TRAINING REPORT On
INDUSTRIAL AUTOMATION Submitted in partial fulfillment of the requirement for the award of the Degree of
BACHELOR OF TECHNOLOGY IN
Mr. Rishi Swaroop
H.O.D (ELE Deptt.)
Roll NO. 1211756 ELE(4th Year)
SETH JAI PARKASH MUKAND LAL INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND TECHNOLOGY (JMIT) RADAUR YAMUNA NAGAR(2011-2015)
Acknowledgement I would like to thank INFOWIZ,Chandigarh for providing me exposure to the whole Scada & PLCs Systeam. I’d also like to thank Mr. Rajiv Garg and Ms. Seema for their enduring support and guidance throughout the training. I am very grateful to the whole Control and Instrumentation Department for their support and guidance.
I am also very thankful to the workers and employees near the machineries and the library in charge for their support to my training. The constant guidance and encouragement received from Mr. Rishi swaroop Sharma “H.O.D. of electrical engg. Deptt. In SETH JAI PRAKASH MUKAND LAL INSTITUTE OF ENGG. AND TECHONOLOGY” has been of great help in carrying out the project work and is acknowledged with thanks.
Preface An industrial PLCs system is used for the development of the controls of machinery. This paper describes the PLCs systems in terms of their architecture, their interface to the process hardware, the functionality and the application development facilities they provide. Some attention is also paid to the industrial standards to which they abide their planned evolution as well as the potential benefits of their use.
2. Features of PLCs
3. PLC compared with other control systems
4. Digital and analog signals
6. Ladder Logic
6.1 Example of a Simple Ladder Logic Program
6.2Program for Start/Stop of Motor
7. Meaning of SCADA
9. Common System Component
9.1 Supervision VS Control
9.2 System Concept
9.3 Human Machine Interface
9.4 Hardware Control
10. Remote Terminal Unit
10.1 Supervisory Station
10.2 Operational Philosophy
10.3 Communication Infrastructure and Methods
11. Trends In SCADA
12. Security Issues
13. Application Development
13.2 Development Tools
16. Potential benefits of SCADA
17. Conclusion 4
18. References 1. Introduction
A Programmable Logic Controller, PLC, or Programmable Controller is a digital computer used for automation of industrial processes, such as control of machinery on factory assembly lines. Unlike general-purpose computers, the PLC is designed for multiple inputs and output arrangements, extended temperature ranges, immunity to electrical noise, and resistance to vibration and impact. Programs to control machine operation are typically stored in batterybacked or non-volatile memory. A PLC is an example of a real time system since output results must be produced in response to input conditions within a bounded time, otherwise unintended operation will result. PLC and Programmable Logic Controller are registered trademarks of the Allen-Bradley Company. SCADA is Widely used in industry for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition of industrial processes, SCADA systems are now also penetrating the experimental physics laboratories for the controls of ancillary systems such as cooling, ventilation, power distribution, etc. More recently they were also applied for the controls of smaller size particle detectors such as the L3 moon detector and the NA48 experiment, to name just two examples at CERN. SCADA systems have made substantial progress over the recent years in terms of functionality, scalability, performance and openness such that they are an alternative to in house development
even for very demanding and complex control systems as those of physics experiments.
2. Features of PLCs
Photograph showing several input and output modules of a single Allen-Bradley PLC. With each module having sixteen "points" of either input or output, this PLC has the ability to monitor and control dozens of devices. Fit into a control cabinet, a PLC takes up little room, especially considering the equivalent space that would be needed by electromechanical relays to perform the same functions:
The main difference from other computers is that PLC is armored for severe condition (dust, moisture, heat, cold, etc) and has the facility for extensive input/output (I/O) arrangements. These connect the PLC to sensors and actuators. PLCs read limit switches, analog process variables (such as temperature and pressure), and the positions of complex positioning systems. Some even use machine vision. On the actuator side, PLCs operate electric motors, pneumatic or hydraulic cylinders, magnetic relays or solenoids, or analog outputs. The input/output arrangements may be built into a simple PLC, or the PLC may have external I/O modules attached to a computer network that plugs into the PLC. Many of the earliest PLCs expressed all decision making logic in simple ladder logic which appeared similar to electrical schematic diagrams. The electricians were quite able to trace out circuit problems with schematic diagrams using ladder logic. This program notation was chosen to reduce training demands for the existing technicians. Other early PLCs used a form of instruction list programming, based on a stack-based logic solver. The functionality of the PLC has evolved over the years to include sequential relay control, motion control, process control, distributed control systems and networking. The data handling, storage, processing power and communication capabilities of some modern PLCs are approximately equivalent to desktop computers.
Wiring In a PLC
Block diagram of a PLC
Generation of Input Signal
Inside the PLC housing, connected between each input terminal and the Common terminal, is an opto-isolator device (Light-Emitting Diode) that provides an electrically isolated "high" Logic signal to the computer's circuitry (a photo-transistor interprets the LED's light) when there is 120 VAC power applied between the respective input terminal and the Common terminal. An indicating LED on the front panel of the PLC gives visual indication of an "energized" input :
Diagram Showing Energized input terminal X1
Generation of Output Signal Output signals are generated by the PLC's computer circuitry activating a switching device (transistor, TRIAC, or even an electromechanical relay), connecting the "Source" terminal to any of the "Y-" labeled output terminals. The "Source" terminal, correspondingly, is usually connected to the L1 side of the 120 VAC power source. As with each input, an indicating LED on the front panel of the PLC gives visual indication of an "energized" output In this way, the PLC is able to interface with real-world devices such as switches and solenoids. The actual logic of the control system is established inside the PLC by means of a computer program. This program dictates which output gets energized under which input conditions. Although the program itself appears to be a ladder logic diagram, with switch and relay symbols, there are no actual switch contacts or relay coils operating inside the PLC to create the logical relationships between input and output. These are imaginary contacts and coils, if you will. The program is entered and viewed via a personal computer connected to the PLC's programming port.
Diagram Showing Energized Output Y1
3. PLC compared with other control systems
PLCs are well-adapted to a certain range of automation tasks. These are typically industrial processes in manufacturing where the cost of developing and maintaining the automation system is high relative to the total cost of the automation, and where changes to the system would be expected during its operational life. PLCs contain input and output devices compatible with industrial pilot devices and controls; little electrical design is required, and the design problem centers on expressing the desired sequence of operations in ladder logic (or function chart) notation. PLC applications are typically highly customized systems so the cost of a packaged PLC is low compared to the cost of a specific custom-built controller design. For high volume or very simple fixed automation tasks, different techniques are used. A microcontroller-based design would be appropriate where hundreds or thousands of units will be produced and so the development cost (design of power supplies and input/output hardware) can be spread over many sales, and where the end-user would not need to alter the control. Automotive applications are an example; millions of units are built each year, and very few end-users alter the programming of these controllers. However, some specialty vehicles such as transit busses economically use PLCs instead of custom-designed controls, because the volumes are low and the development cost would be uneconomic PLCs may include logic for single-variable feedback analog control loop, a "proportional, integral, derivative" or "PID controller." A PID loop could be used to control the temperature of a manufacturing process, for example. Historically PLCs were usually configured with only a few analog control loops; where processes required hundreds or thousands of loops, a distributed control system (DCS) would instead be used. However, as PLCs have become more powerful, the boundary between
4. Digital and analog signals Digital or discrete signals behave as binary switches, yielding simply an On or Off signal (1 or 0, True or False, respectively). Pushbuttons, limit switches, and photoelectric sensors are examples of devices providing a discrete signal. Discrete signals are sent using either voltage or current, where a specific range is designated as On and another as Off. For example, a PLC might use 24 V DC I/O, with values above 22 V DC representing On, values below 2VDC representing Off, and intermediate values undefined. Initially, PLCs had only discrete I/O. Analog signals are like volume controls, with a range of values between zero and full-scale. These are typically interpreted as integer values (counts) by the PLC, with various ranges of accuracy depending on the device and the number of bits available to store the data. As PLCs typically use 16-bit signed binary processors, the integer values are limited between -32,768 and +32,767. Pressure, temperature, flow, and weight are often represented by analog signals. Analog signals can use voltage or current with a magnitude proportional to the value of the process signal. For example, an analog 4-20 mA or 0 - 10 V input would be converted into an integer value of 0 - 32767. Current inputs are less sensitive to electrical noise (i.e. from welders or electric motor starts) than voltage inputs.
4.1 Example As an example, say the facility needs to store water in a tank. The water is drawn from the tank by another system, as needed, and our example system must manage the water level in the tank. Using only digital signals, the PLC has two digital inputs from float switches (tank empty and tank full). The PLC uses a digital output to open and close the inlet valve into the tank. If both float switches are off (down) or only the 'tank empty' switch is on, the PLC will open the valve to let more water in. Once the 'tank full' switch is on, the PLC will automatically shut the
inlet to stop the water from overflowing. If only the 'tank full' switch is on, something is wrong because once the water reaches a float switch, the switch will stay on because it is floating, thus, when both float switches are on, the tank is full. Two float switches are used to prevent a 'flutter' (a ripple or a wave) condition where any water usage activates the pump for a very short time and then deactivates for a short time, and so on, causing the system to wear out faster. An analog system might use a load cell (scale) that weighs the tank, and an adjustable (throttling) valve. The PLC could use a PID feedback loop to control the valve opening. The load cell is connected to an analog input and the valve is connected to an analog output. This system fills the tank faster when there is less water in the tank. If the water level drops rapidly, the valve can be opened wide. If water is only dripping out of the tank, the valve adjusts to slowly drip water back into the tank. A real system might combine both approaches, using float switches and simple valves to prevent spills, and a rate sensor and rate valve to optimize refill rates. Backup and maintenance methods can make a real system very complicated.
5. Programming Early PLCs, up to the mid-1980s, were programmed using proprietary programming panels or special-purpose programming terminals, which often had dedicated function keys representing the various logical elements of PLC programs. Programs were stored on cassette tape cartridges. Facilities for printing and documentation were very minimal due to lack of memory capacity. More recently, PLC programs are typically written in a special application on a personal computer, then downloaded by a direct-connection cable or over a network to the PLC. The very oldest PLCs used non-volatile magnetic core memory but now the program is stored in the PLC either in battery-backed-up RAM or some other non-volatile flash memory. Early PLCs were designed to be used by electricians who would learn PLC programming on the job. These PLCs were programmed in "ladder logic", which strongly resembles a schematic
diagram of relay logic. Modern PLCs can be programmed in a variety of ways, from ladder logic to more traditional programming languages such as BASIC and C. Another method is State Logic, a Very High Level Programming Language designed to program PLCs based on State Transition Diagrams.
6. Ladder logic Ladder logic is a method of drawing electrical logic schematics. It is now a graphical language very popular for programming Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs). It was originally invented to describe logic made from relays. The name is based on the observation that programs in this language resemble ladders, with two vertical "rails" and a series of horizontal "rungs" between them. A program in ladder logic, also called a ladder diagram, is similar to a schematic for a set of relay circuits. An argument that aided the initial adoption of ladder logic was that a wide variety of engineers and technicians would be able to understand and use it without much additional training, because of the resemblance to familiar hardware systems. (This argument has become less relevant given that most ladder logic programmers have a software background in more conventional programming languages, and in practice implementations of ladder logic have characteristics — such as sequential execution and support for control flow features — that make the analogy to hardware somewhat imprecise.) Ladder logic is widely used to program PLCs, where sequential control of a process or manufacturing operation is required. Ladder logic is useful for simple but critical control systems, or for reworking old hardwired relay circuits. As programmable logic controllers became more sophisticated it has also been used in very complex automation systems. Ladder logic can be thought of as a rule-based language, rather than a procedural language. A "rung" in the ladder represents a rule. When implemented with relays and other electromechanical devices, the various rules "execute" simultaneously and immediately. When implemented in a programmable logic controller, the rules are typically executed sequentially by
software, in a loop. By executing the loop fast enough, typically many times per second, the effect of simultaneous and immediate execution is obtained. In this way it is similar to other rulebased languages, like spreadsheets or SQL. However, proper use of programmable controllers requires understanding the limitations of the execution order of rungs.
6.1 Example of a simple ladder logic program The language itself can be seen as a set of connections between logical checkers (relay contacts) and actuators (coils). If a path can be traced between the left side of the rung and the output, through asserted (true or "closed") contacts, the rung is true and the output coil storage bit is asserted (1) or true. If no path can be traced, then the output is false (0) and the "coil" by analogy to electromechanical relays is considered "de-energized". The analogy between logical propositions and relay contact status is due to Claude Shannon. Ladder logic has "contacts" that "make" or "break" "circuits" to control "coils." Each coil or contact corresponds to the status of a single bit in the programmable controller's memory. Unlike electromechanical relays, a ladder program can refer any number of times to the status of a single bit, equivalent to a relay with an indefinitely large number of contacts. So-called "contacts" may refer to inputs to the programmable controller from physical devices such as pushbuttons and limit switches, or may represent the status of internal storage bits which may be generated elsewhere in the program. Each rung of ladder language typically has one coil at the far right. Some manufacturers may allow more than one output coil on a rung. --( )-- a regular coil, true when its rung is true --(\)-- a "not" coil, false when its rung is true --[ ]-- A regular contact, true when its coil is true (normally false)
--[\]-- A "not" contact, false when its coil is true (normally true) The "coil" (output of a rung) may represent a physical output which operates some device connected to the programmable controller, or may represent an internal storage bit for use elsewhere in the program.
Programming Input Instruction --[ ]-- This Instruction is Called IXC or Examine If Closed. ie; If a NO switch is actuated then only this instruction will be true. If a NC switch is actuated then this instruction will not be true and hence output will not be generated. --[\]-- This Instruction is Called IXO or Examine If Open ie; If a NC switch is actuated then only this instruction will be true. If a NC switch is actuated then this instruction will not be true and hence output will not be generated.
Output Instruction --( )-- This Instruction Shows the States of Output. ie; If any instruction either XIO or XIC is true then output will be high. Due to high output a 24 volt signal is generated from PLC processor.
Rung Rung is a simple line on which instruction are placed and logics are created E.g.; ---------------------------------------------
Here is an example of what one rung in a ladder logic program might look like. In real life, there may be hundreds or thousands of rungs. For example 1. ----[ ]---------|--[ ]--|------( )-X
| Y | |
|--[ ]--| Z The above realises the function: S = X AND (Y OR Z) Typically, complex ladder logic is 'read' left to right and top to bottom. As each of the lines (or rungs) are evaluated the output coil of a rung may feed into the next stage of the ladder as an input. In a complex system there will be many "rungs" on a ladder, which are numbered in order of evaluation. 1. ----[ ]-----------|---[ ]---|----( )-X
| Y |
|---[ ]---| Z 2. ---- [ ]----[ ] -------------------( )-S
2. T = S AND X where S is equivalent to #1. above This represents a slightly more complex system for rung 2. After the first line has been evaluated, the output coil (S) is fed into rung 2, which is then evaluated and the output coil T could be fed into an output device (buzzer, light etc..) or into rung 3 on the ladder. (Note that the contact X on the 2nd rung serves no useful purpose, as X is already a 'AND' function of S from the 1st rung.)
This system allows very complex logic designs to be broken down and evaluated.
more practical examples
------[ ]--------------[ ]----------------O--Key Switch 1
Key Switch 2
This circuit shows two key switches that security guards might use to activate an electric motor on a bank vault door. When the normally open contacts of both switches close, electricity is able to flow to the motor which opens the door. This is a logical AND.
Example-2 Often we have a little green "start" button to turn on a motor, and we want to turn it off with a big red "Stop" button.
--+----[ ]--+----[\]----( )--| start | stop run |
+----[ ]--+ run
-------[ ]--------------( )--run
Example With PLC Consider the following circuit and PLC program: -------[ ]--------------( )--run
When the pushbutton switch is unactuated (unpressed), no power is sent to the X1 input of the PLC. Following the program, which shows a normally-open X1 contact in series with a Y1 coil, no "power" will be sent to the Y1 coil. Thus, the PLC's Y1 output remains deenergized, and the indicator lamp connected to it remains dark.
If the pushbutton switch is pressed, however, power will be sent to the PLC's X1 input. Any and all X1 contacts appearing in the program will assume the actuated (non-normal) state, as though they were relay contacts actuated by the energizing of a relay coil named "X1". In this case, energizing the X1 input will cause the normally-open X1 contact will "close," sending "power" to the Y1 coil. When the Y1coilof the program "energizes," the real Y1 output will become energized, lighting up the lamp connected to it:
Lamp Glows when at Input Switch is Actuated
It must be understood that the X1 contact, Y1 coil, connecting wires, and "power" appearing in the personal computer's display are all virtual. They do not exist as real electrical components. They exist as commands in a computer program -- a piece of software only -- that just happens to resemble a real relay schematic diagram. Equally important to understand is that the personal computer used to display and edit the PLC's program is not necessary for the PLC's continued operation. Once a program has been loaded to the PLC from the personal computer, the personal computer may be unplugged from the PLC, and the PLC will continue to follow the programmed commands. I include the personal computer display in these illustrations for your sake only, in aiding to understand the relationship between real-life conditions (switch closure and lamp status) and the program's status ("power" through virtual contacts and virtual coils). The true power and versatility of a PLC is revealed when we want to alter the behavior of a control system. Since the PLC is a programmable device, we can alter its behavior by changing the commands we give it, without having to reconfigure the electrical components connected to it. For example, suppose we wanted to make this switch-and-lamp circuit function in an inverted fashion: push the button to make the lamp turn off, and release it to make it turn on. The "hardware" solution would require that a normally-closed pushbutton switch be substituted for the normally-open switch currently in place. The "software" solution is much easier: just alter the program so that contact X1 is normallyclosed rather than normally-open.
Programming For Start/Stop of Motor by PLC Often we have a little green "start" button to turn on a motor, and we want to turn it off with a big red "Stop" button.
--+----[ ]--+----[\]----( )--| start | stop run |
+----[ ]--+ run
The pushbutton switch connected to input X1 serves as the "Start" switch, while the switch connected to input X2 serves as the "Stop." Another contact in the program, named Y1, uses the output coil status as a seal-in contact, directly, so that the motor contactor will continue to be energized after the "Start" pushbutton switch is released. You can see the normally-closed contact X2 appear in a colored block, showing that it is in a closed ("electrically conducting") state.
Starting of Motor If we were to press the "Start" button, input X1 would energize, thus "closing" the X1 contact in the program, sending "power" to the Y1 "coil," energizing the Y1 output and applying 120 volt AC power to the real motor contactor coil. The parallel Y1 contact will also "close," thus latching the "circuit" in an energized state:
Logic for Continous Running of motor When Start Button is Released Now, if we release the "Start" pushbutton, the normally-open X1 "contact" will return to its "open" state, but the motor will continue to run because the Y1 seal-in "contact" continues to provide "continuity" to "power" coil Y1, thus keeping the Y1 output energized:
To Stop the Motor
To stop the motor, we must momentarily press the "Stop" pushbutton, which will energize the X2 input and "open" the normally-closed "contact," breaking continuity to the Y1 "coil:"
When the "Stop" pushbutton is released, input X2 will de-energize, returning "contact" X2 to its normal, "closed" state. The motor, however, will not start again until the "Start" pushbutton is actuated, because the "seal-in" of Y1 has been lost:
7. Meaning of SCADA SCADA stands for Supervisory Control and Data Acquisition. As the name indicates, it is not a full control system, but rather focuses on the supervisory level. As such, it is a purely software package that is positioned on top of hardware to which it is interfaced, in general via Programmable Logic Controllers (PLCs), or other commercial hardware modules. SCADA systems are used not only in industrial processes: e.g. steel making, power generation (conventional and nuclear) and distribution, chemistry, but also in some experimental facilities such as nuclear fusion. The size of such plants range from a few 1000 to several 10 thousands input/output (I/O) channels. However, SCADA systems evolve rapidly and are now penetrating the market of plants with a number of I/O channels of several 100 K: we know of two cases of near to 1 M I/O channels currently under development. SCADA systems used to run on DOS, VMS and UNIX; in recent years all SCADA vendors have moved to NT and some also to Linux.
8. Architecture This section describes the common features of the SCADA products that have been evaluated at CERN in view of their possible application to the control systems of the LHC detectors , .
8.1 Hardware Architecture One distinguishes two basic layers in a SCADA system: the "client layer" which caters for the man machine interaction and the "data server layer" which handles most of the process data control activities. The data servers communicate with devices in the field through process controllers. Process controllers, e.g. PLCs, are connected to the data servers either directly or via networks or field buses that are proprietary (e.g. Siemens H1), or non-proprietary (e.g. Profibus). Data servers are connected to each other and to client stations via an Ethernet LAN. The data servers and client stations are NT platforms but for many products the client stations may also be W95 machines. .
8.2 Communications Internal Communication Server-client and server-server communication is in general on a publish-subscribe and eventdriven basis and uses a TCP/IP protocol, i.e., a client application subscribes to a parameter which is owned by a particular server application and only changes to that parameter are then communicated to the client application. Access to Devices The data servers poll the controllers at a user defined polling rate. The polling rate may be different for different parameters. The controllers pass the requested parameters to the data servers. Time stamping of the process parameters is typically performed in the controllers and this time-stamp is taken over by the data server. If the controller and communication protocol used support unsolicited data transfer then the products will support this too. The products provide communication drivers for most of the common PLCs and widely used field-buses, e.g., Modbus. Of the three fieldbuses that are recommended at CERN, both Profibus and World flip are supported but CANbus often not . Some of the drivers are based on third
party products (e.g., Applicom cards) and therefore have additional cost associated with them. VME on the other hand is generally not supported. A single data server can support multiple communications protocols: it can generally support as many such protocols as it has slots for interface cards. The effort required to develop new drivers is typically in the range of 2-6 weeks depending on the complexity and similarity with existing drivers, and a driver development toolkit is provided for this.
8.3 Interfacing The provision of OPC client functionality for SCADA to access devices in an open and standard manner is developing. There still seems to be a lack of devices/controllers, which provide OPC server software, but this improves rapidly as most of the producers of controllers are actively involved in the development of this standard. OPC has been evaluated by the CERN-IT-CO group . The products also provide
An Open Data Base Connectivity (ODBC) interface to the data in the archive/logs, but not to the configuration database,
An ASCII import/export facility for configuration data,
A library of APIs supporting C, C++, and Visual Basic (VB) to access data in the RTDB, logs and archive. The API often does not provide access to the product's internal features such as alarm handling, reporting, trending, etc.
The PC products provide support for the Microsoft standards such as Dynamic Data Exchange (DDE) which allows e.g. to visualize data dynamically in an EXCEL spreadsheet, Dynamic Link Library (DLL) and Object Linking and Embedding (OLE).
The configuration data are stored in a database that is logically centralized but physically distributed and that is generally of a proprietary format. For performance reasons, the RTDB resides in the memory of the servers and is also of proprietary format. The archive and logging format is usually also proprietary for performance reasons, but some products do support logging to a Relational Data Base Management System (RDBMS) at a slower rate either directly or via an ODBC interface.
8.4 Scalability Scalability is understood as the possibility to extend the SCADA based control system by adding more process variables, more specialized servers (e.g. for alarm handling) or more clients. The products achieve scalability by having multiple data servers connected to multiple controllers. Each data server has its own configuration database and RTDB and is responsible for the handling of a sub-set of the process variables (acquisition, alarm handling, archiving).
8.5 Redundancy The products often have built in software redundancy at a server level, which is normally transparent to the user. Many of the products also provide more complete redundancy solutions if required.
9. Common system components A SCADA System usually consists of the following subsystems:
A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through this, the human operator monitors and controls the process.
A supervisory (computer) system, gathering (acquiring) data on the process and sending commands (control) to the process.
Remote Terminal Units (RTUs) connecting to sensors in the process, converting sensor signals to digital data and sending digital data to the supervisory system.
Programmable Logic Controller (PLCs) used as field devices because they are more economical, versatile, flexible, and configurable than special-purpose RTUs.
Communication infrastructure connecting the supervisory system to the Remote Terminal Units
9.1 Supervision vs. control There is, in several industries, considerable confusion over the differences between SCADA systems and Distributed control systems (DCS). Generally speaking, a SCADA system usually refers to a system that coordinates, but does not control processes in real time. The discussion on real-time control is muddied somewhat by newer telecommunications technology, enabling reliable, low latency, high speed communications over wide areas. Most differences between SCADA and DCS are culturally determined and can usually be ignored. As communication infrastructures with higher capacity become available, the difference between SCADA and DCS will fade.
9.2 Systems concepts The term SCADA usually refers to centralized systems which monitor and control entire sites, or complexes of systems spread out over large areas (anything between an industrial plant and a country). Most control actions are performed automatically by remote terminal units ("RTUs") or by programmable logic controllers ("PLCs"). Host control functions are usually restricted to basic overriding or supervisory level intervention. For example, a PLC may control the flow of cooling water through part of an industrial process, but the SCADA system may allow operators to change the set points for the flow,and enable alarm conditions, such as loss of flow and high temperature, to be displayed and recorded. The feedback control loop passes through the RTU or PLC, while the SCADA system monitors the overall performance of the loop.
Data acquisition begins at the RTU or PLC level and includes meter readings and equipment status reports that are communicated to SCADA as required. Data is then compiled and formatted in such a way that a control room operator using the HMI can make supervisory decisions to adjust or override normal RTU (PLC) controls. Data may also be fed to a Historian, often built on a commodity Database Management System, to allow trending and other analytical auditing. SCADA systems typically implement a distributed database, commonly referred to as a tag database, which contains data elements called tags or points. A point represents a single input or output value monitored or controlled by the system. Points can be either "hard" or "soft". A hard point represents an actual input or output within the system, while a soft point results from logic and math operations applied to other points. (Most implementations conceptually remove the distinction by making every property a "soft" point expression, which may, in the simplest case, equal a single hard point.) Points are normally stored as value-timestamp pairs: a value, and the timestamp when it was recorded or calculated. A series of value-timestamp pairs gives the history of that point. It's also common to store additional metadata with tags, such as the path to a field device or PLC register, design time comments, and alarm information.
9.3 Human Machine Interface
Typical Basic SCADA Animations  A Human-Machine Interface or HMI is the apparatus which presents process data to a human operator, and through which the human operator controls the process. An HMI is usually linked to the SCADA system's databases and software programs, to provide trending, diagnostic data, and management information such as scheduled maintenance procedures, logistic information, detailed schematics for a particular sensor or machine, and expert-system troubleshooting guides. The HMI system usually presents the information to the operating personnel graphically, in the form of a mimic diagram. This means that the operator can see a schematic representation of the plant being controlled. For example, a picture of a pump connected to a pipe can show the operator that the pump is running and how much fluid it is pumping through the pipe at the moment. The operator can then switch the pump off. The HMI software will show the flow rate of the fluid in the pipe decrease in real time. Mimic diagrams may consist of line graphics and schematic symbols to represent process elements, or may consist of digital photographs of the process equipment overlain with animated symbols. The HMI package for the SCADA system typically includes a drawing program that the operators or system maintenance personnel use to change the way these points are represented in the interface. These representations can be as simple as an on-screen traffic light, which represents the state of an actual traffic light in the field, or as complex as a multi-projector
display representing the position of all of the elevators in a skyscraper or all of the trains on a railway. An important part of most SCADA implementations are alarms. An alarm is a digital status point that has either the value NORMAL or ALARM. Alarms can be created in such a way that when their requirements are met, they are activated. An example of an alarm is the "fuel tank empty" light in a car. The SCADA operator's attention is drawn to the part of the system requiring attention by the alarm. Emails and text messages are often sent along with an alarm activation alerting managers along with the SCADA operator.
9.4 Hardware solutions SCADA solutions often have Distributed Control System (DCS) components. Use of "smart" RTUs or PLCs, which are capable of autonomously executing simple logic processes without involving the master computer, is increasing. A functional block programming language, IEC 61131-3 (Ladder Logic), is frequently used to create programs which run on these RTUs
language or FORTRAN, IEC 61131-3 has minimal training requirements by virtue of resembling historic physical control arrays. This allows SCADA system engineers to perform both the design and implementation of a program to be executed on an RTU or PLC. A Programmable automation controller (PAC) is a compact controller that combines the features and capabilities of a PC-based control system with that of a typical PLC. PACs are deployed in SCADA systems to provide RTU and PLC functions. In many electrical substation SCADA applications, "distributed RTUs" use information processors or station computers to communicate with protective relays, PACS, and other devices for I/O, and communicate with the SCADA master in lieu of a traditional RTU. Since about 1998, virtually all major PLC manufacturers have offered integrated HMI/SCADA systems, many of them using open and non-proprietary communications protocols. Numerous specialized third-party HMI/SCADA packages, offering built-in compatibility with most major PLCs, have also entered the market, allowing mechanical engineers, electrical engineers and technicians to configure HMIs themselves, without the need for a custom-made program written by a software developer.
10. Remote Terminal Unit (RTU) The RTU connects to physical equipment. Typically, an RTU converts the electrical signals from the equipment to digital values such as the open/closed status from a switch or a valve, or measurements such as pressure, flow, voltage or current. By converting and sending these electrical signals out to equipment the RTU can control equipment, such as opening or closing a switch or a valve, or setting the speed of a pump.
10.1 Supervisory Station The term "Supervisory Station" refers to the servers and software responsible for communicating with the field equipment (RTUs, PLCs, etc), and then to the HMI software running on workstations in the control room, or elsewhere. In smaller SCADA systems, the master station may be composed of a single PC. In larger SCADA systems, the master station may include multiple servers, distributed software applications, and disaster recovery sites. To increase the integrity of the system the multiple servers will often be configured in a dual-redundant or hotstandby formation providing continuous control and monitoring in the event of a server failure. Initially, more "open" platforms such as Linux were not as widely used due to the highly dynamic development environment and because a SCADA customer that was able to afford the field
purchase UNIX or OpenVMS licenses. Today, all major operating systems are used for both master station servers and HMI workstations.
10.2 Operational philosophy For some installations, the costs that would result from the control system failing are extremely high. Possibly even lives could be lost. Hardware for some SCADA systems is ruggedized to withstand temperature, vibration, and voltage extremes, but in most critical installations reliability is enhanced by having redundant hardware and communications channels, up to the point of having multiple fully equipped control centres. A failing part can be quickly identified and its functionality automatically taken over by backup hardware. A failed part can often be
replaced without interrupting the process. The reliability of such systems can be calculated statistically and is stated as the mean time to failure, which is a variant of mean time between failures. The calculated mean time to failure of such high reliability systems can be on the order of centuries.
10.3 Communication infrastructure and methods SCADA systems have traditionally used combinations of radio and direct serial or modem connections to meet communication requirements, although Ethernet and IP over SONET / SDH is also frequently used at large sites such as railways and power stations. The remote management or monitoring function of a SCADA system is often referred to as telemetry. This has also come under threat with some customers wanting SCADA data to travel over their pre-established corporate networks or to share the network with other applications. The legacy of the early low-bandwidth protocols remains, though. SCADA protocols are designed to be very compact and many are designed to send information to the master station only when the master station polls the RTU. Typical legacy SCADA protocols include Modbus RTU, RP570, Profibus and Conitel. These communication protocols are all SCADA-vendor specific but are widely adopted and used. Standard protocols are IEC 60870-5-101 or 104, IEC 61850 and DNP3. These communication protocols are standardized and recognized by all major SCADA vendors. Many of these protocols now contain extensions to operate over TCP/IP. It is good security engineering practice to avoid connecting SCADA systems to the Internet so the attack surface is reduced. RTUs and other automatic controller devices were being developed before the advent of industry wide standards for interoperability. The result is that developers and their management created a multitude of control protocols. Among the larger vendors, there was also the incentive to create their own protocol to "lock in" their customer base. A list of automation protocols is being compiled here. Recently, OLE for Process Control (OPC) has become a widely accepted solution for intercommunicating different hardware and software, allowing communication even between devices originally not intended to be part of an industrial network.
11. Trends in SCADA There is a trend for plc and HMI/SCADA software to be more "mix-and-match". In the mid 1990s, the typical DAQ I/O manufacturer supplied equipment that communicated using proprietary protocols over a suitable-distance carrier like RS-485. End users who invested in a particular vendor's hardware solution often found themselves restricted to a limited choice of equipment when requirements changed (e.g. system expansions or performance improvement). To
101/104, DNP3 serial, and DNP3 LAN/WAN became increasingly popular among SCADA equipment manufacturers and solution providers alike. Open architecture SCADA systems enabled users to mix-and-match products from different vendors to develop solutions that were better than those that could be achieved when restricted to a single vendor's product offering. Towards the late 1990s, the shift towards open communications continued with individual I/O manufacturers as well, who adopted open message structures such as Modbus RTU and Modbus ASCII (originally both developed by Modicon) over RS-485. By 2000, most I/O makers offered completely open interfacing such as Modbus TCP over Ethernet and IP. The North American Electric Reliability Corporation (NERC) has specified that electrical system data should be time-tagged to the nearest millisecond. Electrical system SCADA systems provide this Sequence of events recorder function, using Radio clocks to synchronize the RTU or distributed RTU clocks. SCADA systems are coming in line with standard networking technologies. Ethernet and TCP/IP based protocols are replacing the older proprietary standards. Although certain characteristics of frame-based network communication technology (determinism, synchronization, protocol selection, environment suitability) have restricted the adoption of Ethernet in a few specialized applications, the vast majority of markets have accepted Ethernet networks for HMI/SCADA. With the emergence of software as a service in the broader software industry, a few vendors have begun offering application specific SCADA systems hosted on remote platforms over the Internet. This removes the need to install and commission systems at the end-user's facility and
takes advantage of security features already available in Internet technology, VPNs and SSL. Some concerns include security, Internet connection reliability, and latency. SCADA systems are becoming increasingly ubiquitous. Thin clients, web portals, and web based products are gaining popularity with most major vendors. The increased convenience of end users viewing their processes remotely introduces security considerations. While these considerations are already considered solved in other sectors of internet services, not all entities responsible for deploying SCADA systems have understood the changes in accessibility and threat scope implicit in connecting a system to the internet.
12. Security issues The move from proprietary technologies to more standardized and open solutions together with the increased number of connections between SCADA systems and office networks and the Internet has made them more vulnerable to attacks - see references. Consequently, the security of SCADA-based systems has come into question as they are increasingly seen as extremely vulnerable to cyber warfare/cyber terrorism attacks. In particular, security researchers are concerned about:
the lack of concern about security and authentication in the design, deployment and operation of existing SCADA networks
the mistaken belief that SCADA systems have the benefit of security through obscurity through the use of specialized protocols and proprietary interfaces
the mistaken belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are purportedly physically secured
the mistaken belief that SCADA networks are secure because they are supposedly disconnected from the Internet
SCADA systems are used to control and monitor physical processes, examples of which are transmission of electricity, transportation of gas and oil in pipelines, water distribution, traffic lights, and other systems used as the basis of modern society. The security of these SCADA systems is important because compromise or destruction of these systems would impact multiple
areas of society far removed from the original compromise. For example, a blackout caused by a compromised electrical SCADA system would cause financial losses to all the customers that received electricity from that source. How security will affect legacy SCADA and new deployments remains to be seen. There are two distinct threats to a modern SCADA system. First is the threat of unauthorized access to the control software, whether it be human access or changes induced intentionally or accidentally by virus infections and other software threats residing on the control host machine. Second is the threat of packet access to the network segments hosting SCADA devices. In many cases, there is rudimentary or no security on the actual packet control protocol, so anyone who can send packets to the SCADA device can control it. In many cases SCADA users assume that a VPN is sufficient protection and are unaware that physical access to SCADA-related network jacks and switches provides the ability to totally bypass all security on the control software and fully control those SCADA networks. These kinds of physical access attacks bypass firewall and VPN security and are best addressed by endpoint-to-endpoint authentication and authorization such as are commonly provided in the non-SCADA world by in-device SSL or other cryptographic techniques. Many vendors of SCADA and control products have begun to address these risks in a basic sense by developing lines of specialized industrial firewall and VPN solutions for TCP/IP-based SCADA networks. Additionally, application white listing solutions are being implemented because of their ability to prevent malware and unauthorized application changes without the performance impacts of traditional antivirus scans Also, the ISA Security Compliance Institute (ISCI) is emerging to formalize SCADA security testing starting as soon as 2009. ISCI is conceptually similar to private testing and certification that has been performed by vendors since 2007. Eventually, standards being defined by ISA99 WG4 will supersede the initial industry consortia efforts, but probably not before 2011 . The increased interest in SCADA vulnerabilities has resulted in vulnerability researchers discovering vulnerabilities in commercial SCADA software and more general offensive SCADA techniques presented to the general security community. In electric and gas utility SCADA systems, the vulnerability of the large installed base of wired and wireless serial communications links is addressed in some cases by applying bump-in-the-wire devices that employ
authentication and Advanced Encryption Standard encryption rather than replacing all existing nodes.
13. Application Development
13.1 Configuration The development of the applications is typically done in two stages. First the process parameters and associated information (e.g. relating to alarm conditions) are defined through some sort of parameter definition template and then the graphics, including trending and alarm displays are
developed, and linked where appropriate to the process parameters. The products also provide an ASCII Export/Import facility for the configuration data (parameter definitions), which enables large numbers of parameters to be configured in a more efficient manner using an external editor such as Excel and then importing the data into the configuration database. However, many of the PC tools now have a Windows Explorer type development studio. The developer then works with a number of folders, which each contains a different aspect of the configuration, including the graphics. The facilities provided by the products for configuring very large numbers of parameters are not very strong. However, this has not really been an issue so far for most of the products to-date, as large applications are typically about 50K I/O points and database population from within an ASCII editor such as Excel is still a workable option. On-line modifications to the configuration database and the graphics are generally possible with the appropriate level of privileges.
13.2 Development Tools The following development tools are provided as standard:
A graphics editor, with standard drawing facilities including freehand, lines, squares circles, etc. It is possible to import pictures in many formats as well as using predefined symbols including e.g. trending charts, etc. A library of generic symbols is provided that can be linked dynamically to variables and animated as they change. It is also possible to create links between views so as to ease navigation at run-time.
A data base configuration tool (usually through parameter templates). It is in general possible to export data in ASCII files so as to be edited through an ASCII editor or Excel.
A scripting language
An Application Program Interface (API) supporting C, C++, VB
SCADA vendors release one major version and one to two additional minor versions once per year. These products evolve thus very rapidly so as to take advantage of new market opportunities, to meet new requirements of their customers and to take advantage of new technologies. As was already mentioned, most of the SCADA products that were evaluated decompose the process in "atomic" parameters to which a Tag-name is associated. This is impractical in the case of very large processes when very large sets of Tags need to be configured. As the industrial applications are increasing in size, new SCADA versions are now being designed to handle devices and even entire systems as full entities (classes) that encapsulate all their specific attributes and functionality. In addition, they will also support multi-team development. As far as new technologies are concerned, the SCADA products are now adopting:
Web technology, ActiveX, Java, etc.
OPC as a means for communicating internally between the client and server modules. It should thus be possible to connect OPC compliant third party modules to that SCADA product.
15. Engineering Whilst one should rightly anticipate significant development and maintenance savings by adopting a SCADA product for the implementation of a control system, it does not mean a "no effort" operation. The need for proper engineering can not be sufficiently emphasized to reduce development effort and to reach a system that complies with the requirements, that is economical in development and maintenance and that is reliable and robust. Examples of engineering activities specific to the use of a SCADA system are the definition of:
a library of objects (PLC, device, subsystem) complete with standard object behavior (script, sequences, ...), graphical interface and associated scripts for animation,
templates for different types of "panels", e.g. alarms,
instructions on how to control e.g. a device ...,
a mechanism to prevent conflicting controls (if not provided with the SCADA), alarm levels,
16. Potential benefits of SCADA The benefits one can expect from adopting a SCADA system for the control of experimental physics facilities can be summarized as follows:
A rich functionality and extensive development facilities. The amount of effort invested in SCADA product amounts to 50 to 100 p-years!
The amount of specific development that needs to be performed by the end-user is limited, especially with suitable engineering.
Reliability and robustness. These systems are used for mission critical industrial processes where reliability and performance are paramount. In addition, specific development is performed within a well-established framework that enhances reliability and robustness.
Technical support and maintenance by the vendor.
17. CONCLUSION SCADA is used for the constructive working not for the destructive work using a SCADA system for their controls ensures a common framework not only for the development of the specific applications but also for operating the detectors. Operators experience the same "look and feel" whatever part of the experiment they control. However, this aspect also depends to a significant extent on proper engineering.
: this article is based on a very similar one that has been published in the Proceedings of the 7th International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, held in Trieste, Italy, 4 - 8 Oct. 1999.  A.Daneels, W.Salter, "Technology Survey Summary of Study Report", IT-CO/98-0809, CERN, Geneva 26th Aug 1998.  A.Daneels, W.Salter, "Selection and Evaluation of Commercial SCADA Systems for the Controls of the CERN LHC Experiments", Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, Trieste, 1999, p.353.  G.Baribaud et al., "Recommendations for the Use of Fieldbuses at CERN in the LHC Era", Proceedings of the 1997 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, Beijing, 1997, p.285.  R.Barillere et al., "Results of the OPC Evaluation done within the JCOP for the Control of the LHC Experiments", Proceedings of the 1999 International Conference on Accelerator and Large Experimental Physics Control Systems, Trieste, 1999, p.511.