knowledge. • Without moral perception, man is only an animal. • Without morality, man as a rational being is a failure.

• It must be performed by a conscious agent who is aware of what he is doingand of its consequences. • It must be performed by an agent, who is acting freely, that is, by his ownvolition and powers. An action done under duress and against one’s will is not entirely a free action. • It must be performed by an agent who decides willfully to perform the act. This willfulness is the result to perform an act here and now, or in some future time.

KINDS OF HUMAN ACTS • Elicited Acts are those performed by the will and are not bodily externalized. a. Wish is the tendency of will toward something, whether this is realizable or not. b. Intention is the tendency of the will towards something attainable butwithout necessarily committing oneself to attain it. c. Consent is the acceptance of the will of those needed to carry out the intention.

d. Election is the selection of the will of those effective enough to carry out the intention.

e. Use is the command of the will to make use of those means elected tocarry out the intention. f. The fruition is the enjoyment of the will derived from the attainment of the thing he had desired earlier.


Classification of Actions According to the Norms of Morality

• 2. Commanded Acts are those done either by man’s mental or bodily powersunder the command of the will. a. Internal actions • Examples: conscious reasoning, recalling something, encouraging oneself, and controlling aroused emotions b. External actions • Examples: walking, eating, dancing, laughing, listening, and reading c. Combinations of internal and external movements • Examples: studying, driving a car, writing a letter, and playing chess

• Moral (Good) actions are those actions which are in conformity with the norm of morality. • Immoral (Bad) actions are those actions which are not in conformity with thenorm of morality. • Amoral (Indifferent) actions are those actions which stand neutral in relationto the norm of morality. They are neither good nor bad in themselves. But certain amoral actions may become good or bad because of the circumstancesattendant to them.



Classifications of Voluntariness 1. Perfect voluntariness is present in a person who fullyknows and fully intends an act. 2. Imperfect voluntariness is present in a person who actswithout fully realizing what he means to do, or withoutfully intending the act. 3. Conditional voluntariness is present in a person who isforced by circumstances beyond his control to perform anact which he would not do under normal conditions. 4. Simple voluntariness is present in a person doing an actwillfully, regardless of whether he likes to do it or not It is either positive or negative.

Types of Voluntariness • Direct voluntariness accompanies an act which is primarily intended by thedoer, either as an end in it or as a meansto achieve something. • Indirect voluntariness accompanies an act or situation which is the mere result of a directly willed action.



• 1. Ignorance - absence of knowledge which a person ought to possess Classification of Ignorance a. Invincible ignorance can easily be reminded through ordinary diligence and reasonable efforts b. Invincible ignorance is the type which a person possesses without being aware of it or, having awareness of it, lacks the means to rectify it “Ignorance of the law excuses no one”- implies that no one should not act in the state of ignorance and that no one who has done wrong may not claim ignorance as a defense.

• 2. Passions - either tendencies towards desirable objects, or tendencies away from undesirable or harmful things Classification of Passions a. Positive emotions — love, desire, delight hope, and bravery b. Negative emotions — hatred, horror, sadness, despair, fear, and anger



• 3. Fear - disturbance of the mind of a person who isconfronted by an impendingdanger or harm to himself orloved ones.

• 4. Violence - refers to any physical force exerted on a person by another free agent for the purpose of compelling saidperson to act against his will.

Fear is an instinct for self-preservation. We even fear new experiences or situations such as, embarking on a long journey, being left alone in a strange place, or being asked to speak before a group of people.

Bodily torture, maltreatment, isolation, and mutilation are examples of violence against persons.

Passions are psychic responses. As such, they are neither moral nor immoral, however, man is bound to regulate his emotions and submit them to the control of reason.




Kinds of Rights

• 5. Habits - is a lasting readiness and facility, born of frequently repeated acts, for acting in a certain manner. The word “habit-forming” that we use to refer to certain experience shows how easy it is for one to acquire a habit. It also implies that a habit is not easy to overcome or alter.It requires a strong-willed person to correct a habit successfully within a limited period of time.

1. Natural rights are those based on the natural law, that is, on human nature. 2. Human rights are those based on human positive laws, either those enacted by the State or a religious sect. a. Civil rights are those dependent upon the laws of the state. b. Ecclesiastical or religious rights are those dependent upon the laws of a church or a religious sect. 3. Alienable and inalienable Rights. Alienable rights are those, civil or religious rights, which can be surrendered, renounced, or removed, such as the right to decent livelihood.

Kinds of Rights

Kinds of Duties

4. Right of jurisdiction is the power of lawful authority to govern his subjects andto make laws for them. 5. Right of property is the power to own, to sell, to barter, to lend, to change, orgive away one’s personal possessions. 6. Juridical right refers to all rights insofar as they are based on laws. These rights must be respected, allowed, fulfilled, as a matter of strict justice. 7. Non-Juridical rights are thosewhich are founded on laws, either natural or human, buton virtue. Thus, these are also called moral rights.

1. Natural duties are those imposed by natural law such as,the duty to care for our health. 2. Positive duties are those imposed by a human positivelaw such as the duty topay taxes and to observe trafficrules. 3. Affirmative duties are those which require the performanceof a certain act such as casting a ballot during election;applying for a business license. 4. Negative duties are those which require the omission of acertain act such as not carrying illegal firearms, or notdestroying the property of other.

Civil and Political Rights 1. Civil Rights are those which an individual enjoys in his private activities, or in his transactions with others, protected and granted by law. These include the right to privacy, the right to travel or change residence, the right to property, theright to worship, and the right to free access to a court of justice. Civil Rights are enjoyed by citizens and non-citizens alike.

• 2. Political Rights are those which an individual enjoys participating ingovernment affairs. These include the right of speech and free press, the right to form associations, right to assemble and to petition the government for redressof grievances, the right to vote and be voted upon to public office. Political rights are enjoyed only by the citizens each particular country.



TRIVIA • Code of Ethics was introduced in 1954, it is not a new concept to the field of law enforcement. • Sir Robert Peel of England Metropolitan Police in 1829 introduced the following Principles which might be considered as a version of Code of Ethics.

6. On all occasions he may exploit to receive in the fullest support in the properexercise of his authority. 7. He must remember that there is no qualification so indispensable as a perfect command of temper. 8. He shall never suffer himself to be moved in the slightest degree by anylanguage or threats that maybe used. 9.If he does his duty in a quiet and determined manner, such conduct will probably excite the well-disposed of the bystanders to assist him if he requires them. 10. Particular care is to be taken that the constables of the police do not form falsenotions of their duties and powers.

6. Police use physical force to the extent necessary to secure observance of thelawor to restore order only when the expertise of persuasion, advice, andwarning is found to be insufficient. 7. Police at all-time should maintain a relationship with the public that gives reality to the historic tradition; the police are public and the public are thepolice. The police are only full-time individuals charged with the duties thatare incumbent on all of the citizens. 8. The police should always direct their actions strictly toward their functions and never appear to usurp the powers of the judiciary. 9. The test of police efficiency is the absence of crime and disorder, not the visible evidence of police action in dealing with it.

Sir Robert Peel Code of Ethics 1. It should be understood at outset the principle objects to be obtained is the prevention of crime. 2. Great and every effort of the police are to be directed. The security of the persons and property and the preservation of a police establishment will thus be better effective than in the detection and punishment of the offender after hehad succeeded in committing crime. 3. The constable will be civil and obliging to all people of every rank and class. 4. The constable must be particularly cautious not to interfere idly or unnecessarily in order to make a display of his authority. 5. When required to act he will do so with decision and boldness.


1. The basic mission for whom the police exist is to prevent crime and disorder. 2. The ability of the police to perform their duties is dependent upon public approval of police actions. 3. Police must secure the willing cooperation of the public in voluntary observance of the law to be able to secure and maintain the respect of the public. 4. The degree of cooperation of the public that can be secured diminishes proportionally to the necessity of the use of force. 5. Police seek and preserve public favor not by catering to public opinion but by constantly demonstrating absolute impartial service to the law.


• As a law enforcement officer, my fundamental duty is to serve mankind; to safeguard life and property, to protect the innocent against deception, weak against oppression or intimidation and the peaceful against violence or disorder; and to respect the constitutional rights of all men, liberty-equality and justice.



• I will keep my private life unsullied as an example to all maintain courageous calm in the face of danger, scorn or ridicule; develop self-restraint and be constantly mindful of the welfare of the others. Honest in thought and deed in both my personal and official life. I will be exemplary in obeying the laws of the land and regulations of my organization. Whatever I see or hear of a confidential nature or that is confided to me in my official capacity will be kept ever secret unless revelation is necessary in the performance of my duty. • I will never act officiously or permit personal feelings, Prejudices, animosities or friendship to influence my decision:

• With no compromise for crime and with relentless prosecution of criminals, I will enforce the law courteously and appropriately without fear of favor, malice or ill-will, never employing unnecessary force or violence and never accepting gratuities in return. • I recognize the badge of my offices as a symbol of public faith and I accept it as a public trust to be held so long as I am true to the ethics of police service. I will never engage in acts of corruption or bribery, norwill condone such actions by other police officers. I will cooperate with all legally authorized agencies and their representatives in the pursuit of justice.

CANONS OF POLICE ETHICS • I know what I alone am responsible for my own standard of professional performance and will take every reasonable opportunity to enhance and improve my level of knowledge and competence. I will constantly strive to achieve these objectives and ideals, dedicating myself before God and to my chose profession...Law Enforcement.

POLICE PRINCIPLE 1. Prevention of crime and disorder. 2. Cooperation of the community. 3. Unreasonable force reduces community cooperation. 4. Use of reasonable force when persuasion is not sufficient. 5. Impartial enforcement of laws. 6. The community is the police. 7. Police should not usurp judicial powers 8. Rules of engagement impartially observed 9. Reduction of crime and dishonor 10. Police discretion

1. Primordial police responsibility 2. Limitation of police authority 3. Knowledge of the law and other responsibilities 4. Use of proper means to obtain proper ends 5. Cooperation with public officials 6. Proper conduct and behavior 7. Conduct toward the community 8. Conduct in arresting law violation 9. Firmness in refusing gifts or favors 10. Impartial presentation of evidence 11. Attitude toward police profession

The Philippine National Police Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards (PNP Code of Conduct)

• All PNP members shall abide and adhere to the provisions of this Code of Professional Conduct and Ethical Standards. Towards this end, a truly professionalized and dedicated law enforcer shall he developed in promoting peace and order, ensuring public safety and enhancing community participation guided by the principle that a public office is a public trust and that all public servants must at all times be accountable to the people.



The Police Officer’s Creed: • They shall serve with utmost responsibility, integrity, morality, loyalty and efficiency with due respect to human rights and dignity as hallmark of a democratic society. They shall at all times bear faithful allegiance to the legitimate government, support and uphold the Constitution, respect the duly constituted authority and be loyal to the police service.

• I believe in God, The Supreme Being, a Great Provider, and Tue creator of allmen and everything dear to me. In return, I can do not less than love Him above all, seek His guidance in the performance of my sworn duties and honor Him at all times. • I believe that respect for authority is a duty. I respect and uphold the Constitution, the laws of the land and the applicable rules and regulations. I recognize the legitimacy and authority of the leadership, and follow and obey legal orders of my superior officers.

• I believe in selfless love and service to people. Towards this end, commit myself to the service of my fellowmen over and above my personal convenience. • I believe in time sanctity of marriage and the respect for women. I shall set the example of decency and morality and shall have high regard for family life and chastity.

• I believe in the responsible dominion and stewardship over material things. I shall inhibit myself from ostentatious display of my property. I shall protect the environment and conserve nature to maintain ecological balance. I shall respect private and public properties and prevent others from destroying them. • I believe in the wisdom of truthfulness. I must be trustworthy and I shall speak the truth at all times as required by the profession.



• • • • • • • •

Police Gratuity Police Perjury Police Brutality Police Profanity Set on Duty or Duty-Related Sleeping on Duly Drinking and Abusing Drugs On or Off Duty Misuse of Confidential Information

• The word community originated from the Latin communitas. – tatis which means fellowship and the word communis – common. • a body of people living organized into political, municipal, or social unity; body of persons living in same locality, or with common race, religion, pursuits, etc., not shared by those among they live. • a group of people, who reside in one locality and subject to the same laws, have the same interests etc., • Public or society at large



Theoretical Perspectives on Community

• Structural Perspective • Socio-psychological Perspective • Human Ecology Perspective • Social Systems Perspective


• • • • • • • •

Goals Assumptions Concerning Community Basic Change Strategy Characteristics change, Tactics and Techniques Practitioners Role Views of Power Structure View of Client Population Views of Client Role

DEFINITION OF TERMS • ETHICS – Science of the morality of man. – Study of human motivation, and ultimately of human rational behavior. – Morality. • Moral integrity is the only true measure of what man ought to be. • Morality is the foundation of every human society. • Morality is the quality of human acts by which they are constituted as good, bad, or, indifferent. • Moral Distinctions – “Dictates of Reasons” stands for the norm of morality which is the standard by which actions are judged as to their merits or demerits

Three (3) models of Community

•Locality Development Model •Social Planning Model •Social Action Model

Police-Community Relations (PCR) • an attitude of concern that needed government services are delivered to people in an efficient and humans manner. • A kind of behavior that shows this attitude.

• Voluntariness comes from the Latin word “voluntas”, referring to the Will. • Voluntariness is essential to an act. Without it, an act is a mere act of man. • Kagandahanng - Loob refers to attitude and it stands for allthat is good, we call kaibigan, in a human being. • Duty is a moral obligation because it depends upon free will. • Duty is defined by law; any willfulneglect of duty makes the person accountable for such act.



• Bill of Rights is a list of rights pertaining to persons. These rights are recognized, guaranteed, and protected against invasion, reduction or destruction. • Neglect of Duty or Nonfeasance Is the omission or refusal, without sufficient excuse, to perform an act duty, which it was the Peace Officer’s legal obligation to perform, it implies a duty as well as its breach and the fact can never be found in the absence of a duty. • Irregularities in the Performance of Duty Is the improper performance of some act which might lawfully done.

• Misfeasance on the other hand is the performance of a duty or act that one is obligated or permitted to do in a manner which is improper, sloppy, or negligent (e.g., report writing, unsafe operation of motor vehicle, aggressively “reprimanding” a citizen, improper searching of arrested persons)

• Dishonesty Is the concealment or distortion of truth in a ma of fact relevant of one’s office or connected with performance of his duties. • Disloyalty to the Government Consist of abandonment or renunciation of one’s loyalty to the Government of the Philippines, or advocating the overthrow of the government. • Violation of Law It presupposes conviction in court of any crime of offense penalized under Revised Penal Code or any special law or ordinances. • PNP Image - The image of any organization affects the spirit de’ corps, morale and welfare of members and sense of pride to the organization. • Career Management, the key to professionalism - Its improper implementation will greatly prejudice the personnel professionalization process as regard procurement promotion, assignment placement training, awards, and retirement.

• Misconduct or Malfeasance Is the doing, either through ignorance, inattention or malice, of that which the officer had no legal right to do all, as where he act without any authority whatsoever, or exceeds, ignores or abuses his powers. • Misconduct generally means wrongful, improper or unlawful conduct motivated by premeditated, obstinate or intentional purpose. – It usually refers to transgression of some established and definite rule of action, where no discretion is left except what necessity may demand; it does not necessarily family corruption or criminal intention but implies wrongful intention and not mere error of judgment. – It also refers to the intentional Commission of a prohibited act or intentional unjust performance of some act of which the party had no right (e.g., gratuity, perjury Use of police resources for personal use).

• Incompetency Is the manifest lack of adequate ability and fitness for the satisfactory performance of police duties. This has reference to any physical intellectual quality the lack which substantially incapacitates one to perform the duties of peace officer. • Oppression It imports an act of cruelty, severity, unlawful execution, domination, or excessive use of authority. The exercise of the unlawful powers or others means, in depriving, an individual of his liberty or property against his will is generally an act of oppression.

• Police Management Leadership - The effectiveness of law enforcement is reflective of the managerial capabilities competent leadership of the men andwomen who run the PNP organization. • Equality in the Service - There shall be judicious and equitable distribution of opportunity to prove one’s wroth in the police service. • Delicadeza - In consonance with the requirements of honor and integrity in the PNP. • Police Lifestyle - The PNP shall endeavor to promote a lifestyle for everymember of the organization that is acceptable and respe1ble in the eyes of the public.



• Political Patronage - All PNP members must inhibit himself from solicitingpolitical patronage in matters pertaining to assignment awards, training and promotion. • Human Rights - All PNP members must respect and protect human dignity and man’s inalienable rights to life, liberty and property. • Setting Example - All PNP members should set good example to the subordinates and follow good example from the superiors.

• DHRDD – refers to the Directorate for Human Resource and Doctrine Development; the primary training and education directorate in the PNP. • Ethics and Values Counseling Center – A facility for spiritual and behavioral intervention established in every Police Regional Office to provide adequate counseling and assistance to police officers • Corruption – is the misuse of authority by a police officer in a manner designed to produce personal gain for himself or others; – an impairment of integrity, virtue or moral principle; inducement (as an official) by means of improper considerations (as bribery) to commit a violation of duty.

• Ethics and Values Formation Program - This program contains policies,principles, guidelines and sanctions, all geared towards the internalization of moral values and service dedication through the implementation of a systematic values-integration and intervention program. • Moral Recovery Program - is a movement which aims to mobilize all Filipinos for nation-building through the practical exercise of human values in our daily lives as citizens. It is empowered through Executive Order 319 signed by President Fidel V Ramos on April 03, 1996, which institutionalizes the MRP in all government departments, offices, agencies, and governmentowned and controlled Corporations

• Morale – refers to a person’s state of mind and emotions, affecting the personnel/employee and the police force to perform assigned tasks willingly and enthusiastically with confidence, cheerfulness and discipline to work, which in turn affects the individual performance and organizational goals and objectives. • Morality – quality of human acts that leads man to observe “moral behavior”, to be obedient to a system of moral rules, “rules of right conduct”. • Police Discretion – the inherent ability and privilege of a police officer to test and use the limits of his power in making a choice among possible courses of action or inaction (i.e. to arrest or not to arrest).

• PRO - Police Regional Office which constitute seventeen (17) Regional Offices of the PNP to include ARMM, CAR and NCRPO • Police Officer – a public servant who represents the disciplinary and discretionary power of the state to enforce laws • Values – are beliefs, principles and philosophies that are important,cherished, prized, upheld and defended. • Virtue – the quality of moral excellence, righteousness, probity, responsibility and goodness; conformity to standard morality or mores (as by abstention from vices, rectitude); specific type of moral excellence or other exemplary quality considered meritorious, a worthy practice or ideal

• Customs - Established usage or social practices carried on by tradition that have obtained the force of law. • Traditions - Bodies of beliefs, stories, customs and usages handed down from generation to generation with the effect of an unwritten law. • Courtesy - A manifestation or expression of consideration and respect for others. • Ceremony - A formal act or set of formal acts established by customs or authority as proper to special occasion. • Social Decorum - A set of norms and standards practiced by members during social and other functions.



• Salute - Salute is the usual greeting rendered by uniformed members upon meeting and recognizing person entitled to a salute. • Habits - Provide the basis for judgments about what is important for the organization to succeed in its core business. • Police Community Relation - generally refers to the sum total of attitudes and behavior between police and the communities they serve. • Public Relations - a collection of communication techniques used by individuals or organizations to convince an audience about the merits of an idea, organization, program, practice or policy.

• Community Service - refers to the activities whereby police engage in pro-social activities to enhance the well being of the community beyond law enforcement and other maintenance. • Community Participation - involves members of the community taking an active role in trying to genuinely help the police. • Spiritual Beliefs - can refer to an ultimate or an alleged immaterial reality, an inner path enabling a person to discover the essence of his/her being or the deepest values and meanings by which people live. • Valor - great courage in the face of danger. Strength of mind or spirit that enables a person to encounter danger with firmness.

• Patriotism - love of country and willingness to sacrifice for it. • Discipline - the practice of training people to obey rules or a code of behavior using punishment to correct disobedience. • Gentlemanliness - characteristic of or having the character of a gentleman. A man whose conduct conforms to a high standard of propriety or correct behavior. • Word of Honor - a verbal commitment by one person to another agreeing to do or not to do something in the future

• Duty - a task or action that someone is required to perform. • Loyalty - a strong feeling of support or allegiance. Is faithfulness or a devotion to a person, country, group or cause. • Camaraderie - mutual trust and friendship among people who spend a lot of time together. Goodwill and lighthearted rapport between or among friends.

• Salute of National Color and Standard - Members stand attention and salute thenational color and standard as it pass by them or when the national color is raised or lowered during ceremonies. • Address/Title - Junior in rank address senior members who are entitled to salutewith the word “Sir”. • Courtesy Call of Newly Assigned/Appointed Member PNP members who are newly appointed or assigned in a unit or command call on the chief of the unit or command and to other key personnel for accounting, orientation and other purposes. • Christmas Call -. PNP members pay as Christmas Call on their local executive in their respective area of responsibility.

• New Year’s Call - PNP members pay a New Year’s call on their commanders and/or keyofficials in their respective of responsibility. • Promotion Call - Newly promoted PNP members call on their unit head. • Exit Call - PNP members pay an Exit Call on their superiors in the unit orcommand when relieved or reassigned out of the said unit or command. • Courtesy of the Post - The host unit extends hospitality to visiting personnel whopay respect to the command or unit



• Rank Has-Its-Own Privilege (RHIP) - PNP members recognize the practice that different ranks carry with them corresponding privileges. • Flag Raising Ceremony - The PNP members honor the flag by hoisting it and singing the National Anthem before the start of the official days’ work. • Flag Lowering Ceremony - At the end of the official days’ work, the PNPmembers pause for a moment to salute the lowering of the flag. • Half-Mast - The flag is raised at half-mast in difference to deceased uniformed members of the command.

• Funeral Service and Honors - Departed uniformed members, retirees war veterans or former PC/INP members are given vigil,necrological services a graveside honors as a gesture of farewell. • Ceremony Tendered to Retirees - In recognition of their long, faithful and honorable service to the PNP, a testimonial activity is tendered in their honor. • Honor Ceremony - Arrival and departure honor ceremonies are rendered tovisiting dignitaries, VIPs, PNP Officers with the grade of Chief Superintendent and above and AFP officers of equivalent grade, unless waived.

• Turn-Over Ceremony - The relinquishment and assumption of command or key position is publicly announced in a Turn-over Ceremony by the out-going and incoming officers in the presence of the immediate superior or his representative. • Wedding Ceremony - During marriage of PNP members, a ceremony is conducted with participants in uniform and swords drawn. • Anniversary - The birth of institutional establishment of command or unit is commemorated in an Anniversary Ceremony

• Proper Attire - PNP members always wear appropriate and proper attire in conformity with the occasion. • Table Manners - PNP members observe table etiquette at times. • Social Graces - PNP members conduct themselves properly dealing with people during social functions. • Uniform/Appearance - PNP members wear their uniform properly during the tour of their service. • Spiritual Beliefs - The PNP members are traditionally religious and God-loving person. They attend religious services with the members of their family.

• Valor - History attests that the Filipino law-enforcer have exemplified the tradition of valor and defending the country from aggression and oppression and protecting/ preserving the life and property of the people. • Patriotism - They manifest their love of country with a pledge of allegiance to the flag and a vow to defend the Constitution. • Discipline - The discipline of PNP members are manifested by instinctive obedience to lawful orders and through spontaneous actions towards attainment of organizational objectives guided by moral, ethical and legal norms. • Gentlemanliness - The PNP members are upright in character police in manners,dignified in appearance, and sincere in their concern to their fellowmen. • Word of Honor - The PNP members’ word is their bond. They stand by and commit to uphold it

• Duty - The PNP members have historically exemplified themselves as dedicated public servant who performs tasks with a deep sense of responsibility and self-sacrifice. • Loyalty - The policemen are traditionally loyal to the organization, country and people as borne by history and practice. • Camaraderie - The binding spirit that enhances teamwork and cooperation in the police organization, extending to the people they serve, is manifested by the PNP members’ deep commitment and concern to one another.



• Deviance - behavior inconsistent with the police cultures, norms or values • Corruption - immoral, habitual behavior involving misuse of office for self-interest • Favoritism - unfair or unjust acts (“breaks”) usually given to friends or relatives. • Misconduct - wrongful violations of a police department’s rules, policies, and procedures • Community is a group of people who have something in common with each other that links them and distinguishes them from others who are not part of community.

• Locality Development Model - (also called community development) asserts that community change can be best brought about through broad participation of a wide spectrum of people (including the disadvantage and the power structure) in identifying and solving their problems. • Social Planning Model - is an approach which emphasizes a technical process of problem solving that requires highly trained and skilled planners who can guide complex change processes. • Social Action Model — is an approach which assumes that there is disadvantaged (often oppressed) segment of the population that needs to be organized, perhaps inalliance with others, in order to pressure the power structure for increased resources or for treatment more in accordance with democracy or social justice.

• Structural Perspective - Structure refers to how individuals fit into organized whole. • Socio-Psychological Perspective - It involves how its members feel about themselves and inter-act with one another. • Human Ecology Perspective - It focuses on the relationship of population to their environment, especially in regard to special organization - that is, how people and services are distributed. • Social System Perspective - emphasizes analyzing how the various social subsystems within the community inter-act with each other.

• Police-Community Relations (PCR) attitude; an attitude of concern that needed government services are delivered topeople in an efficient and humans manner. • A kind of behavior that shows this attitude.


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