Pianist - Special Great Piano Composers of the Classical Era

November 24, 2017 | Author: Pancho Fangio Perez Pando | Category: Classical Period (Music), Piano, Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, Ludwig Van Beethoven, Composers
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Descripción: revista...

Description

 GREAT PIANO COMPOSERS  OF THE CLASSICAL ERA

BEGINNER /

2 3 TRACK Track

S MIS N’T E DOMELANIICK’S NSW SPA E S PIEC THI ON PAGE

ON

LESS

n n e r IATE b e g iINTERMED ) ) -1809 -1809 N (1732 N (1732 HAYD HAYD Joseph Joseph flatE flat no innoE in Andanti Andanti Johann Nepomuk HUMMEL (1778-1837) Johann Nepomuk HUMMEL Wolfg Ecossaise op 52 no 5(1778-1837) ang Amad Wolfgang Amadeus eus MOZ MOZART Ecossaise op 52 no 5 ART(1756 (1756-1791 -1791 Rondo in A minor Rondo )) in

MISS higher topTnote the M’S DON’ though the TRACK 2 BEGINNER PARHA TRACKly,ly,11making simultaneous line T MISS’S LUCY wrist keyssimultaneous thekeys your let the upper strikethe indon’t DON’ Track legato should strike and12 fingers should line, two fingers TRACK 1 PARHAM the two BEGINNER upperthe the your inSON in theabout written,the let LUCY PIECE aswritten, bass don’tLES the legatoThink prominently. andAlberti separate 85. more about once – an ON THIS portato;No Think 9 there’s bar at more. out in SON Symphony in bothAtlines be played should outsound PAGE LES sound full length. of Haydn’s true legato ent.bass The a note notes should there’s an Alberti restsa their dotted movement the two.with to achieve THIS PIECE At bar 9 accompanim slurred crotchet second first ofportato, be able of the ON nt. 24 on the be played but rhythmic up. Give full length. you won’t the pairs of their a calm should emphasis restsfor arrangement 24 slight notes example In this in the – tense is anpiece, 15. crotchet and light, This thirds Make adotted Give on page accompanime but rhythmic even up. pagE wrist. right handof(for this calmpiece of slurred thesequences inthe pairs Make to be onathis LH.tense Theyour raising thirds is by tips: ADVANCED lesson Dating from 1787 the wrist them even and light thenthe Playing sequences Hi Mary hardestofhurdle this note, ADVANC Spanswick’s note,then is theThe Make higher (the higher hand. Melanie first note. the year of left ED of this first the A pupil of both Mozart and a rival ofaBeethoven, and a friend of aGoethe this virtuosity, but, the author of works pedagogy, he alsoon wrote the piece theand Read DonasGiovanni), aspect on as Clementi, in Mozart’s AWhen pupil of playing both Mozart Clementi, rival of Beethoven, and friend of reflect for piano often reflect this virtuosity, but,on as piano the author of works piano them first playing hardest emphasis them bybyplaying playing slight this output, Rondo When PractisePractise pair. yetadvanced is something 16-17). next bars 16-17). andpair. Schiller, Johann Nepomuk Hummel was a Hummel piano prodigy became oneDating ofwho pieces for less players, such thisadvanced Ecossaise. Take a look the next many from thethe 3 and ways it embodies 1787 on toto 3 and barbars ofataasone-off Goethe and Schiller, Johann Nepomuk was who a piano prodigy pedagogy, heinyear also wrote forasless players, such thistechnical Ecossaise. Playing bar(e.g. (the Just a few things that won’t take long: RH tips: of : This the immediately on the essential Donpieces Giovanni), this Mozart’stips is such movingimmediately then moving the became leading virtuosos his era.virtuosos Not surprisingly, many pieces forhis piano often within nature of his music. Rondo is worth spending time and then a fantastic output, noteand Rondo contains one of theofleading of his era.his Not surprisingly, many piecesa huge Take ayet look at the technical tipsand within the score. lowernote piece inscore. is something many lower on. The more ways there’s it embodies of a one-off inplay it. Trust us! And of emotions, so much Playing tips:range the to but learn essential This else the page 20 where heeven if we have classifiedyou study it, the more you will is all the differentis such a fantastic one thing that in it. It subtleties Page 32: of his music. talks about different a huge love to piece and there’s standsnature types of articulation required), we it as Advanced (due range of emotions, above Lucy touched believe that it’s touches. muchout Parham’s that Mozartsoasks All the text is bold! to all the various on legato and learn everything the one thing still within Graham’s the on in It contains different islesson staccato – definitely Even articulation needed Fingering is suggested here but if it an intermediate thisbut for.toelsewhere), that stands As wellinasit.reading piece in the last issue 68 types on page grasp lesson Tanner’s time on. Thelevel well. of articulation out(and of readers 24, worththe above Delete the Boosey and Hawkes text there along the spine. Masterclass wehand, revisiting. everything else is also feel moreasyou Pedal tips: that suit suggest Parham’s on page are of also the RH. Practise slowly! doesn’t your free to change. Mozart This piece who study it, the more that When 8 where lesson q = 160-164 you asks for. is worth it comes on page he talks Pedal tips: Mark alloverpedalling spending 24, we about to pedalling in you will love to play well as read When suggest playingSo, studying it comes that in aasClassical this piece, do your it. Trust us! 2 4 4 3 1 2 you turn to Graham style. ThisLucy pedalling –– one in this Page 33 ableto pedalling Fitch’s Masterclass one should piece, do yourutmost hear the should be to be able to utmosttotoavoid on Turn to hear all Parham’s all thedifferent TurnLucy avoid overin-depth All the text is bold! to Lucy differentarticulations and nuances. lesson Parham’s articulations on page in-depth and nuances. 24. Andante lesson on page Delete Boosey and Hawkes text there along the spine. 24. Make While you’re at it, can you change Sat to Sad in the title (must have been me!) 3 sure both hands Have RH fingers œ rests. p ready are lifted#œforœ the 1 over the keys. 1 2 Page 35 5 4 2 There seems to be a funny upward dash sign below the word ‘persevere’ on the second column. 3 2 Not sure what it is. Just remove. p

15

A minor K511 K511

Page 36 Can you make the text box slightly bigger? There’s still quite a big gap between the text and the score. I think I gave you lots of text right? I’d just lower the text box slightly, maybe by just one or two lines? Page 38 Can you lower the text box a fraction? I think we can easily have one extra line without it looking too squashed. Page 43 That sure is tricky!! What I suggest is put the poem quote totally next to the score – so that it’s aligned with the ‘Andante Doloroso...’ opposite. Might it then work that the text above works better? We still need two columns, or it looks odd. Even if it’s just two lines of text per column. See how that works. I think it will fit. Page 48 Well done for spotting that the piece begins on page 53!!!

-Erica Worth Editor Pianist Magazine 6 Warrington Crescent London W9 1EL Tel: 020 7266 0760 Fax: 020 7286 0748 E: [email protected] www.pianistmagazine.com Hi Mary Just a few things that won’t take long: Page 32: All the text is bold! Delete the Boosey and Hawkes text there along the spine.

{

{ INCLUDES

I think after these first amends, I will just print off every page, to then make sure I’ve caught everything. Erica

{

2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ &4 œ 6œ œœ™™ #œ œ. j . j œ. œœ. & 8 œœJ œœ. œœ. ˙˙ œœ œ ‰ œœ œ bœ ˙˙ nœ œ # œ œ #œ œ ‰ Jœ œ œ œ œ ?2 œ Œ J J ‰ J nœ œ œ 4 J J œ #œ œ 2 Put more emphasis cr 3 Note:These next four bars arecresc. a straight repeat.Try The use of pedal is not6necessary in LH to remain light and crisp on the minum. &8 ‰ to make them sound different. Softer, maybe? this piece. p ‰ and in strict time. ‰ œœ™™ œœ œœ œœ™™ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œ ‰ œ ? ‰ œ œ œ œ From bar 9, you need to sing œœ™™ 5 more in the RH. Notice the slurs. œœ™™ œ ‰ œœ™™ œ œœ™™n œ œœ œœ™™ & 7 œ4 4 œ œ œ2 2 1 œ3 2 œ2 œ œ œ œ3 3 5 œ œ œ ™ ™ œ œ Œ ‰ ™ ™ & œ 5 2 J œ 4 3 Think in two#œlong The crotchet rest is T 1 & forœ œœ™™ #œ œ œj ‰ 1 j œ3 ff 4-bar phrases important to ‘hear’! œ. œœ. œ 3 bœ nœ nœ œ ≈ #œ2 œ œ1 œ œ2 # œ 2 4 the next 8 bars. œœ 2 œ ? œ Œ ™™ ™™ & œ ≈ œr nœœ™ œ1 œ œ 1 j ‰ œ3 œ œ œ œ Rœ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œœ œcresc. #œ œ cr œ ˙œ œ™ œ ‰ J 3 2 4 ‰ & 5 5 ‰ p œ ‰held here Hold down the C for the œ œ œ™And j œ too.œ ‰ œ œj œœ ™ œagain.œœ œœ™™ # œœ Bsœœ to beœœ™ ‰ duration of the bar. ™ œ œ œœ™™ œ œœ œœ™ œœ #œ n œœ ‰ ‰ ? œœ™™ Feel the ‘down-up’ in these two bars. Put weight Appoggiatura E should J ‰ ‰ ™ œ œ be very quick and light. 13 on the first note, and be lighter on the second. 1 3 2 œ œ 2 4 œ œ4 fij œ œ J ‰ œ J ‰ œ œ 9œ œ œ œ Œ ™™ ™™ œ œ œ œ & œ 4 1 T Ÿ32 & œ œ œ œœ™™ œ œ œ œ œ pœ 3 # 4 p 5 4 1 œ œ œœ . ten. œœ. œ œ œœ. œ œ œ˙˙j ‰ œœ™™ œ œ 3 . œ œ œ œ 3 œœœ œ œœ™™ œ œ œ ? œ Œ ™™ ™™ œ œ #œ nœ j ‰ œ3 & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ f J ˙ ‰ œ ? ˙ 2 . . œ ‰ . 3 Repeat the first makeœ œ œœ™™8 œbars.Tryœœ toœœ™ ‰ œ ‰ œœ œ ™œ œ the second time a bit different. p The LH should never drown out œœ™™ œœœœ œœœœœ œœ™ Do the same when you repeat the ™ œ the RH melody. œœ ‰ ‰ Œ second section. j ‰ J œœ. œœ. œœ. œ ‰ ‰ Lift your hands off 19 exactly together! 3 3 2 5 œ œ1 œ œ ‰ œ2 13 œ œ œ œ Tœ œ œ œ Œ ™™ & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ4T1 # 4 2 3 # œ œ nœ & œ œÆ œ œœ™™ œ. œœ™œ™. œ œ œ5œœ œ œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. 3 . . œ. œœ. œ œœ œœ œœ ˙˙ œ œ nœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ 3 ? œ œ cr Œ Œ ™™ ‰ ‰ œ cresc. J ‰ Jœ ‰ œœ œœœœ ‰ ? œœ™™ œœ œœ œœ™ œ œœœœœmake a tiny rit‰at pœ œ ™ œ œœ #œ ™ œœœ Evenœ though it’s œ not marked, œœ™™ œœœ ‰ œœ œ œ ™ 5 the end. We have to know the piece is ending. œœ™™ œ œ œœ™ ™ œ #œœ ™™ 4 Composers Pianist Great œœ 5 J ‰ ‰ 4

{ 40 PAGES OF

Page 33 All the text is bold! Delete Boosey and Hawkes text there along the spine. While you’re at it, can you change Sat to Sad in the title (must have been me!)

30•26•

47

SHEET MUSIC 4/3/09 11:35:53 09:12 09/06/2015

29•Great Composers 32• Pianist 62

30 26 tGC-FINAL.indd FINAL.indd pianist47 Scores1 N Andantino_pianis p30_scoresHAYD p29_scoresHUMMEL_pianistGC.indd 29 p32-48_Scores62-FINALISH.indd 32

p55_scoresMOZ p55 Scores - ARTrondo_pianis Mozart-FINAL.in tGC-FINAL.indd dd 55 55

55• Great Composers 55• Pianist 69

23/03/2015 10:32

7/9/11 09:21:18

09/06/2015 09:21 8/11/12 08:53:57

FROM THE PUBLISHERS OF

IMPROVE YOUR CLASSICAL PLAYING Lessons, tips, articles & advice on Beethoven, Mozart, Haydn and more

HOW TO PLAY

Beethoven’s ‘Moonlight’ Perfect CPE Bach’s

Solfeggietto IN-DEPTH LESSON ON MOZART RONDO IN A MINOR

p01_pianistGC.indd 1

11LEARN PIECES TO

BEGINNER TO ADVANCED

12/06/2015 09:23

15679 Steinway Pianist Magazine (Issue82)_Layout 1 12/01/2015 17:08 Page 1

“The Steinway is not only an instrument, it is a work of art of the first rank." Christoph Eschenbach

For information on Steinway & Sons pianos or to arrange a private appointment to visit our London showrooms, please call 0207 487 3391 or email [email protected]

p02 Ads.indd 2

2• Great Composers WWW.STEINWAYHALL.CO.UK

11/06/2015 14:13

Pianist Great Piano Composers of the Classical Era

CONTENTS

The next issue of Pianist goes on sale 31 July 2015

75

67

10

82 4

Editor’s Note

4

Reader Competition Win the

6

8

complete Beethoven Sonatas from Alfred Publishing

Expert Talk Tim Stein answers

questions about Alberti basses, trills and scales, while the Pianoforte Tuners’ Association advises a reader on making a modern piano sound more Classical

How to Play Masterclass 1

Mark Tanner on getting to grips with the Classical style

10 John Suchet The newsreader, author and broadcaster speaks to Erica Worth about his fascination with Beethoven

12 How to Play Masterclass 2

Graham Fitch on getting technical with the Beethoven sonatas Don’t miss Graham’s online lessons!

15 How to Play 1 Melanie Spanswick

on Haydn’s Andantino in E flat (Scores page 30)

16 Interpretation Jessica Duchen talks to

four leading concert pianists about what it takes to play the music of Haydn, Mozart, Clementi and Beethoven

72 20 How to Play 2 Melanie Spanswick on CPE Bach’s Solfeggietto (Scores page 36)

21 How to Play 3 Janet Newman on

the last movement of Clementi’s Sonatina op 36 no 3 (Scores page 42)

22 Subscribe today for just £4.50 an

issue by Direct Debit and receive Schott Music’s Piano Classics book worth £14

24 How to Play 4 Lucy Parham on Mozart’s Rondo in A minor K511 (Scores page 55)

26 How to Play 5 Janet Newman on the

first movement of Beethoven’s ‘Moonlight Sonata op 27 no 2 (Scores page 38)

27 The Scores A pullout section of 40

pages of Classical sheet music for all levels

67 Inside the ‘32’ Tim Stein looks at

the historical background of Beethoven’s keyboard masterpieces

really like? Sophisticated genius or childlike prankster? Michael Quinn reveals the reality behind the legend

75 The Classical Trail A whirlwind

tour of some of the places where Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven lived, worked and composed

79 The Known Unknowns The

greatness of Mozart and Beethoven is familiar to all, but John Evans asks us to spare a thought for Haydn, Dussek, Clementi and Hummel

82 Keyboards of the Classical Era

Fortepianos, pianofortes, actions, knee pedals and more are examined in detail by Gez Kahan

86 Sheet Music Review A five-page

in-depth round-up of the best of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven scores for all levels of players

70 Group Dynamic Playing chamber

music of the Classical era offers fantastic musical rewards, says Samantha Ward, who explains how to get started

Images this page, clockwise from top right: © Tourismus Salzburg GmbH (Salzburg); © Classic FM-Global (Suchet); © Finchcocks (keyboard) Notice: Every effort has been made to secure permission for copyrighted material in this magazine, however, should copyrighted material inadvertently have been used, copyright acknowledgement will be made in a later issue of the magazine.

p03_GC Contents-FINALish.indd 3

72 Mozart the man What was Mozart

Sign up for our FREE e-newsletter Make sure you keep in touch with our editorial team and receive exclusive extra articles and interviews. To register, visit:

www.pianistmagazine.com

11/06/2015 11:05

Editor’s note

W

elcome to this special issue of Pianist magazine! If there’s one musical time period that is surely a ‘must’ for pianists to explore, it has to be the Classical era. We can learn so much about how to master the piano from the great Classical composers. Just look at the top three: Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven. Their output was incredible and their music has stood the test of time. It’s still heard all over the world today, from concert halls to cafes, football stadiums to national anthems. Can you imagine a world without Beethoven’s ‘Moonlight’? Or without Mozart’s Piano Concerto No 21? Impossible! Inside the issue, you will find page upon page crammed full of advice, tips, history features, interviews, reviews – all there to help you play your Classical best. And as always with Pianist, the issue contains 40 pages of sheet music, this time just from the Classical era. To whet your appetite: there’s the catchy CPE Bach Solfeggietto, the sublime slow movement of Beethoven’s ‘Moonlight’ Sonata, the heartfelt Mozart Rondo in A minor and a sparkling Clementi sonatina movement. You’ll notice that our cover CD features all the pieces presented in the Scores (there are some enticing bonus tracks too, with the complete ‘Moonlight’ and ‘Pathétique’ sonatas to enjoy). All of these pieces are challenging to play, and that’s where our team of experts can help. Firstly, there are step-by-step lessons on five of the pieces. Then there’s Mark Tanner’s masterclass on playing in the Classical style and Graham Fitch’s technical and practical advice on learning the Beethoven sonatas. Our special issue also contains interviews with top pianists, history features on the composers (including some of the often-overlooked ones), an in-depth look at the keyboards of the time, five pages of book reviews and even a travel guide – follow in the footsteps of the great Classical composers. I’ll be keen to know what you think of Pianist, especially if this is your first encounter with the magazine. Feel free to drop me a line at [email protected] Remember, you can get Pianist in digital format as well – very handy if you’re on the move or use your tablet regularly. And, if you’ve enjoyed these Scores, visit our unique website shop to purchase Scores from back issues of Pianist, at prices as low as £1 each. All information can be found at www.pianistmagazine.com, so take a look, then get down to the hard (but rewarding) work of playing the piano!

ERICA WORTH, EDITOR

Make sure that you keep in touch with me – what I’ve been up to, which pianists I’ve spoken to, exclusive extra articles and interviews – by registering for our FREE e-newsletter. All you need to do is go to www.pianistmagazine.com

COMPETITION

ENTER ONLINE AT WWW.PIANISTMAGAZINE.COM

WIN THE COMPLETE FOUR-VOLUME BEETHOVEN

SONATAS SET FROM ALFRED PUBLISHING, WORTH OVER £79!

Answer the question below correctly, and you could be one of three winners to receive a set of the Beethoven sonatas from Alfred Music. (The set is reviewed in the Sheet Music Review on page 86.) Which Beethoven sonata has the famous slow first movement? A: ‘Moonlight’ B: ‘Tempest’ C: ‘Appassionata’ © Benjamin Ealovega

ENTER ONLINE AT WWW.PIANISTMAGAZINE.COM Postcard entries are also accepted. Please send to Erica Worth, Editor, COMP PIA0115, Pianist, 6 Warrington Crescent, London W9 1EL, UK. Competition closes 21 August. Quote PIA0115 and remember to put your name, address and telephone number on the postcard as well as your answer. 4• Pianist 64

p04-GC editorial-FINAL.indd 4

Pianist

www.pianistmagazine.com PUBLISHER Warners Group Publications plc Director: Stephen Warner Publisher: Janet Davison EDITORIAL 6 Warrington Crescent, London,W9 1EL, UK Tel: +44 (0)20 7266 0760 Fax: +44 (0)20 7286 0748 Editor: Erica Worth [email protected] Deputy editor: Inge Kjemtrup [email protected] Designer: Nathan Ward ADVERTISING Gareth Macfarlane, Advertising manager [email protected] Lottie Day, Advertising executive [email protected] Tel: +44 (0)845 226 0477 Fax: +44 (0)845 226 0377

READER SERVICES UK & WORLD SUBSCRIPTIONS (EXCEPT USA & CANADA) Pianist Subscriptions Department Warners Group Publications plc West Street Bourne, PE10 9PH, UK Tel: +44 (0)1778 392483 Fax: +44 (0)1778 421706 Email: [email protected] USA & CANADA SUBSCRIPTIONS You can subscribe online, via email, fax or by telephone: Website: www.expressmag.com Email: [email protected] Toll-free number: +1 (877) 363 1310 Tel: +1 (514) 333 3334 Fax: +1 (514) 355 3332 DISTRIBUTION To find a shop near you that stocks Pianist, contact our distributor: Tel: +44 (0)1778 391150 Email: [email protected] BACK ISSUES To purchase back issues, write to Pianist Back Issues Department, Warners Group Publications plc West Street Bourne, PE10 9PH, UK Tel: +44 (0)1778 392483 Email: [email protected] FOR ALL OTHER ENQUIRIES Contact Janet Davison, Publisher Warners Group Publications Fifth Floor, 31-32 Park Row, Leeds, LS1 5JD, UK Tel: +44 (0)113 200 2929 Fax: +44 (0)113 200 2928 Registered Address :Warners Group Publications,West Street, Bourne, Lincs, PE10 9PH. © Warners Group Publications plc. All rights reserved. Reproduction in whole or in part without written permission strictly prohibited. Every care is taken in compiling the magazine and no responsibility can be taken for any action arising from information given on the papers. All information, prices and telephone numbers are correct at the time of going to press. No responsibility can be taken for unsolicited manuscripts, photographs or transparencies. Printed by Warners Group Publications plc. Pianist ISSN 4200395 is published bi-monthly (6 times a year / February, April, June, August, October, December) by Warners Group Publications c/o USACAN Media Corp. 123A Distribution Way, Building H-1, Suite 104, Plattsburgh, N.Y., 12901 U.S.A.. POSTMASTER: send address changes to Pianist, c/o Express Mag, P.O. BOX 2769, Plattsburgh, N.Y., U.S.A. 12901- 0239.

ISSN 1475 - 1348

11/06/2015 14:21

,

Discover the great composers in

ABRSM’s Signature Series Available from your local retailer or www.abrsm.org/shop

www.abrsm.org facebook.com/abrsm @abrsm ABRSM YouTube

TT(0)20 (0)207636 76365400 5400 [email protected] [email protected] www.abrsm.org www.abrsm.org @abrsm @abrsm facebook.com/abrsm facebook.com/abrsm

ABRSM: ABRSM:the theexam examboard boardof ofthe theRoyal RoyalSchools Schoolsof ofofMusic Music Music ABRSM: the exam board of the Royal Schools

Supporting Supporting and and Supporting and promoting promoting the the promoting the highest highest standards standards highest standards ofofmusical musical learning learning of musical learning and and assessment assessment and assessment since since1889. 1889. since 1889.

5• Pianist 77

p05 Ads.indd 5

11/06/2015 10:04

E X P E R T TA L K

ANSWERS from the experts

Top teacher Tim Stein answers readers’ questions about essential Classical techniques, while, opposite, two tuner-technicians from the Pianoforte Tuners’ Association consider whether a piano can be successfully altered to have a lighter Classical sound

Q&A

WITH TIM STEIN

Q

I find Alberti bass in many of my Classical pieces. Can you suggest how I can learn to play this figure evenly and correctly? Also, sometimes when I play it, my thumb jams! 

A

The Alberti bass accompanimental figure crops up so frequently in much of the music we play, especially in music of the Classical era, that learning how to play it is a very useful skill. A common problem is the stiffening up of the thumb and inflexible wrist. An excellent tip when practising an Alberti bass is to hold your wrist with your other hand, so that you can feel how much tension is in the wrist when you play. When I do this exercise with my students, I find that once they become aware of how much tension they have in their hand, as if by magic, any problem (especially a wayward thumb), seems to go away. But not always. This is when you need to do some simple exercises. One good exercise is to practise your Alberti bass part in block chords. (For students with very small hands, who cannot stretch all the intervals between the notes, this is difficult, and so I advise playing the block chords only with notes they can stretch.) This is also an excellent way of learning the chord progressions too. Try practising the block chords very slowly, making sure all the notes go down at the same time, with firm fingers and a flexible (i.e., loose) wrist. When you feel secure with both the notes and the fingering (again, another essential for accurate practising), try breaking the Alberti bass in to different rhythms, disciplining your fingers to accent different notes. For example, if your Alberti bass uses the notes

C-G-E-G and is fingered 5-1-3-1, practise going from 5-1, with an accent on 1, then 1-3, with an accent on 3, then 3-1, with an accent on 1, and so on. Stop briefly each time in between the change of fingers. As you do this, aim to maintain a comfortable curved hand position, with your thumb that is as relaxed as possible and close to the hand. Ensure it is really just the fingers that are, so to speak, doing the walking. You can impart a small degree of rotation in the wrist to aid movement, if this helps, particularly when you start to play the bass a little faster. Remember to do this very slowly first, building up speed as you wish, bit by bit. Eventually, the Alberti bass parts will get easier to play, your thumb should cause less of a problem and your fingers in general will benefit from the exercise workout.

Q

I have been noticing that I do not play my scales as evenly as I should. Do you have any practical tips to help me with this?

Start slowly at first, listening carefully to each hand, and build up the speed from there. You can also clap or tap the rhythm (without playing), as it helps develop a steady and even pulse. Double-dotting or just dotting the basic beat is also useful, as is breaking

A

Practising scales is good for all kinds of reasons. You learn the geography of the keyboard, you learn finger patterns that facilitate sightreading and you develop your basic finger technique at the same time. It’s often difficult to know how to make scales more even, but much of it boils down to tone production. We’re often so obsessed with moving our fingers faster and faster, that we forget to listen to the actual sound we produce. Get the sound right and the chances are that your scales will soon start to improve almost immediately. Rhythmic practice is probably one of the best ways of sorting out unevenness. Take any basic scale you are confident with and play a three-octave scale, adding a distinct accent at the beginning of each three-note group (1-2-3, 1-2-3, 1-2-3, etc). Then do the same over four octaves, but this time emphasising each group of 4 (1-2-3-4, 1-2-3-4, 1­-2-3-4).

Try holding your wrist of the hand playing the Alberti bass with your other hand, so that you can feel how much tension is in the wrist when you play up the scale into beats as you would for a technically difficult passage. Here you would do something along the lines of C-D, C-D-E, C-D-E-F, C-D-E-F-G, making sure that the fingers are moving and articulating correctly, and landing on the last note of each group of notes with an accent. There are many variations of rhythmic practice, such as varying the rhythm in each hand (as in twos against

6• Great Composers

p06 GC_Expert Talk-FINAL.indd 6

09/06/2015 09:27

threes) or deliberately misplacing the normal accents, but whatever exercises you chose to concentrate on, always make sure that the scale tempo is exact (metronomes can help tidy this up), the hands are well synchronised and that you achieve as good a legato tone as possible.

Q

I hate pieces with trills! I feel I haven’t got the right technique, so I avoid certain pieces. Can you help?

© Erica Worth (Stein); © Nina Large (hammers)

A

Don’t avoid pieces with trills! The pianist’s repertoire is rich with trills both short and long (Chopin’s nocturnes are full of them, as are Beethoven sonatas, movements from Bach partitas and Haydn’s F minor variations). Playing trills requires the use of two basic techniques: a straightforward finger action and some kind of wrist rotation. For extended or loud trills, you may want to combine both techniques. Every hand is different, so you will find playing trills easier with some fingers than with others. It’s always useful to be able to practise with different fingers. For a simple trill, the most common fingering is 2-3-2, but you should be able to play the trill comfortably with any ‘next door’ fingers (1-2, 2-3, 3-4) and be able to use varied fingering such as 2-3-1 or 1-3-2-3. Playing trills successfully will be determined by the correct fingering and by making sure your hand and wrist are as relaxed as possible. For a long trill, it’s quite easy to build up lots of tension, so concentrate on feeling as free and as supple as possible, thinking of the movements of the fingers and the subsequent sound they make. Always begin with the shortest trill possible and work from that. Giving the first note a slight accent will start the trill off, and make it easier to keep up a good sense of rhythm. If, say, you are playing a trill of C-D-C, accent the Cs for every group of three notes in a kind of triplet fashion. The fingers should be raised slowly after each note, making precise movements, until you get a good sense of flow. Once you can manage three notes successfully, move onto four and so on (C-D-C-D, then C-D-C-D-C, etc), remembering to accent the first note of every rhythmic group and always thinking of relaxing. Some pianos are more sensitive than others. On your piano it may be possible to play really beautiful, even trills without the key going right down to the bottom. Again, this takes practice, a keen ear and subtle control. Practising on different piano actions helps. For more exercise regimes for trills, look at technical books such as Hanon or Czerny. ■ Go to www.pianistmagazine.com to watch Tim Stein’s online lessons for beginners, and visit Tim’s own website at www.pianowithtim.com

Under the lid Is it possible for a tuner-technician to alter a piano so it has a lighter, more Classical sound? Two members of the Pianoforte Tuners’ Association (PTA) offer their views I have a very nice grand piano, and I love to play the Classical repertoire, especially Mozart and Haydn, but I think mine may be the kind of piano that works better for the more meaty, Romantic repertoire. Would a piano technician be able to give it a lighter ‘Classical’ touch/sound?  Yes. An experienced technician can fit lighter hammers to a piano, enabling the touch to be made lighter (and shallower) too. Keep the old hammers in case you change your mind and wish to return to the previous state. An extreme and more expensive solution would be to have a completely new, much lighter, action made which you could exchange with the original whenever your mood changes. You would need a secure place to keep the spare action, and organise someone responsible to do the changeovers without breaking something.  Bill Kreis, MPTA It should be possible to give your grand a lighter Classical sound, depending on the age and condition of the instrument. If it is a relatively new model, it would be difficult to noticeably alter the maker’s specifications of regulation and touch weight, but the tone could be voiced for a mellower sound more suited to earlier keyboard repertoire as far as possible.  If the piano is an older model in good condition, a general service should lead to a lighter and more responsive touch. Most importantly, the frictional points of contact within the action and keys should be addressed. Some other aspects of a service will include: 1. Correcting the jack position to ‘roller’ wood core to allow efficient, un-hindered escapement when the key is fully depressed. 2. Ensuring that key bushing cloths are not loose or tight. The metal pins housing them should be thoroughly polished and friction free. 3. Making sure that the dampers do not lift early or as soon as the key starts to be depressed, as this causes an unnecessary addition of weight.  It is also possible to do more in-depth work to assess the current action ‘down’ and ‘up’ weight, with a view to re-weighting the action. This is where additional lead is added to the front portion of the wooden keys. There are technical restrictions to the scope of this work and how far it could go. Each piano requires evaluation of condition and subsequent budget advice to what may or may not be possible. Andrew Giller, MPTA

7• Great Composers

p06 GC_Expert Talk-FINAL.indd 7

09/06/2015 09:27

play

HOW TO

Getting to grips with CLASSICAL STYLE

Bringing the right character to Classical music requires an understanding of articulation, pedalling, compositional style and keyboards of that era. Pianist and teacher Mark Tanner presents a tutorial

W

hen we talk about the Classical era, we are generally referring the period from 1750 to 1820. To do justice to the music of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven and other composers of that era, a degree of historical awareness is indispensable, in terms of the instruments and the compositional tools of the time. The Classical era composers aligned themselves in surprisingly informative ways with either the Viennese fortepiano (Stein was a prominent builder) or the English pianoforte (Broadwood ranked among the more revered makers). These two instruments co-existed, and although they displayed a number of conspicuous differences, they were essentially flip sides of the same coin. The fortepiano possessed a slick, immediate action and lent itself to a crispness of articulation, which fed perfectly into Mozart’s fluid, elegant style. The pianoforte, on the other hand, boasted a richer, more sustained sound and capitalised upon a slower attack and decay. This rendered it far better suited to the fulsome, majestic style of writing with which Clementi and Beethoven found themselves increasingly attracted. Both were percussion instruments with leather hammers, and were capable of note-by-note dynamic flexibility, a fundamental contrast to the harpsichord’s plucking action. Yet there were striking similarities (excuse the pun) between all these instruments too. For example, they initially had four or five octaves, with wooden frames and a similar overall case shape. Indeed, if you looked at them with half-closed eyes, their physical appearances rendered them barely distinguishable from each other. Nevertheless, the subtly contrasting priorities built into the Viennese and English instruments gave them strikingly different attributes. These priorities remained steadfastly intact right up until the point where the seven-octave, iron-framed, overstrung modern ‘Romantic’ piano took over as the keyboard instrument of preference in the 1860s, prompting a major overhaul of piano technique, which I discussed

in my article on Romantic playing in Pianist No 82. While the modern piano possesses far greater projection and resonance, both the fortepiano and pianoforte were wonderfully adept at achieving subtle nuances, and could achieve some enterprising effects too. For example, composers of the so-called Mannheim School, which included Stamitz and Mozart, enjoyed employing bold dynamic swells, which was considered daringly radical. Keyboard players would need to step up to the mark to adapt their technical resources to the added muscularity of these instruments. That said, a degree of interchangeability prevailed. One anecdote has it that Mozart turned up at a venue to perform on a fortepiano, but on discovering a harpsichord instead, he just shrugged his shoulders and got on with it. By the early 1800s, however, it would have been inconceivable to attempt, say, a Beethoven sonata on a harpsichord, as composers were now anticipating effects only achievable on the new instrument. Accompanimental figures Although certain stylistic hallmarks appear ubiquitously in the music of Classical era composers, the thoughtful pianist will wish to home in on the features that distinguish them. We can gain as much from looking at the

5

TOP TIPS

1

2 3 4 5

ACHIEVING CLASSICAL STYLE Keep in mind the instruments of the Classical period and their lighter touch, smaller dynamic range and less effective pedal. Emphasise clarity, symmetry, balance and elegance. Cultivate smooth, unobtrusive accompaniments. Let the left hand point up interesting harmonies while holding the momentum. Articulation – particularly slur-dot details – is paramount, so target evenness with controlled shaping, especially in Mozart. Frame dynamics within the style. Look for idiomatic details, such as Beethoven’s sf and subito p and Haydn’s ‘cheeky’ effects. The sonata form underpins the Classical piano repertoire. Mark in the exposition (with subjects), development (noting important modulations) and recapitulation (noting any differences). Finally, think about how to bring all this to life!

Mark Tanner is a pianist, composer, writer, ABRSM examiner and teacher. In 2015 his performing and academic work will take him to Australia, USA, South Africa and Caribbean. This August he will teach piano, composition and improvisation at the Chetham’s Summer School and presents his own popular piano summer school at Jackdaws. A dozen of his pieces feature on current exam syllabuses, including five on the new Trinity College piano syllabus. Spartan Press has published 50 books of his compositions, arrangements and transcriptions. Find out more at www.marktanner.info

favourite accompanimental figurations of these composers as from studying their signature motivic shapes or harmonic patterns. For example, the Alberti bass often associated with Mozart and Kuhlau was not nearly so commonplace in Haydn, whose ‘chugging’ left-hand chords more usually found favour, nor in Beethoven, whose denser chords and tremolo octaves are a stylistic stamp. Alberti bass patterns are ‘rocking’ broken-chord accompaniments, usually though not always consigned to the left hand, placed roughly in the middle of the instrument’s register and conventionally grouped in fours or sixes. If you’ve ever wondered why the Alberti bass is such an effective accompaniment, try substituting it for block chords – you’ll immediately hear how horribly turgid and static the music becomes. When playing these patterns, hold down the first note of each pattern and join it to the next one of the following group. Frequently this is best accomplished by alternating the fourth and fifth fingers to achieve a legato effect. ‘Finger-pedalling’, as it has become known, will bring welcome sonority without compromising the all-important slur-dot articulation detail in the right hand’s melodies and brisker passagework. It is surprising how lengthening a note, rather than striking it more forcibly among its neighbours, will have the effect of emphasising it – ‘long is strong’. If you can maintain a fairly

8• Great Composers

P08 GC HTP Tanner-FINAL.indd 8

11/06/2015 09:24

MASTERCLASS still wrist, resisting too much rotation, you will help your even playing immeasurably. Balance the two hands so that the melody does not become overpowered: a clearly differentiated melody and accompaniment was a key trademark of the Classical era. Do plenty of hands-separate practice to allow the accompaniment to flow along easily, elegantly, yet discreetly. Turning scores conceived for an 18th-century instrument into a musically meaningful experience today is a challenge. We have to work so much harder to hold the momentum in, say, Beethoven’s ‘Pathétique’ or ‘Moonlight’ sonatas than the composer himself would have had to on his Graf instrument due to its comparatively light action (roughly half the depth of a modern piano). In Clementi and Beethoven’s accompaniments, you’ll want to use progressively more wrist movement. Tremolo effects call for a supple wrist and a supremely relaxed upper body. In Haydn’s music, one often comes across a quasi-pizzicato effect in accompaniments. Be on your guard with these, as they will tend to draw inordinate attention to themselves and make it virtually impossible to realise the marvellous lyrical features of the composer’s writing. The pursuit of ‘wit’ is all well and good in Haydn, as is the dramatic potential of his Sturm und Drang sonatas, but on a modern instrument we need to rein ourselves in and admire the ‘crystal chandelier’ detail and symmetry of phrases. Articulation Although dynamics play an important role in Classical keyboard music, on balance I would proclaim articulation the key ingredient in creating a memorable performance on the modern piano. I am a great fan of table-top practising to cultivate evenness, clarity and precision of fingerwork. The music needs to sparkle and dance with crystalline clarity. Never tickle the keys, but follow through fully, even when playing at a level of pp. Glance at a typical score by Mozart and you’ll likely find quite a lot more articulation markings than dynamics. Ironically, perhaps one of the best ways of cultivating a feather-light ‘caressed’ effect, even when playing up to tempo in an Allegro movement, is to practise initially at a more leisurely pace but with a really bright attack, ‘keybedding’ decisively on every note, avoiding any hint of tension in the wrists. You can then gradually ease off in attack once the runs sound welloiled, but when gauging the most sensible speed for fast movements keep in mind the heavier action of the modern instrument in its middle and

lower registers. The opening movement of Mozart’s Sonata in B flat K570 is a case in point: an overly enthusiastic opening tempo will all too soon land you in hot water as the virtuosic scale and arpeggio runs begin to accumulate. Pedal Though Mozart’s fortepiano sported a knee-operated sustain lever, its function can hardly be compared with what we have on a modern piano; indeed its capacity for adding sonority and legato would seem minuscule by modern standards. Hence we should be looking to emphasise the directness of effect each hand can muster and resist the temptation to swamp with pedal. Today we often play Classical music in far grander environments than composers envisaged. Bear in mind the ‘pedal effect’ the room itself may have on your playing. The dampers on Beethoven’s instruments achieved a comparatively limited effect. The sustain pedal added more of a colouristic glow than a decisive method of buoying up the harmonies. For this reason a pinch of salt is needed when following Beethoven’s markings. As with nearly all Classical repertoire, a less-is-more philosophy with regard to pedal will serve you best. Sonata form As a diploma examiner, I frequently come across candidates who are able to sketch out the sonata form in a work by Haydn or Mozart, but are less aware of how such knowledge might actually inform their own performance. Space does not permit a treatise on the formal intricacies and key relationships of the standard sonata form blueprint, suffice it to say that it underpinned the vast majority of keyboard music – sonatas and concertos – in the Classical era. This is particularly true in the first movement, often an Allegro and the longest of its three or four movements. Performers need to strive for a sense of unit when building their interpretation – the grander gesture, or what some think of as an arch-shape. Each section can be allowed to make itself plain to the listener, but never at the expense of the movement’s overall tautness and sense of integration. Herein lies the dilemma for interpreting the music: to enjoy the here and now, but to retain a sense of the unfolding sonata form. In sonata form, the exposition is where the composer first ‘exposes’ the ideas out of which the music will unfold; there will usually be two themes or subjects in related keys. From here we move logically into a more turbulent, unsettled section marked by a double bar in the score, known as the development. This is where the fun and games really take place, for here the composer can feel free to be more adventurous in harmonic, melodic

STYLE COUNCIL

Mark Tanner’s tips for finding the true Classical style in 3 pieces in this issue’s Scores

1

CPE Bach Solfeggietto [Scores page 36]: In this work you need to generate a stream of evenly flowing semiquavers so that the listener cannot detect where the constant switches between hands take place. There is a decisive symmetry to the phrases and sequences, which you need to draw out confidently. Direct the lines towards moments of harmonic interest, for example bars 7 and 22, and enjoy the plentiful f to p dynamic markings, which serve to bind the music together and keep the music moving along with momentum.

2

Clementi Sonatina op 36 no 3, third movement [Scores page 42]: Consistency is the name of the game here. Aim to play the accompanimental figures distinctly but discreetly while energising the tunes vivaciously. It’s up to you whether to play the LH quavers legato or staccato, but an overly clipped attack will draw attention away from the melody. Hold something in reserve for the dolce melody at bar 49 and think hard about the overall dynamic scheme, too.

3

Beethoven ‘Pathétique’ Sonata, Rondo [Scores page 46]: As in all rondos, each recurrence of the melody needs to emerge emphatically and with renewed vigour. Bear in mind the alla breve direction when finding your tempo – two beats in the bar, not four. C minor is Beethoven’s special dramatic key, so honour his carefully calculated dynamic and articulation markings for a lively, characterful performance. The fp effects (such as in bars 18 and 22) are not realisable on the modern piano with its slow decay, but you can drop the dynamic in the following bars. From bar 189 to the end measure your dynamic build-up to maximise the sf and brazen crescendo effects.

and rhythmic terms, frequently moving through all kinds of unrelated keys and taking the listener on something akin to a magical mystery tour. All this turmoil and enterprise, during which the composer will have remoulded ideas from the exposition, must of course eventually be reconciled, so that by the conclusion of the movement – the recapitulation – the home key will have become resoundingly reaffirmed, in some cases aided by a coda to tidy up any remaining loose ends. Aim to treat the first and second subjects as distinctive musical characters, not in an overly emphatic way, but by means of a consistent scheme of articulation and dynamics. Be especially mindful of their contrasting personalities as they interact with each other, sometimes sharing the limelight, at others seemingly in conflict with each other. Be at your most inventive and dramatic in the development, where the sense of storytelling increases. Emphasise its quasi-improvisatory nature. In reality of course, much of the potential for spontaneity in this section will have been carefully worked out by the composer. If you intend to play the development repeat, think hard about how you plan to ‘sell’ us material we have already heard, and then gather your composure once again for the recapitulation – the final architectural pillar. ■

9• Great Composers

P08 GC HTP Tanner-FINAL.indd 9

11/06/2015 09:24

FIRST PERSON



LUDWIG

& ME

Newsreader, broadcaster and author John Suchet tells Erica Worth about his Beethoven fascination and what he’s discovered in writing about him

© Classic FM-Global

How did your fascination with Beethoven begin? I’m a failed musician, really! I played piano at school. I was the best in my house, I played hymns and so on, and I decided to make music as my career. Fortunately for the world of music, it never happened, and I went into journalism – but music’s always been there in the background. When I became an ITN reporter in 1976, the Sony Walkman had just come out and suddenly you could take your music with you. I remember having a battered cassette tape of Beethoven’s ‘Eroica’ with me when I was covering war zones. At school I was into Tchaikovsky more than anything, I didn’t go near Beethoven. I thought he was just bash, bash, bash. But later I discovered this whole body of lyrical Beethoven and I wanted to learn about it. I just got deeper and deeper into it. So you chose not to play Beethoven, but to write about him instead? If I could play a single Beethoven sonata, I’d be happier than writing 100 books on him! Because the piano is his voice. I get my kicks out of writing and talking about him. Being a journalist by training, I’m not a musicologist, so I don’t analyse the music. To me, the fact that he tore up the dedication of the ‘Eroica’ to Napoleon is of far more interest than it’s in E flat. I understand the music, mind you, because I’m music trained, and in theory too. But when I talk about Beethoven, you won’t hear me talk opus numbers or key signatures, but you will hear whether he was drunk when he wrote a piece, whether he was in love when he wrote it. The fact is, this was a man who was going deaf, living in a city, at war. How did it all happen? That’s what fascinates me. He had to eat and drink; he had to pay his rent; he had friends; he upset them. Although he was a God-given genius, he had to live among mortals.

When I was a TV journalist, we were often accused of skimming over the surface, giving a three-minute piece about a war for the News at Ten. I can speak for a minute and a half for most things that are going on in the world, but with Beethoven, I decided on the opposite. I wanted to go deeper. I know what his favourite food was. I know what he could cook! His friends used to say they dreaded an invite to dinner. One recounted that he opened the door in an apron and a chef ’s hat. He dished up a soup that was so oily that only the joys of the grape got us through it, so said this friend. Doesn’t that tell you more about the man? You present on Classic FM radio. How did that come about? I had come to the end of my news career and was phoned by the then-managing director of Classic FM, Darren Henley. He knew about my books and asked me to join the station. This is my fifth year with Classic FM. My career is full on, doing talks as well, all over the place. My presenting is a joy. Your book Beethoven The Man Revealed is all about the composer’s personality, then? It’s the first full-length biography that I’ve written about him (my trilogy [Last Master] was a novel). A lot of critics say there wasn’t enough about the music. But I wanted it to be about the story 10• Great Composers

p10_GC Suchet-FINAL.indd 10

11/06/2015 09:25

turned more and more to the piano. The sonatas say what are going on in his life. Opus 110 means the most to me. Because you’ve got that ‘Klagender Gesang’, then that chord he keeps repeating – you want the tenth repetition of the chord to be slammed out. Then he goes into the inverted fugue. He’s saying, ‘I’m deaf, but I’ve first full-length biography of n. Before turning to classical music, overcome uplifting at the end. YO U John KN K N OW O W T H E MU TH Mit.’UIt’s SIC SIC C.. .... f the UK’s best-known television journal ists. identify with Beethoven? Jörg Demus recorded it on Beethoven’s you ter for ITN he covered world Do events, BUT T DO YO U KN OW the Iran revolution, the Soviet invasion TH E M MA N?is in the last grand piano, which If on. I had been alive, and I’d have met istan and the Philippines revoluti He me a newscaster, regularly present Beethoven-Haus in Bonn [a Conrad ing Ludwi him,ITN’s I might not have been toooven’s g van Beetho vpatient. en’s life life – its its drama dramas, s, confl confliicts, ews at Ten, as well as all other bulletin cts, loves loves and and losses, losses his deafness coupled s, over continuous health ealth proble proThe blem ms, s, h nearly twenty years. his is eepic p ic sstrugg truggdating Graf, Vienna, 1825]. When He alienated all thewith friends he had. llee w with it h h his is from ssister-i ister-in n-law for sole custod y of her son, his nephew – is played out music. een honoured for both roles. In I bought thein his CD at the Beethovenway 1986 he treated his best friend was ed Television Journalist of the Year, in Now John Suchet has portrayed the real man behind Haus, the woman shop diabolical. This manbiogra helped Beethoven sion Newscaster of the Year, and the music inin thisthe compe lling told me in 2008 phy of a musical genius. He reveals a Television Society awarded him its highest difficult and complex character, strugg ling todied continue his profesasion that after this was recorded, the keys his final years. He within year as musici Lifetime Achievement Award.in an despite increasing deafness, alienating John has friends with unprovoked outbursts of anger an honorary degree by his old univers one momecovered. nt, overwhelming ity, were So this was the last time of Beethoven, and his sonss and wasgenero known to them with excessi ve kindne ity of Dundee, and in 2001 the Royal sity the next, living in a city in almost constant disarray because Music awarded him an Honora voice was heard! It’s not a have said, ‘It was looking after ry of warBeethoven’s with France. in recognition of his work on Beethov en. good tone, but if you close your eyes, Beethoven that killed him’. don’t This isInot the god-like immortal portrayed in statues and paintings in heroic pose garlan youleaves. canBeetho almost Beethoven doing it. identify, no. But the music justded with laurel ven maysee have been one of the greatest artists of all time, but he was still a man who had to live does it for me. among fellow mortals, eat and drink, et fall in love, pay his rent. This is the real Beethoven, and Suchet What about ‘Moonlight’ brings him faithfuthe lly andfamous vividly to life. and ‘Pathétique’ sonatas? Where does he fit in with m.com The ‘Pathétique’ changed the course of Mozart and Haydn? ooks.com The great trilogy is Haydn, Mozart the piano sonata because it begins with ed by Two Associates and Beethoven. To think they were this massive opening chord. No one had ever started a piano sonata like that all alive at the same time! To me, dtbooks.com before. Beethovenwww.ean is quite young, the Beethoven was the greatest. deafness is beginning to take hold. He’s Obviously, Mozart was a huge influence on him and Haydn taught doing what he wants. The second movement is one of the most lyrical him for a while, though not very movements (one of the few themes he successfully. They fell out, but didn’t agonise over too), and then there’s Beethoven wrote his first set of sonatas for him. If you ask me what it that final movement. He was friendly with Nanette Streicher, the German is about Beethoven, I’d say it’s that he piano maker, and he was known to have broke the rules. I think of the opening demanded a wider keyboard for this. of the ‘Eroica’, in bar three or four, he The ‘Moonlight’ set a new standard in goes down to a C sharp. And that different ways. The slow movement ‘boom’ is the wrong note in the wrong

of the man. That’s why it has the title The Man Revealed. I get to the music through the man. I like to find out what he was doing when he wrote his great works. I UCHE T p present r sen s Classic FM’s re leave flagshipthe musicology to the musicologists. programme, from 9am every weekda Barryy.withCooper, for example, is the finest mative style of presentation, coupled nowledge of classical music, has won a wide Beethoven academic in this country, if of new listeners to the station. In particular cognised as a leading authority on the not in the world. I’ll leave that to him! orks of Ludwig van Beethoven. He has y published five books on the I have compos er. found my niche. sixth, is his

c

Co Concer on nccer erto to to, o, ye yett a liikee the like the ‘Moon ‘Moon Mo oon nl Stililll,l though St Still, tho houg ugh, ug h, m h, tumultuous per he is the compo

Beethoven schola passion for the m he illuminates Be struggle to find a emotional volatil trying to help him compulsion to co

In this detailed an argues that it is pe of any other comp going on in his lif different ears.

Illustrated with ar photographs, man himself, this is a fu of a momentous li extraordinary jour Bonn to his death is constantly evolvi research, as well as which has never be to paint the fullest composer who ever

ISBN 978-1-90-764279-1

T H E M A N R EV EA LE D

‘When I talk about Beethoven, you won’t hear me talk opus numbers or key signatures, but you will hear whether he was drunk or in love when he wrote a certain piece’ key at the wrong time. He does that! He doesn’t care. He breaks the rules. Beethoven was also the greatest virtuoso Vienna had ever seen. Mozart was a good pianist, but he wasn’t in Beethoven’s league. The aristocrats fell over themselves to sponsor Beethoven. He’d improvise and everything. That’s what got him accepted. He never wore a wig in his life, his clothes didn’t fit – but he was in the best circles. Tell me about the piano sonatas. If there’s one genre that I tend to lean towards more than any other, it’s the piano sonatas. It’s the only genre he wrote in, throughout his life, without any significant break. They are his voice. As he got profoundly deaf, he

comes first. He’s saying ‘I don’t have to put the slow movement second’! The story is that he’d fallen in love with one of his students, Countess Giulietta Guicciardi, and she’d invited him to write a sonata for her. He’d already written a lot of it beforehand, so he knocked it into shape. It was originally called the ‘Arbour’ (he wrote it under some trees). It went on to be published under the name ‘Quasi una fantasia’ and dedicated to the Countess. How do you think Beethoven played? My view is that Beethoven always played fast. We have several eyewitness accounts of him playing. He had short, stubby fingers, with hairy joints apparently, and he played with

flat fingers. I suspect he didn’t play in a very subtle way. I heard this story once, and I hope it’s true: A young pianist played for Beethoven and made many mistakes, apologising over and over. Beethoven said, ‘Don’t worry! When I play, I play so many wrong notes that I have to get down on my knees and pick them all up again.’ I like my Beethoven to be a little rough-edged. My favourite recording so far of the sonatas is Jenő Jandó on Naxos. It was the first I ever bought, in 1988 or 1989. And it was recorded under Communism in Prague in a crummy studio with a single microphone. I quite like that. Sometimes the perfect digital recording on the perfect concert grand is just a little too refined. I like the rough edges. I think Beethoven knew that a lot of his writing was almost impossible to play. For example, the metronome marking for the ‘Hammerklavier’ Sonata is almost physically impossible. If you listen to Schnabel’s recording of it, it’s all over the place! His fingers are splashing on the keys. And in a way, I don’t think Beethoven would have disapproved. n For more about John, his book Beethoven The Man Revealed, and his book on Johann Strauss, The Last Waltz (to be released in September), go to www.johnsuchet.co.uk. The ‘Pathétique’ and ‘Moonlight’ sonatas are in Classic FM’s Hall of Fame. Turn to this issue’s scores to play the first movement of the ‘Moonlight’ and the third movement of the ‘Pathétique’.

11• Great Composers

p10_GC Suchet-FINAL.indd 11

11/06/2015 09:25

play

HOW TO

Getting technical with

BEETHOVEN PIANO SONATAS Teacher and performer Graham Fitch offers some vital technical and practical advice that will help you be up to the challenge of studying and playing Beethoven’s 32 sonatas

B

eethoven wrote his 32 piano sonatas between the ages of 25 and 55, thus these works span the composer’s so-called early, middle and late periods, and paint a rich picture of his stylistic development. In approaching on this vast subject from a very practical point of view, I realised there is no way I could do any more than scratch the surface in a single article. So before I sat down to write, I reached out to other pianists through social media to find out what they really want to know about playing and studying these sonatas. I received a wide and varied series of questions in response, and I hope I have addressed some of the important issues here. Pedal The types of piano Beethoven knew had very different tonal and resonance properties from our own – tone decayed quicker and the sound was more transparent. Beethoven only had a foot pedal from about 1800; before this he relied on knee levers (which were more cumbersome to operate). Czerny and Hummel reported that Beethoven used excessive pedal in his own playing. The pedal marks he left us in the sonatas all have to do with creating an excess of resonance – more than you would normally think to do. Tempering our pedalling decisions with the knowledge that Beethoven’s markings work better on the pianos of the time, we need to keep in mind that he was after blurred effects and not squeaky-clean textures. So let’s not be squeamish. Let’s consider the ‘Moonlight Sonata’ opus 27 no 2. It is easy to be confused by the instruction in the first movement [in this issue’s Scores page 38]. ‘Si deve suonare tutto pezzo delicatissimamente e senza sordino’ could mean one of two things: 1) Use the sustaining pedal throughout –

WATCH GRAHAM ONLINE

and change it with each new harmony, or 2) Keep the sustaining pedal down throughout – without changing it. My solution to this perennial problem is twofold: make late pedal changes and don’t put the pedal all the way down, just enough to barely lift the dampers from the strings. I also find myself using finger pedal in the RH in certain places, holding onto the triplets with my hand. This all combines to give an artistic realisation of the blurred mistiness I feel Beethoven intends but without overdoing it. Czerny tells us this movement describes ‘a nocturnal scene, in which a mournful ghostly voice sounds from the distance’. [Readers might also like to refer to Graham’s Masterclass in Pianist No 84 (June/July), in which he discusses pedalling in the music of Beethoven and other Classical composers.]

Adagio sostenuto

3 5 3 3 3 ## & # #C f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f f

{

? ####C w w

sempre pp e senza sordino

w w

4

#### &

{

? ####

5 4

3 5

2

2

2 4

3

f f f f f f f f f f f nf f f f # f f f f f #f f f F F

F F

F F

F F

4

1 2 5

f

Another Beethovenian pedalling challenge to make the long pedal work in the last movement of the opus 53 ‘Waldstein’ Sonata (below). You could use the sostenuto pedal to hold the bass and then use the right pedal to change on each new harmony (overlapping to create a bit of blurring), or simply put the right pedal down just far enough to catch the bass note. This will minimise the resonance in the higher registers, and you can always tweak it by using flutter pedalling if you do so carefully (don’t lose that bass!). For this to work, voicing and balance have to be controlled impeccably in the hands. This sonata is sometimes known as ‘L’Aurore’ after the last movement, which is said to describe the dawn of a new day.

Allegretto moderato

f f f f ? 42 ≈ f f f f f f f f f f f f ≈ f f f f f f

Don’t miss Graham Fitch’s video lessons, which you’ll find on the Pianist website at www.pianistmagazine.com. He demonstrates all different types of techniques – there are over 20 lessons to watch. His current lessons are filmed at Steinway Hall, London, on a Model D concert grand. Graham is a pianist, teacher, writer and adjudicator. He gives masterclasses and workshops internationally and writes a popular piano blog, www.practisingthepiano.com.

{

. ? 42 j ‰ & f f °

sempre pianissimo

f™

f J

f

f

f f f f ? ≈fff fff ≈fff fff fff fff

12• Great Composers

P12 GC HTP Graham-FINAL.indd 12

f.

f™

09/06/2015 09:27

{

? 42

f.

sempre pianissimo

j ‰& f °

f™

f J

f

f MASTERCLASS

f f f f ? ≈fff fff ≈fff fff fff fff

{

f. f ?≈ fr j ‰& J f

& f

f™

f J

f f f f ? ≈ f f f f f f ‰ f f f

{

&

f

f ‰ J

f



r f

?≈

The long pedals in the recitatives in the first movement of the opus 31 no 2 ‘Tempest’ Sonata (below) are supposed to sound like a voice from the crypt, and therefore should not be too clean. Again, try dropping the pedal a millimetre or so down from the top and adjust it where necessary without actually changing it. In a dry acoustic, I see nothing wrong with holding the pedal about a quarter of the way down for the whole recitative. And remember whatever blurring you perceive at the piano is reduced by the time it reaches your audience.

&b ?b &b

{

?b

F #FFw #w w ° f3 #F

# f. f.

F

5

f ™™ f f f f f f f ™™ f f 2

con espressione e semplice



∏∏∏∏∏∏∏∏

{

Largo

f ∑

f5 ™



j f f™ 4



U j f f f Œ Ó

at the start of the opus 13 ‘Pathétique’ to cut the resonance, but it is quite dangerous. Most players don’t bother with this. Rinforzando (or rf or rinf) is a bit like playing in bold type – not loud necessarily but somewhat firmer. Peculiar to Beethoven is the undelivered crescendo – a crescendo that promises to arrive at a louder dynamic level but just at the point of arrival, Beethoven places a piano marking. This is the musical equivalent of the old schoolboy trick of pulling a chair from someone just as they are about to sit down – it needs to be set up so it is a total surprise:

#2 & 4 f f #f fJ

{

ff

# & fJ

{

#

*

&

f J

p

f

f f f

#f f f f

In your practice room, you might try following through with the crescendo to experience what the listener expects. Thus instead of the given p in the above example, practise resolving the crescendo to mf or f. Having done this, see the crescendo through to the very last semiquaver of the bar before the p, being careful not to chicken out before the cut-off point. You may well find you need a little extra time for the effect to register, experiment with playing the p arrival a touch late. Then try without taking any time and see which works better – if you have made a big crescendo you might need a millisecond for the resonance to dissipate or you risk swallowing up the p. In the case of a subito piano, it is helpful to make a small crescendo just beforehand since the natural tendency is to pre-empt the piano by softening too soon. Sometimes Beethoven does the opposite – a subito forte after a diminuendo. In the example below, from the end of the development section in the first movement of opus 10 no 1, I suggest making sure the chord on the last beat before the f is as soft as possible to maximise the surprise.

{

decresc. -

? bb Πb

b & b b ff n f.

{

ff. Πbff. f f

? bb Πb

ff Πff nf Πf f. f. ff. ff .

-

-

Πf Πff. f

-

-

Œ

-

Œ f Œ

ff. Π?f f f

-

Œ

Œ f Œ

. n fff

Œ

ff ™™ f™ f

-

f f

-

Œ

ff ™™™ ff ™

Tempo In his music, Beethoven stretched many things to their limits – dynamics, the capabilities of the pianos he had, and expressive power. Even in the early sonatas tempos can range from the most spacious of adagios to whirlwind prestissimos (he gives us both back to back with the last two movements of opus 10 no 1). Be careful that lento and grave movements are not too slow.



Performance Directions Beethoven was the most prescriptive composer of his time – and even before his time. The ultimate control freak, he left very little doubt about phrasing, dynamics, articulation and other performance directions. He exploits a wide range of different touches and the full dynamic range, and the opposite ends of the spectrum – pianissimo and fortissimo – need to be special. Make sure to really observe each ff and pp, and save your extra-loud and extra-soft sounds for these places. The directions sf, rinf and fp cause a lot of confusion when you play Beethoven’s music. Remember that sf (or sfz) means sforzando – a sudden accent within the given dynamic level. It does not mean to play the note or chord as loudly as possible. Thus in a piano context, the sf will not be that loud, just sudden! Make sure the notes surrounding the sforzando are soft and unaffected by the accent. On the other hand, fp tells us to play the note or chord forte and subsequent notes softly. This effect was much more easily achieved on the types of piano Beethoven knew, where the tone decayed relatively quickly. On the modern piano, the sound tends to bloom after the initial attack and takes longer to decay and this can make fp effects tricky to manage. Some artists use a trick with the pedal and re-depressing the keys silently

f J

# f f f f f f f f f #f f f f f

#f

. bb nfff b &

U Œ

f f J

[cresc.]

? #2 4

&

f J

f

13• Great Composers

P12 GC HTP Graham-FINAL.indd 13

09/06/2015 09:28

play

HOW TO

The opening of the ‘Pathétique’ is often played way too slowly, with the result that the feeling of the four main beats gets lost. Watch out for adagios with an alla breve or cut time signature (such as the first movement of the ‘Moonlight’) – the tempo applies to the minim (half note) main beats and not to crotchets (quarter notes). We know that Beethoven was free with the tempo in his own playing and not at all metronomic. It is hard to imagine the two completely contrasting statements of the same idea in the opening of opus 90 being played at exactly the same tempo. We can surely stretch out the piano (more relaxed and spacious) answer to the forte (driven) statement a little bit here:

#3 j j & 4 ff ‰ fF ™ fj fj ‰ ff ‰ Œ ff ff ™™ ff FF f f p f f ff ™™ j j ? # 3 fj ‰ F f ‰ f‰Œ 4f F f f

{

j f ff. ff. ff ff. ff. J

Hand redistribution When it comes to Beethoven, some pianists are dead set against the idea of redistributing notes between the hands to make things more manageable. The great pianist Rudolf Serkin played all the Beethoven sonatas except one – apparently he would not play opus 2 no 2 (bars 84-85 below) because he couldn’t manage one figure written for the RH that most pianists don’t think twice about dividing between the two hands, possibly because Beethoven gave his own explicit fingering (shown here in italics):

f 5 5 1 ### 2 ‰ f f f f 1 f f f f & 4 f f f f f f f f 3 1 2 ff 3 ff f ff f ? ### 2 f 4 1

There are passages in Beethoven’s piano writing that are not supposed to sound safe and easy – the treacherous LH leap in the opening of the opus 106 ‘Hammerklavier’, the LH diminished seventh octaves at the start of opus 111, for example. To redistribute these passages could destroy the elements of heroism, danger and struggle integral to the gesture. We need to take a risk here, it’s what the music is about.

Allegro

b &b C ‰

{

Œ

ff f ‰ fJ

f™ ? bbC j ff ™™ f 4

ff f J

ff

ff. ff

ff. ff

ff. ff

ff. ff

ff. ff

ff. f

ff. f

ff. f

ff. f

ff. f

3

Kr b f f & b bc ® ‰ ≈ ™ nfff fff Maestoso

{

f ? bb c f #f ™™ b RÔ #f ™™ f 5

f

fff ™™™™™™ f ™™

sf

f ff #f

f ™™ f ™™

Ÿ 2 5 j ff nff ™ nf f nff ‰ J sf p ff ff ff J ‰ 4 35 1

3

Moderato cantabile molto espessivo

j b b3 f & b b 4 ff ™™ ff ff ™™ ff f FF

In his performing editions, Artur Schnabel suggests different metronome markings from one section to another for all the sonatas. Subtle gradations of speed are part of the style, but we should avoid exaggerating these.

{

Texture Like Haydn and Mozart before him, Beethoven often thought about instruments and terms other than the piano when writing for the piano. This sounds contradictory, I know, but sometimes we hear the orchestra in Beethoven’s piano writing, other times a more intimate ensemble such as the string quartet. The opening of opus 110 is written in four distinct parts, as though for a quartet. It would be inappropriate to solo out the top voice and hide the lower ones – instead find a tonal blend where all parts contribute:

{

f™ f™

. . ff ff ff

p con amabilità (sanft)

f f f ? b b 3 f ™ ff ff ™™ ff ff FF ff ™ f ff f f b b 4 f™ J . . U Ÿj f b f ™ f b nf bf f f f ff f f f f f ™ J b b & f f J j ? bb b ff ff ‰ Œ & fff fff fff b J ffffffffffff u

{

In the last bar above, a long pedal would cause the figuration to swim and lose articulation. Experiment with short pedals so that the LH mimics the bowing of stringed instruments. It is not appropriate to subdue Beethoven’s accompanimental figurations when they contribute to the drama. The tremolo triplets in the first movement of the opus 31 no 2 ‘Tempest’ are more effective when brought to the foreground – don’t hide them:

Ó

& f

{

?

3

Œ

f p

3

3

3

fffffffffff w f fffffffffff f f F . .

f

Trills Beethoven accepted CPE Bach’s authority on ornamentation, so he probably intended an upper note start to the trills in the early period sonatas. In his middle and late period works, he tended to indicate when he wanted an upper note start, implying that a main note start had become his default. He was also quite fastidious in indicating the suffix (termination) when he wanted one. In nearly all cases, the fingerings given by Czerny in his edition of the sonatas (published in 1850) imply a start on the main note. I don’t think it is helpful to be dogmatic about this. Make your decision based on the context. n

Resources

When I study a Beethoven sonata, I like to consult two or three different editions but I work from the Henle Urtext. While I have a soft spot for the commentary and fingerings in the old Craxton-Tovey ABRSM edition, the latest version by Barry Cooper is more scholarly. Schnabel’s edition makes an excellent supplement to a standard Urtext, and it is also worth looking at Hans von Bülow’s for fingerings and footnotes. There is a recent Henle edition with excellent fingerings by Murray Perahia. [See also Michael McMillan’s sheet music review round-up on page 86.]

4 14• Great Composers

P12 GC HTP Graham-FINAL.indd 14

09/06/2015 09:28

TRACK Track 2 3

’T MISS NIE DON MELA K’S SWIC SPAN PIECE ON THIS E

N LESSO PAG 15

Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809) Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809) Andantino in E in flatE flat Andantino

play

b e g i nBEGINNER/ ner

INTERMEDIATE

HOW TO

In this the pairs of of the slurred dotted notes should be played portato;No separate aswritten, written,the the two two fingers fingers should higher This is anpiece, arrangement second movement of Haydn’s Symphony 85. should strike strikethe thekeys keyssimultaneously, simultaneously,though makingthe the top note them by tips: raising wrist. Make dotted a slight notes emphasis on be theplayed first ofportato, the two.with The a note should more prominently. legato the upper linewrist Playing Theyour pairs of slurred should sound outsound more. out Think about the legatoThink in theabout upperthe line, andindon’t let your hardest aspect on of this is theThe sequences thirds is inthe thesequences right handof(for example you won’t be able to achieve true legato in bothAtlines once – an andAlberti don’t let your slight emphasis the piece first note. hardestofhurdle thirds in the – tense up. Give crotchet restsa their full length. bar at 9 there’s bass in the bar(e.g. 3 and 16-17). PractisePractise them bybyplaying first the up. Give crotchet restsfor their full length. At bar 9 accompaniment. there’s an Alberti bass in RH barbars 3 and bars 16-17). first playing thehigher highernote, note,then thenthe the wrist LH.tense Make this even and light, a calm but rhythmic lowernote noteand andthen then moving thethe next pair.pair. When playing themas the left hand. Make this even and light to be calmpiece but rhythmic lower movingimmediately immediatelyonontoto next When playing Read Melanie Spanswick’s lesson onathis on page accompaniment. 15.

FULL SCORE ON PAGE 30

HAYDN

Andantino in E Flat

• Pianist 47 30•26 Great Composers

pianist47 Scores1 FINAL.indd 26 p30_scoresHAYDN Andantino_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 30

4/3/09 11:35:53 09/06/2015 09:12

Portato and legato come to the fore in this piece, and there’s some tricky passagework in thirds. Start by looking at the underlying structure, advises teacher and author Melanie Spanswick Ability rating Beginner

Melanie Spanswick is a classical pianist, teacher, adjudicator, author and presenter. She regularly conducts workshops and masterclasses in Germany as well as for EPTA (European Piano Teachers Association). She adjudicates for the British and International Federation of Festivals and curates the Classical Conversations Series, where she interviews eminent classical pianists on camera. These interviews are published on YouTube. Her book, So You Want To Play The Piano? has been critically acclaimed. Find out more about Melanie at www.melaniespanswick.com and www.soyouwanttoplaythepiano.com

Info Will improve your Key: E flat major 3 Legato and portato touches Tempo: Andantino, un poco allegretto 3 Alberti bass Style: Classical 3 Playing of thirds in the RH The Classical style is among the hardest of all to play convincingly. While the notes in this beautiful, brief Andantino appear fairly innocuous, and could no doubt be played by most pianists, to articulate them with the necessary clarity, phrasing and dynamic detail, takes some practice. Examining the structure of a piece helps put it in perspective and provides food for thought regarding interpretation. The structure of this piece is quite clear. There are three sections, starting with a first section that goes from the opening to bar 8. The second section takes up at the end of bar 8 and continues through the beginning of bar 22, after which a third section, the coda, starts and goes to the end. The theme is clearly stated, in the first section, which provides all the melodic material, and is developed in the second section, while the third section is a calm, serene coda.

© Fabrice Rizaato

Choose a speed that allows movement to satisfy the ‘un poco allegretto’ yet is slow enough to create an expressive, tender Andantino. An appropriate speed might be crotchet (quarter note) equals 80 beats per minute. To maintain a slow and steady pulse, develop a way of breaking the crotchet beat into subdivisions. There are no semiquavers (16th notes) in this piece, but try to count or ‘feel’ them anyway. Doing so will help avoid the tendency to rush. Resist the temptation to tap feet or count internally, instead count out loud at first to ensure that the pulse remains stable. Two techniques must be mastered to play this piece well. The first is to to integrate a ‘portato’ touch and the second is to assimilate a fluid, smooth musical line (legato) in the right hand (RH). Let’s start with portato. The left hand (LH) requires this touch for most of the piece, with the exception of bars 8-13, where the LH has an Alberti bass figure. The RH also uses portato, particularly for the upbeats.

Portato means to separate notes gently. This is different from a completely staccato touch – portato is sometimes referred to as ‘mezzo-staccato’. At the opening, which begins on the upbeat, the RH has two crotchet Gs and the LH two crotchet B flats . The notes are staccato and slurred, thus requiring a slight gap between each note, rather than a short detached touch. One way of achieving this with musically satisfying results is to linger on the crotchets as if they were dotted quavers (dotted eighth notes), and coming off gently at the end using a slight rotation in the wrist (a drop-roll approach can be effective). This allows a ‘soft’ touch, which will produce a piano sound, yet also have the desired, separated effect. As this technique appears countless times throughout, it will need to be thoroughly mastered. A good legato touch is vital for much of the RH melodic material. It is especially crucial in quaver passages such as those in bar 1, 3, 5, 7, and 9. Many of the quaver figurations are preceded by an acciaccatura, which will need a light, expressive touch. Practise by playing heavily, then lighten and play on the beat. The most challenging aspect of this work is the RH passagework in thirds. You’ll find this passagework at bars 2, 16, 17, 19, 24, 25, 28, and 29. In bar 2, the RH consists of an upward passage, and fingering will be crucial. The suggested fingering in the score should enable a seamless musical line. Start by playing the top note of each third alone, aiming to produce a smooth note transition. In bar 2, the tone should increase with each beat. By the beginning of bar 3, the chord will increase from a piano to a mezzo piano. Once the top line is smooth, repeat the same pattern with the bottom of each third (in bar 2, a D, E¨, F and G). When playing as written, work at balancing the hand, so that the notes

sound simultaneously and the top note is slightly more prominent tonally. Practise by playing with a heavy tone, again using a free wrist and playing on the fingertips; then lighten the sound to reveal even thirds. Make sure the weight of the hand is balanced towards the weaker fingers.

Learning Tip

Resist the urge to play staccato. A soft but deep approach – right in to the bottom of the key bed – is more in keeping with the expressive character.

The LH Alberti bass in bars 8-13 must be light and expressive, complementing the melodic material. The lower notes are the most important, requiring a deeper sound. Practise the LH separately and play the passage fortissimo, building in a rotational wrist motion. This is vital when working slowly, so when played at the correct speed, the movement will feel natural and comfortable. After practising using a full tone, lighten and gently accentuate the first and third beat of each quaver group. The awkward jump in the melody in bars 11-12 will benefit from slow RH practice. Accent the last note of bar 11 (G), and then the first chord of bar 12 (F and A flat) moving rapidly between the two, so the hand becomes accustomed to the movement and the sound, which must be legato. Explore as many tonal colours as possible, especially in the coda. A repeated E flat major chords dies away at the end. A soft arm and hand movement will suffice here, and flatter fingers can help all notes to sound together. Use the right or sustaining pedal sparingly, with just a dab at cadential points, adding to the sonority of this attractive work. ■

15• Great Composers

P15 GC-HTP Melanie-Haydn-FINALish.indd 15

09/06/2015 09:31

Classical  STYLE 

I N T E R P R E TAT I O N

Jessica Duchen talks to four leading concert pianists about what’s similar – and what’s different – about playing the music of Haydn, Mozart, Clementi and Beethoven

M

usic composed in the middle and latter half of the 18th century is, broadly speaking, music written in the Classical style. If only it were really that simple. Classicism did not end on 31 December 1799 any more than Romanticism began one minute later on 1 January 1800. Such categories are there for our convenience more than that of the composers encompassed by them. When it comes to the piano music of what I’ll continue to call Classicism, three prime figures stand out in vivid focus – or, by rights, four, if we include Muzio Clementi. Clementi is often omitted from this ‘canon’, being overshadowed by three contemporaries who happened to be top of the tree in that age, and any age: Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven. While some concerns in playing and interpreting their music are common to all four composers, others are particular to each individual’s remarkable and ever-rewarding music. I’ve spoken to four leading interpreters of Classical-era music to get their views about performing this music on the modern piano. Haydn’s sparkle and soul Jean-Efflam Bavouzet has made a fine series of recordings of keyboard sonatas of Joseph Haydn in which he shows great affinity for the composer’s distinctive sparkle, wit, soulfulness and sheer inventive flair. He has also thought through in detail the challenges with which Haydn presents the modern-day pianist – starting with the question of the instrument itself. ‘This is a problem if you play Haydn on a modern concert grand, which I do,’ he says. ‘The texture is rather thin; you rarely have chords of more than five notes, and most of the time only

‘In Haydn, if you decide to add ornamentation, the possibilities are limitless – and your only limit should be your taste’

-Jean-Efflam Bavouzet

two voices. Therefore matters of resonance, pedalling and dynamic range can be problematic.’ Haydn’s lifespan took in a rapid period of development in keyboard instruments, from the harpsichord through to the pianos that Beethoven would have used for his middle-period sonatas. ‘Haydn was impressed by the piano made by Broadwood, the brand he played so much for its dynamic range,’ says Bavouzet. ‘His indications in his scores evolve according to the possibilities of the instrument. In sonatas from the early period with few dynamic indications, the first challenge is to adapt this writing to the modern piano. Then there is the pedal, which is used really as an effect. He sometimes asks for some spectacular pedal effects, e.g. in the Fantasia in C major Hob.XVII:4 or the E flat

Sonata Hob.XVI:49. At one point in the C major Fantasia, Haydn asks for the bass to be played fortissimo, with octaves to be held until the sound disappears. But if you do that on the modern piano it takes two and a half minutes! So you have to adapt.’ Ornamentation is a vital question, both in terms of when to apply it – varying repeats, filling in fermatas and so forth – and how. ‘It would be inconceivable today to add any ornamentation in a Beethoven sonata,’ Bavouzet points out. ‘But apparently it was a very common practice, because even Czerny, who knew Beethoven very well, did this up to the point at which Beethoven wrote to him to tell him not to. In Haydn, if you decide to add ornamentation, the possibilities are limitless – and your only limit should be your taste. One highly regarded

16• Great Composers

p16 GC interpretation-FINAL.indd 16

09/06/2015 10:17

Mozart’s profundity and perfection The very finest keyboard writing of Haydn’s friend and younger contemporary, a certain Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart, is quite another matter. It can be found, according to the pianist Imogen Cooper, not so much in the sonatas as in the concertos; but in both, he poses distinct and very personal challenges for the performer. ‘There’s a kind of perfection to him,’ Cooper says. ‘There’s not one note that’s superfluous or irrelevant. For the instrumentalist it’s incredibly exposed, and that’s a big challenge – especially to a recitalist if you’re foolish enough to start a concert with a Mozart sonata! But in the concertos, too, it’s just as exposed for the wind players and the strings, who have to phrase extraordinarily delicately and in style, but also with red blood – it should never be like Dresden china. As the pianist you have to have the sound in your head and a lot of colour in your imagination, and be prepared to be orchestral or even operatic, since he puts all these elements into a concerto and even into a sonata. ‘What he expresses emotionally and psychologically is so profound, complex, personal, and is such a complete story told, that in your heart and mind you are pushing the boundaries out,’ she adds. ‘But if you do that too much and it starts sounding like Brahms, you’re in deep trouble. One has to have inner freedom, playfulness, and also humour – this quality helps one to be a bit liberated: it’s completely wacky, and different

‘What Mozart expresses emotionally and psychologically is so profound, complex, personal, and is such a complete story told, that in your heart and mind you are pushing the boundaries out’

-Imogen Cooper

from Haydn’s wit, but enough to make you smile like a Cheshire cat!’ Bavouzet declares that he avoids playing Mozart sonatas, because in Haydn and Beethoven the shared importance of contrast is more straightforward to manage: ‘With both of them, the more you contrast the dynamics, the better it sounds,’ he remarks. ‘With Mozart, do too much and it sounds brutal; do too little and it goes pale. It is very hard to strike the right balance.’ Cooper agrees: ‘I can absolutely understand that. The perfection about Mozart means that you can’t break the envelope open completely, whereas with Haydn and Beethoven you can – and with them, too, you can better imagine how shocking the music would have been on the old instruments of the EDITOR ERICA WORTH ON HER TOP CLASSICAL CHOICES INSIDE THE SCORES CPE Bach Solfeggietto (page 36) A joy to play and great for the fingers. There’s something very Baroque about it, which I love. Listeners love it too! Beethoven ‘Moonlight’ Sonata, first movement (page 38) No matter how many times one plays and listens to this wonderful movement, it still casts a spell from the first bar to the last. It’s not easy to play though – you need incredible finger control and a totally even, calm pulse. Mozart Rondo in A minor (page 55) Find a good tempo – never rush. You really need to make the melody sing. It’s absolutely heartbreaking.

time. That’s why it’s interesting, at least academically, to go and see what these pieces sound like on the fortepianos of the day.’ For her, performing Mozart on historical instruments in modern halls can sometimes feel like more trouble than it is worth: ‘We have to work in modern halls; we’re not in a Viennese palace and what we do has to be relevant for the ears of nowadays,’ she says. ‘But I like spending a couple of hours on a fortepiano by myself to see what attack one would use. You have to change your touch; with a fortepiano you have to play not down into the keys, but up from them. And it’s fascinating to see what effect that can have on a phrase with which you might have struggled on a concert grand, wondering if this is really what he would have heard. I do try to keep that in mind. Ultimately I’ve got to play on a modern concert grand in a modern hall for modern ears, and that’s no problem – but sometimes it’s interesting to think what effect it must have had in his day under those circumstances, and how shocking it would have been.’ If you are starting to learn a new piece by Mozart, Cooper’s advice is to find ‘first-class fingerings when it comes to runs. It’s worth getting the fingering right from the beginning. Keep in mind what you want the musical phrase to be and don’t just replicate the fingering of the scale. You might need to do a slightly different fingering according to where the necessary impulse falls – in the middle of the run, or the beginning, or the end of it. Technically, therefore,



© Paul Mitchell (Bavouzet); © Sussie Ahlburg (Cooper); © Benjamin Ealovega (Worth)

Baroque specialist has said that “we should have as much knowledge as possible in order to be as free as possible” – something with which I agree completely.’ Bavouzet is much in favour of doing the repeats whenever indicated, but he has also been rethinking how these repeats bind the sonatas together. In most Haydn sonata form movements, both the exposition and then the development and recapitulation are repeated. Often, though, Haydn ends a movement with a short coda. ‘To me, this coda says “this is the end”,’ says Bavouzet, ‘but you can’t say “this is the end” twice.’ He often begins the second half ’s repeat at a point before the coda is reached, then plays the latter only once. For those starting to explore Haydn’s sonatas for the first time, Bavouzet suggests the first movement of the B minor Sonata Hob.XVI:32, the slow movement of the A flat major Hob.XVI:46 and the ‘very joyful’ finale of the D major Hob.XVI:37 as three examples of the composer’s piano writing at its very finest.

17• Great Composers

p16 GC interpretation-FINAL.indd 17

09/06/2015 10:17

I N T E R P R E TAT I O N predictable – they’re full of wonderful surprises. They’re warmer than the Haydn sonatas and more dramatic than Mozart’s. I found an endless wealth of invention and inspiration in them. I’d had no idea, before Hyperion asked me to record them, that there were nearly 70 of them,’ he adds. Too many of us are put off Clementi, perhaps, by sonatinas we are fed as children, possibly for as exam pieces. The grown-up sonatas offer not only exciting music to explore, but some hefty technical challenges too. ‘He writes almost impossible running double thirds,’ Shelley remarks, ‘and dramatic passages in octaves. ‘If I was on a desert island and only allowed to take a book of piano sonatas,’ he adds, ‘it would be Clementi rather than Haydn and, as something that always gives one pleasure, maybe even rather than Beethoven, who became more and more demanding – he pushed his writing to such extremes that in some of the sonatas it is practically impossible. Clementi instead pushed ideas. I would never claim that he plumbed the same depths as Beethoven, but his virtuosity, while demanding, was always within reach.’

‘There’s some radiance and explosively demonic energy that Beethoven has only in his third period. Playing it beautifully is not enough’ -Stephen Kovacevich

good articulation is very important, possibly the most important thing. ‘We have to use the pedal very judiciously,’ Cooper adds. ‘You need the pedal in a big hall, otherwise the sound won’t have enough body to it, but there should not be too much, so your foot’s got to be going up and down like the clappers. [See Pianist No 84 for Graham Fitch’s article on pedalling in Classical repertoire.] ‘Chiefly the problem is about control versus an inner openness to the huge wealth of story, psychology and emotion that’s going on inside the music. You have to balance those two things in order to do the music justice.’ Clementi, the forgotten Classical master Many similar issues apply to Muzio Clementi (1752-1832), but there is one more: the fact that this vital linchpin of Classical style is largely overlooked today. Born in Rome, he was spotted as a gifted child by an English aristocrat who brought him to London to receive a fine musical education. He became a brilliant virtuoso and prolific composer of sonatas, but after a love affair went tragically wrong – apparently his beloved’s father refused permission for marriage, considering a musician unsuitable husband material – he withdrew from performing and went on to make a name, and a profound influence on the music world, as a publisher, teacher and piano maker.

But what really put the kibosh on the unfortunate composer’s reputation was a singularly catty remark by none other than Mozart, who wrote to his father, saying: ‘Clementi plays well, as far as execution with the right hand goes. His greatest strength lies in his passages in thirds. Apart from that, he has not a kreuzer’s worth of taste or feeling – in short, he is a mere mechanicus.’ Howard Shelley, the British pianist who has recorded Clementi’s complete sonatas for Hyperion, is infuriated by the lingering effects of Mozart’s meanness. ‘It was complete nonsense,’ he declares, ‘a totally fatuous remark.’ It is not inconceivable that Mozart was jealous, ‘perhaps because of Clementi’s success at the time, because he was heavily published in his lifetime, and perhaps because the sonatas were slightly too close to Mozart’s own inspiration for comfort: it certainly has all of that extraordinary freshness.’ At Christmas 1781 the two composers carried out a competitive stunt in Vienna for Emperor Joseph II, who tactfully declared the result a draw. A theme from one work of his own that Clementi played on this occasion, Shelley recounts, was later lifted almost note for note by Mozart for the overture to The Magic Flute. ‘Clementi has this lightness, freshness and naturalness that Mozart had too,’ Shelley suggests. ‘There’s a feeling of utter logic about each movement he wrote, but they’re by no means

Beethoven, pushing the Classical style boundaries Beethoven’s piano music goes far beyond the Classical style. Yet that is where its roots remain. Haydn in particular was a formative influence. Beethoven studied with him in Vienna and although he was reluctant to credit Haydn for the lessons he absorbed from him, the bridge between them is palpable in the younger composer’s early sonatas. One of today’s greatest Beethovenians is Stephen Kovacevich, who has strong views on Beethoven’s musical personality and his transformation of the Classical style into something utterly new. What qualities does he feel a pianist needs in order to bring this to life? ‘I think the main thing is to not run away from the explosive part of Beethoven’s nature,’ Kovacevich says. ‘The early sonatas are delightful; in terms of their sonority I’d call them Classical without feeling too uncomfortable. By the middle period he’s redefining what “Classical” is, and in the late period it’s a different world altogether. It’s important to respond differently, in emotional and musical terms, to each of the three periods. ‘He was obviously an extremely gifted pianist,’ he goes on. ‘You can see by his writing that the coordination implied is of a high order – and also there’s an element of a show-off. He was not only famous for being extremely expressive and demanding of his listeners, but the technical aspect

18• Great Composers

p16 GC interpretation-FINAL.indd 18

09/06/2015 10:17

‘Clementi has this lightness, freshness and naturalness that Mozart had too... Clementi’s music is full of wonderful surprises’ -Howard Shelley

LISTEN Jean-Efflam Bavouzet Haydn Piano Sonatas, Vols 1-5 Chandos CHAN 10586, CHAN 10668, CHAN 10689, CHAN 10736, CHAN 10763 Haydn Piano Concertos Hob.XVII:3, Hob.XVII:4, Hob.XVII:11 With Manchester Camerata/Gábor Takács-Nagy Chandos CHAN 10808

Imogen Cooper

© Sophie Wright (Kovacevich); © Eric Richmond (Shelley)

Mozart Piano Concertos Nos 24 & 25; Fantasia in D minor Northern Sinfonia/ Bradley Creswick Avie AV2175

of playing the piano was not separate from his nature. ‘“High Art” is a very dangerous concept,’ Kovacevich adds. ‘It can take away the joie de vivre. And Beethoven broke the rules – he made tons of mistakes when he performed, he was a very explosive pianist. Being expressive is generally acceptable, but what is not politically correct is the wilder part of him, which he shows in the second period and absolutely in the third. What I’ve always found inspiring but disturbing in the third period is how subversive he was to his own muse. There would be sublime passages followed by mocking passages. And that was him. He was not the boy next door.’ ‘A lot of the time in his later years, Beethoven was suffering intense physical pain,’ Kovacevich points out, referring us to Jan Swafford’s new biography Beethoven: Anguish and Triumph for the gory details of the great man’s lengthy illness. ‘His last words apparently, were a quote from Dante: “My friends, the comedy is over”: a cri de coeur of a man who’s had enough and acknowledges everything he’s been through. ‘But in the music of this third period, what is so special is an incredible tenderness, almost an abstract tenderness, which has to be captured. There’s some radiance and explosively demonic energy that he has only in his third period – the mystical quality in the second movement of opus 111, or opus 109’s theme and variations. Playing it beautifully is not enough.

There’s a kind of inwardness to it; it’s expressive, it talks to the listener, but it’s not “for sale”.’ For Kovacevich, Beethoven’s ultimate achievement is the Sonata opus 110 – notably the last part of the work, in which two expressive ‘arioso’ sections are succeeded and transcended by two giant and triumphant fugues. The second arioso reprises the first, but a semitone lower, the melody fragmented and exhausted. ‘The second aria is written in such a precise way, and you play it the best you can – but it’s impossible,’ says Kovacevich. ‘The rests are extremely difficult to do – these are like someone almost unable to breathe. The voice is breaking up, the breath is breaking up and he is trying to notate this.’ The only way to grasp it, he says, is long acquaintance and deep identification: ‘You live with it – and you have to need it. You have to need that inner consolation, that depth of confession. For me it’s the most extreme end in all Beethoven.’ Stephen Kovacevich has a point. What Beethoven did goes beyond Clementi, Haydn or even Mozart would have dreamed, and yet these composers paved the way for an explosion of artistic development in the century ahead, and it was Beethoven, largely, who formed the bridge thereto. Happily, there is such a wealth of great music to explore in these four composers’ piano outputs that they could keep any pianist in artistic clover for many satisfying years. ■

Mozart Piano Concertos Nos 23 & 9 ‘Jeunehomme’ Northern Sinfonia/Thomas Zehetmair Avie AV2100 Mozart Piano Concertos Nos 22 & 18 Northern Sinfonia Avie AV2200 Wigmore Hall Recital: Beethoven, Mozart, Ravel Wigmore Hall Live WHLIVE0018

Stephen Kovacevich Favourite Beethoven Sonatas (including opp 110 & 111) Warner Classics 5099921531422 (3 CDs) Beethoven Diabelli Variations (plus Bach Partita No 4) Onyx Records ONYX4035

 Howard Shelley

Clementi Piano Sonatas, Vols 1-6 Hyperion CDA67632, CDA67717, CDA67729, CDA67738, CDA67814, CDA67819 (each volume comprises 2 discs)

19• Great Composers

p16 GC interpretation-FINAL.indd 19

09/06/2015 10:17

play

pianist37p24-47scores

2/7/07

10:07 AM

Page 34

Carl Philipp Emanuel BACH (1714-1788) Solfeggietto CPE BACH (1714-1788) SON

’T MISS NIE DON MELA K’S SWIC SPAN PIECE

TRACK 8 TRACK 6

I N T E R M E D I AT E INTERMEDIATE

LES ON THIS E CPE Bach, the second PAG son 20of the great JS, wrote this Solfeggietto in the runs. In those first 13 or so bars, one should not be able to hear the style of a prelude. Its originality comes from the systematic alternating of interchange between left and right hand. Practise slowly and try to detach the Bach, two hands. There’s a certain to the piece: barsof1-4 each noteruns. by lifting each finger up,tostrongly and separately. When you CPE the second son of the greatthematic JS, wroteelement this Solfeggietto in the style a semiquaver One shouldn’t be able hear the interchange between left and are repeated four times different minor alternating keys and of always four-bar right thenhand. comePractise to play the and piece quickly, andbythe fingers don’t up, need to be prelude. Its originality comesin from the systematic the twoinhands. slowly detach each note lifting each finger strongly chunks, aside fromathe lastthematic repeat, element: where itbars lengthens into six four bars.times The and picked up anymore, you’ll findplaying that they over the Playing tips: There’s certain 1-4 are repeated separately. When you end up it allfly quickly, and keyboard! the fingers don’t need difficulty toalways maintain precision withaside the from rapidthesemiquaver intechnical different minor keys is and in four-bar chunks, last repeat, to be picked up anymore, you’ll find they fly over the keyboard! Pedal not required. where it lengthens into six bars. The difficulty is to maintain precision in the rapid Read Melanie Spanswick’s step-by-step lesson on this piece on page 20.

HOW TO

Solfeggietto in C minor

1 3 1 2 4

FULL SCORE ON PAGE 36

2

4

1

2

4

4 2 1

4

2

1 4 2 1 4

4 2 1 2 4

4

4 2 1 1 3 2 1 4

1

4

4

5 2 1 3

1

5 2 1 3

2

1 2 4

1 2 4

1 2 3

5

5 4 2 1

7

3

4 2

1

CPE BACH

5

5

3 2

4

2

2

3

2

4 1

1 3 1 3

1 4

2

4

1

1 2

4

4

10

1 2 4

3

5

1

3

2

3

4

13

2 1 2 3

1 5 1 5

1 4

Solfeggietto in C minor

1 5

34• Pianist 37 36• Great Composers

p36_scoresBACH_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 36

09/06/2015 09:15

In this short but brilliant piece, your hands will be like skilled trapeze artists, gracefully handing off to each other. Finessing that transition is vital, says teacher and author Melanie Spanswick Ability rating Intermediate Info Key: C minor Tempo: Prestissimo Style: Classical

Will improve your

3 Articulation 3 Finger strength 3 Keyboard geography

The Solfeggietto in C minor is one of the most popular keyboard works by CPE Bach, the second son of the great JS Bach. Played stylishly, it’s an extremely exciting, energetic little work. Crotchet (quarter note) equals 120 beats per minute would be a fine tempo to choose, but for the brave, a faster prestissimo pulse will guarantee a virtuoso, flamboyant rendition. Throughout this piece, there’s a constant use of alternating hands. This creates a dramatic quality, making the piece akin to a ‘perpetuum mobile’ (a steady, unstopping stream of notes). When playing music with such continuous movement, careful preparation, especially slow practice, will help you obtain the best results. Secure fingering is vital. Mark your fingering in the score before you start learning the piece, and be quite sure your fingering allows for quick hand changes and total rhythmic precision. You will see there are some fingerings written in to the score, but if these don’t suit your hand, feel free to change them.

© Fabrice Rizaato

After you’ve chosen the fingering, you’ll want to find comfortable and flexible hand positions. Good hand positions will encourage and enable quick movement, and will help legato playing (keeping the musical line), and equal tone production on every note. Rapid keyboard geography can only be successfully negotiated with a very free, relaxed body position. One you’ve looked carefully at the piece hands separately, then immediately combine the hands and learn section by section (it’s very easy to sectionalise). In the first four bars, passages wind their way around C minor, using snippets of both the arpeggio and scale. This requires a strong rhythmic pulse, so think about dividing each crotchet into four semiquaver (16th note) beats, ensuring every semiquaver has equal tone and note length.

Melanie Spanswick is a classical pianist, teacher, adjudicator, author and presenter. She regularly conducts workshops and masterclasses in Germany as well as for EPTA (European Piano Teachers Association). She adjudicates for the British and International Federation of Festivals and curates the Classical Conversations Series, where she interviews eminent classical pianists on camera. These interviews are published on YouTube. Her book, So You Want To Play The Piano? has been critically acclaimed. Find out more about Melanie at www. melaniespanswick.com

Rhythmic accuracy is challenging here, and instilling insistent pulse-keeping is the most effective tool to improve this. Try counting aloud, as well as using a metronome. Choose a very slow speed, setting the metronome to either quaver (quarter note) beats, or possibly semiquaver beats. As you start to assimilate the pulse, it will become firm, steady and immovable. There is lots of twisting passagework that is passed between the hands. Plenty of wrist motion will allow the fingers to flow freely with lots of arm weight behind them, hence producing a full, velvety tone. While the fingers must remain near the keys, the wrists can move rotationally, providing depth and colour, even on the weaker fingers. Try to make the interchange between hands imperceptible to the human ear. You can improve the evenness by practising with very firm, strong fingers, using every finger joint actively, playing deep into the keys. Practise with full force, then lighten the touch for real evenness. Don’t forget to pick fingers up cleanly after every note. New patterns arrive in bars 5-8. The patterns in bars 5-6 are essentially variations on arpeggios, and the hand splits (sometimes on the semiquavers in between crotchet beats) demand perfect articulation. Bringing excellent clarity and crispness to the copious semiquavers is a major challenge of this piece, and will determine how well you are able to bring it off. Always use your ear – make listening paramount. Focus your attention on the ends of notes as well as the beginnings. How you play the notes, i.e. aggressively or softly, will help to refine articulation. Try practising using different touches: staccato, semistaccato, martellato (which means strongly accented). Follow this with lots of dotted rhythm practice; using many types of rhythmic patterns (triplets for example). These practice tools will also be beneficial at bars 7 and 8, where the left hand (LH) answers the right hand (RH), in what appears to be a musical conversation. Bars 9-12 are a repeat of bars 1-4, only in G minor. Then the composer adds some new material: G minor

broken chords with LH octaves in bar 13, followed by a bar of LH crotchet sixths with wide RH oscillating interval patterns (almost like tremolos) in bar 14. The LH octaves in the bar 13 must not last a moment longer than a crotchet, and need a full rich sound to support the RH figurations. The same applies to the sixths (in the LH) in bar 14, which work well if played slightly detached. The RH patterns in bar 15 need a small hand rotation motion. Bars 15 and 16 repeat this new material but in C minor, giving rise to sequential movement and heightening expressive qualities here.

Learning Tip

Dividing this piece into sections will define the structure, create a thoughtful interpretation and can help with memorisation too.

Material from the opening bars, this time in F minor, returns in bars 17-21. There’s an added bar of cascading broken chords at bar 22, which propels the work into a brief respite from all the continuous semiquaver movement. Bars 22-25 contain a built-in pause: semibreve (whole notes) single notes in the LH (with minim [half note] rests in the RH), with intermittent passagework in the RH. The mordent, which appears in the musical line at bar 25, must be light and played on the beat – and it should be played as D-E-D (or even D-C-D, even though there’s no line through it). Bars 26 and 30 are the climax of the piece; change the sound using the fingers only (keeping the foot off the pedal – see my comment in the final paragraph about pedalling). Bars 31-34 are a repeat of the opening, taking a slightly different turn in the final bar, bringing the piece to an abrupt, yet declamatory conclusion. Once you’ve thoroughly absorbed the piece, work at changing finger power rapidly (from light to heavy, or vice versa) between bars in order to achieve ‘echoes’. Echo effects are a recurring feature (bars 14-17, for example) and they provide contours, contrast and musical definition. If you use the sustaining pedal, you must use it to add occasional texture to bass lines (such as in bar 13 and 15), but a deft foot is necessary! ■

20• Great Composers

P20 GC HTP Melanie CPE-FINALish.indd 20

09/06/2015 10:18

pianist39p24-40 45-47scores

TRACK TRACK 58

23/10/07

12:46 AM

play

Page 28

’T MISS S DONNEWMAN’ JANET PIECE ON THIS E

CLEMENTI (1752-1832) CLEMENTI (1752-1832) N Muzio Muzio LESSO Sonatina op 36 no op 3 (third Sonatina 36 no movement) 3, third movement

I N T E RINTERMEDIATE M E D I AT E

PAG 21

of six Clementi composed 1797, which became ThisOf is the one set of the bestsonatinas known ofthat the set of six sonatinas thatinClementi composed in a staple for student is one of the best known. 1797 and which quickly pianists, became a this staple for student pianists. The strings of semiquavers should never become mechanical: strike each Playing and pedal tips: The strings of semiquavers shouldn’t sound mechanical: note distinctly and give shape to the phrases strike each note distinctly andagive shape to the phraseswith withsubtle subtleuse use of of dynamics. dynamics.

HOW TO

Inthe theLH, left keep hand, theeven, quavers even, without unnecessary onor In thekeep quavers without accents on notes played byaccents the thumb notes played by the precision thumb orislittle finger. little finger. Rhythmic a must, as are the dynamic markings and contrasts, Rhythmic precision essence throughout piece, are pedal. the which will help bring itistoof life.the Read what Janet Newman the has to say onasusing dynamic markings and contrasts, which willonhelp Read Janet Newman’s lesson on this piece pagebring 21. it to life.

FULL SCORE ON PAGE 42

CLEMENTI

Sonatina op 36 no 3, third movement

28• Pianist 39 42• Great Composers

p42_scoresCLEMENTI_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 42

09/06/2015 09:17

Teacher and performer Janet Newman helps you find a fresh quality for this lively piece – the first task is to make the left-hand part into a harmonic cushion for the right-hand melody Ability rating Intermediate Info Key: C major Tempo: Spiritoso Style: Classical Clementi was a Classical-era composer rated very highly by luminaries such as Beethoven. He composed many beautiful sonatas for the keyboard. Although not all have stood the test of time, this particular piece has a fresh and appealing quality and has enough of the fundamental characteristics of Classical playing to keep the player engaged throughout. There is something very cleansing and direct about this style and it can help immensely with finger technique and clarity of approach generally. The left hand (LH) needs to act as a harmonic cushion. It is very important to practise the quaver pattern alone so that you are able to control the balance. Don’t let the quavers overwhelm the right hand (RH). Make sure that the quavers are exactly coordinated with the melody line. In Classical playing, it’s possible to hear every small blemish and misalignment – this is, after all, what makes this style so challenging. Be on high alert for any uneven control. The dynamic level is unclear at the start. I would suggest beginning quite brightly and let the exuberance of the music shine through. At the end of the first bar in the main theme, it is quite a good idea to change fingers on the repeated G so that each note has an impetus and direction. If you just stick to the thumb, it can be somewhat leaden. Try 1-2-1 instead if you feel your approach would benefit from this. Another fingering alternative to those in the score comes at bar 5 and 6: instead of using 2/1 on the final third in both bars, try 4/2. Again, it might help you not to overuse the thumb and keep the musical line buoyant. Throughout the Sonatina, Clementi uses plenty of scalic passages. These make their own specific demands on the player. Evenness of touch is paramount, and in performance this is where little slips can occur, which can spoil the brilliance of the line. When practising

Will improve your

3 Analysis of a sonata 3 Even runs 3 Gradation of dynamics

the runs, I would suggest holding up beats so that you (and your fingers!) become completely at ease with every note and can control the shape and direction at will. For example, in bar 7, make the first and third beat twice as long (i.e. quavers) as the second and fourth beats and as you do so, really play into the keys and pick up your fingers very clearly in the slower beats. Once this feels secure, hold up the second and fourth beats and play first and third as normal. This helps with articulation and control and makes you completely aware of each note as part of the whole line. Also listen to how you start each phrase and check that you don’t begin with an unintended accent.

In Classical pieces, it’s possible to hear every small blemish and misalignment – that’s why this style is challenging! If this is happening, it could be because you aren’t relaxing into the phrase, keeping your wrist low and flexible.

Janet Newman is Head of Keyboard at the Royal Grammar School in Guildford. In addition to her teaching, she is in demand as a freelance pianist and is an examiner for the ABRSM.

At bar 13, Clementi moves the music into G major. It is clear that there is a different quality to this phrase. It is marked ‘dolce’ and I would suggest that you think of it as having a more cantabile, warmer tone. Keep listening for balance between the hands but make enough of a defined LH accompaniment for it to fully support the RH melody. Another small fingering suggestion is for the semiquaver passage in bar 15: instead of using the fourth finger on the top C, try the fifth finger. It helps to balance the hand beautifully, and 3-5 can make for a better distribution of finger weight and evenness than 3-4, especially in smaller hands. One small word about the trills: I think that the ending of the trill in bar 20 can be left unfinished because the music doesn’t have a first-beat resolution. This is different from bar 23, where the trill does finish on the G, in which case you can use a 1-3-2 Classical turn fingering to complete the phrase. Also, start the trill above the note – begin on a B in both cases. At the double bar, we move into a small development section. Here

Clementi turns the main theme upside down and explores different keys using this motif until he arrives back at the recap in bar 36. Before you get the recap, take a little time in bars 33-36, because the use of chromaticism

Learning Tip

When it comes to the Classical style here, think in terms of ‘miniature’ or ‘smaller scale’ in such things as dynamics/shading, subtle rubato and steady pulse.

implies a more expressive quality. As a consequence, it is perfectly fine to use a small ritardando to ease your way back into the bright C major theme. Much of the musical material is then repeated. However, harmonic changes at bar 42 onwards lead us into the second theme (first heard in G major) at bar 49, but now in the tonic key of C major. I find that by analysing key structures when studying a piece, I have a much greater idea of the work as a whole, and certainly, playing from memory has a greater security as a result. It acts like a general road map, pinpointing the overall direction even if you find yourself using a few unexpected side roads along the way! It is wise to remember that in this period, a forte dynamic would not have the density of a contemporary forte. You will want to keep all of the changes graded and within context. If you suddenly launch into a full, Brahmsian tone, the music could end up very distorted and rather comical as an unintended consequence. Give the phrases shape and direction through the use of gradation of tonal colour rather than any sudden explosion of fortissimo! The trills at this point should be treated the same as before, in order to keep the ornamentation consistent. Begin on the E in both bar 56 and bar 61, and finish neatly using the 1-3-2 fingering. Also, the use of pedal – while not banned – is mostly unnecessary in this style. You should certainly never use the pedal over runs and through passage work, and only consider little dabs on chords, such as the final three octaves, which bring this movement to a confident conclusion. ■

21• Great Composers

P21 GC HTP Janet-FINALish.indd 21

09/06/2015 10:19

YAMAHA PREMIUM PIANOS The Flagship CF Series & Premium SE Upright Series now in our showroom! Please call us for a VIP appointment to listen to and experience these exceptional pianos by Yamaha. We also stock a wide range of new and expertly restored pianos, both grands and uprights from the finest piano makers. Yamaha’s Premium Piano Specialists, covering South East England

TRANSACOUSTIC

The new Yamaha U1 Transacoustic In stock now! Please call us for a VIP appointment to listen to and experience this amazing new concept in pianos. We also stock a wide range of new and expertly restored pianos, both grands and uprights from the finest piano makers.

Yamaha Hybrid Piano Specialists for the South East of England Verve House, London Road (A30) Sunningdale SL5 0DJ p91 Ads.indd 91 Handel Full page.indd 1

01344 873645 [email protected]

www.handelpianos.co.uk

91• Pianist 77

www.facebook.com/handelpianosltd 11/06/2015 14:16 15:07 11/06/2015

@KawaiPianosUK

/KawaiUK

Explore All Your Favourite Composers Shigeru Kawai grand pianos combine the skilled craftsmanship of piano artisans with technical inovation, making anything possible.

Authorised Shigeru Kawai Selection Centres Jaques Samuel 142 Edgeware Road Marble Arch London W2 2DZ 0207 7238 818

Piano Man Ltd 170 Easterly Road Leeds West Yorkshire LS8 3AD 0113 2408 030

Pianos Plus 9H Centrepoint Business Park Oak Road Dublin 12 Ireland 00353 1409 7373

92• Great Composers

p92 Ads.indd 92

11/06/2015 10:08

play

HOW TO

MOZART

Rondo in A minor K511

Teacher and concert pianist Lucy Parham provides enlightenment about the coloration and style that you will need in order to play this compelling and flowing piece from Mozart’s final years Ability rating

Advanced

Info Key: A minor Tempo: Andante Style: Classical This sublime and singular work represents Mozart at the height of his creative powers. Elusive and tragic, it presents an ever-challenging task to the performer. When you read it through, at first you may be misled into thinking it’s quite simple. In fact, this is one of those pieces that the more you study it and the more you look behind the notes, the harder it becomes. The famous quote that Mozart is ‘too easy for children and too hard for adults’ has never been more apt than with this Rondo. The longer you spend looking behind the notes, the more the depth of the piece will be revealed to you. Begin by looking at the structure. It follows an A-B-A-C-A pattern and each time the theme returns, it’s decorated in a different, more elaborate way.

© Sven Arnstein

It’s important to capture the lilting feeling of the 6/8 time signature. This piece needs to sway and flow – almost like a slow waltz. Practise the first few bars of the left hand (LH). Stay on the key and distinguish between the dotted crotchet and the lighter quavers. Notice how the thumb rises bar by bar, matching the right hand (RH). Although Mozart marks this piece Andante, it needs to keep a sense of direction and line throughout. When you start the RH, try to connect the first upbeat E to the first phrase. The RH tone should always be focused and projected. Play the grace notes on the beat (i.e., with the first note of the LH) and keep them fluid and decorative at all times, otherwise they will interfere with the line of the piece.

Feel the change of colour into C major at bar 9. That’s where a light touch in the RH demisemiquavers (on the last beat) is helpful. At bar 10, begin the turn after the second quaver in the LH and start the trill that follows on the upper note (F), noting the staccato arpeggio in the RH (bar 11) followed by the portamento ‘answer’ in bar 12. The repeated Gs in bar 15 can either crescendo or decrescendo. Try to play the demisemiquavers of bar 18 evenly. Bars 27 to 29 are a good example of the extemporising on the main theme that is so much a part of the rondo style. Imagine that you are improvising and feel the tension through the crescendo and the rising melody, again with a sudden p at bar 30.

Will improve your 3 Finger articulation 3 Sense of structure 3 Rhythmic stability

Lucy Parham performs her composer portrait concert Beloved Clara on 11 July at Wiltshire Music Centre (with Joanna David and Edward Fox) and at Llandeilo Festival on 17 July (with Joanna David and Henry Goodman). She performs Nocturne at the Cambridge International Festival on 26 July (with Patricia Hodge and Henry Goodman). For other dates and details, please visit www.lucyparham.com

A complete change of colour happens at bar 31 when it modulates into F major (notice the B¨). A sense of optimism pervades here after the darkness of the opening. In this bar, the RH semiquavers should be very melodic – each one needs to ‘speak’. Grip the LH quavers at the p in bar 32. The bass line here is crucial as it is almost orchestral in its writing – especially in bars 35 and 36. In these two bars also try to voice the right top notes – the quavers. Imagine your fifth finger is made of steel! Crescendo all the way to the top G in bar 36 and then grade your decrescendo accordingly. ‘Point’ (another word for this term is ‘articulate’) the LH slurs at bar 37 and feel the vocal nature of the duet between the outer parts in bar 40. In bar 42 you need the RH grace notes on the beat, which can be tricky with

The dotted rhythm in the RH at the start is very melodic. For this reason, don’t clip the D© semiquaver. Give it its full length and weight – it’s an integral part of the melody. The first three bars should grow organically until the sudden p at the last beat of bar 3. At bar 4, the descending slurs must be properly defined. Keep your wrist low and fingers gripped for this.

this travelling LH. Try not to stop the flow, however. This section develops the ideas Mozart has set out in the previous lines and it becomes very discursive.

Learning Tip

This is a long piece! So work out the structure and the different sections and practise in sections.

There’s an element of surprise with the key change into far-flung D¨ major in bar 46. Pace the crescendo here. Both the discursive duet and the slurs are of equal importance in bars 49 to 54. Feel the direction through bar 58 and use your LH to help you here too. Be aware of the progression of the climbing phrase from bars 64 to 67. Find a special colour for the first G© in the LH in bar 67. The RH in bars 69 to 71 is plaintive, with the four dotted crotchets forming a written out turn and becoming a chromatic descent in bars 71 to 74. These semitones are also hauntingly present in the descending semiquavers, which are not an accompaniment and need to be given due melodic importance. The lilting LH returns in bar 74 and again, the melody is based around chromatic semitone slurs. The theme returns briefly. This time it’s with a syncopated RH in bar 86 and a delicate RH run in bar 87. The change of key into the relative major at bar 89 heralds the start of a new section. It should be elegant with gentle accents rather than staccato. Carefully differentiate between staccato and legato in bars 93 and 94. You will see little sharp black ‘wedge’ marks above and below the notes in bars 89-91. These wedges carry the connotation of accentuation. They’re not staccatissimo but instead they are sharply focused staccatos of definite length. Bars 98 to 100 should again have the feeling of dialogue and the colour of woodwind. The transition in bar 100-101 is full of tension. Feel the chromatic progression as it becomes much lighter when we arrive in D major (bar 101).

24• Great Composers

P24 GC HTP Lucy Mozart-FINALish.indd 24

09/06/2015 11:19

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791)

’T MISS DON PARHAM’S

N SO PIECE LESTHIS

Track 12

LUCY

ON

Rondo in A minor K511

E 24

ADVANCED

pag

Dating from 1787 (the year of Don Giovanni), this Rondo is something of a one-off in Mozart’s output, yet in many ways it embodies the essential nature of his music. Playing tips: This is such a fantastic piece and there’s so much to learn in it. It contains a huge range of emotions, but the one thing that stands out above everything else is all the different types of articulation that Mozart asks for. So, as well as studying Lucy Parham’s lesson on page 24, we suggest that you turn to Graham Fitch’s Masterclass on

FULL SCORE ON PAGE 55

{

Andante

6 œ3 &8 J

#œ œ œ

p

6 &8 ‰

{

5

œœ

&

13

œ œ œ œ œ3

‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ

œ4 œ œ2Æ œ3

T#

Ebb away into the return of the theme at bar 129. You will need to think about the direction and line of the RH melody. The trills at bar 134 can present a problem. I’d suggest trying to get a fluid trill travelling through the melody notes and not stopping on them. Again, it’s crucial to keep the wrist supple, as there will be a tendency to tighten up. This is one of the hardest moments of this

T#

4 1

2 œ œ #œ œ

œœ ‰ ‰ Œ J

p

j œœ. œœ. œœ. œ ‰ ‰ 3



5

T# 5 œ. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ3 œ nœ œ œ œ3 œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ J ‰ J 4 1

‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ #œ ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ 4

5

‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ ™™ œ™ œ™ #œ ™ p

4

KIRKER MUSIC HOLIDAYS F O R D I S C E R N I N G T R AV E L L E RS

32 5 Ÿ . ten. œ™ œ œ œ œ 3 4 1 3 3 4 œ œ œj ‰ œ™ œ œ œ. œ œ œ œ #œ nœ œj ‰ œJ œ . . . f

‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œ™ œ œ œ™

œ nœ œ™ cresc.

5

p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 55

The tension in this section is all directed to the E major arpeggio in bar 124. You will need to assert the arrival of this key. Bring out the ascending chromatic nuances of bar 127 (the second and third semiquavers within each triplet semiquaver figure), and try to keep the wrist supple.

œ4 œ œ2 nœ œ3

p

3

‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ? œ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ

Characterise the slurs at this point, as stylistically this is most important. When I say ‘characterise’, I mean that one should aim to make these slurs lilting and lyrical. The second half of bar 104 needs a feeling of fantasy – the climb from the A to the C© is very expressive. Again the slurs (imagine a violin bow playing this) in bar 106 should be light and articulated. Observe the p in bar 110 and use vitality and energy in the staccato LH semiquavers at bar 112. Try also to voice the RH chord (highlighting the top notes) in bars 112-114 and at 116 ‘point’ the fifth finger (C© to B©) of the RH melody in the triplets. The LH is crucial here – it almost ‘moans’ from bars 116 to 120.

5 #œ œJ ‰ œJ J

4 3 T# 3 2 4 1j 3 1 œ™ #œ œ j ‰ 1 j œ3 bœ nœ1 nœ œ ≈ #œ2 œ œ1 œ œ2 œ ≈ 2 r nœ™ œ œ œ œ œ #œœ œ ‰ œJ R cresc. p œ œj œœ ‰ œœ #œ œj ‰ ‰ ? œ™ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œœ œœ J ‰ ‰ 1 œ™ œ œ œ™# œ œ œ™ œ œ œ™ œ™ œ n œœ

9

?

&

1

cresc.

œ & œ œ œ œ™ œ œ

{

2 nœ œ ‰ #œ œ J J J

‰ œ œ œ œ œ ‰& ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œœ œ ‰ œ ? œ™ 1 œ™ œœ œœ œ™ œœ œœ œ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ™n œ4 œœ2 5 5

2

& #œ

{

œ™ #œ œ œj ‰ œ1 j bœ

page 20 where he talks about different touches. Graham’s lesson in the last issue 68 also touched on legato and staccato – definitely worth revisiting. This piece is worth spending time on. The more you study it, the more you will love to play it. Trust us! Pedal tips: When it comes to pedalling in this piece, do your utmost to avoid overpedalling – one should be able to hear all the different articulations and nuances. Turn to Lucy Parham’s in-depth lesson on page 24.

œœ J ‰ ‰

55• Pianist 69

8/11/12 08:53:57

piece – you definitely need to take this bar out of context and practise on its own. When you reach bar 156, note the importance of the ascending chromatic line in the RH thumb and crescendo throughout this bar until you get to the second half of bar 157. Then, welcome the arrival and climax of the phrase with these demisemiquavers and really aim for a warm forte tone. The discursive duet returns at bar 163. Remember that the LH plays an important melodic role. Play right into the key bed and imagine you have a cello solo! This is reversed in bar 169 (though p here) where you need to continue to feel the harmonic tension (shown in intervals such as the augmented fourth) while ‘getting over’ the bar line without stopping. Observe the p in bar 173 followed immediately by the f in bar 174. This is then repeated. At bar 177 the LH needs to sink into the thumb when it plays the crotchet A and B¨. Again, feel the difference between the p and f here and ebb away in the final two bars. Grip the last two chords of the piece and observe the rests. Don’t make a ritardando here, however. Let it quietly disappear in the manner that the whole piece started: understated and sublime. ■ Lucy Parham suggests that if you like this piece, then you might like to try Haydn’s F minor Variations. They share a lot in common, both stylistically and interpretively.

The Rondo One good return deserves another The sheer obviousness of the rondo idea – refrain, episode, refrain, episode, refrain, ad infinitum – makes it hard to trace its origin, although the similarly styled roundeau (from ‘round’) was used by French Baroque composers such as Lully and Couperin. As the Grove Dictionary of Music notes, ‘The very simplicity of the rondo concept, and its consequent wide usage, makes it difficult to give a precise account of its origins.’ What is clear is that there’s something irresistable about hearing the same theme again and again, like the pop song chorus that’s so catchy that the audience can’t help but join in every time. JS Bach had a rondeau as the penultimate movement in his Partita No 2 BWV 826, but the form was more popular with Classical era composers. There’s a rondo last movement from Beethoven’s ‘Pathétique’ Sonata (in this issue’s scores), for instance. Mozart wrote three standalone rondos for the keyboard, including K511 discussed here, while his famous Rondo alla turca is the last movement of his Sonata in A major K331. Jazz pianist Dave Brubeck had fun with the rondo form in his Blue Rondo à la Turk – not based on Mozart, though!

Kirker Holidays offers an extensive range of independent and escorted music holidays. These include tours to leading festivals in Europe such as the Puccini Opera Festival in Torre del Lago, Grafenegg and the Bonn Beethoven Festival, as well as Glyndebourne, Buxton and opera weekends in Vienna, Milan, Venice and New York. We also host our own exclusive music festivals on land and at sea, and arrange short breaks with opera, ballet or concert tickets, to all the great classical cities in Europe. THE BEETHOVEN FESTIVAL IN BONN A SEVEN NIGHT HOLIDAY | 4 SEPTEMBER 2015 The Beethoven Festival is one of the leading music festivals in Germany, with concert programmes stretching far beyond the works of Beethoven alone. Under the direction of Nike Wagner, it attracts today’s finest musicians and orchestras, to the city where Beethoven was born in 1770. Our visit to Bonn includes the opening concert with Daniel Barenboim, three orchestral concerts, an evening of sonatas for cello and piano, and a piano recital by András Schiff. We stay at the 4* Hilton in Bonn, adjacent to the Beethovenhalle and five minutes’ walk from the historic centre of the city. The holiday will also include visits to Cologne, Königswinter and Brühl. Price from £2,388 per person for seven nights including return flights to Cologne, accommodation with breakfast, four dinners, one lunch, tickets for five performances, all sightseeing, entrance fees and gratuities and the services of the Kirker Tour Leader.

THE KIRKER CHOPIN FESTIVAL IN MALLORCA SIX NIGHT HOLIDAYS | 24 & 30 SEPTEMBER 2015 The works of Frédéric Chopin are still central to our Festival in Mallorca and for our third visit we have extended the programme to include Spanish and Latin American composers. Based in the village of Banyalbufar, our holiday will introduce you to the glorious unspoilt north coast of Mallorca. We are delighted to welcome back three of the musicians who so impressed our clients at the first Festival in 2013 – pianist Melvyn Tan, organist Oliver Condy and Mexican guitarist Morgan Szymanski. This time they are joined by the young Spanish soprano Amaia Azcona Cildoz. Price from £1,769 for six nights including flights, transfers, accommodation with breakfast, six dinners, two lunches, five concerts, a full programme of sightseeing and the services of Barry Cheeseman, the Kirker Tour Leader.

Speak to an expert or request a brochure:

020 7593 2284 quote code GPA

kirkerholidays.com P24 GC HTP Lucy Mozart-FINALish.indd 25

09/06/2015 11:19

play

TRACK Track 74

’T MISS ’S DONNEWMAN JANET PIECE ON THIS E

Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) N LESSO ‘Moonlight’ Sonata Sonata No 14 op 27 no 22,‘Moonlight’, first movement first movement

INTERMEDIATE INTERMEDIATE

PAG 26

HOW TO

MISS

The ’T first movement ofOver this sonata, composed in 1801, a pleasure to play. Find out allalso avoidswhat slowing downisor up. tempo. It mightShe sound likeaacalm contradicction, AN’s the course of the next threeis issues we will be presenting three we think anspeeding appropriate creates atmosphere,but DON NEwM more about pedalling Graham Fitch’s article on page 12. the calmerand oneshe plays thisgive movement, the more intense it will sound. JANET movements of thisinfamous sonata. doesn’t way to slowing down or speeding up. It might sound SONthe all-important leS PlayingpIEcE tips: There areThere many are interpretations of this movement, and on our CD,issue’s CD Pedal tips: Ample pedalbut is necessary. suggested markings on intense the score. many interpretations of this movement – this contradictory, the calmerSee one plays this, the more it will oN ThIs

{

ChenyineLi22 takes an appropriate tempo, creating a calm, evenOn atmosphere, and she Li takes Read Janet Newman’s lesson on this pieceon onpage page22. 26. Reviews looks at some recent versions. our CD, Chenyin sound. See Janetin-depth Newman’s in-depth lesson

pag

# ## &# C

FULL SCORE ON PAGE 38

{

4

? ####

BEETHOVEN

3 5

3

3

3

3

5

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ

sempre pp e senza sordino

? ####C w w 4 °

## &##

{

Adagio sostenuto

w w ø5 - 4 2

2

3

2 4

œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ ˙ ˙ 4 ø

œ

˙ ˙ 1-2 ø5

ø

Ó œœ w w w

˙ ˙ ø

˙ ˙ ø

1 3 Œ œ œ œ™ œœ ˙™ œ œ œ œ™ œœ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

pp

œ

˙ ˙

#w w #w

ø

ø

˙ ˙ ø

ø

1 4 1 2 3 1 2 4 ## Œ Ó Ó Œ & # # ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œnœ ™ œœ n˙ ™ nœ œ œœ ™ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

8

? ####

{

4

5

1

˙ ˙ ø

˙ ˙ ø

sim.

## & # # n˙ ™ œ œ œ#œ n œ n œ œ œ œ#œ 12

5

‘Moonlight’ Sonata op 27 no 2, 1st mvt ? #### nœ nœ

5-4

œ #˙ œ #˙ 4

w w

w w

nw nw

5-4



˙

œ

5-4

˙

˙

Œ Œ 3 œ œ œœ œ œ nœ œ œ œ#œ œ œ 4

# œ œ œn œ œ œnœ œ œ œ œ œn œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ w ˙ ˙ œ nœ ˙ w 3-1 ˙ 4

3

38• Great Composers 34• Pianist 65

p28-44_Scores1-FINAL.indd 34 p38_scoresBEETHOVEN_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 38

7/3/12 09:03:27 09/06/2015 09:16

Teacher and performer Janet Newman shows you how to bring delicate layers of subtlety to this appealing and timeless piece that’s sure to become a centrepiece of your repertoire Ability rating Intermediate Info Key: C© minor Tempo: Adagio sostenuto Style: Classical

Will improve your

3 pp tone control 3 Evenness of touch 3 Strength of fifth finger

This movement is immensely popular among musicians and non-musicians alike. Almost everyone recognises it – no matter what their age or musical education – and almost everybody with an interest in playing the piano will have tried to learn it at one point. Although this sonata was written well over 200 years ago, it surprises us still with a sense of improvisatory musical exploration that feels remarkably contemporary, and the heart-breaking simplicity of the main theme (described by Berlioz as a ‘lamentation’) appeals to the listener and player alike with a direct, emotional voice. In Urtext editions of this piece, there’s a pedalling instruction under the movement heading. It states, ‘Si deve suonare tutto questo pezzo delicatissimamente e senza sordino’. This phrase essentially means that the whole movement should be played very delicately and without dampers, i.e. with the right sustain pedal (tre corde) depressed. The piano as an instrument has changed a great deal since Beethoven’s time. Our modern piano has a greater ability to sustain sound, so if you kept the pedal on as suggested by the direction, the harmonies would soon blur and clash badly, ruining the ethereal nature of the music. So for those of us without a period instrument at our disposal, the solution is to pedal when the harmonies change, which avoids excessive dissonance but maintains the essential character effectively. Much could be said about pedalling here. Those with a deeper interest should refer to Beethoven’s Piano Sonatas by Charles Rosen and The Pianist’s Guide to Pedaling by Joseph Banowetz. Pianissimo is the most used dynamic in this piece. At the most, the dynamic reaches mezzo forte. This means that you will need to be able to control your tone with the utmost subtlety and evenness. This piece is well known for being one

Janet Newman is Head of Keyboard at the Royal Grammar School in Guildford. In addition to her teaching, she is in demand as a freelance pianist and is an examiner for the ABRSM.

of the hardest to play from this point of view, as it is extremely difficult to sustain this dynamic quality throughout the movement and play without any interruptions to the melodic line. First of all, I would suggest that you divide the movement into sections in order to help with the note learning: bars 1-9, bars 9-15, bars 15-23, bars 23-28 and bars 28-42, at which point you will have reached the recapitulation of the main theme. Continue with sectional work from bars 42-51 (this passage contains material from the exposition, so you will have already learnt many of the notes). From bar 51, go to bar 60. Treat bar 60 to the end as one practice section.

that piano teachers use frequently, I’m suggesting that the fifth finger should be strong, slightly curled and ready to strike the key. Perhaps it is the hushed and muted quality that led to the poet and critic Ludwig Rellstab to give this sonata its nickname, ‘Moonlight’, as he felt it was a wonderful depiction of moonlight reflecting on Lake Lucerne. If you think of the light of a full moon, it has an extraordinary clarity and lucidity – but with no warmth or colour whatsoever within it. It is this rather bleak soundscape that I try to achieve when I play or indeed, teach this sonata.

This piece has three distinct layers. The LH has octaves, the middle line is in triplet arpeggio figures and the top line contains the melodic interest. In order to get the notes under your fingers, practise by combining the three elements in differing ways: LH octaves plus RH triplets, RH triplets plus melody and LH octaves plus melody. In this way, you learn how each of the parts interweave and support the others, and it also helps you gain control over your sound. You can also apply the ‘block practising’ method to help you absorb the notes quickly, which is to say play the triplet figure as a chord so that fingers assume the shape of the arpeggio with greater familiarity.

Practise finger substitution, by playing a scale in any key and substituting a different finger on each note: 1, 2–1, 2–1, and so on; then 1, 3–1, 3–1, and so on, moving through all five fingers. Play the hands separately – and without sounding bumpy!

A major technical challenge of this movement is having to voice melody against accompaniment from bar 5 onwards with balance and projection. Never project so loudly that you break through the sound barrier of pp! A technique that might help you is ‘wrist leverage’. What this means is that as you play the dotted quaver/semiquaver figure of the melody, you relax down into the first note with your wrist and then come up slightly on the semiquaver before pulling down again on the first beat resolution note. This is so much easier to demonstrate rather than explain, but try visualising this movement as a fluid, almost circular shape. Also, ‘brace’ your fifth finger and colour the top line with a distinctive, carrying tone – it should pierce to the core, even though the dynamic is hushed and muted. By ‘brace’, a term

Learning Tip

The LH has the easiest job of all three parts, or so it would seem. After all, what difficulties could slowly moving octaves present? However, if you really want to play this movement as faithfully as the composition demands, then I would encourage you to consider joining each octave as much as possible, which means practising your finger substitution. Start with 1 and 4 on the first octave (bar 1) and which will move to 1 and 5 on the second bar. Then substitute the fourth onto the fifth so that you move to the next position (octave A) with a 1 and 5 and so on. Cling to each octave, because in reality, this is the only way to truly learn how to grade your tone from one note to the next and to be able to (eventually!) guarantee a completely even and consistent pp. Still, there are doubtless differing opinions on this (for example, if your hands are small, it will be easier for you to play all the octaves with thumb and fifth finger) so of course, choose the fingering that you feel will best suit your hands. Enjoy this timelessly beautiful piece. You should savour taking the time to discover it, as it will doubtless become one of the most popular works you will probably ever play! ■

26• Great Composers

P26 GC HTP Janet Moonlight-FINALish.indd 22

09/06/2015 10:21

Pianist

Great Piano Composers of the Classical Era

Scores

LEARN MORE WITH OUR VIDEO LESSONS Go to the Pianist website to find an array of video lessons – from the basics of playing to more demanding technical issues. All you need to do is go to www.pianistmagazine.com/tv to get started with the complete piano learning experience!

Contents 28

HAYDN Minuet No 3 in B flat Hob.IX:3

29

HUMMEL Ecossaise op 52 no 5

30

HAYDN Andantino in E flat

32

MOZART Minuet II in F K6

33

CIMAROSA Minuet in A R15

36

CPE BACH Solfeggietto in C minor

38

BEETHOVEN Sonata No 14 op 27 no 2 ‘Moonlight’, first movement

42

CLEMENTI Sonatina op 36 no 3, third movement

46

BEETHOVEN Sonata No 8 op 13 ‘Pathétique’, third movement (Rondo)

54

BEETHOVEN Bagatelle in A minor op 119 no 9

55

MOZART Rondo in A minor K511

Our videos include: Tim Stein and John Maul have made some 30 plus lessons for Pianist, all devoted to the basics of learning the piano. Perfect for the beginner pianist! Tim’s most recent lessons have been on slurs, rhythm and using the thumb. Past video lessons include the basics of chord playing, sight-reading, fingering for beginners, how to sit, geography of the keyboard and more. These beginner-level lessons are demonstrated on a Roland. Graham Fitch gives his lessons for the more intermediate/advanced player. There are over 20 of his masterclasses on the Pianist channel, and more continue to be added. Graham’s subjects include pedalling, chords, passagework, arpeggios, ornaments, voicing and different touches. Graham’s lessons come directly from Steinway Hall, London, where he demonstrates on a Model D concert grand.

READ PIANIST ON THE GO Enjoy Pianist as a digital edition wherever you are in the world! Keep up to date with our latest interviews, fascinating piano features and competitions. Our Pianist App version also includes our pages of Scores from the magazine and contains sound files from our tutorial CD, so you can still listen to the Scores on the go!

Typesetting by Spartan Press Music Publishers Ltd

Why not download our FREE Pianist app and then view our FREE sample edition by visiting www.pocketmags.com/pianist The Pianist app is available on iPad, iPhone, Android Tablet, Android Smartphone, Kindle Fire, PC and Mac.

Scores from past issues of Pianist are available at the Pianist Digital Store: http://pianistm.ag/digitalshop For back issues, go to www.pianistmagazine.com p27_GC-Scores_Intro-FINAL.indd 23

Quick guide to UK/North American note value terminology w = semibreve/whole note h = minim/half note q = crotchet/quarter note e = quaver/eighth note x = semiquaver/16th note y = demisemiquaver/32nd note 10/06/2015 12:45

Franz Joseph (1732-1809) Joseph HAYDN HAYDN (1732-1809)

TRACK2 1 Track

Minuet No 3No in 3B in flatB Hob.IX:3 Minuet flat Hob.IX:3

This piecefrom comes from a collection of minuets ininstrumental 1767 for instrumental This comes a collection of minuets writtencomposed in 1767 for ensemble. ensemble; the music survives only in piano arrangements made the composer The music survives only in keyboard arrangements made by Haydnbyhimself. himself. The Shape wide-ranging theelegantly. right hand you with plenty Playing tips: the RHmelody melody in line Thepresents appoggiatura grace note of opportunities for elegant shaping of the line. The appoggiatura grace notes at crotchets leading to a minim at bars 4 and 12 should be played as two equal crotchets, bars 4 and 12 should played asequal quavers. There(listen are notophrase markings for theif and those at bars 11 andbe15 as two quavers the CD performance left hand, butthe tryLH to play the crotchets portato, forearm as you make unsure). Play crotchets portato, raisingraising your your forearm as you make the

the transition from tonext. the next. Ensure that this vertical movement transition from oneone notenote to the Ensure that this vertical movement is identical iseach identical each time and keep your fingers firm and your wrist relaxed. Where time, and keep your fingers firm and your wrist relaxed. Where there are pairs there are pairs notes thecomplete left hand, aim for complete ofpart attack. of notes in theofLH, aiminfor unanimity of attack.unanimity The hardest of this The hardest part of the trill at the focusing on thisthen piece will likely bethis thepiece trill atwill thelikely end. be Focus on this trillend. as aTry separate exercise, asjoin a separate thenand jointhe it tonote the after. note before andcould the note A teacher it to theexercise, note before A teacher helpafter. you with this. could helpa look you with this. Take at the technical tips within the score. Play the crotchet E flat and the minim D as two equal crotchets.

Prepare from the upbeat for the B flat octave stretch in bar 1. Key of B flat major (two flats). Take a relaxed tempo – this is a stately dance.

b e g i nBEGINNER ner

Start off at mezzo piano.

Play these two-part chords evenly and lightly. Using the fingering below for the repeated F will keep your wrist relaxed.

Use a detached (portato) touch in the LH chords. Keep these four notes below nice and smooth (legato).

Go back and repeat the first eight bars.

Lift both hands off gracefully here. Start off quietly – maybe piano.

Prepare for the big leap between the 2nd and 3rd beat.

Play the F and the E flat as two equal quavers.

Make the RH notes nice and smooth. Shape the line.

Two equal crotchets for the E flat and the D, as in bar 4

Work on the trill on its own. If you find it tricky, you don’t need to play it. Repeat bar 9 to the end.

Tail off elegantly, but don’t slow down. 26• Pianist 43 28• Great Composers

pianist43p24-40FINAL.indd 26 p28_scoresHAYDN_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 28

10/7/08 15:55:22 09/06/2015 09:11

ht eve-

Ecossaise op 52 no 5

Even articulation is needed in the RH. Practise slowly!

q = 160-164

Fingering is suggested here (and elsewhere), but if it doesn’t suit your hand, feel free to change.

2 3 1 œ4 œ œ œ œ4 œ œ œ ‰ 2 œ œ œ œ œ &4 œ œ

? 24

œœ.

œœ.

RH fingers p Have ready over the keys.

2 3

7

& œ œ œ œ 2

œ. ? œ

œœ. œ

œ. œ

˙˙ Put more emphasis on the minum.

LH to remain light and crisp and in strict time.

nd the one or

h the l need orks. I

BEGINNER

BEGINNER

A pupil of both Mozart and Clementi, a rival of Beethoven, and a friend of for piano often reflect this virtuosity, but, as the author of works on piano Goethe andofSchiller, Johannand Nepomuk Hummel was a piano prodigy who of pedagogy, he often also wrote pieces less advanced players, such as Ecossaise. A pupil both Mozart Clementi, a rival of Beethoven, and a friend for piano reflect this for virtuosity, but, as the author ofthis works on piano became one and of theSchiller, leading Johann virtuososNepomuk of his era. Hummel Not surprisingly, his many pieceswho Take a lookheatalso thewrote technical tips the score. Goethe was a piano prodigy pedagogy, pieces forwithin less advanced players, such as this Ecossaise. became one of the leading virtuosos of his era. Not surprisingly, his many pieces Take a look at the technical tips within the score.

umn.

oking

Johann Nepomuk HUMMEL (1778-1837) Johann Nepomuk HUMMEL Ecossaise op 52 no 5(1778-1837)

TRACK 2 TRACK 1

œ

Œ

The crotchet rest is important to ‘hear’!

œœ

Œ

œœ. œ

Make sure both hands are lifted for the rests.

œœ

œ4

œ œ

&

™™ ™™ & œ œ˙ œ œ the next 8 bars.

Appoggiatura E should be very quick and light.

œ J ‰

œfi

œ˙ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ

3 2 j

p

& œ œ œ œ ˙

?

œœ

3 œ œ œ œ &

œ. ? œ

œœ. œ

œ

œœ

œ

œ1 œ œ ‰

œ2 œ œ œ

œœ

œœ.

Œ

œ˙ œ œ œ 2 5

œ2 œ œ œ

œ3

œœ œ œœ œ

œœ ™ œ œ œ‰ 4

Bs to be held here too.

And again.

œ œœ

Œ Œ

Repeat the first 8 bars.Try to make the second time a bit different. Do the same when you repeat the second section.

The LH should never drown out the RH melody.

19

œ3

œ ‰ J

Think in two long

Feel the ‘down-up’ in these two bars. Put weight 13 on the first note, and be lighter on the second.

œ

˙˙

ff 4-bar phrases for

Hold down the C for the duration of the bar.

œ J ‰

œ2

œœ.

Note:These next four bars are a straight repeat.Try to make them sound different. Softer, maybe?

The use of pedal is not necessary in this piece.

3 5

œ

œœ.

Œ

From bar 9, you need to sing more in the RH. Notice the slurs.

™™ ™™

2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

œœ.

™™ ™™ œ2 œ4 œ œ ™™ ™™

œ œ œ œ ˙˙

œœ.

œœ.

p

œ œ4 œ œ ˙˙

2 3

2 œ œ œ œ

œ. œ

œœ. œ

Œ

™™

Œ

™™

Lift your hands off exactly together!

œ œœ

Even though it’s not marked, make a tiny rit at the end. We have to know the piece is ending.

29•Great Composers 32• Pianist 62

p29_scoresHUMMEL_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 29

09/06/2015 09:11

TRACK Track 2 3

S MIS N’TANIE DOM L E K’S SWIC SPAN IECE HIS P ON TPAGE

ON LESS 15

Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809) Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809) Andantino in E in flatE flat Andantino

In this the pairs of of the slurred dotted notes should be played portato;No separate This is anpiece, arrangement second movement of Haydn’s Symphony 85. them by tips: raising wrist. Make dotted a slight notes emphasis on be theplayed first ofportato, the two.with The a Playing Theyour pairs of slurred should hardest aspect on of this is theThe sequences thirds is inthe thesequences right handof(for example slight emphasis the piece first note. hardestofhurdle thirds in the bar(e.g. 3 and 16-17). PractisePractise them bybyplaying first the RH barbars 3 and bars 16-17). first playing thehigher highernote, note,then thenthe the lowernote noteand andthen then moving thethe next pair.pair. When playing themas lower movingimmediately immediatelyonontoto next When playing

b e g i nBEGINNER/ ner

INTERMEDIATE

aswritten, written,the the two two fingers fingers should higher should strike strikethe thekeys keyssimultaneously, simultaneously,though makingthe the top note note should more prominently. legato the upper linewrist sound outsound more. out Think about the legatoThink in theabout upperthe line, andindon’t let your – tense you won’t be able to achieve true legato in bothAtlines once – an andAlberti don’t let your up. Give crotchet restsa their full length. bar at 9 there’s bass in the wrist up. Give crotchet restsfor their full length. At bar 9 accompaniment. there’s an Alberti bass in LH.tense Make this even and light, a calm but rhythmic the left hand. Make this even and light to be calmpiece but rhythmic Read Melanie Spanswick’s lesson onathis on page accompaniment. 15.

• Pianist 47 30•26 Great Composers

pianist47 Scores1 FINAL.indd 26 p30_scoresHAYDN Andantino_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 30

4/3/09 11:35:53 09/06/2015 09:12

Track TRACK2 3

Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809) Joseph HAYDN (1732-1809) Andantino in E in flatE flat Andantino

BEGINNER/ BEGINNER

INTERMEDIATE

• Pianist 47 31•27 Great Composers

pianist47 Scores1 FINAL.indd 27 p30_scoresHAYDN Andantino_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 31

4/3/09 11:36:06 09/06/2015 09:12

TRACK 4 Track 3

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Minuet Minuet II inIIF in K6F K6

Mozart was about six years old when he wrote the Sonata in C for violin and This little piece was composed by Mozart when he was just six years old. As keyboard, from which this charming Minuet comes. you alternate the left and right hands in the opening bars, maintain rhythmic Playing tips: Keep rhythmic stability between the hands, using an upward movement stability, using an upward movement of your forearm to end each note crisply. of your forearm to end each note crisply. Aim for a slight wrist movement between The staccato repeated notes at bars 6, 8, 16 and 18 can be achieved with a slight each staccato repeated note at bars 6, 8, 16 and 18. This will stop the wrist tensing. In wrist movement between each note. If you don’t relax the wrist, the notes won’t bars 5-8, keep the thumb light in the LH; it should feel relaxed. At bars 9, 19 and 21 repeat! The rotating quavers in the right hand from bar 11 can be played legato. Key of F major (one flat). Start at a mezzo forte dynamic.

BEGINNER/ BEGINNER INTERMEDIATE

the RH plays a sequence of fluid running semiquavers, which should be lyrical and At bars 5-8, keep the thumb light in the left hand; there is no need to use wrist legato. Start each beat with the wrist down and gradually raise it through the four movement here. But the thumb should feel loose and relaxed. At bars 9, 19 and descending semiquavers. Always stress the first of the four semiquavers. Here’s how to 21 the right hand is required to play a sequence of fluid running semiquavers, play the RH acciaccatura at bar 10: the B should have the value of a minim, and the which should be lyrical and legato. Start each beat with the wrist down and C, the value of a crotchet (listen to the CD performance if unsure). Pedal not needed. gradually raise it through the four descending semiquavers. Take a look at the technical tips within the score to guide you.

Lift the RH for the rests. Make sure to create a musical line for these 4 bars.

Make a small crescendo to bar 3....

... and decrescendo from here to the end of the first 4 bars.

Lift the LH hands for the rests. Keep repeated notes light.

Keep the thumb light in the LH above.The lower notes carry a descending melody. Light, even fingerwork in the RH below. Emphasise the first semiquaver.

Repeat first 10 bars.

Shape the RH melody below. Make this section more legato.

Keep the thumb very light in the RH.

In bars 16 & 18, emphasise the first note and then play the repeated notes lightly.

Keep the LH thumb light above and bring out the descending melody in the lower notes. Same as bar 9. Repeat bar 11 to the end.

32• Great Composers 27• Pianist 43

p32_scoresMOZART_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 32 pianist43p24-40FINAL.indd 27

09/06/2015 09:12 10/7/08 15:55:34

Domenico CIMAROSA (1749-1801) Domenico CIMAROSA (1749-1801)

TRACK 5 Track 8

INTERMEDIATE

Minuet A R15 Sonata in A in R15

Known mainly for his operas, of which he composed more than 60, the Italian Known mainly forwas his admired operas, ofbywhich he composed more than 60,by theHaydn Italian composer Cimarosa Goethe, had his music conducted composer admiredbybyMozart. Goethe,There’s had his amusic conducted by Haydn, and had hisCimarosa melodieswas borrowed sparkle to this piece that and hadone hisofmelodies byfun Mozart. There’s a sparkle to this piece that reminds Mozart, borrowed and it’s great to play. reminds one Play of Mozart. Play this with rhythmic precision, keeping it light and Playing tips: this with rhythmic precision, keeping it light and bright. Note bright, with very little use of pedal. Note all the articulation markings such all the articulation markings such as marcato, non legato, staccato, tenuto, theas marcato, staccato, tenuto, the smallfollow slurs,all plus dynamic markings. small slurs,non pluslegato, the dynamic markings. If you ofthe these in detail, you’re

INTERMEDIATE

halfway there. Many bars have semiquavers throughout and you need to know If you all of theseE.g., in detail, halfway there. have semiquavers how to follow grade the notes. in baryou’re 6, bring out the topMany notesbars in the RH – namely, #–B–D#–E–F and#, you howrepeated to gradenotes the notes. in bar 6, Dthroughout andneed so on.toInknow the LH at barsFor 27,example, 28 and 30, keep # # # –B–D –E–F ... etc. With the LH bring out the top notes in the RH – namely D the wrist relaxed or your hand will freeze. The same applies to the RH with the repeated notes 27,thirds. 28 andThis 30,iskeep theexercise wrist relaxed or your hand will descending scaleat ofbars double a great for finger articulation. freeze. The same applies to the RH with the descending scale of double Pedal tips: Very little use of pedal needed, if at all, as it needs to sound light.thirds. That This is a chosen great exercise for finger articulation. is whypiece we have to go without pedal markings.

Allegro . 5 4 3 . # ## c 1 j 2 œ œ œ œ3 œ. ≈ œ œ œ œ œ1 œ ≈ œ3 œ1 œ3 œ2 1 œ ≈ œ5 œ3 2 œ œ & œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ f

? ###c ‰



œ

œ

1

2

œ

œ

œ

œ

mp

œ

œ

œ

non legato

4

œ. œ œ œ5. 1 3 1 3 2 1 ### 1 œ5 œ œ œ 1 2 -1 œ œ œ œ ≈ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ œ 3

? ### œ

f

mp

œ

œ

œ

œ

f

œ

œ

œ 3

œ5 œ3 #œ2 1 œ œ2 œ œ œ œ3 œ4 2 ### 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ œ 5

? ### œ

f

œ.

j œ ‰

œ

œ.

p

œ J



œ.

œ. # œ J

marcato



œ.

œ.

5 5 œ5 œ œ œ5 œ œ œ ### œ œ4 œ œ3 œ œ œ #œ2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ &

7

? ###

œ

œ # œ.

œ

œ J

f



p

œ.

œ.

#œ J

œ.



œ.

œ

œ

œ

œ.

1 ### œ œ5 œ3 2 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ &

9

œ œ ? ### f

1

œ

2

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

p

œ œ

œ

œ

œ 3

œ

œ 1

œ 5

33•Great Composers 34• Pianist 61

p33_scoresCIMAROSA_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 33 p24-40_Scores61-IK-FINAL.indd 34

09/06/2015 09:14 5/7/11 15:08:55

DomenicoCIMAROSA CIMAROSA(1749-1801) (1749-1801) Domenico

TRACK Track5 8

## &# 11

? ###

INTERMEDIATE INTERMEDIATE

Minuet A R15 Sonata in in A R15

2 1 œœ œœ œœ31 œœ52 œ21 œœ31 #œ œ œ œ œ 1 œœ œ œ œ œ#œœ œ œ. œ f œ. . œ. œ œ ‰ œ . -œ ‰ œ œ. J J

##& # #œœ 14

œœ.

œœ.

œœ. J



œœ œ.

œœ œ.

-œ œœ Œ

œ

marcato

p

œ. œ. œ Œ

œœ.

. œ. . . ‰ #œœ. œœ œ œœ œœ J 3 1

œœœœœœœœœœœœœœœœ 3

3

3

3

3

2 4 3 1 2 4 3 1 nœ 3 2 1 #-œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

œœ.

5

pp

p

? ### œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ

œ

œ

œ

œœ.

œœ.

œœ.

œœ -

pp

### œ & 16

Œ



œ

mf

j œœ .

œœ. 3 1

marcato

œ

œ



œ j œœ .

p

œ œ œ œ nœ œ ? ### œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 1

3

### œ. & œ 18

3

œœ.

œœ.

œœ.

3

p

3

œœ œ œ

? ### œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

p

œ œ

1

œ œ

f

œ

œ

œ.

œ.

œ

œ

œ.

œ œ . œ œ œ ≈ œ œ

œ



œ.

œ

. . -œ 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ ### œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ 20

p

? ### œ

f

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

p

œ ‰ J

œ.

œ.

marcato

1 5 3 2 1 5 3 1 2 2 2 œ4 œ5 œ3 2 œ œ ### œ œ œ3 œ4 nœ5 œ4 œ œ3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ &

22

? ### œJ



œ.

œ.

œ.

œ.

œ.

œ.

f

œ nœ

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

œ

34• Great Composers 35• Pianist 61

p33_scoresCIMAROSA_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 34 p24-40_Scores61-IK-FINAL.indd 35

09/06/2015 5/7/11 09:14 15:09:12

Domenico CIMAROSA (1749-1801) Domenico CIMAROSA (1749-1801)

TRACK Track 8 5

## & # 24

œ

œ

œ

Œ

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

œ #œ œ œ œ

p

œ.

œ.

? ### œ œ œ œ. œ. #-œ ‰ J

#œ J

marcato



2 2 2 ### œ œ5 œ3 2 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ œ œ

œ

f

œ

œ

œ

### & -œœ 28

j œœ .



ppp

œœ.

œœ.

j œœ .



f

œ

œ

œ

œ. œœ.

œœ1. 3

œ.

œ.

œœ.

œœ.

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

œ œœ.

œ.

œ.

œ.

26

? ###

INTERMEDIATE INTERMEDIATE

Minuet in A R15 Sonata in A R15

3

œœ.

3

œœ -

p

3

3

3 5 2

5 1

4 1

œ œ ≈ œ œ œ ≈ œœ œ. œ. œ œ œ

Πf

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? ### œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 1 3

1

? ### œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œJ ‰

Œ

1

1

2

2

3 5 4 3 1. 3 3. 5 2 4 5 4 2. 1. 1 œ 2 5 3 3 1. œ 2 3. 2 œ œ œ . œ œ œ 1 3 1 œ ### œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œœ ≈ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ œ œ ≈ œ œ œ & œ œ . . œ. œ. œœ. œœ œœ œœ œ œ . . .

30

4 2

4 1

3 1

3 1

4 2

3 1

4 2

5 2

5 1

Ó

. œ. . . . œ œ œ œ œ 3 œ œœ œœ œœ œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ. œ œœ œœ œ œ œ . . . . œ. œ. œœ œœ œœ . p œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # ? ## J ‰ Œ Ó œ œ ### & 32

3 1

5

### & œ 34

? ### œJ

3 1

5

2

3

œœ f



œœ œœ1 œœ2 œ œœ œ 3

œ.

5

œ.

-œ J

œœ

œœ œœ œœ œ œ



œ.

œ.

œ œ

œœ œ

œœ œ

œœ œ

œ

œœ œ-

œ

œ

œ-

U Œ U Œ

35•Great Composers 36• Pianist 61

p33_scoresCIMAROSA_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 35 p24-40_Scores61-IK-FINAL.indd 36

09/06/2015 5/7/11 15:09:3609:14

Carl Philipp Emanuel BACH (1714-1788) Solfeggietto CPE BACH (1714-1788) N SO

S MIS N’TANIE DOM L E K’S SWIC SPAN IECE HIS P ON TPAGE

TRACK 8

LES

TRACK 6

INTERMEDIATE

Solfeggietto in C minor

CPE Bach, the second son 20of the great JS, wrote this Solfeggietto in the style of a prelude. Its originality comes from the systematic alternating of the Bach, two hands. There’s a certain to the piece: barsof1-4 CPE the second son of the greatthematic JS, wroteelement this Solfeggietto in the style a are repeated four times in different minor keys and always in four-bar prelude. Its originality comes from the systematic alternating of the two hands. chunks, aside fromathe lastthematic repeat, element: where itbars lengthens into six four bars.times The Playing tips: There’s certain 1-4 are repeated technical difficulty is to maintain precision with the rapid semiquaver in different minor keys and always in four-bar chunks, aside from the last repeat, where it lengthens into six bars. The difficulty is to maintain precision in the rapid

runs. In those first 13 or so bars, one should not be able to hear the interchange between left and right hand. Practise slowly and try to detach each noteruns. by lifting each finger up,tostrongly and separately. When you semiquaver One shouldn’t be able hear the interchange between left and then come to play the piece quickly, and the fingers don’t need to be right hand. Practise slowly and detach each note by lifting each finger up, strongly picked up anymore, you’ll findplaying that they over the and separately. When you end up it allfly quickly, and keyboard! the fingers don’t need to be picked up anymore, you’ll find they fly over the keyboard! Pedal not required. Read Melanie Spanswick’s step-by-step lesson on this piece on page 20.

1 3 1 2 4

2

I N T E R M E D I AT E

4

1

2

4

4 2 1

4

2

1 4 2 1 4

4 2 1 2 4

4

4 2 1 1 3 2 1 4

1

4

4

5 2 1 3

1

5 2 1 3

2

1 2 4

1 2 4

1 2 3

5

5

5 4 2 1

7

3

4 2

1

5

5

3 2

4

2

2

3

2

4 1

1 3 1 3

1 4

2

4

1

2

1 2

4

4

10

1 2 4

3

3

1

3

4

13

2 1 2 3

1 5 1 5

1 4

1 5

34• Pianist 37 36• Great Composers

p36_scoresBACH_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 36

09/06/2015 09:15

Carl PhilippCPE Emanuel (1714-1788) BACHBACH (1714-1788)

TRACK 8 6 TRACK

I N T EINTERMEDIATE R M E D I AT E

Solfeggietto Solfeggietto in C minor

16

1 3

1 4

1 5

1 4

1

2

19

4

1

4

5 3 1

4

4 2 1

1

5 2 1

2 4

22

4 2

5 1

1

3

4

3 2 1

2 1

5

3

2

5

2

4

4

1 3

1

2

5

2 5

26

1 4

1 2

29

1 2

5 3

1

5 4

4

2

1 4 4

4

1 5 2

32

2

4

1 3

1

4

4

4

4

4

37• Great Composers

35• Pianist 37

p36_scoresBACH_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 37

09/06/2015 09:15

TRACK Track 74

S MIS N’TWMAN’S DOT NE JANE IECE HIS PE T N O PAG

Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) ON S S E L Sonata No 14 op 27 no 2 ‘Moonlight’, first movement ‘Moonlight’ Sonata op 27 no 2, first movement

26

INTERMEDIATE INTERMEDIATE

ISS T Mmovement ’s ofOver this sonata, composed in 1801, a pleasure to play. Find out allalso avoidswhat slowing downisor up. tempo. It mightShe sound likeaacalm contradicction, ON’first MAN the course of the next threeis issues we will be presenting three we think anspeeding appropriate creates atmosphere,but DThe NEw

{

ET aboutN more the all-important pedalling Graham Fitch’s article on page 12. the calmerand oneshe plays thisgive movement, the more intense it will sound. JAN movements of thisinfamous sonata. doesn’t way to slowing down or speeding up. It might sound SSO IEcE le Playing many are interpretations of this movement, and on our CD,issue’s CD Pedal tips: Ample pedalbut is necessary. See suggested markings on intense the score. hIs p tips: There areThere many interpretations of this movement – this contradictory, the calmer one plays this, the more it will T N o 22

Chenyin tempo, creating a calm, evenOn atmosphere, and she Li takes Read Janet Newman’s lesson on this pieceon onpage page22. 26. Reviews looks at some recent versions. our CD, Chenyin sound. See Janetin-depth Newman’s in-depth lesson geLi takes an appropriate

pa

####C &

{

3 5

3

3

3

3

4

? ####

5

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ

sempre pp e senza sordino

? ####C w w 4 °

#### &

{

Adagio sostenuto

w w ø5 - 4 2

2

3

2 4

œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ ˙ ˙ 4 ø

œ

˙ ˙ 1-2 ø5

ø

Ó œw œ w w

˙ ˙ ø

Œ œ™ 3œ ˙™ œ œœ œœ œ ™œœœ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ pp

1

œ

˙ ˙ ø

˙ ˙

#w w #w

ø

ø

˙ ˙ ø

ø

5 1 4 1 2 3 1 2 4 #### Œ Ó Ó Œ œ & ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œnœ ™ œœ n˙ ™ nœ œ œ œ ™ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

8

? ####

{

4

1

˙ ˙ ø

˙ ˙ ø

sim.

5 #### & n˙ ™ œ œ œ#œ n œ n œ œ œ œ#œ

w w

w w

nw nw

5-4

5-4

12

? #### nœ nœ

5-4

œ #˙ œ #˙

p28-44_Scores1-FINAL.indd 34 p38_scoresBEETHOVEN_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 38

4



˙

œ

˙

˙

Œ Œ 3œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ#œ œ œ 4

# œ œ œn œ œ œnœ œ œ œ œ œn œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ #œ œ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ w nœ ˙ ˙ œ w ˙ 3-1 ˙ 4

3

38• Great Composers 34• Pianist 65

7/3/12 09:03:27 09/06/2015 09:16

{{ {{

Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) 4 vanvan #### n˙ ™ Ludwig INTERMEDIATE INTERMEDIATE n ˙ ™ ™ Sonata ˙14 œ ˙ ˙ # œ # œ Sonata No op 27 no 2 ‘Moonlight’, first movement & n œ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ ‘Moonlight’ op 27 no 2, first movement œ œ œ œ œ œ ## œ œ œ œ œ œ œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ#œ œ œ œ # 16 # n˙ ™ ˙™ œ n˙ ™ ˙ ˙ & #### n˙œ ™œnœ œ œ œ œ œ œ#œœ4 œ œ œ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ˙ ™œnœ œ œ œ œ œ œ#œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ#œ œ œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ 16 & ? #### nœ˙ ™œnœ œ œ œnœœ œ œ#œœ4 œ œ œ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ˙ ™œnœ œ œ œnœœ œ œ#œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ#œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œnœ œ#œœ œ w ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œnœ œ#œœ œ ˙ œ œ# ˙ & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ ˙œ nœ#œ œ œ œ ? #### œ œ nœ4 œ w œ w œ œ nœ œ ˙ # ˙4 ? #### œ œ nœ4 œ w œ ˙ # ˙4 nnœœ œ œ ? #### œ œœ nnœœ4 œœ w œ ˙˙ œœ œ ˙˙ œ œ nœ œ w # n œ 4 œ œ 4 œ w œ ˙ ˙

16 TRACK Track 47 16

{{ {{

4

#### ˙ & œ œ˙ œ 20 œ œ œ œœœ œ œ # œ # 20 # # ˙ & #### œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ 20 & ? #### œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ & # ˙˙ œ œ˙ œ œ ? #### # œ˙ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ ˙4 ? #### # ˙ ˙ 4 ? #### # ˙ ˙˙ ## ˙˙ 4 ˙ #˙ 4

{{ {{

20

#### & 23 ## 23 # # &# # # 23 # & # ? ## # & ? #### ? #### ? ####

{{ {{

23

#### & 27 ## 27 # # &# # # 27 # & # ? ## # & ? #### ? #### ? #### 27

n˙ n˙ nn˙œ n˙˙ nœ˙ n˙œ˙ nœ˙ ˙ ˙

˙

œn œ

œ

œn œ œ œn œ œ œn œ œ

˙ œ œ ˙œ #˙ œ œ # ˙˙œ œ œ #˙œ4 #˙ œ œ œ4 ##˙˙ 4 #˙ 4

Œ œœ ˙™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ Œ1 œ œ™ œ3 œ ˙™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™œ œœ Ó œ œ œ Ó1 œ œ œ1 œ œ Œœ œ œ œœ™œ œ3 œ œ˙™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ™œ œœ œ œw ˙™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ™œ œœ Ów œ 1 œ œ Œœ1 œ œ œœ™œ œ3 œ ##w w œ œ œ w œw1 œ œ œ1 œ 3 #œw w w #w œw1 œ œ œ1 œ 1 w w1 œ œ œ1 œ ##w œw w w w w # w w w Ó

œ# œ œ œ# œ œ œ# œ œ œ# œ œ

œœ œœ œœ œœ

˙

p28-44_Scores1-FINAL.indd 35 p38_scoresBEETHOVEN_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 39

65

œ

˙ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œœ œ#œ œœ #œ#œ ˙ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ#œ œ #œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ2 œ # œ œ œ œ #œ#œ ˙œ ˙œ œ œ 2 ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ#œ œ #œ#œ 2 ˙ ˙ 2

˙ œ œ œ œ #œ5 œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ5 œ ˙ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. œ˙ œ œ œ# œ5 œ œ œ œ˙ ™ œ œ œ ˙œ˙ œ œ œ # œ5 œ œœ œ œ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. œ œ œ #œœ œ œ œ œ #˙˙ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙ œ cresc. œ˙4 - 3 œ # œœ œœ5 - 4 # ˙œ ™ œ œ œ œ #˙ ™ œœ ˙ cresc. œ œ # ˙˙ ™™ œœ ™ 5-4 ˙ ˙˙4 - 3 œœ œœ # ˙ ™™ œœ #˙˙ ™ 4-3 5-4 œ ˙ œ œ #˙ ™ œ 4-3 5-4

4 ˙ œ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ 4 nœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ #œ #œ ‰ nœ œ˙ œ œ œ œ œdim. œ œ œ œ #pœ# œ œ œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰# œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ p # œ œ œ4 œ œnœ œ œ œ œ œ Œ# œ4 œ œ2 œ œ œ1 œ œ œ2 œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ dim. œ œ œ œ #œ #œw œ nœ ˙˙œ œ œ œ œ œdim. œœ œ ‹ œœ œ p œ œ œ œ œ ‰w œ 2 œ œ1 œ 2 œ Œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ w# œ œ œ œ w œ ‹œ ˙˙ w œ ‹œ dim. pw Œ œ2 œ1 œ2 ˙ w w 2 œ1 2 œ ‹œ ˙˙ œ Œw œ Great Composers Pianist ˙˙ w œœ ‹‹ œœ w w ˙ w w œ ‹œ 39• 35•

œ

4 œ5 œ4 œ œ2 œ 4 œ œ 5 œ œ 4 œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ 1 œ 2 4 œ œ5 œ œ4 œ œ œ1 œ2 œ œ4 œ œ œ5 œ œ œ4 œ œ w œœ œœ œœ œœ w œ1 w œw1 œw w w 2

7/3/12 09:03:58 09/06/2015 09:16

{{ { {{ {

Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) INTERMEDIATE Ludwig vanvan BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) 5 1 4 2 5 5 1 3 2 ‘Moonlight’, 2first 4movement 1 3INTERMEDIATE 3 2 #œ Sonata No 14 op 27 no 4 # 5 1 5 5 1 1 2 5 #### ‹ œ 5 œ œ5 œ1 ‹œ3 œ2 # œ55 3 2 ‘Moonlight’ Sonata op 27 2, first movement 3 1 4 2 #œ 5no œ 5 4 1 3 5 5 1 2 œ œœœœœ 1 3 œ # œ œ 1 1 & ###### 3 œ 4 5 1 ‹œ œ 5 œ œ œ 5 œ 1 ‹œ 2 #œ œ3 œ œ5 œ2 #œ5 œ 4 œ œ 5 1 œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ 2 & œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ 3 # œ œ 1 1 œ œ # œ 3 2 #œ 4 œ œ œ # 5 œœ 1 ‹œ œ#œ 5 œ œ 5 1 ‹œ œ & œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ ‹ œ œ ## œœ œ œ4 œœ1 3 œ œ5 2 #œ5 œ œ2 œ1 œ4 œ œ œ œ#œ 1 œ3 œ œ œ 3 œ# œ5 31 # 5 œ & ##### Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 1 ‹œ œ 5 œ œ œ5 œ1 ‹œ œ2 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ # œ œ œ œ œ & ? ##### Œ‰Œ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œ11 œœ33 œ # œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‹œ œ#œ œ œ 3 œ ? 1 œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ w œœ œ w w œ ? ####### ‰‰Œw œ œ œ œ œ 3 w w w w 1 œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ w œ w w ? #### ‰Œw œ œ œ œ œ 3 w w w w 1 œ w w ? #### ‰w œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ w œ œ œ œ w w w w 5 w1 3 w œ 33 œ5 35 3 2 w 5 5 2 w 1 #œ œ 5 #œ 2œ 5 2 5 5 1 #œ n œ œ œ 35 # ## 1 3 œ 5 œ 3 œn œ55 œ11 ## œœ3 œœ22 œ ## œœ3 œ œœ55 œ2 œ#œœ5 œ2 œ œ55 22 3 35 ### 1 #œ 1 #œ n œ 5 5œ n œ & 5 œ œ œ œ # # 2œ 1 5 2 œ 5 5 # œ œ # # œ œ œ # 3 Ó 3 # œ œ # œ œ œ 35 œ œ 3 2 œ œ œ œ # 5 5 œ 5 2 & # # œ # œ 1 #œnœœœ # œ # œ œ œ # œ œ n œ œ œ 1 nœœ5 1 #œœ œ 3 œ5 3 œ œ2 œ œ5 œ2 œœœ ÓÓœ# œ œ5 # & 3 35 ## # #œ 1 #œnœ œ & #### #œ œ5 1 #œœn œ5 œ1 # œ œ2 # œ œ œ5 œ2 œ#œœ5 œ2 œœœ5 œœ2 Óœ# œ œœ5 1 1 3 # œ œ # œ œ # œ 5 2 4 1 n œ œ œ # œ & œ œ œ œ 3œ1 œ # œ œ œ 1œ œ œ ? ##### œ œ œ œ œ Ó # œ œ œ#œ œ Jœ55 œ2 œ4 œœ™ 1 œ 1 1 3 œœ œ œ œ œ œ # œ ˙ ? # œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ 2 4 1 w w œ œ œJ5 œœ œ œœ™ œ œ #w œœœœœœ1 œ3 œœœ1 œœœ ? ###### w œ œ ˙ w w w w œ™ œ J 1 œ #œw˙œœœœœœ1 œ3 œ 1 œœ w w œ#œ œ œJ5 œ2 œ4 œœ™ ? #### w œ w w w 1 œw˙œœœœœ œœœœœ w w œ#œ œ œJ œ2 œ4 œœ™ ? #### w œ œ ##w œ œ œw˙ w w w w w w w 39 pp 39 # ## 39 ### Ó Œ pp & œ ™™ œ œœ # # # # œ ÓÓ ŒŒ œ œpp 39 # # œ & pp # œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œœ ™ œ œœœœ & 39 ## # œœ ™ œ œ Ó œœ œ œœŒ œ pp dim. pp & #### œ œ dim. pp 1 1 œ œ œ œœ Ó Œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ # œ œ dim. pp & œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? ##### # œ œœ œ œœ œnœ11 œ œ œ11 œ œ dim.œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œœ#œ œ œ œ pp œw œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ # œ ˙ ? # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ ˙ œw ˙œ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ˙ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ˙œ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙œœ œ œœ œ w ? ###### ##w œw ˙˙œ œ œœ œ œnnœœ1 œ œœ œœ1 œ œœ ##dim. œœœ w pp ˙ ˙ œ œ # œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ ˙ ? #### #w œ œ œ œnœ1 œ œ1 œ ˙˙ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ ˙œ˙ œ#œ œ œ œ w œw œ œ w œ ˙ # œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ? #### #w œ œ œ œnœ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ w œw œ œw˙ #œ˙˙ ˙ w ˙ ˙ w ˙ w ˙ ˙ 43 ˙ 43 # ## Œ Œ œ™ œ 43 ### œ ˙ ™ ™ & ˙ œ œ ˙ ˙ ŒŒ œ œ ŒŒ œ œ œ ™œ œœ # # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ # # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 43 # # ˙ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ ™ œ œ œ œ & œ œ ˙ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ ™œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ ™œœ œœœ œ˙ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ˙œ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œ˙ œ œœ œ œ œœ œœœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œŒ œœ œœ œœŒ œœ œœ œœ ™œœ œœœ & 43 ## # ˙ & #### œ˙œ ™œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ ™œ œœ œ˙œ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œ˙ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ˙œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œŒ œ œ œŒ œ œ œ ™™œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ & ? ##### œ˙ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™œ œœ œ˙˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œw œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ ˙ œw œ œ œ œ˙ œ ˙ œw ? ? ####### ###w w w ˙˙ ˙˙ ˙ ˙˙ w w ? #### # w ˙ w w ˙ ˙ ˙ # w ˙ ˙ ˙ # w ? ## # ˙ w ˙ #w ˙ ˙ w ˙ w ˙ #w ˙ ˙ 47 ˙ 47 # ## 47 ### ˙ ™ œ ™œ œœ ˙ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ ˙˙ œ œ œ œ ˙˙ œ œ œ œ nn˙˙ œ œ œ œ #˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & # # œ œ œ 47 ## & ### ˙œ˙ ™™œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œœ ™™œœ œœœœ ˙œ˙ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ##œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œ˙œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ˙œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ nnœ˙œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ##˙œ˙ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ & # œ œ œ œ œœ˙ œ œœ œ ## œœ œ œ p˙œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ n˙œ œ œ œ## œœ˙ œœ 47 & ###### œ˙ ™™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™™œ œœ cresc. œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œ œ œ pœ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ œ œ nœ˙ œ œ œ œ œ# œ˙ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. ˙ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ œ œ cresc. œ œ œ œ œ# œ œ œ œœ œ œ pœ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ ? ##### w ˙ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. #p˙˙ ? ˙˙ ˙ ˙˙˙ œ ˙ œ ? ####### w #p˙˙ w œ œ cresc. ˙˙ # ˙ ˙˙ œœ3 œ # ˙˙ ˙ ? #### w ˙ w ˙˙4 3 œ #˙ ˙˙ ˙˙ ? #### w ˙ 4 œ3 GreatœComposers ˙˙ # ˙ 4 ˙ ˙ 3 ˙ ˙ w œ Pianist œ ˙ #˙ ˙4 3 ˙

TRACK 31 47 Track 31 31 31

{{ { {{ { {{ {

p38_scoresBEETHOVEN_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 40 p28-44_Scores1-FINAL.indd 36

40•

36•

65

4

09/06/2015 09:16 7/3/12 09:04:12

{{ {{ {{ {{ {{

Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) INTERMEDIATE Ludwig van van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) INTERMEDIATE Sonata No 14 op 27 no 2 ‘Moonlight’, first movement 4 ##### ˙™ ™ œ œop 27 ‘Moonlight’ Sonata no 2, first n ˙ œ ˙™ œmovement œ œ nn˙˙ ™™œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ 4 # œ # œ ™ # 4 œœ & œ œ œ œ œ œ n ˙ # # œ œ œ 51 # ### ˙™ œ˙™œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ ##œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ n˙œ ™œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ##œœ4 œœ œœ ˙™ œ˙™##œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ n˙œ ™œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ##œœ œœ œœ & & # 51 œ œ œœ œ œœ #œ œœ œ n˙œœ ™ œ œœ œ œœ œ#œœ4 œ œœ˙™#œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ n˙œœ ™ œ œœ œ œœ œ#œœ œ & ###### œ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ n˙œ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ ˙™ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ n˙œ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ ˙™ œ œ & ? ##### œw œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ œw #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœœ œ œ œ ? ? ####### w œœ œœ œœ œœ w œœ œœ œœ œœ w w œœ œ œœ w œœ œ œœ ? #### w œ œ w œ w œ œ œ ? #### w œ œ œ œ w œ œ œ œ œ w œ w œ œ œ œ 55 # 4 4 3 5 55 55 #### ˙ ˙ ™ 4 œ 4 3 ˙ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ ### ˙˙ #œ œ œ œ ˙˙ œ œ œ œ ˙ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ4 œ œ œ œ œ3 ˙55 & œ œœ 55 ## # ™ œ œ œ œ œ & œœ œ ##œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ˙ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ˙œ ™œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ nnœœ œœ4 œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ4 œœ œœ œœ œœ œ œœ3 ˙˙5 & 55 #### œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ & #### ˙œ #œ œ œ œ œ ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ4 œ œ œ œ œ œ4 œœ œ œ œœ œ œ3 cresc. ˙5 œ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. ˙ œ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ & ˙œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ ? ##### œ˙ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙ ™œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ cresc. cresc. œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ # ? œ ˙ œœ ˙˙ ™™ œ ? ####### ˙˙ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œœ œ ##œœ œœ cresc. œ œ ˙ ˙ ˙ œœ ? #### ˙˙ œ˙ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ ˙˙ ™™ œœ ##œœ œœ ˙ œ œ ˙˙ ˙œ œ œœ œœ ? #### ˙ œ ˙ ™™ œ œ #œ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ œ ˙™ œ #œ œ ˙ œ ˙ œ œ ˙ 59 4 3 # 59 4 3 59 #### 4 3 # # & ˙ ˙ # # œ œœ œœ œœ # œ œ œ 59 # # œ œ œ œ œ 4 3 œ & ˙ ˙ # œ œ œ & ˙ ˙ # œœ3 œ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ 59 # # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4 œ œ œ œ & #### p˙ œ4 œœ œœ œœ œœ œ ˙˙ #œ œ œ2 œ55 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ p œ & p˙ œ 4 ? ##### pœœ œœ œœ4 œœ œœ œœ œ ##œœ œœ œ œœ22 œœ5 œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ ? œ œ œ1 ™™ œ œ˙ ™™ œ œ ™™ œ ? ####### p˙œ˙ œ œ4 œ œ œ œ˙œ˙ #œ œ œœ œ2 œ5pp œœw˙˙ ™™œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œœ ™ œœ # w 4 œ œ ˙3 ™œ œ œ œ11 ™ œ # œw˙ ™ œ ? #### ˙œ œ œ œ œ œ ˙œ #œ œ œ œ2 œ5pp œ w pp w ˙˙œ œ œ œ™ œ #w œ˙ ™ œ œ œ™ œ ? #### ˙œ˙ œ pp œw˙33 ™œ œ 1 ˙ ˙ ˙3 ™ œ1 ™ œ # w˙ ™ œ™ œ pp w # w ˙ ˙ 3 62 1 1 # œœœ 2 œ 3 5 2 5 2 2 62 # œ œ œ 62 ### œ 1 œ 1 œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ 2 3 5 2 5 2 2 # œ œ # ## œ œ œ1 œ œ œœ œ2 œ œœ3 œ #œ œ5 œ2 œ œ œ5 2 œ œ & œ 2 œ 1 œ œ œ œ œ œ 62 ## œ # œ # & œœ œœ œœ œœ1 œœ œœ œ œœ2 œ œ3 œœ #œ œ5 œœ2 œ œœ œœ5 œœ2 œœ œœ œœ2 œœ œœ1 œœ œœ œ œœ œ œ œœ & 62 #### œ2 œ 1 œ œ œ œ & #### œ œœ œ œ1 œ œ œ œ2 œ œ3 œ #œ œ5 œ2 œ œ œ5 œ2 œ œ œœ œ œ 4 œ # œ œ 5 œ œ œ & œ œ œ œ # œ 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 4 œ œ # œ ? #### œ œ œœ##œœ55œœ œœ33 œœ œ œœœ4˙ ™ œ ? # ™ ™ ™ œ # ˙ œ œ ˙ œ ™™ œ ? ### ## w˙ ™ œ œ œw4˙ ™ 5 ™ ™ ™ # œ 3 œ œ ˙ œ œœ ™ œœ œ ™œ œ œ w ˙™ œ™ œ w ˙™ 4˙ ™ ? #### œw œ 5œ ™ # œ 3 œ œœ ™ œ œ œ w œ˙ ™ œ™ œ w ˙™ œ™ œ ? #### w w œw˙ ™ w˙ ™ ™ ™ ™ œ œ w ˙ œ™ œ ˙ œ™ œ w w w 65 # U 65 # 65 ### #œ œ œ U Ó # œ œ # U & # œ œ œ 65 ## Ó # œ œ # œ œ œ œ # ˙ w & Ó # œ œ œ œ œ œ # U & œ œ œ 65 ## # ˙ w œ œ dim. w Ó ˙ U pp & #### #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 dim. w pp Ó ˙ U #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œœ dim. œ œ œ œœ œ œ ‰ œ33 œ œ ‰ 2 œ & pp œ œ #œœ œ œ dim. ? ##### ˙ w œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ ˙‰‰ œ œ3 œœ œ œ ‰ œ22 œ œ œ œ œ U pp ˙ œ # œ U ? # œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ œ œ ˙ w œ œœ dim. œ œ œ œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ ˙‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ pp ˙ w ˙ ? ###### ˙˙ ™ ™ w œ ˙ œ œ œ w ˙ ˙ w ˙ 3 # œ U 2 œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ œ ™™œ œœ œw˙ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ˙˙‰ œ œ œ œ2 œ œœ œ œœ ˙ ˙˙ w ˙™ ? #### w w œ œ œ ˙‰ œ œ œ ˙˙‰ œ2 œ œ œ2 œ œ œ Attacca U ˙ ˙ w œ #œœœ ™œ œœ w w œ subito il seguente ˙ w ˙ ? #### ˙w™ œw œ œ ˙ œ œ œ œ 2 œ œ œAttacca ˙ ˙ w ˙ subito il seguente ™ Great Composers ˙˙ ilw ˙ œ ™ œ w˙ ˙˙ œ2 œ œ œ œAttacca subito seguente w Pianist ˙ w w Attacca subito il seguente 2

TRACK 7 51 4 Track 51 51

p38_scoresBEETHOVEN_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 41 p28-44_Scores1-FINAL.indd 37

41• 37•

65

Attacca subito il seguente

09/06/2015 09:16 7/3/12 09:04:24

TRACK TRACK 58

S MIS N’TWMAN’S DOT E N JANE IECE HIS P ON T AGE

Muzio Muzio CLEMENTI (1752-1832) CLEMENTI (1752-1832) ON

LESS

P 1 2

Sonatina op 36 no op 3 (third Sonatina 36 no movement) 3, third movement

of six Clementi composed 1797, which became ThisOf is the one set of the bestsonatinas known ofthat the set of six sonatinas thatinClementi composed in a staple for student pianists, this is one of the best known. 1797 and which quickly became a staple for student pianists. The strings of semiquavers should never become mechanical: strike each Playing and pedal tips: The strings of semiquavers shouldn’t sound mechanical: note distinctly and give a shape to the phrases with subtle use of strike each note distinctly and give shape to the phrases with subtle use of dynamics. dynamics.

I N T E RINTERMEDIATE M E D I AT E

Inthe theLH, left keep hand, theeven, quavers even, without unnecessary onor In thekeep quavers without accents on notes played byaccents the thumb notes played by the thumb or little finger. little finger. Rhythmic precision is a must, as are the dynamic markings and contrasts, Rhythmic precision essence throughout piece, are pedal. the which will help bring itistoof life.the Read what Janet Newman the has to say onasusing dynamic markings and contrasts, which will help bring it to life. Read Janet Newman’s lesson on this piece on page 21.

28• Pianist 39 42• Great Composers

p42_scoresCLEMENTI_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 42

09/06/2015 09:17

TRACK 5 8 TRACK

Muzio CLEMENTI (1752-1832) Muzio CLEMENTI (1752-1832) Sonatina op 36 no 3 (third movement) Sonatina op 36 no 3, third movement

I N T E R M E D I AT E

INTERMEDIATE

29• Pianist 39 43• Great Composers

p42_scoresCLEMENTI_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 43

09/06/2015 09:17

TRACK 5 TRACK 8

Muzio CLEMENTI (1752-1832) Muzio (1752-1832) Sonatina opCLEMENTI 36 no 3 (third movement) Sonatina op 36 no 3, third movement

I N T E R M E D I AT E

INTERMEDIATE

44• Great Composers 30• Pianist 39

p42_scoresCLEMENTI_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 44

09/06/2015 09:17

TRACK 5 TRACK 8

Muzio CLEMENTI (1752-1832) Muzio (1752-1832) Sonatina op CLEMENTI 36 no 3 (third movement) Sonatina op 36 no 3, third movement

I N T E R M E D I AT E INTERMEDIATE

45• Great Composers 31• Pianist 39

p42_scoresCLEMENTI_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 45

09/06/2015 09:17

18-20

Rondo from No 8 op 13 (1770-1827) ‘Pathétique’ Ludwig van Sonata BEETHOVEN Rondo from Sonata No 8 op 13 ‘Pathétique’ Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

The ‘Pathétique’ Sonata is a landmark in Beethoven’s piano oeuvre. The thumb, is not unduly prominent. Let the thumb lift lightly off the key. A D VA NCED TRACKS himself made this evident by publishing it on its own, rather In the contrasting episodes, whether the notes are longer composer or shorter, The ‘Pathétique’ Sonata is a landmark in Beethoven’s piano oeuvre. The thumb, is not unduly prominent. Let the thumb lift lightly off the key. 18-20 than in a collection with other sonatas. maintain the momentum and precision of rhythm. composer himself made evident by publishing it piano on its oeuvre. own, rather contrasting whether notes longer orfull shorter, The ‘Pathétique’ Sonata isthis a be landmark in Beethoven’s The In thumb, is not prominent. Let thethe thumb lift are lightly the key. This Allegro finale should played at two beats in a bar. Keep your CDthe info: Onunduly our episodes, CD, pianist François Dumont plays the Aoff D VA Nthree CED TRACKS than in a collection with other sonatas. maintain the momentum and precision of rhythm. composer himself made this evident by publishing it on its own, rather In the contrasting episodes, whether the notes are longer or shorter, fingers close to the keyboard as you play the melody in the right hand and movements from the Sonata. The Rondo appears on Track 20 (with the 18-20 This Allegro finale should be played at two beats Where inpiano a bar. Keep your CD info: Onmomentum our CD, pianist François Dumont playsoff the full three than in a collection with other sonatas. maintain the and precision ofthumb rhythm. The ‘Pathétique’ Sonata is a landmark in Beethoven’s oeuvre. The thumb, is not unduly prominent. Let the lift lightly the key. integrate the grace notes into the line and rhythm. the left hand first two movements on Tracks 18 and 19). TRACK 9 keyboard as you play the melody in the right hand and movements from the Sonata. The Rondo appears on Track ADVANCED fingers close to the 20orfull (with the This Allegro finale should beevident played at publishing two beats a played bar. Keep your info: On our episodes, CD, pianist François plays the three composer himself made this by itop on its own, rather In the contrasting whether theDumont notes are longer shorter, plays four rising quavers, make sure that theNo top 8 note, with the CD Sonata 13 ‘Pathétique’, final movement (Rondo) integrate the grace notes into the line and rhythm. Where the left hand first two movements on Tracks 18 and 19). fingers close to the keyboard as you play the melody in the right hand and movements from the Sonata. The Rondo appears on Track 20 (with the than in a collection with other sonatas. maintain the momentum and precision of rhythm. The ‘Pathétique’ Sonata is into amake landmark in Beethoven’s piano oeuvre. The thumb, ismovements not undulyon prominent. Let the thumb lift lightly off the key. plays four rising quavers, sure that the top note, played with the integrate the grace notes the line and rhythm. Where the left hand first two Tracks 18 and 19). This Allegro finale should be played at two beats in a bar. Keep your CD info: On our CD, pianist François Dumont plays the full three composer himself made this evident by publishing it onplayed its own, rather In the contrasting episodes, whether the notes are longer or shorter, plays rising make sure that top note, with the movements fingersfour close to thequavers, keyboard aslandmark you play thethe melody in the right hand and from the Sonata. with Thethe Rondo appears on Track 20 (with the ‘Pathétique’ Sonata is a sonatas. in Beethoven’s piano oeuvre. The composer maintain make sure the that momentum the top note, played thumb, is not unduly prominent. Let than in aThe collection with other and precision of rhythm. integratehimself the grace notes into the line and rhythm. Where the left hand first two movements on Tracks 18 and 19). made this evident publishing on its own,in rather thanKeep in a collection the thumb lightly the key. In the contrasting whether thethe notesfull are three This Allegro finale should bebyplayed at ittwo beats a bar. your CD info: lift On ouroffCD, pianist François episodes, Dumont plays plays four quavers, make sure that the top note, played with the withrising other sonatas. longer or shorter, maintain the momentum and precision of rhythm. Note: On our fingers close to the keyboard as you play the melody in the right hand and movements from the Sonata. The Rondo appears on Track 20 (with the Playing tips: This Allegro finale should be played with two beats in a bar. Keep CD, you will be also able to hear the first two movements from this great sonata. integrate the grace notes into the line and rhythm. Where the left hand first two movements on Tracks 18 and 19). your fingers close to the keyboard as you play the melody in the RH, and integrate Pedal tips: Pedal will be required, and due to the advanced level of this work, we plays four quavers, thatWhere the top played with the the rising grace notes into themake line andsure rhythm. the note, LH plays four rising quavers, suggest you work on it. Dabs here and there will be required. Do not over-pedal.

Rondo from Sonata No 8 op 13 ‘Pathétique’

Ludwig van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

51• Pianist 39

46• Great Composers

51• Pianist 39 51• Pianist 39 p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 46

09/06/2015 09:18

TRACK 9 TRACKS 18-20

Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) Ludwig van van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Sonatafrom No 8Sonata op 13 ‘Pathétique’, final‘Pathétique’ movement (Rondo) Rondo No 8 op 13

A D VA NADVANCED CED

52• Pianist 39 47• Great Composers

p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 47

09/06/2015 09:18

TRACK TRACKS 9 18-20

Ludwig vanvan BEETHOVEN Ludwig BEETHOVEN(1770-1827) (1770-1827)

Rondo from Sonata No 8 opfinal 13 movement ‘Pathétique’ Sonata No 8 op 13 ‘Pathétique’, (Rondo)

A D VAADVANCED NCED

53• Pianist 39 48• Great Composers

p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 48

09/06/2015 09:18

TRACK 9 TRACKS 18-20

Ludwig vanvan BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Rondo No 8 op final 13 ‘Pathétique’ Sonatafrom No 8 Sonata op 13 ‘Pathétique’, movement (Rondo)

A D VA N CED ADVANCED

54• Pianist 39 49• Great Composers

p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 49

09/06/2015 09:18

TRACK TRACKS 9 18-20

Ludwig vanvan BEETHOVEN Ludwig BEETHOVEN(1770-1827) (1770-1827)

Rondo from Sonata No 8 opfinal 13 movement ‘Pathétique’ Sonata No 8 op 13 ‘Pathétique’, (Rondo)

A D VAADVANCED NCED

55• Pianist 39 50• Great Composers

p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 50

09/06/2015 09:18

TRACK 9 TRACKS 18-20

Ludwig vanvan BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Rondo No 8 op final 13 ‘Pathétique’ Sonatafrom No 8 Sonata op 13 ‘Pathétique’, movement (Rondo)

A D VA NADVANCED CED

56• Pianist 38 51• Great Composers

p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 51

09/06/2015 09:18

TRACK TRACKS 9 18-20

Ludwig vanvan BEETHOVEN Ludwig BEETHOVEN(1770-1827) (1770-1827)

Rondo from Sonata No 8 opfinal 13 movement ‘Pathétique’ Sonata No 8 op 13 ‘Pathétique’, (Rondo)

A D VAADVANCED NCED

57• Pianist 39 52• Great Composers

p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 52

09/06/2015 09:18

TRACK 9 TRACKS 18-20

Ludwig vanvan BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827)

Rondo No 8 op final 13 ‘Pathétique’ Sonatafrom No 8 Sonata op 13 ‘Pathétique’, movement (Rondo)

A D VA NADVANCED CED

58• Pianist 39 53• Great Composers

p46_scoresBEETHOVENpath_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 53

09/06/2015 09:19

Track 4 10 TRACK

Ludwig van van BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) Ludwig BEETHOVEN (1770-1827) BagatelleinopA 119 no op 9 119 no 9 Bagatelle minor

Beethovencomposed composed three op opus 33, which Beethoven threesets setsofofbagatelles: bagatelles: 33 (7comprises pieces), seven opus pieces; 119 (11 op 119, which has 11; and op 126, with six. At the request of the composer’s friendthe pieces) and opus 126 (6 pieces). At the request of his friend Friedrich Starke, Friedrich pieces now known as numbers 7-11 of for op 119 were used for pieces nowStarke, knownthe as numbers 7-11 of opus 119 were used a teaching method. a teaching method. They were published later as op 119 by Clementi, along with They were published later as opus 119 by Clementi, along with six other bagatelles. six other bagatelles. This waltz-like piece must must be be lively, lively, but but never not rushed. Practise Playing tips: This waltz-like short piece rushed. Practise the LH slowly to get used to making the leaps accurate between the bass notes and

INTERMEDIATE INTERMEDIATE

thethe lefttwo-part hand slowly to getThe usedbroken to making the leaps between bass with notesyour chords. arpeggios in accurately the RH should be the played and the two-part chords. The broken arpeggios in the right hand should be played hand comfortably cupped, avoiding any emphasis on notes played with the thumb. with your15 hand cupped and the avoiding anyand undue emphasis At bars andcomfortably 16 make sure to sustain minims dotted minimson fornotes their full played with the thumb. At bars 15 and 16 make sure to sustain the minims anda very length so that the right harmonic effects are achieved. Dynamic contrasts are dotted minims for their full piece. length as written, so that the right harmonic effects are important feature of the achieved. contrasts aredown a veryon important feature of the PedalThe tips:dynamic We suggested pedal beat 1, off on beat 2. piece.

• Pianist 47 5431 • Great Composers

pianist47 Scores1 FINAL.indd 31 p54_scoresBEETHOVENbaga_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 54

4/3/09 11:36:57 09/06/2015 09:19

ISS ’S ’T M HAMMISS R DON A P LUCDYON’T RHAM’S PA IECE LUCY HIS P ON T AGE CE

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART MOZART(1756-1791) (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus

ON LESS SON P SH PIE LE T4IS N2

TRACK 11 Track 12

O

ADVANCED ADVANCED

RondoininAAminor minorK511 K511 Rondo

4

E2 pag

Dating from 1787 (the year of Don Giovanni), this Rondo is something of a one-off Rondo is worth spending time on. The more you study it, the more you will love to in Mozart’s output, yet in many ways it embodies the essential nature of his music. play it. Trust us! And even if we have classified it as Advanced (due to all the various Dating from 1787 (the year of Don Giovanni), this Rondo is something of a one-off in page 20 where he talks about different touches. Graham’s lesson in the last issue 68 also Playing tips: This is such a fantastic piece and there’s so much to learn in it. It subtleties required), we believe that it’s still within the grasp of readers who are of Mozart’s output, yet in many ways it embodies the essential nature of his music. touched on legato and staccato – definitely worth revisiting. This piece is worth spending contains a huge range of emotions, but the one thing that stands out above everything an intermediate level as well. Playing tips: This is such a fantastic piece and there’s so much to learn in it. It contains time on. The more you study it, the more you will love to play it. Trust us! else is all the different types of articulation that Mozart asks for. As well as reading Pedal tips: When it comes to pedalling in this piece, do your utmost to avoid a huge range of emotions, but the one thing that stands out above everything else is all Pedal tips: When it comes to pedalling in this piece, do your utmost to avoid overLucy Parham’s lesson on this piece on page 24, we also suggest that you read Mark overpedalling – one should be able to hear all the different articulations and nuances. the different types of articulation that Mozart asks for. So, as well as studying Lucy pedalling – one should be able to hear all the different articulations and nuances. Tanner’s Masterclass on page 8 where he talks about playing in a Classical style. This Turn to Lucy Parham’s in-depth lesson on page 24. Parham’s lesson on page 24, we suggest that you turn to Graham Fitch’s Masterclass on Turn to Lucy Parham’s in-depth lesson on page 24.

{

Andante

œ3 6 &8 J

#œ œ œ

p

6 &8 ‰

{

5

&

1

œ4 œ œ2 nœ

p

cresc.

‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œœ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™ œ œ ™n œ4 œœ2 5

?

2 œ3 œ œ #œ œ

‰ œ œ œ œ œ ‰& œ™ 1 5

T# 3 2 4 1 2 œ 3 2 1 2r 1 œ œ œ œ œ bœ nœ nœ œ ≈ #œ ≈ œ nœ™ œ œ #œœ R cresc. p j œ œ j ‰ ‰ ? œ™ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ # œ œ 1 œ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ ™ œ n œœ 4 3

2

#œ œ œ

œ™ #œ œ œj ‰ œ1 j ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™# œ œ

9

œ & œ œ œ œ™ œ œ

œœœœ œ 3

œ4 œ œ2Æ œ3 & 13

T#

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 55 p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 55

32 Ÿ

1j 3 œ ‰ œJ

œœ J ‰ ‰

. ten. œ™ œ œ œ œ 3 3 j œ œ3 . œ j œœœ ‰ ™ œ ‰ œ œ #œ. nœ. œ J œ œœ œ . f 4

5

4

1

œœ ‰ ‰ Œ J

p

j œœ œœ. œœ. œ ‰ ‰ . 3



5

T#

4 1

œ nœ œ™

‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ? œ™ œ™ 5

T#

4 1

‰ œœœ œœœ ‰ œœ œœ œ™ œ™

‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œ™ œ™

?

{

œ5 œ #œ J ‰ J J

nœ œJ ‰ #œJ œ J 2

3

&

{

œ™ #œ œ j ‰ 1 j bœ œ œ

cresc.

. œ. œ. œ. œ. œ3 œ nœ œ 5 œ 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ™ œ nœ J J

‰ œœœ œœœ ‰ œœœ œœœ #œ ™ œ™ 4

5

‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ ™™ #œ ™ œ™ œ™ p

4

œœ J ‰ ‰

55• Great Composers 55• Pianist 69

09/06/2015 8/11/12 09:21 08:53:57

{{ { {{ { {{ { {{ { {{ {

17 11 TRACK 17 124 Track 4 17 4 17

& & & & 17 ? ? & ? ? ? 21 21 21 21

& & & & 21 & & & & & 25 25 25 25

& & & & 25 & & & & & 29 29 29 29

& & & & 29 & & & & & 33 33 33 33

& & & & 33 ? ? & ? ? ?

œœ œœ œ4 œ œ œ ‰‰ œ œœ‰4 ™™ œœœ ‰œ ™ œœœœ œ™ ‰ œ œ™ œ

T T# 3Wolfgang 1MOZART (1756-1791) 1 4 Amadeus 4 œœ.. 1 1 4 MOZART Amadeus (1756-1791) . 4 3 4#Wolfgang 1 . 3 œ 1 2 . ™™#1#œ œœnœ œ œRondo 1. œ 2. œ œœÆÆ œœ3 4T nnœœ œœK511 Rondo inminor 4 A 1Aœminor 1 in œœ œœK511 . œ. œ. œ. ≈≈ œœ œ œ œ 4 œ œ œ œ œ 3 n œ œ . # œ œ n œ 2 3 T#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 1 2 œ2ÆÆ œ3 ™# #œ3 œnœ œ œ œ4 œ#œ œ1 œ4 œ œ œ1 œ œ œnœ œ œ œ nœ2. œ1. œ.. œœ. œ. ≈ RRœ œ cresc. œ4T™ 1#œ œnœ œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œnœ œ œ œ nffœ. ppœ. œ cresc. nœ‰‰ œœ œœ ‰‰ œœ. ≈œœ œRR ‰‰ # œ3 œ ‰‰ œœœ œœœ4 #œ ‰‰1 4 œ œ1 œœ œ œœ2 cresc. œ . œ œ œœ œœœ œ1. œ. œ™ fœ™ œœ‰3 ™™ œœ#œ œœœ ##œœ‰ ™™ œœ œœ œœ ™™ œ 2 p œœÆ cresc. œ™ œ™ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ n œ . pœ œ œ™ œœ ≈œœ œ œœ œ‰ œœ œœnœ #œœ‰ œœœ œœœœ œ#œ ‰œœ œ œ œ œœœœ œ œ œœœœ œ œ nfœœ™ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ R ™ œœœ œœœ ™ œœ ™ œœ œœ œœœ œœœ œ™ œ™ œ™ #œ ™ œ™ cresc. f p ‰ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œ œ œœ œ‰ œœ œœ #œ‰ œœœ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ™ œ™ ™ ™ 4 1 4 1

2 2

ADVANCED ŸŸ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ™™ ADVANCED ˙˙~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ œ œœ œ Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ™ ˙Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ œœ ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰‰ œ œ ‰ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ œ œ œ™ Ÿ‰œ™ œ œ ‰ œœœ œœœ œ& ‰œ™ ˙ ™ œœ œœ œ™ œ ‰ œ œ& ‰œ™ œ œ œ™ & œ™ œ™ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ & œ™ œ™

&

1 2 2 1 1. 2 œ 2. 1. œœ œjj ‰ œjj nœ bœ nœ nnœœ œ ≈ #œ22 ™ . . œ œ œ # œ œ #œ œœ œœ œ™ œ™ œ œ # œ # œ œ™ ™ œ . . . œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ™ œ œ2 œ1 #2œ #œ 1. œ ≈ #œR2 ‰ œj nœ bœ nœ œ œ™ #œ œ œj ™ œ œ . . . œ œ œ n œ 1 œ # œ 2 œ™ œ œ2. œ1. #œ œ ™ #œ. . œ œ œ™ ‰ œj nœ bœ nœ nœ œ ≈ #Rœ2 œ j œ œ œ œ # œ œ # œ œ™ œ œ œ #œ #œ œ bœ nœ œ ≈ #Rœ œ ‰ œ ncresc. cresc. R 1 cresc. 2 j j ‰‰œ™ œ œ œjj œ‰‰2. œ‰‰1. #2œ œ œ ‰œ‰ ™ #œ œ œœjj #œ‰‰. œ‰‰. #œ œ œ ‰œ™ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ # œ n œ œ œ n œ # œ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ ≈ b n cresc. #œœœœ œœœœ œœœj œœ‰ ™™ œœ œœ œœœj ‰ ‰ nn œœœ œœœ œœ‰ ™ œœœ œœœ ‰œ ™ œœ œœ œ‰ ™ œœ œœ R œ™ œ ™ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ ™ n œœ œœ œ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰œ ™ œœ œœ œ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰œ™ ##œœœœ œœœœ œœœœj ‰ ‰ ‰ œ‰ ™ œœœ œœœ œœœj ‰ ‰ œ ™ n œœ œœ œ ™ œœ œœ cresc. œ ™ œœ œœ œ ™ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œ™ œ œ™ œ œ œ™ œ™ ™ ™ j j ‰ #œ œ œœ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ œœ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 1 œ œ œ 3 œ ™ 11 œ œ 44 œ n œ œ œ œ 33T 1œ œ œ T œ™ œ 5 T 3œ ™ œ œ # ™ ™ ™ T 1 T 2 4 œ 5 #1r T 1 œœ œœ1 ##œœ œœ4 œœ ≈ œR5 œœ œœ œœ nnœœ œ33 œ œ œœ ##œœ2 œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ4 œ ≈ 3T n œ r 3 œ œ™ # œœ ™ b œ n œ T n œ œ œ œ™ # R # œ #1 œ bœ ™ nœ3 ≈ œ ≈ T 1 3T 2 4 œ œ œ œ œ 3 # œ œ œ1 #œ œ4 œ ≈ Rœ5 œ œ œ nœ œ3 œ œ œ #œ2 œ œ œ œ œ œ4 œ ≈ œ#r œ bœ ™ nTœ nœ œ™ 1 #T œ œ œ nœ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ≈ r cresc. œ œ #œ œ œ ≈ pR n œ œ œ™ # œ ™ bœ nœ3 œ œ œ 3T 1 cresc. p 1 #œ œ ‰‰ œœ œ œœ1 œœ T 1 T 1 4 5 ‰cresc. ‰œ‰ œœ #œœ ‰‰œ œœ ≈œ ppœR? œœ ™™ œ œ nœ œ3 œ œœ1 ‰‰œ & #‰œ‰2 œ œœ œ œœ œ ‰‰œ4 œ ≈œ #r cresc. ? ‰œ nœ‰‰ œœ™ œœ#œ œ ™ ‰ œ œ b n œ œ œ œ œ œ & œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ 1 œ œ ? œ œ œ œ‰œ ™™ œ œ ‰œœ ™™ œ œ ‰œ ™ œ œ œ ‰ & œ‰œ ™™ œ œ ‰œœ ™™# œ œ ‰œœ ™™ œ œ œœ‰ ™™ œ œœ œ ? œ ‰ & ‰œ œœ œœ ‰œ # œœ œœ cresc. ‰œ ™ œœ œœ œ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰œ ™ œœ œ ‰œ ™ œ œœœ p œ ™ ™ ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ ™ œ œ ? ‰ œ œ œ1 œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™# œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™ œ ‰& ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œœ œ ‰ œ œ œ ™ œ œ 3 T œ œ œ ™# œ œ 535œ ™ œ55 œ œ ™ œ œ4 5 23 3-5 œ™ œ ™ 11 œœ. œ..œn™œ.. œœ. .œ. 4 T 2 5 1 3 5 2 5 3 2 1 1 3 3 5 4 œœ œœ1 œ œœ. œ. nœ œ. œœ. œœ. nœ4.. œ.. œ. œ™ 2 5 2 3 Tœ 3 1 j 3 5 œ j 5 œ ˙™ œ œ 5 œ ‰ b œ œ b œ œ 2 5 œ œ 3 5 œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 n œ œ™ œ ˙™ œ œ . . #œ3 œ1 j ‰ J3 œ ≈ œ2 œœ1 nnœœ œbœ œ œ œ œœ œœbœ2 œnœbœœ5 œ œ5 œœ œœ5 œ œœ5 n œ4 3 T #œ 5 2 œ œ1 œ œ.. œœ. nnœœ. œ.. œ.. œ.. nœ44. œœ. œœ. œœ™ 3 - 5œ bœ2 œnœbœ3 œ2 œœ bb œœ5 œ œœ5 œœ n œœ4 œœ J3 œ œ œ ≈˙™ œ œ 2 1 nœ œbœ œ œ œ œ 1j ‰ œ 3 œ # œ œ œ œ œ33 œ33œ œnœ.33œ. œ. pœœ™ œ œ œ œj œ ‰ Jœ œ œ œ ≈˙™ œ nœcresc. bœff œnœbœœ œ2 œ œb œ œ œ n œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ cresc. pœT #œ œ 3j œbœ œnœ œ53 œ2 œ5 œ pp œ œ œ n œ4 ≈3 -™5œ œ1 J 3. . 3 2 œ 5 œ œ 1 3 œ j b œ5 œ5 œ œ . œ 2f œ ™ 3 2 j œJ1 j ‰‰ œ‰‰3 œ œ ˙˙˙™™ 2 cresc. ™ ‰œ‰ œœ#œœ œœ. j3 nœ ‰‰œ3œ. œ. n‰‰œ4.3œ.? œ ?. ppœ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œbœf œn™œbœœ œ œ bbppœœ2 œœœ n œ Jœœ J œ ≈˙ ™ œ œnœcresc. j œ œ œ # œ j # œ œ œ œ œ 1 ? œ ˙ œ ™ œ œ b œ2 œ œ œ œ œ ™ ‰œœ ™™ œœ#œ œœj ‰ ‰ ? œ™ 1 œJœ ‰ ‰ ™ œ ˙ œ ™™ 2 ™ ‰œ ™ œœ#œ œœ3 ‰3 ‰3 pœ™ 1 j J ‰ ‰ œ 2 b œ f œ cresc. ˙™ œ™ œ œ1 œ p2 œ ™ œ œœj œ œ‰‰ ™ ™ ˙ œ ‰ œœ#œ œ ‰ ‰ ? œ™ J bœ œ 414 ˙ œ ™ ™ 4 œ 1 5 œ 1 2 œ3 ™ 1 œ œ 5 14 15 4 œ 2 51 1 œ 1 œ 2 1 1 œ 3 1 œ œ œ œ #œ4 4 œ œœ™ œœ3 œœ œœ1 œœ œœ bbœœ œ™ œ œœ œœ œœ œœ bbœœ2 œœœ nnœœ bbœœœ œœ œœœ œœb œœœ œœ œœ œ nn œœ œ œœ515 œ œœœ515 œœ #œœ141 œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœ œœœ1 œ œ bœ œ™ œœ™ œ œ œ œ bœ2 œ nœ bœœ œ œ œb œ œ œœ œ n œœ œ œœ1 œ œ1 œ ##œœœ œ œ œ œ œ œ4 œ œ3 œ œ1 œ cresc. œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ bœ fœ nœ bœœ œ œ œbpœ œ œ œ n œ œ œ œ œ5 œ cresc. œ4 j œ œ œ œ 1 œ œ œ œ cresc. cresc. f p 5 œ œ œ œ 1j b œ œ œ œ œ1 1 cresc. 2 ŒŒ3 1 cresc. ‰‰ œœ ™™ œœ ™™ œ œ œ œœjj œ œ œ œ f p œ b œ œ™ œ # œ ˙™ œœjj œ œœ œ œ œœj œ˙™ Œ œ œ œ cresc. ‰œ bœ œœ ™ œ œ œ œ bœ fœœ ™™nœ bœœ œ œœ œbbpœ œ œœœ œ n œœ œ œœ œ œœ œ cresc. 4 œ4 j œ 3-5 œ œœ Œ˙™ ‰ œ™ œ ™™ 4 3-5 œ œ œ œ4 b œ œ cresc. 4 cresc. ˙™ œ œ ™ f 3-5 œj œ p œ œ œ4 j 4 Great Composers Œ3 - 5 ‰ œ™ œ™ 4 œ œ Pianist œ œ b œ ˙™ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ 4 3-5

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 56 p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 56

56•

56•

69

4

09/06/2015 09:20 8/11/12 08:54:13

{{ { {{ { {{ { {{ { {{ {

5 53 Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) 3 4ADVANCED 2 1 4 4 ADVANCED 5 2 2 1 4 5 2 œ™ 2 œ 2 œ 5 4 5Rondo 4 5 2 œ œ in A minor K511 œ™ 2 2 5 4 5 4 2 œ œ œ 3 œœ œ œœ œ œ nnœœ œœ5 œœ œ œœ œœRondo œ in A minor K511 œ ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ ˙™ œ œ bœ œ #œœ2 œœ1 œ4 nnœœ bbœœ œœ œœ2 œœ nnœœ œœ53 œœ2 nnœœ œ œœœ œœ œœ œœ nnœœ4 œœ & 5 4 œ bœ œ # & œ™ œœ™ œœ4 œ22 œœ œ nœ22 œœ5 œ œœ55 œ œœ44 œ œœ˙™ 2 1 4 œœ nœ œœ œ2 nœ œ œ œ œ œ nœœ4 œ 2 5 œ 4 œ bœ œ #œ œ œ nœ bœ œ œ & œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ˙™ f p œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ #œ œ œ nœ bœ œ œ œœ nœ ffœ53 œ nœ œ œ œ œœ œ nœœ4 œ & p 36 f51 4 2 5j fœ™ œ œ pœœjjnœ2 œœ5 œ œœ5 œ œœ4 œ œ˙™ j œ4 œ‰ bœ œœ 2 œœ1 œ4 n‰œ bœ œœ 2 œœ nœ fœœ 2 œœjj œ œœ œœœ nœ ? œ œ ? pœj œœ œœ œ œœj ‰ œJJ #œ JœJœ ‰ œJJ œ œœ f œ nœj œ œ œ œ œœ œ & ? fœœœ œ œj œ œ œ œ4 j œœ œ œ œœj ‰‰ œJœ33 Jœ ‰‰ œJœ œ ? fœœ 4 œ œ pœ f 3 J œ œ œ J J œ 4 œ œ 3 œ j j j œ œ œ ? œ œ œ œ œ4 œ œ œ œ ‰ œJ œJ ‰ œJ œ œ 5 53 œ œ 3 39 œ 5 5 3 39 2 1 4 52 j œœ5 œœ œœ44 œ œœ55 œ œ55 œ 4 2 1 4 4 5 3 5 4 5 3 2j œ 3 œ œ 39 ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ n œ b œ n œ œ ‰ 5 5 ˙™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 2 1 4 4 œ œ œ œ œ 5 œ b œ n œ b œ n œ œ ‰ 5 & # œ œ n œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ œ & 39 œ œ˙™ œ44 œ bœ œ #œ2 œ1 œ4 nœ bœ œ œ œœ œ nœ5 œœ œœœ4 œ œ5 œ nœ55 œ œœ œ œœ55 œ œœ œ œœ3 œ œœ252 j ‰ JJœ33 & œ˙™pœ œ bœ #œ œ nœ bœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ ‰ ffJœ p œœ #œ œœœ œœ œ œœœ ff œ nœ œ ppœ œ œ œ 53 œ œ & 39 œ 5 5 œ œ 2 1 4 4 fJ3 p4 œ 5 j œ 5 5 2j f p œ œ œ j j J ? œ J J œ œ ? ‰‰ bœ Jœœ #œ Jœœ œ nœ‰‰ bœ Jœœ œ œœ œ nfœœ œœ œœ œ nœœ œ œ œ pœœ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœj ‰‰ f‰‰œ pœ œ œ˙™ œ & j œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œœ ‰ ‰J ? œj ‰ ppœJ œJ ‰ œJ œ j œ œ ? œp ‰ J J ‰ J œ œ œ œ œ pœœ œœ œœ œœ ‰ f‰ f p œ œ œ œ œ œ œ p œ œ œ œj j ? œ ‰ J J ‰ J œ œ œ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ j œ ‰ œ ‰ jj 42 42 2-1 ‰‰33 -- 11 ‰‰ pbœjj œ œœ ‰‰œ™ ‰‰ œœjj œœ ##œœ œœ bœ55 55 1 2 1 ‰‰ bbœœj œ œœbbœœ œœ‰ ™™ ‰ œœj ‰ 1 ‰ œ œ œœ œ ‰ j œ b œ œ™ b 42 œ œœ œœ ˙™ œ œ ™ œœ b˙ 5 5 3-1 œ ‰ b œ œ b œ œ ˙™ œ ™ œ œ ™ œ 2 1 j œ ‰3 - 1 ‰ bœ œ œ ‰œ™ ‰ œj & œ bœ bœœ5 œœ œœ5 ##œœ 1œbœ b˙‰ ™ ‰ bœj œ œbœ œ‰ ™ ‰ œj & # 42 œ œ œ ‰ bœj œ œ œ™ œ œœ ™ #œ bœ bœœœ œœ #œœ 1œbœ œ b˙‰2 -™1 ‰ bœj œ bœ œ‰ ™ ‰ œ & œœ œœ œ ‰˙™ œ ˙™ œ ™ œ bœ œœ œ #œœ œbœ œ b˙ ™ œœ & j 42 ‰3 - 1œœ bb œœ‰ œœbœœœj bbœœœœ ‰œœœ™œœ ‰œœ œœ œœ œœ #œœ bœ#œ œ œœbœ5 œœ 5 bbœœ œœ 1 œœ‰2 -bb1œœbb ‰œœ œœ œœj bbœœbœ œœ‰ ™œœ ‰œœ œœ œœjnœ ? ? œœœ ≈ ≈˙™œ bb œœ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œœbœ™ œœ œœbbœœ œ œœœœ œœbœ#œœœ œ œbœ œ b˙œb™ œb œ œbœœ œbœœ œ œ œ œ œnœ & ? ≈f œ44 œ11 œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ11 #œ bœ œ œbœ œ5 œ œ5 bœ2 œ œ nœ œ #œ bœ œ11 33 œ 5 œ5 2 œ œ55 bœ33 b œ œ11 œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ11 nœ ? ≈f 4 1 œbœ œ5 5 2 5 3 1 1 1 f bœ 1 3 œ b œ œ œ œ œ 4 1 5 1 3 1 bœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ bœ 1 3 œ 5 œ 5 bœ2 œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œ1 nœ œbœ ? ≈f œ œbœ œ œ œ

5 TRACK 36 36 12 511 114 Track 4 36 51 4 36 51

œœ nnœœ œœ œ™ œ œœ & & œœœ™ nœ & œœœ™ œ™ nœœ œœ & 45 ? nœœbœ œ nnœœœœ™ ? b œ b œ & ? nœ bœ œœ11 bbœœ33 nnœœ ? nœ bœ œ1 bœ3 nœ nœ f

45 45 45 45

4

1

nnœœœ5 nœœœ5 œœ nœœœ œ 5 œœ nœœ œœ œ œœœœ œ œ44 œ

œœœ5 bbœœ4 œœ5 bœœœ4 œœ bœœ 5 nnœœ bœœ4 œœ nœ bœ œ55 nœ bœœ44 œ5 bœ4 4 ? nœ bœ œ1 bœ3 œ œ4 œ œ5 nœ bœ4 nœ ™ & & bb≈≈œœ ™™nnœœ2 & bb≈œœ ™nœ2 & 48 ≈ nœ ? œœœ ™™™ 2 ? b b & ? b≈œœ ™™nœ ? bœœ ™™ ? bœœ ™™ 48 48 48 48

2 2

5 5

5 5

œœ œ bbœœb œ nnœœ≈≈ ™™™nnœœ3 bbœœ œ œœ bœbb œœ nnœœ≈ ™nœ3 bbœœ œ ffœ bœb œ ≈ nœ f nnœœœ ™™™nœ3 bœ œ fœ bœb œ nœœ≈1 ™™ 1 nœœ221 ™™ 2 f 1 nœœ2 ™™

1

3

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 57 p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 57

4

1 2

3 3

4 4

5

4

œœ œ œ œ

1

bbœœ5 ™™ œ3 b≈≈œ5 ™ œœ3 bpp≈œ ™ œ ≈ bbppœœœ5 ™™™™ 3 b≈œœœ1133 ™™™ œ bpœ1 ™ 3 1 bœœ3 ™™ 5 5

œœ œ œ22 œ2 2

2

œœ n œ œ nn œœ œn œ œn œ

1 3

3 3

5

1 3 1 1

5

4 4

œœ œ œ œ 3 3

≈≈ œœ4 nnœœ bbœœ œœ bbœœ3 œœ œœ4 nnœœbbœœ nnœœ bbœœ3 ≈ ppœ4 nœ bœ œ bœ3 œ œ4 nœbœ nœ bœ3 ≈ pœ nœ bœ œœ bœ œœ œ nœbœ nœœ bœ œ3 œ4 œ3 4 œœœ≈ pœ n‰‰œ bœ œœœJJœ bœ œJJœœ œ n‰‰œbœ nœœœJJœ bœ JJœœ p ‰ p œJœ11 œJœ22 ‰ œJœ œJœ ‰ pp J441 J332 ‰ J œ41 œœ32 œœ J pœ 4 3 œœ ‰ Great J ‰ J JPianistComposers J 2 p1 4 4

3 3

57• 57•

69

4

3

bbœœ ™™nœ bœ≈≈ ™nnœœ bœ≈ ™nœ ≈ bbœœœ ™™™™ bœœœ≈ ™™™nœ bœ ™ bœœ ™™ 5

2

œ™ œœ3 bbœœ nœ bœ œœ11 bbœœbb œœ œ™ ≈≈ 3 bœ nœ bœ œ™ œ bœb œ œ™ ≈ œœbœ nœ bbœœ œ1 bœb œ ≈ 3 nœ bbœœœ™ ™™™ œ œ œ bœ bœ≈ ™ œbœ nœ bœ b œ bœœ ™™ œ™ bœœ ™™ œœ œ œ

3 3

3

nœ ™ œœ bbœœbb œœ nnœœ≈≈ ™™ œœ bbbœœœ nnœœbbœœ nn œœ œ bœb œ ncresc. ≈ ™ œœ bœ nœbbœœ n œ œ cresc. nœ n œ œ bœb œ cresc. ≈ bbnœœœ ™™™ œ œ bœ bcresc. œ bœ bœ b œbœœœ≈ ™™™ nœ n œ œ™ cresc. 1

1

œœ œ œ

jj ‰ 44 jj œœj ‰ œœ4 j œj ‰‰ œœœ4 j œœœ œ œ œJj œ nnœœbbœœ nnœœœœ4 jbbœœ Jœœ œ n‰‰œbœ nJœJ bœ œJœ œ22 n‰œ11 bœ nœœ bœ J 2 ‰1 JœJ1144 œœ œ2 nœ1 bœ nœ14 bœ J ‰ œJ14 2

1

1 4

bœœ ™™

jj ‰‰ œjj œœœj ‰ œœj œœj ‰ œœj œœ œœ nœ bœ nœœœbœ œœœj n‰œ bœ nœœjbœ œJœ œ n‰œ bœ nJœJœbœ Jœœ1 œ22 n‰œ11 bœ nœJ bœ Jœ155 2 ‰1 œJ J15 œ2 nœ1 bœ nœbœ œœ15 ‰ œ J 2 1 J 1 5

09/06/2015 09:20 8/11/12 08:54:28

{{ {{ {{ {{ {{ {{ {{ {{ {{ {{

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) œ œ 1 bWolfgang ADVANCED œ n œ b œ n œ 1 3 b œ n œ b œ n œ ADVANCED œ1 œ 1 1 3 . Rondo in A minor K511 œ™ œ™ A minor bœ nœ K511 œœ œ œ. n œ œœ in 1 nœ 3 bœ ™ & œœ œ1 bb œœ nn œœ11 bb œœ nn œœ œœ œbb œœ nn œœ bb œœRondo œ œ 1 bœ nœ 1 3 œ # œ ≈œ nœ 1 3 b œœ ™ œ œ.. œ.. œ n œ ™ & œœ œœ1 b œ n œ1 b œ n œ œ œœb œ n œ b œ n œ œ œ11 bbœœ nnœœ11 bbœœ33 nnœœ œ™ œ œ # œ œ™ ≈ œ œ#œ œ1 nœ3 b œœ ™™cresc. œœj œ. œ. & œ 1 ≈ œ œ™ œ ™ 51 œ b œ b œ n œ œ œb œ n œ1 b œjn œ œ œb œ n œ b œjn œ œ œ1 bœ nœ1 3 ≈ œ œ#œ œ1 nœ3 œ # œœœj œ‰ œ‰ ™cresc. œ # œ & n œ j r œ ? œ ‰ bœ œ ‰ œ œ ≈b‰œ nœb‰œ nœ Œœ™™ ? b œ≈ œ n™™cresc. œ # œœ≈œœj œ#œ‰‰. nœbœ‰‰. nœ œ # œ n œ & œj œj œ & œ œ œ j œ # œ œ r œ ? Jœœ ‰ bœ1 j œœj ‰ œj œœr ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ≈™ œ ? ≈ ncresc. œ œ # œ œ # œ œ1 j œ#œ‰ nœbbœœ‰ nnœœ ? Jœ ‰ &bœœ2 j œœ ‰ œœj œœ ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ ™ ? ≈ nœ4 œ # œ œ # œ2 ≈ ≈f 4 nœ 3 4 2 1 j œ#œ 1 ? Jœ ‰ &bœœ12 œœj ‰ œœ œœr ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ ™ ? ≈ cresc. ≈1 f œ4 #œ‰ nœ1 bœ‰3 nœ 4 œ#œ œ#œ 2 œ & œ1 j œ œ n œ œ j ? Jœœ ‰ bœ21 œœj ‰ œ œœr ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ ™ ? ≈ 4 2 ≈ 1f 4 œ4 #œ nœ11 bœ33 nœ & œ2 œ f œ œ J œ œ 4 2 1 1 54 3-5 2 f4 4 2 2 1 1 33 2 1 3 54 nœ œ œ ˙™ 3-5 œ œ™ b œ œ b œ b œ œ œ œ œ œbœ2 nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ4 1 œ œ 2 œ & 54 2 œ ≈ œ33 œ œ11 œ œ œœ™ œ œ11 #œ33 bœ 3-5 œ œ œ 4 œ 2 œ ˙™ nœ 1 œ œ 2 2 b œ b œ œ b œ n œ Œ œ œ1 œ ‰œbbœœ œœ™ œœ œ œ1 #œ3 bœ 54 3-5 & œ œœbœ œœ œ œœ œ œbœ2 œ nœbœœ œ2 œ œ œ œ œœ œœ4 œ œ 2 œ œ ˙™ n œ ≈ n œ 2 1 3 œ œ#œbœ & œ œbœf œ nœbœœ œ2 œ œbpœ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. p≈ nœ œ œ cresc. œ œ œ ‰œœbœ œœ™ Œ œ 54 nœ œ œ ˙™ b œ œ œ 3-5 œ œ œ œ œ œ b œ œ 4 & œ œ œ 2 œbœ2f œ n™ œ œ œ2 œ œb œ œ œ œ œ œ cresc. œœŒ3 ™ œ œ1 ‰ #œ ™ œ œ1 #œ3 bœ ≈ ™ nœ2 œ1 cresc. ? nœ œ œ pp˙˙™ p Œ ™ œ œ ‰œbœ œ™ cresc. œ‰ bœ œœ™ œ œ œ œbœf œœ n™ œbœœ 2 œ œ bpœ œœ œœ cresc. œœ ™ œ œ œ#œbœ & œ œ # ? pŒ˙≈ ™™ nœ œ œ cresc. œ œ cresc. f œ bpœ2 œ œ œ œ œŒ ™ ‰ ##œœ ™™ 2 ? œœ ™™ ‰cresc. œ™ Œp˙ ™ œ ™ œ b œ 2 ™ ™ cresc. f œ ? œœ ™ œœ ™ ##œœ ™™ ‰ œ™ Œ˙ pœ œ 2 b œ ‰ œ™ Œ˙ ™ ? œ™ #œ ™ 2 œ œ™ œ b œ ‰ œ™ Œ œ™ #œ ™ 5 œ™ 5 5 œ 5 1 ™ 4 3 5 2 4 œ 57 2 b œ œ œ5 œ œœ51 b œ œ2 œ œ œ2 œ œœ œ5 œ œ4 œ 4 2 5 4 5 1 œ 3 œ25 œbœ52 œb œœ4 œ5 œ œ51 ™ b œ4 2 œ œ 2 œ œ œœ5 bœ4 57 œ bœ nœ nœœ53 œ nœ n œ4 4 œ & 57 œ œ œ # œœ25 11 œ52 œb œ4 œœ œœ5 œ œœœ51 ™ b œ4 œœ2 œ œ œ2 œ œœœ œ5 œ œ4 œ 5 4 œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ 4 3 b œ œ b œ œ œ œ nœœ n œœ œœ œ œœ4 œ#œ2 œbbœœ52 œb œ4 57 ™ b œ4 œ2 œ œ œ2 œ œœ œ5 œbbœœ4 œ & œ 2 1 nœ nœ œ œ b œ œ œ œ 4 1 5 5 # œ2 œ1 nœ nœœ3 n œ b œ œ nœ œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ5 œ 5 œ œ4 œ5 f1 ™ 4 œ bœ œ & p œ œ œ 57 fœ# œ b 1 nœ nœœn œ bpœ nœ œ n œ4 œ œ 4 œ#cresc. 2 œ bœ 5 œ œ b œ œ b œ œ œ 2 2 œ j & 2 œ œœj 1 œ œ œ œ nœœ fœœ œ pœ œbœœ œ œ œ4 œ ? fœœ# œ2 bœœ1 œn œ bpœ œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ œœ ncresc. œ bœ p j bœ œœj œbœ œ nœ f & œ ? fœœ# œ2 œ nœ nœJœn œ bbpœœ œ nœœ œ#n œœ œ œœ œ œ œ#ncresc. œœ œ p j bœ œj b œ œœ nœ fœœ b œ cresc. ? fœ 2 1 œJœ p œ #œ œ œ j œ bbœœ œœ œœ œœj bbœœ œœ nnnœœœ fœœ pœ œJ bbpœœ œœ ##œœ œœœ nnncresc. ? fœœ œj bœ œ œœ œ œœj bbœœ œ bœœ œ # œ n œ b œ n œ œ œ ? J bœ œ #œ œ n œ b œ œ œ b œ œJ œ œ n œ œ œ œ b œ 4 œ # œ œ b œ nœœ b œ 60 4 4 j 5 ™ œ 1 4 2 1 3 œbœ œ#œ œ œ nœbœ œ œ œœ nœb œœ œ nœ œ bœ œ œœ œ nœ œ œj 4 60 ˙ œ 4 5 ™ œ 4 & 2 1 œ 60 ˙ œ œ44 nœbœ œ œ œœ nœb œœ œ nœœ œ bœœ œ œ œ nœœ œ œj œ11 œ343 œbœ œ# œ œ™ 4 œ bœ œ n œ b œ œ œ œ 5 ™ 4 # œ œ 2 1 ˙5 œ4 œbœ œ#œ œ œ4 nœbœ œ œ œœ nœb œœ œ nœ œ bœ œ œ œ nœ œ œœj œ œ4 œbœ 60 œ & œœ™ œœ4 nnœœbbœœ œ œ ™ œ œbœ œ#œ2 œ1 œ nœbœ œ œ œœ nœ fœ œ nœ œ œ œ œ nœ œœ pœ1 œ3 œbœ œ# œ œ™ œ ˙ & 60 œ 4 œ# œ œ œ4 œœ œ j 4 bœ œ bœ & œJ nœ‰ bœ œJ œ ? ˙œœ5 jj™ œ ‰œbœ œœj#œ2 bœ1 œ4 n‰œbœ œœj œ bœœ nœ ffœ œ nœœj œ bœœ œ œœ œ nœœ œ œj ppœ1 œ‰3 œbœ?œJ# œ bœœ™ & œ nœ‰ bœ œœ œ ? œj ‰ &œ2 jj bJœ ‰ œjj bœ f œj b œ œ # œœ œj pœ œ‰œbœ?p œœJœ3 # œ bbœœ™ œ J ? œœj ‰ &œj bJœ ‰ œj bœ œj b œ œ # œ œj ‰ ?Jœ bœJ ‰ JœJœ & ? œœ ‰ œ22 bJœ ‰ œ bœ f œj b œ œ # œ œj p ‰ ?p J33 J ‰ J & j p œ bœ œj b œ œ # œ œ œ ? œ ‰ œ2 j bJœ ‰ œj bœ ? p J3 j ‰ J ‰ J & œ bœ œ #œ œ œ J5 5 2 4 3 63 5 5 # œœ4 œ p5 4 5 œ5 œ4 œ 4 4 5 5 5 œ œ 4 5 4 œ œ 4 œbœnœ5 œbœ4 œ œ55 œ5 œ5 œ œ5 œ œœ4 ‰ 63 5 œ œ œ # œ 4 œœ 4 œ œ œ# œ œ ‰ ‰ 4 5 5 œ œ 5 œ œ œ œ 4 & œ œ 4 5 63 œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 5 5 # œ n œ œ 4 œ 2 bœnœ5 œbœœ4 n œœ5 b œ œ4 œ œœ5 œ œ œ5 œ œ œ ‰ œ # œ œœ5 #œ4 œ œ œ œ4 œ ‰ œ5 œ œœ4 œœ5 œ œœ5 œ œ4 œœ ‰ 63 œ œ & œœ œ2 nnfœœbœnœœ5 œbœ4 œœn œ5 œœb œœ5 œœ œœ4 œ œ5 œœ œœ4 œ œ5 œ œ5 œ ‰ œ # œ œ5 œœ#œœœ4 œ œ œ# œœ4 œ ‰ œœ5 œ œ4 œœ œœ5 œ œ5 œœ œœ4 œ ‰ & 63 œ bœnœ œbœ œn œ œb œ5 œ œ4 œ œ5 œ œ4 œ œ5 œ œœ5 ‰j œ # œ œ5 œ#œœ4 œ œœ œ# œœ œ ‰j œ5 œ œ4 œ œ5 œ œ5 œ4 ‰j 2 & b œ œ n œ f ? œ 2 fœbœnœ œ œ n œœ b œœ œœ œ œœ œ‰ œ Œœœ œ œ œ ‰œj œ # œ œœ #‰œ œ Œœ œ ‰œj œ œ œœ œ‰ œ Œœœ œ œ œ ‰œ j & œœ œ œ œ œ‰ Œ œj œœœ # œ œ œ ‰œ Œ ? bbœœ œ2 nfœ œ bbœœœ œn œ œb œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ‰ Œ œ j j œ ? bœ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œœj œœ œ j œ ‰ Œ œ ‰ Œ ‰ Œ j œœ œ œ œ œ œ ? œ œ fœ b œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ œ ‰ Œ œ ‰ Œ œj œ œ œj bœ œ œ j œ œ ? bœ œœ œœœ bb œœ œœ œœ œ œ œ œ œ Composers ‰ Œ ‰ Œ GreatPianist ‰ Œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ œ œ

51 11 TRACK Track 12 51 51 51

1

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 58 p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 58

58•

58•

69

09/06/2015 09:20 8/11/12 08:54:42

{{ { {{ { {{ { {{ { {{ {

Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) œ Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) œWolfgang 5 5 œ œ 5 œ œ b œ ™ ™ ™ œ ADVANCED œ œ œ œ œ ADVANCED # œ 2minor 1 4 5 4 2 ™ œ œ Rondo in A K511 œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œ 5 5 Rondo #œ1 œbœ ≈œ ™#œ2 nœnœ œ #≈œ ™#œnœ#œ œ#œ œ≈ ™#œ œnœnœ œ5 œœœ œ ‰ œ5 œœœ4 œœ b ≈œ5 ™œ2 œK511 œ55 œœœœ œinœ Aœœ ‰minor & œœ œœœœ œœœ44 œœ œ œ b œ ™ œ œœ œ œœ œ œœ ‰ ≈5 œ2 œ#œ1 œœbœ ≈œ ™##œœ2 œœnœnœ œ #≈œ ™#œnnœœ#œ œ#œ œ≈ ™##œœ œœ œnœnœ ‰ œ5 œœœ4 œœ œ œ 5 œœ & œ5 œœœ œœ œœ œœ œ œ œœœ4 œœ ‰ 5 œœœ4 œ5 œœœ œ œ œ ‰ bp≈œ ™œ2 œ#œ1 bœ ≈œ ™ 2 œnœnœ œ #≈œ ™#œ #œ œ#œ œ≈ ™ œ œnœnœ & œœ œ œœœ5 œ œ ‰ œ œœ œœ5 œ œ œ ‰œ bp≈œœ™ #œ œbœ ≈œœ ™™#œ nœnœ œ ≈œ ™#œnœ#œ œ#œ œœ≈ ™™#œ œnœnœ 5 ™ 67 œ œœ œ ™ & j œ œ œ œ œœ ™ nœ ™œ2 œ#œ1 œbœ ≈œœ ™™#œ2 œnœnœ œ #≈œ™ ? œœ5 œœœ œœœ‰4 œœŒ œœ #‰œj œœ5 œœœ4 œœ‰ œœŒ œJœ p≈œœ™ ™#œ #œ œ#œ œœœ≈ ™™™#œ œ œnœnœ ‰ œ™ œ ™ ™ & œ œ p œ # œ œ œ™ ™ ™ j œ ? # œ œœ ‰ Œ œ™ œ ™™ Jœœ2 œ ™ œ™ ‰ Œ # œ ? #œ œ œœ ™ Jœ42 pœ™ œœ™™ ™ œœj œœ ‰ Œ ‰ Œ œ # ? ## œœ Jœœ42 œœ™™ ‰ Œ ‰ Œ œœ ™™ œœ ™™ œœ™™ j œ 4 # œ œ œ # œ ? J24 ‰ Œ ‰ Œ ## œœ œ œ 2 4 71 # j j bœ™ œ œ ™ œ j œ # œ n œ # œ n œ œ™ œ 71 b œ ™ j n œ # œ n œ # œ j # œ n œ # œ n œ œ ™ 71 b ≈ ≈ #œ œ#œ nœ œ nœœ#œ œ œ#œœjj œ & œ ™ œœ œœ#œ nœbbœœ ≈≈œœ ™#œ œœ nnœœ nœ œœ ##œœ≈≈#œ nœ œœbbnnœœj œ##≈œœ nnœœ nœ#œ nnœœj œ œ™ ≈ 71 b œ ™ ≈ ##œœ œœ#œ nœ œ nnœœ3 #œ œœ1 œ#œœœj œœ & nœbœ ≈œ ™#œ cresc. nœ œbnœj œ ≈ nœ nœ#œ œj œ œ™ # œ n œ # œ n œ ≈ ≈ œ # œ ≈ & #œ nœ œ œ3 #œ 1 œ#œœ œœ œ nœbnœ œ ≈#œ nœ œb œj œ#≈œ nœ nœ#œ nœ œ œ™ œœ™ 71 b ≈ œ # œ j œ b ™ œœ ™™ œ œ#œ nœbœ# ≈œœ ™#œ cresc. ≈ & œ ≈ # œ #œnbnœœ œ#nœœœ3 #™ œ œ1 #nœj œ œ nœnnbnœœJœ œ #œœœ≈#œ nœ œbbbbnœJœœ #œœœ n™™ œ nœ nœœ œ #nnœœœ™ ™ #œ nœbœ# ≈œœ #œ cresc. ? ≈œ™ ™ œœ ™™™ #œ œ #nœœœ≈ #œ œ#œnbbnJœœœ œ#nœœ3 #™™ œ œ1 œ nœJœ œ & œ ≈ œœ cresc.nb œJœ œœ b œ ? œœ™ # b œ Jœ23 œ14 ™ 1 ™ 1 # œ13 n Jœ #œœ13 1 nJœ ? œœ™ œœ cresc.nb œJœ23 œ b 2 4 J œ # n œ œ b œ ™ œ 1 2 1 2 1 # œ131 nbJœœ #œœ31 ™ ? œœ™ nJœ J 21 ™ 32 41 32 41 J œ b œ 31 œ b œ ™ J œ # œ n œ Jœ nœœ31 bœœ #œœ3 ™ œ41 b œ32 œ41 ™ # n ? 212 n J323 J3 4 4 3 J 13 J 1 2 1 2 1 1

67 TRACK 11 Track 12 5 67 67 5 67 5

œ™#œ œ œ#œ nœ œ#œ nœ #œ ™ ≈ #œ œ#œ≈55 ™ œ œœ œ nœ#œ ≈ œ44 #œ nœ11 ##œœ33 nnœœ œ œ#œ nœ##œœ nnœœ # œ œ™ œ™ ≈ ##œœ œœ#œ#œ œ#œ≈5 ™ œœ œ œ nnœœ#œ ≈≈ œ4 #œ nœ1 #œ3 nœ œœ œ#œ nœ#œ nœ ≈ œ #œ#œ œ ≈ ™ œ™ œ pœ ≈œ™#œ#œœ#œ#œ œ#œ≈5 ™ œ œœ œ nœ##œœ #≈œ pœ4 #œ nœ1 #œ3 jnœ œj œ#œ nœ#œjnœ œ≈ #œ œ #œ #œ≈ œ œœ œ nœ ≈œ p #œ‰ n&œ#œœjnœ#œœ #‰œ nœ#œœjnœ œ ##œœ#œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ ##Jœœœ p ‰ &#œœj #œœjj ‰ œœj œ œ œ œ œ #œJJœœ p ‰ &##œœ14 j #œœœ23 j ‰ œœj # œ œ œ ‰ & œ141 #œ232 ‰ œ œ œ J œ #œœ ‰ #œœ4 j œ32 j ‰ œœj œ #œ œ &#œ14 #œ J œ3 œ 1 3 œ 1 œ 2 œ # œ n œ # œ 77 1 1 1 2 1 œ1 œ # œ 1 3 œ œ n œ # œ 3 35 4 j j œ j œ # œ n œ # œ 77 1 #œ œ™ 2 1 n œ œ # œ n œ # œ ‰ œœj #œœj ‰ œœj #œœ œœ1 œ # œ œ1 # œ3 œ œœ n œ # œ n œ # œ œ œnœ#œ 1 33 ≈œ™ #œ œ11 nœ 5 #œ œ 77 œ & 2 1 n œ # œ J n œ # œ 5 ‰ œœj #œœj ‰ œœj #œœ œ1 œ # œ œ1 # œ3 œ œ n œ # œ n œ # œ œ œnœ#œnœ1 #œ3 ≈œ™ œ#œ œœ1 nnœœ 77 œ & # œ 2 1 œ ‰ œ ‰ J 5 #œ œ#œ & ≈œ™ j #œœj ‰ œj #œœ 1 1 3 œ œ n œ # œ œ n œ # œ nœ œ # œ n œ # œ 77 J 1 œ ‰ œ œ œ œ # œ n œ # œ 1 #œ œ 1 2 œ œ & J # œ n œ # œœjn œ#œœj # œ n œ # œœjn œ #œœ œ 3 ≈ j r 5 #œ œ # ‰œ n œ # Jœœ n œ œœ œ # ‰œ n œ # Jœœ n œ œœ ‰ &œœ #œœj ‰ œœ #œœr ≈œn‰œ#œn‰œ#œ Œœ™™ œ#œ œnœ & #œœœJ ? #Jœ œ # ‰œ n œ # œ n œ #Jœ ‰ Jœ œœj ‰ Jœ œœr ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ≈™ #œ ? œ1 # ‰œ n œ1 # œ n œ œ œ 1 J J œ œ J & #œœ ? œ # ‰œ n œ # Jœ n œ œJœ œ # ‰œ n œ # Jœ n œ œJœ ‰ &œœJ12 #œœj ‰ œœJ #œœr ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ ™ & #œJœ ? 1 ‰ 1 œ 1 Jœ ‰ œ Jœ & 1 #œ œœ ‰ Jœœ #œœœ ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ ™ œ J ‰ œ œ 1 1 1 J J œ 2 J # œ n œ # œ n œ & #œœ & 1 #œ # œ n œ Jœ ‰ # œœ n œ Jœ Jœ21 œœj ‰ Jœ #œœœr ≈ ‰ ‰ Œ ™ ?1 ‰ 1 œ 1 œ J œ ‰ J J ‰ J œ #œœ & #œœ &œ2 #œ ‰ œ J J J 1 1 1 J 1 80 4 3 2 2 j ‰ j bœ œ œ4.. œ3.. 80 #œ™ n œ œ #œ œ œ œ™ #œ œ œ œ # œ n œ ‰ œj œj 2 80 œ™ & œ œ4. œ3. J J J n œ œ #œ œ œœ œ™ #œ œ J œ œ # œ # 2 b œ n œ ‰ ‰ j j œ œ œ œ 80 #œ™ pœ & n œ œ #œ œ œ™ #œ œ 4 3 œ œ # œ J J J b œ n œ ‰ ‰ J cresc. . œj œj 2 & œ™ œ œ‰3. pœ Jœ nœ J J œ #œ œ œ œ™ #œ œ J œ # œ 80 #cresc. b œ n œ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ 4 œ p. & cresc. œ œœ œj™ œ œj . #œ #œ œ œ œœ™ Jœ™ Jœ Jœ2 Jœ cresc. j n œ ™ œ œ n # œ ? ‰ ‰ ‰ œ ‰ œ œ n œ # œ œ œ œ # # cresc. cresc. p ‰ ‰ ≈ œ œ œ œ b œ n ‰ ‰ œ & cresc. œ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰ ™ œœ œœ & œœ œœJ cresc. œ œ #œ nœ #œj œ nœ‰ #œ nnœœ‰ ##œœ2 Jœ œœœ œœJœ ‰ ‰ œ œ 1 5 ™ ™ œ p & ≈≈J ##œœ3 œ œ #œ2 nœ #≈œj ? & ?f œ4 nœ ‰ #œ ‰ œœ œœ ‰œ œœ œœ & ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰ ™ œœ œœ p‰ & cresc. œ œ 2 nœ #≈ 2 1 -™5 œ # œ j n œ # œ ™ œ œ œ‰ ™ œœ œœ cresc. œ n œ # œ ? 3 ‰œœ ™™ œœ œœ p‰1 - 5 œ œ ‰ œ & ≈ ##œœ3 œ œ #œ2 nœ #≈œj ff œ44 ‰ nœ‰ #œ2 & œ œ œ œ ™ œ œ œ œ pœ ™ œ™ ≈ 1 - 5Composers Great ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰œ ™ œ œ p Pianist & ≈ #œ3 œ œ #œ2 nœ #œ ?f œ4 nœ #œ 2 & œ ≈ 4 2 2 1-5 œ™ œ œ œ™ œ œ 3 f p 74 74 74 74

& & & 74 & ? & ? ? ? ?

œ™ ≈œ™#œ œ#œ#œ ≈œ™##œœ œœ#œ#œ œ™#œ œ#œ#œ f≈ ≈ fœ™ #œ#œ #nœ fœ #œ œ nœ ≈ #œ#œ#nœ fœ œ #œ nœ #œ fœ nœ œ #œ 2

#œ4 ™ œ œ#œ≈4 ™™ œ œ#œ≈≈4 ™ œ œ#œ œ œ#œ≈4 ™ œ œ œ≈ œ œ œ

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 59 p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 59

4

œ œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ

3

œ nœ œ nnœœ œ œ nœ œ nœœ œ œ

4

3

œ œ œ œ œ

59• 59•

4 5

3

4

1

3

1 3

69

09/06/2015 09:20 8/11/12 08:54:56

{ {

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791)

Track 11 12 TRACK

83 83 83 83

1 1 1 1

####### & ##### & & &

{ {

###œœœ #JJœJ J

œœœ555 JJœJ5 J

œœœ œœ œœnœ œ œœ œœnnnœœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ ##œœ œ œ œ ##œœ ‰‰‰ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœœ‰ ™™ œœ œ œœœ œœ œ œ ™™

œœœ œ

Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ Ϫ

###œœœ œœœ #œ œ

j œœœjjj œ

ADVANCED ADVANCED

j œœœjjj œ

1 2 1 2 œ 1 ≈n 2 œ œ # œ n œ ≈ b œ ≈ n œ ≈ œ œ # œ 1 2 n œ ≈ b œ ≈ n œ ≈ ≈ & œ œ # œ ≈ b œ ≈ n œ ≈ ≈ & R n œ R œ œ # œ & R ≈ b œ ≈ n œ ≈ ≈ RR RR & R cresc. p cresc. p cresc. p cresc. p ‰ ‰ ? ‰ ‰ ? ‰ ‰ ‰ œœœ œœœ ‰‰ œœ œ ? ‰‰ œ œ ‰‰ œ œ ‰‰‰‰ œœ œœ ‰‰‰‰ œœ œœ ‰ ‰ & & ‰ ‰ & & ? & ‰& œœœ ™™ œœœ œœœ œœœ ™™### œœœ œœœ œœœ ™™ œœœ œœœ œœœ ™™ œœœ œœœ & ‰œœœ ™™ œœ œœœ ‰œœœ ™™ œœœœ œœœœ & œ ™™ œ œ ™™ œ ™™ œ œ œ ™™# œ œ œ ™™ œ ™™ T 87 3 T 87 5 33 T œ 3 1 87 5Æ 23 ### 444 333 T œ # œ n œ 1j 4 133 T T œ 3 œ # œ n œ # œœœ j T 5Æ 2Æ œ # œ n œ 1j 1 4 1 œ œ 87 œ 3 œ œ # œ n œ # j œ œ œ œ T 3 œ # œ n œ 1j ‰ 1 4 1 23Æ œ œ œ # n œ œ™ œ œ™ ™ 5 œ # œ n œ j # Æ œ œ œ œ ≈ ≈ ‰ œ œ œ œ 3 œ œ œ # n œ œ™ œ œ™ R œ œ œ œ ™ # œ # œ n œ 1 4 3 1 4 1 2 œ œ œ œ Æ ≈ ≈ ‰ ‰ œ & # œ œ œ # œ n œ # j j Æ œ œnnœœ œœ œœ œœ™ ≈≈ œ œ ≈≈ RRR œ & ##œœ œœœ ‰‰ ## ™™™ œJJœJ œ™ œœÆ œœœ' ‰‰ œJœJœ œ œ œ œ™ œ™ & œ œ & #œ œ '' JJ J ' ff p f p ff œœœ f pœ œœœjjjj œœ œ œ œ fj pœ fœ œ œ œ œœJ ‰‰ ####### ™™ ‰‰ œ jj œœœ œ ‰ ? œ œ œ™ œ œ ‰ ? ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ™ œ œ œ ‰ ? ‰ ‰ ‰ # œ & œ œ j œ œ™ # J œ ™ J œ # ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ #œ & JœJJ JœJ2 ‰ JJœJ2 ? œ™ JJ ‰ ### ™™ ‰ 3 & ‰ ‰ & ‰œœœ ™™ œœœ ##œœœ œœœœ 3 J2424 J J242442 3 T 4T 1 ™ œ 3 42 3 T 4 1 œ ™ T## 55 313 œ4 5 4 5 4T 1 4 4 # T 5 T 4 1 1 # # 4 5 4 5 5 Æ T 3 # 5Æ 13ÆÆ 2 # 4ÆÆ 5ÆÆ 4ÆÆ œ 5ÆÆ 5 1. 2. 33 œ 4 5 90 3 2 œ œ n œ œ œ 5 1 Æ 1 1 2 90 90 # # 1313 œ Æ œÆÆ œ121211ÆÆ œœœ4ÆÆ œœœ5ÆÆ nnn œœœ4ÆÆ œœœ5ÆÆ œœœ444 œœœ555 ### œœœ nnn œœœ5 œœœ œœ œœœ œœ111 # œœœ444 œœ œœ222... .. œ.. #œ... œœ111... œœ... œœœ.... œœœ11... ### œœœ22... œœœ33 œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œœœ œ™ 90 ### œ # 1 œ™ œ # œœœ œœÆÆ ‰‰‰ œœ œœ ‰‰‰ nnœœ œœ ‰‰‰ œœœ œœœ # œ n œ œ œœ œ œœ1 œ4 œœ œœ2. œœœ.. œœ.. ##œœ. œœ1. œœ. œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ### œœ™ œ & # œ œ™ œ & J J J J ‰‰‰ & œ œ#œ & # œ œœ œJJœJJ ‰ JœJJ JœJJ ‰ nJœJJ JœJJ ‰ JœJJJ œ ‰ 3 3 3 3 3 3 p ff p 3 3 3 Æ Æ p p œ Æ Æ 3 3 3 Æ Æ œœœ œ œ œ œ œ pœ f p œ Æ Æ # œ œ Æ Æ œ œ œ œ Æ Æ # œ œ p f p œ œ œ œ j œ Æ Æ # œ œ œ # j Æ Æ œ ? ## # œ œ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ # œ œ ‰ œ œ œJœJ & œ œœjjj œjjj ‰‰‰ ‰‰‰ ? ŒŒŒ ‰‰‰ ? œœœ™ œœ œœœ ‰ ‰ ? ######## œœ œœJJœJ2 JœJJJ ‰‰‰ JœJJJ JœJJJ ‰‰‰ JœJJJ JœJJJ ‰‰‰ œJJœJJ1 œœ2 JJ & & Œ ‰ œœ™ & œ™ 15 25 J252552 œ 15 25 2 25 œ™ 15 25 25 5 5 5. 5 52 5. 1 œ . 5 . 5. # œ 1 œ . . 94 . . 3. œ 1 œ . . # œ 94 ... œœ111... ## œœ... œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœ 5 œ œ . . 3. . . 3 œ 1. . œ . n œ . # œ 94 # # œ œ 1 . œ 2 1 1 3 . . 3. œ œ . . 3 1 n œ . œ œ œ œ . . œ œ # 2 1 1 3 . . œ œ œ 94 ### œ # œ œ œ n œ . œœ3. œœ.. œœ.. ###œœœ33 œœ œœ#œ22 œœ11 nnœœ##œœ nnnœœœ11 ###œœœ33 œœ œœ... œœ... ###œœœ.. œœ11.. œœ.. œœ. œœ1. ## œœ. œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ ##### n œ & œ œ#œ œœ œ##œœ œ nnœœ##œœ nœ#œ œ œ. œœ. #œ œ œ & # & œ#œ œ œ &

{ {

œœœ œ

œœœ JœJJ J

Rondo in Ainminor K511 Rondo A minor K511

######### & ## & & &# 96 96 96 96

‰‰‰ ‰

2 2 ##2œ2œ œœ œœœ

#œ œœ œ #œ

ff f f

œœœ ™™™ œœœ ™™™ œœ ™™ ™ ˙™ œ˙™ ˙™ œ˙™™ . . œœœ1111 œœœœ... ### œœœ... œœœ.... œœœ.... nn œœ... œœ... œ.. .. 2 œ # œ œ œ nn œœ. œœ. œœœ.. œœœ.. ###œœœ œœœ œœ##œœ œœnnnœœœ###œœœnnnœœœ###œœœ222 œ#œ œ œœ#œ œœnœ#œnœ#œ #œ

####### & ##### & & &

ff f f

99 99 99 99

3 3 œœ33nnœœ œœœ

œœœ ™™™ ˙™ œ˙™ œ˙™™™ ˙™

™ ####### œnœ œœ™ œœ™ ™ œ ™ œ œ™ & ##### œnœ œœ™™ & & & ####### & ##### & & &

œœœ œœ

œœœ ™™™ œœ ™™

œœœ œœ

###œœœ jjj ‰‰ ? ? ? œœj ‰‰ ?#œJJœJ2 œœ1 œ1313 31 3

p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 60

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 60

œœœ JœJœJ J

‰‰‰ ‰

‰‰‰ ‰

œœœ ™™™ ##œœœ œœœœ œœ ™™ ##œœ œ 2

J2424 cresc. 42 cresc. 4 cresc. cresc.

24 24 42 4

œœœ5555 ™™™ 2222 1111 #œœœ œ‰‰‰ ™ œœœ nnnœœœ ###œœœ nœ ff‰ œ f fœ™ œ œ™ œœ™ œœœ™ bbbœœJœ nnnœœœœ œ bJœJ nœ J 2 25 25 25 5

œœœ nnnnœœœœ œœ p p p p œœœ JœJJ J 3 133 13 1 1

p p p p

j œœœjjj œœ

‰‰‰ ‰

‰‰‰ ‰

œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œ™ œœ œ œ œ™ œ™ œ™ œœœ œœœ œœœœ œJœJJ J

‰‰‰ ‰ ‰‰‰ ‰

™™™ ™™

ŒŒŒ Œ œœœ œJJœ JJ 4 42 42 42 2

3 3 ##33œœ œœ œœœ œ

#œ œ œ #œ

œœ™ ™™ nœ œ œœ™ œœ™ œœ™™™ nnnœœœœ####œœœœ 2 2 21 21 21 1

2 2 2

‰‰‰ ‰ œœœ œJJœ JJ 3 32 32 32 2

‰‰‰ ‰

nnnœœœ424224 nœJœJ2 JJ 4

j œœœ œœœjjj ‰‰‰ ™™™™ ‰‰‰ œœ œœ ‰ ™ ‰ 4 3. 2. 3. 4 . . . œœœ3333 œœ œœœ444 œœœ333... œœœ222... œœœ333... œœœ444 œœœ œœœ œœœ... œœœ... œœœ... œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

4 4 4 4

3 3 3 3

4 4 4 4

œœœ œœ œœ œœœ œœœ 222 œœ œœ333 222 œ œœ œœ œ œ œœœœ œœœœ2 œœ œœ3 œœœ œœœ2 œœœœ œœ

jjj ‰‰‰ & n œ nœœj & ‰& &nnœ œœ44 Pianist 4

j œœœjjj œœ

‰‰‰ ‰

‰‰‰ ‰

p p p p

œœœ œœ

œœœ œœ

œœœ JJœJ J

60• 69 60• Great Composers 4

j œœœjjj œœ

‰‰‰ ‰

j œœœjjj œœ œ

j nnnœœœjjj nœœ1311 3

ŒŒŒ Œ

31 3

ŒŒŒ Œ

œœœ ™™™ œœ121 ™™ 21 21 2

cresc. cresc. cresc. cresc.

œœœ œœ œœ113 œœœ 13 31 3

? ? ‰‰‰ ? ‰?

8/11/12 08:55:13

09/06/2015 09:20

{{ {{

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) ADVANCED ADVANCED 3 Rondo in A minor K511 Rondo in A minor K511 103 4 T œ33... œœ.. œ.. œ33.. œ.. 1 103 # 2 1 1 33. . 11. 2 4 T Æ 1 1 œ 2 1 1 #œ œ œ.. nœ1. œ2 œœ œ Æ . 103# œ œ œ œ # 1 . 3 4 T œ œ # œ œ œ # Æ 3. œ . 1 #œ 2 1 œ™ # œ œ œ 3 œ œ œ . 1 #œ Æ ‰ œ n œ œ # œ n œ Æ . # . 1 2 œ™ œ œ # œ n œ œ™ œ # . œ œ œ # & 103 œ™ œœ œœ2 œœ1 ##œœ œœ1 ##œœ œ™T œÆ nnœœœÆ nnœœ1 œ œ. œ. œ3. . œ 4 œ#œ œ1 #œ3. . nœ1. JœJ2 ‰‰ œœ œ & # # œ™ & ## œ œ œ œ œ œ#œ œ #œ œ nœ Jœ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ œ™ œ nœœÆ nœ & œ™ cresc. ff p J cresc. pœ œœ nn œœ œ ≈≈ œ n œ # œ œœ ## œœ œœ cresc. f œ œœ #n œ œœ œœ œœJ ‰ ppœœœ œœœ ≈œ™ œœ nn œœ ## œœ œ # œ œœ ‰ ‰ ? ##### œ™ n ‰ ‰ œ ? cresc. f n œœJœ œJ ‰ œJ # œ œœ #n œJ JœJœ ‰‰ ‰‰ œœ ? #### ≈œ™ œ2 n œ # œ2 œ # œ2 JœJ ‰‰ ‰‰ n JJœ44 Jœ ‰ œJœ J 3 œ113 #Jœ Jœ224 œ 3 ? ### œ™ 22 22 22 Jœ ‰ ‰ n œ4 J ‰ Jœ ‰ ‰ 31 3 J424 J4 J J 3 J 2 2 2 1 2 3 4T1 3 4 4 106 1 .. œ.. nœ.. 22 4 1 4 1 3 106 # 1 1 2 œ 2 3 3 4T1 œ n œ œ # œ 4 œ 106# 1 #œnœ œ n œ œ # œ œ n œ # 2 œ 2 3 3 T . 1 2 œ # œ n œ œ # œ œœ œœ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœœ œœ . . œ œ # n œ œ # œ n œ œ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ n œ # 2 2 3 œ œ œ # œ œ 4 1 . . . œ n œ œ # œ # & # œ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ 106 nœ œ . #œ2 4 œ nœ œ œT œ. œ œ1. . . 1. . nœ œ œ & & #### œœ œ ‰‰ nnœœnœ œœ œ ‰‰ nnnœœœnœ œ2 œ œ. nœ. #œ#œ œœ œœ œ3 œœ œœ œ2.. œœœ..3 œœ... ##œœ... œ.. œœ.. œœ. œœ. ##œœ. nœ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ j œ. œ. œ#œ œ. . . . . & œ nffœ œ nppœ1 2 œœjj œœ . . . 2 2 œ f pœ œ 2 1 œ œ œ œ œ # œ 2 ? ##œ œ1 œ2 œ™ œ œ œ2 œj œJœJœ œœ ‰‰ ‰‰ ŒŒ ‰‰ ? œ™ ? ###### œœœJJœ ‰‰‰ fœœJJ œœJJ ‰‰‰ pœœJJœ1 œœœ2 œ œ™ J œ œ œ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ Jœ JJ ? ### Jœ ‰ œJœ œJœ ‰ Jœ œ œ™ œ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ J J J J J J 5. 1 109 1 5. . . 1 109 # 11 œ 1 2 1 1 3 . . 3 3 . . œ œ 5. œ 109# 2 1 1 3 . œ œ # œ 3 3 . . . 1 n œ œ # œ . 1 ### œœ œ5 œ œ. œœ. nœ. œœ3.. œœ.. œ.. œ3 œ 2 1 nœ#œ nœ1 #œ3 œ œ œ œ œœ œœ. œ11. ##œœ. œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ œœ # & 109 œ œ œ. . . œ. #œ. . nœ œ œ œ & & #### œ1 œ œ. œ. œ. nœ. œœ3. œ. œ.. œœ3 œœ œœœ###œœœ2 œœœ1 nnœœ##œœ nnœœ1 ##œœ3 œ œœœ.. œœ... œœ... œ1.. œ.. œœ. œ. #œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ#œ nœ#œ œ pœ. œ œ œ. œ. . . . & ff p. . . œœ ™™ #œ ™ œ fœ p ™ œ œ # œ ™ ™ ? # œ œ œ ™ ™ ˙™ # œ œ ‰‰ ŒŒ ‰‰ ? œœ ™™ ™™ JJœ p ‰‰ œ˙™ ? ###### f˙™ œ œ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ œ ™ ™ J œ ? ### œ˙™ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ J 111 . 111 # 11 œ ### œœ1 œœ.. œœ... œœ... œœ.. nœ.. œ.. œ.. . jj 111 # œœ ™™™ ‰ ‰ n œ . œ # . œ œ œ # . œ # j & œ n œ # œ œœœ ™™ œ ‰ ‰ 111 œ œ . . œ œ nœ#œ œ . & ‰ ‰ & #### œ1 œ œ. œ. œ. nnœœ. œœ. œœ. œ.. œœ œœ œœœ###œœœ œœœ nnœœ##œœ nnœœ##œœ œj œœ ™™ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ#œ œ nœ#œ nœ#œ œ & ff œ™ œ ™ ™ . fœ . œœœ ™™™ ™™™ œœ.. œœ. œ.. œ.. .. . . ? ##### fœœ˙™ œ ≈ ? œ ™ ™ ˙™ œ ≈≈ œ. œ. œœ. œœ. nnnœœœ. œœ.. œœ.. œœ.. œœ œ œ œ nœ#œ nnœœ##œœ ? #### ˙™ œ ™ ™ œ . . œ™ œ . œ # œ nœ#œ ? ### œ˙™™ ≈ œ111 œ œ œ11. nœ. œ. œœ11. œœ. œ œ œœ11 ## œœ33 œœ nœ#œ444 nœ#œ œ œ œ1 # œ3 œ nœ#œ nœ#œ 1 1 4 1 113 1 1 1 3 113 # j jj 113 # ###### œœjj ™ œ ‰‰ ‰‰ ‰ ‰ œ ™ & nnœœ ™™™ œ ‰ ‰ 113 œœj œœj ™™ œ & # ™ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ # & ## œ nœœœ ™™ œœ ™ œœj ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œœ ™™ nœœ ™™ & œœ œœ œ™ # ? # œ œ # œœ. œœ. œ œ nœ ? ? ###### œœ œœ2... œœ1... œœœ.. œœœ.. œœœ.. œœ.. œœ. œœ. # œ # œ œ . . œ. œ œ ? ### œ œ22. œ11. œ. œ. œ11. œ. œ.. œ.. ## œœ1 ## œœ œœ ## œœ œœ nnn œœœ11 ### œœœ33 nnn œœœ ### œœœ œœ33 œœ. œœ. œœ11.. œ... nnœœ... œœ... nnn œœœ1.. nnn œœœ.. œœ nn œœ1 œœ ## œœ œœ bb œœ nn œœ nn œœ3 ## œœ œ 3 . . 1. œ. œ œ# œ1 œ # œ œ 1 3 n œ # œ11 œ34 . . 1. œ. nœ œn œ11. . œ n œ1 œ33 # œ œ b œ n œ n œ33 # œ 2 1 . . .œn œ. œ n œ1 œ3 # œ œ b œ n œ n œ # œ 4 3 1 1 4 1. . 1 # œ œ # œ œ n œ # œ 4 1 115 3 1 œ 1 3 4 n œ # 3œ 115 # 3 1 4 1 4 3 1 n œ # œ œ nnœœ##œœn œ # œ4 nn œœ1 ## œœ4 œ œœ#œ œ œœ œ1œœ œœ œ### 1œœœ nn3œœ #œ œœ œ œœœ3œœ œ 2 œ 115 # 3 1 4 1 n œ # œ # 2 œ # œ # œ 3 œ # n œ # œ ≈ 2 œnœ1 #œ3 œœ##œœ4 œœ1 ##œœ œ œœ##œœnœ#œ œnœ#œn œ # œ4 œ##œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œœ# œ n œ ##œœ##œœ œ œœ œ œ œœ & 115 ### ≈#œ œ & n œ # œ n œ # œ # œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ n œ #œ#œ œ œ œ œ & ### ≈≈##œœ2 œœnœ#œ œ#œ œœ##œœ œ œ#œnœ#œ œnœ#œn œ # œ 33 œ #œ & 3 p #œ œnœ#œ œ#œ p 3 p ? ##### ? p œœ ##œœ & œœ ™ ™™™ ? #### œ™ # œ &œ œ ™ ˙ # œ œ œ ™ # œ & ˙ # œ œ ™ ™ œ™ 2 ? ## œ™ # œ˙ ™ œ244 ™™ œ # œ &œ œ ™ œ24 ™ Great Composers# œ Pianist ˙ œ™ ™ 2

TRACK Track 1211

{{ {{ {{ {{

p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 61 p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 61

61•61•

69

4

8/11/12 08:55:29 09/06/2015 09:20

{{ {{

Track 11 12 TRACK

##### & ####### & & & 117 117 117 117

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) œœ œœ

œœ#œ œœ###œœœ

##### & ###### # œ˙ ™ & & & # ### œ˙œ˙œ˙151 --™™™™33 511 --™ 33 5 5 119 119 # # œ nnœœ œ 119 119 ### œ & ###### œ nnœœ & & &# ##### j & ###### œjj & j œœ™ & & # œ™ œœœ™ 4 4 œ™ 4 4 121 121# # nœ 121 121### nœ nœ & ###### nnœœ nnnœœœ & & &#

{{ {{

nnpppœœœ # ? #### nn œœ ? ? ? ####### œœ4 4 p

##### & ###### & & &# 123 123 123 123

? ##### ? ? ? #######

{{ {{

4 4

j œœœjjj œœœ œ œœ œœ

œœ œœ

##### & ###### & & &# 127 127 127 127

? ##### ? ? ? #######

œ œœ œœœ œœ œœ#### œœœœ œœ œœ œœ

œœ #œ œœ #œ##œœ ##œœ##œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ#œnn œœ œœ###œœœnn œœ

œœ nœ œœ œœ nnœœ œœ nœ

œœ œœ

œœ###œœœ nnœœ nnœœ œœ#œ nnœœ nnœœ##œœ ##œœ œœ™ bbnnnnœœ™ bb œœœ™ œ™

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœœ nnœœ œ œœbbœœ œ œœ œ nnœœ œœœ œœbbœœ œœ œœ œ œœ nn œœ bbœœ nn Jœœœ bbœœ JJ œœ25 J 2

œœ œ œœ™ œ n œ œœœ™™™ ‰‰ œœœJœœ n œœ™™™ nnœœ™ œJJ ‰‰ pJ p p p bœ nœn œ n œ # œ n œ # œ œœ nœ#œ nœ#œ œœœbbbœœœ nnnœœœnnn œœœ œœ œœ4 œœ4 nnœœ##œœ nnœœ##œœ2 œ 3

p4 p44 p p

2 2

3 3 3

2 2 2

œ œœ œœœ œœœœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

nœ œœ nnnœœœ œœ##œœ œœ œœ##œœ ##œœœœ ##JœœJ1 JJ411 41 4 4j œœ44 jj œœ44 j œœ ## œœ œœ ## œœ 3 3 3 3

œœ#œ œœ###œœœ

œ œœ œœœ œœ

œ œœ œœœ nnœœ œœ œ œœ nnœœ œœ œœ œ

1

œœbbœœ nnœœ œœbbœœ nnœœ

4 4 4

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

## œœ ™™ ## œœœ ™™™

nnœœ nnœœ11 1

25 25 5

1 1

4 4 4 4

œœ œœ ##œœ ##œœ

##### 44 & ###### œ œœ44 œ & & & # œœœ œœ œœœ ? ##### œ œœ œ ? ? ? ####### œœœ œœ1 œœœ2 1 2 125 125 125 125

œ œœ œœœ œœ

Rondo in Ainminor K511 Rondo A minor K511

œœ ## œœ œœ ## œœ 2 2 2 2

j œœjjj œœ4 ™™™ œ44 ™ 4 jj n œ ##nœœjj ##nnœœ

œœ œœ

œœnnnn œœœœ œœ

cresc. cresc. cresc. cresc.

nœ œœ nnnœœœ œœ

œœ œœ ‰‰ ‰‰ 3 3 3 3

œœ œœ œ nnœœ##œœ nnœœ##œœ3 fœ œ44 nnœœ##œœ nnœœ##œœ333 fœ ff 44 œ œœ œ11 œœ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœ11 œœ ‰œœ œœ JœœJ œ ‰ JJ f ‰‰ œœ ff JœœJ f ‰ ‰‰ JJ ‰ 3 3 3 3

5 5 5 5

œœ œœ œœ œ

1 1 1 1

œœ œœ œœ œœ1 1 1 1

œœ œœ œœ2 œ22 2

œœ22 œœ22 œœ

œœ œœ œœ1 œ11 1

œœ œœ œœ

œœ œJœ JœœJ J

4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1

≈≈ ≈≈ 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

œœ œœ 1 1 1 1

œ ‰‰œœœ ‹‹‹œœœ ‰‰ ‹œ

4 4 4 4

1 1 1 1

œœ œœ

2 2 2 2

œœ #œ œœ‰ #œ ‰‰ ##œœ ‰

œœ œ nœ œœ#œ#œ œœ œ œbbœœ œ nœ nnœœ‹œ#œ œœ œ œ œœ œœ nnnœœœ œœ##œœ###œœœ œœ œœ œœœbbœœ œœœ nnnœœœ nnœœ‹‹‹œœœ###œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ #œ œ dim.œ dim. dim. dim.

p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 62

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 62

∑∑∑ ∑

œœ44 #œ22 œœ œœ44 #œ22 œœ ##œœ 1 1 1 1

œœ1111 œœ

œœ55 ‹œ11 œœ55 ‹‹œœ11 ‹œ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

ADVANCED ADVANCED

5 œœ### œœœ555 nnœœ nnœœ 11 œœ# œ nnœœ nnœœ##œœ11 ##œœ

nnnnnnœœœœ ™ nn œœ151 ™™™ 51 15 5 5 5 5 5

œœ###œœœ##œœ nnœœ œœ#œ##œœ nnœœ f nn##œœfffœœ ™™™ ?n##œœ ™ ? n œœ ™ ? ? œ1 ™™

œœ œœ

5 j œœ454545 jjj œœœ4 fœ œ

f ff

nnœœœ5555 ™™ nnœœœœœ ™™™ œœ ™™

3 3 3 3

3

œœ44 œœ44

œœ ‰‰œœ ‰‰

œœ œœ

‰‰ ‰‰

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ11 œœ11

œœ œœ44 4 4

œœ44 œœ44

##œœ22 ##œœ22

œœ11 œœ11

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

1

œ œœ œœœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

j œœjjj œœ œœbbœœ nnœœ œœbbœœ nnœœ

œœ##œœ nnœœ##œœ œœ33 ##œœ nnœœ##œœ22

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

‰‰ ‰‰ 4 4 4 4

œœ œœ nnœœ nnœœ11 1

21 321 123 23 3

œœbbœœ nnœœ nnœœ œœ11 bbœœ33 nnœœ nnœœ 1 3 1

œœ œœ

œœ œœ œœ œœ 2 2 2 2

2 2 2 2

œœ#œ œœ##œœ #œ

1 1 1 1

œœ œœ

œœ œœ

œœ55 œœ55 œœ œœ œœ œœ

3 3

œœ œœ œœ œœ

2 2

2 2 2 2

œœ œœ œœ œœ3 3 3 3

œœ œœ

œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ œœ

nnœœ œ œ œœ œ œ##œœ œ#œ œœ œ œ##œœ œ nnœœ œœ œ œœ nnœœ œœ œœœ œœ œœ œœœ##œœ œœœ###œœœ œœ œœœ œœœ##œœ œœœ nnœœ œœ œœœ œœ œ œ

62• Pianist 69 62• Great Composers

p p p p

∑∑∑ ∑

pp pp pp pp

& & & &

œœ œœ œœ œœ2 2 2 2

œœ œœ

nnnnn nnnnnn n nnnnn nnnnnn n 8/11/12 08:55:41

09/06/2015 13:36

{ {

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791)

TRACK Track 1211

j œ™ œ j & œ™ ##œœ œ œj ‰ œj bœ œ ‰ œ bœ & 129 129

cresc. cresc.

Rondo A minor Rondo in Ain minor K511K511

nœ œJ ‰ #œJ œ nJœ œJ ‰ #œJ œ J

#œ #Jœ J

œ ‰ œJœ Jœ J ‰ J p p

ADVANCED ADVANCED

œ œ œ nœ 2 œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ2 œ œ œ œ #œ œœ œ #œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ‰ ™ œ œ œ™

œ œ

? ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰& œœ ‰œ œœ œœ ‰œ œœ œœ ‰œ œœ œœ ‰‰œ œœœ œœ ‰œ œœ œœ ? ‰& œœ œ ™ œœ œœ œ ™ œœ œœ œ ™ œœ œœ œ ™ œ œ œ ™ œ œœ ™ ™ ™ ™ ™ 5 133 . nœ. #œ. nœ. 3. . . 4 Ÿ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ 1 œ #œ 2 1j . nœ. #œ3. nœ. . 3. j œ 5 œ œ 133 #œ œ œ œ œ œ ~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ Jœ œ1 œ #œ. nœ. #œ. nœ. œ3. ##œœ. nnœœ. nœ4.. œ.. œ. & #œ2 œ œ œ œ. nœ. #œ3. nœ. œ. bœ3. œj ‰ œ1 j bŸœ nœJ œœ ##œJœ œ nœ œ œ. œbœ œ ‰ œ bœ nœ J & 3 J J 3 cresc. f 3 3 cresc. fj ? ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ # œ & œ œ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œœ ? ‰ ‰ œ‰ ™# œœœ œœœ ‰œ ™ œœœ œœœ ‰œ ™ œœ œœ ‰œ ™ œœ #œ œœ & ‰œ ™ œœ œ œ œ™ œ œ ™# œ œ œ ™ œ™ œ ™ œ œœ T# 136 3 T Ÿ 1j 3 3 4 1 T T j œ œ 136 œ™ œ #œœ œ1 ‰ œ3 œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ3 # œ4 œ œ ‰ Ÿ 3 1 & œœ™ j œ œ œ ‰ Jœ œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj ‰ fœœ ™™ œ œœ & œ #œ œ J œ p j f œ œj œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ ? pœœ™ œ Jœœ ‰ ‰ œ™ œ™ œ ™ œœœ œœœ ‰œ™ œœ œœ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ ? œ™ œ œ œ œ 4 J ‰ ‰ œ™ œ™ œ ™ œ œ œ™ 4 T# 139 ten. T# 4 2 3 3 œ™ œ œ œ 3 3 3 2 3 Æ œ œ33 ten. œ œ œ œ 139 4 1 œ œ œ œ œ j œ 4 2 & œ4 œ1 œ œ2 œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œ œ3 œ œ œ3. #œ. œ3. nœ. œ3. œj ‰ Jœ3 œ œ œÆ œ3 œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ nœ œ ‰ & œ œ J . . . . . œ p f p ‰ œ œ cresc. ‰ œ œœ cresc.œ p f p j œ œ ? œœ ‰ ‰ Œ œ ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰œ ™ œœ œœ œœ œj ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ ‰ œ5 ™ ? Jœœ ‰ ‰ Œ œ™ ‰ œ œ 3 œ œ J 5 5 4T 1 3 5 # 4T 1 142 3 5 œ.. œ.. œ.. œ.. œ.. œ3 ™ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ # 142 3 œ 5 œ œ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ3 ™ nœ œ œ œ œ œ Jœ ‰ œJœ œ™ & œ™ ‰ J œ™ œ œ œ œ œ œ nœ & œ™ J p ‰ pœœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ ™™ ‰ œœœ œœœ ‰ œœœ œœœ œœ œ™ œœ œœ œ™ #œœ ™™ ? #‰œ ™ œœ œœ ‰œ ™ œœ œœ ‰ ‰ œ œ œJœ ‰ ‰ œ œ™ œ™ œ œ #œœ ™™ ? #œ ™ œ œ œ5 ™ œ J ‰ ‰

& &

‰ ‰œ ™ œ™

œœ œœ

{ { { {

1 5 T# 1 4 5 4 1 œ œ œ œ œœ œ 1 5 T 4 œ 1 1 œÆ œ #™ #œ œnœ œ œ œ4 œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œnœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ11 œ œ œ1 œœ œ œ œ1 œ œJ ® œ5 œ œ œœ œœ œ44 œ œ œ œœœœ J ® œÆ œ ™ #œ œnœ œ œ œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œnœ œ œ œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ œ 3 3 3 cresc. f p 3 3 3 ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ p œ œœ cresc.œœ œœ œœœ œœœ f œœœ œœœ œ œ œ œ™ œ™ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ œœ œ‰ ™ œœ œœ #œ‰ ™ œœœ œœœ œ‰ ™ œœœ œœœ œ™ œ™ œ™ #œ ™ œ™ 5

145 145

œ & œ œœ & ‰ œœ ? œ‰ ™ œ ? œ™ œ

p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 63 p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 63

63•63 Great Composers • Pianist 69

8/11/12 08:55:53 09/06/2015 09:20

{{ {{

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791)

Track 11 12 TRACK

Ÿ32~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ ˙™ œœ 148 32~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~~ & Ÿ™ ˙ & cresc.œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ™ œ™ ? cresc. ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ & œ™ ? œ™ 148

Ϫ Ϫ

p

œ œ3 œ œ1 œ œ1 #œr œ ™ œ œ3 œ œ1 œ œ1 #œr œ ™

Rondo in Ainminor K511 Rondo A minor K511

œ œ3 #œ œ œ œ1 œ œ3 #œ œ œ œ1

œ™ #œ œ #œ œ œ œ™ #œ œ #œ œ œ

ADVANCED ADVANCED

j j œ ‰ œ j j œ ‰ œ

‰ ‰ #œœ œœ œœj ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ™ œ‰ ™ œ œ ‰œ ™ œ œ ‰ #œœ œœ œœœj ‰ ‰ œœ œœ œ œœ œœ œ™ œ œ œœ œ ™ ™ . 1. 4. 4 . . 1 œ œ œ #œ œ #œ nœ nœ œ œ œ nœ#œ3 œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ # œ . 1. 4. 4 œ1 œ. #œ. œ #œ œ nœ nœ œ œ œ nœ#œ3 œ nœ œ œ œ œ œ #œ p œ œ œ ‰ œ ? œ cresc. p ‰& œ™ & ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œœ ‰ œœ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰& & ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰ ™ œœ œœ ‰ ™ œœ œ ‰ ™ œ œ ? œ ™ œ œ T# 4 œ œ™ œ ™ 5 œT œ ™ 3T1 3 155 3 ™ 5 1. 3. . 5 4 5 1 1 œ œ 2 œ 2 1. . . œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 1 1 2 œ # œ 2 . œ # œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ T œ# #œ œnœ5 #œ œ ≈ R4 5 bœ Tœ nœ œ 3Tœ1 #œ2 3 œ 155 3 & 4 1. 3. . 5 œ 5 1 2 1 œ . . 1 œ œ 1 2 œ œ1 œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ #œ2 œ . œ. œ#œ œ#3œ œ œ # œ œ œ R œ œ # œ n œ bœ œ nœ œ #œ œ œ œ ≈ cresc. & f 3 j ? cresc. fœ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ & œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œ œ‰ ™ œœ œœ œ ™# œœ œœ œ‰ ™ œ œ ‰œ ™ œ ™ œ œ œœœj ? ‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ & œ œ # œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œœ œ ™# œœ œœ œ ™ œ42 œ œ ™ œ œ œ ™ 158 3 ™T #œ œ œ 2 3 œ 2 œ œ œ œ œ 1j œ 3 1 œ œ j œ œ J œ #œ œ #œ œ™ bœ œ #œœ42 nœ œ bœ Tnœ#œœ œ œ 158 œ & #œ 3 2 3 œ œ œ œ œ 1j œ 2 œ 3 1 J œ œ j œ J œ #œ œ #œ bœ œ #œœnœ œ bœ œ nœ#œœj œ & pœ™ cresc. f œ œ œ œœ œœ 2 J œ œ œ œ p ? œ™ j J ‰ J Jœ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ ‰ j œœ™™ cresc. fœ ™™ Œ ‰? ™ # œ œ &œ œ œ œ œ œœ œ 2 œ J ™ ™ œ œ œ œ J24 J 1 3 œ24 ‰ œj œ ™ ? œ™ œœ™ 2 ™ Œ ‰? ‰ ‰ ‰ œ J ‰ #œœ ™™ œœ5 ™™ J & œœ œœ ™™ 1 2 2 3 2 4 4 163 5 j j œ #œ œ œ œ™ #œ œ Œ nœ ∑ œ ‰ œ bœ 163 J & J j ‰ j bœ œ #œ œ œ œ™ #œ œ Œ n œ ∑ œ œ &f pJ cresc. J œ œ œ œnœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ #œ œ pœ œ œ œ œ œ œ ? f≈ œbœ cresc. œ#œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ 5 œ œ œ4 œ œ œ1 bœ3 1 2 1 1 œ#œ œ #œ3 1 3 1 œ ? ≈œ 3 œ œ œ œ œ œ bœ bœ œ œ œ #œ œ 3 2 1 1 1 1 3 1 3 4 5 1 3 166 1 2 1 nœ1 #œ2 Ÿœ œ œ œ œ œ 3 2 3 œ # œ œ œ œ # œ n œ œ ‰ #œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ 166 & J 1 2 J J2 1 nœ1 #œ2 Ÿœ œ œ œ œ œ 3 3 œ # œ œ œ œ # œ n œ nœ œ œ œ #œ œ & œJ ‰ #œJ J f ? nœ œ bœ nœ œ œ œ œ œ nœ f œ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ Œ ‰ nœ #œ œ b œ n œ œ n œ œ ? nœ œ3 1 œ œ œ œ1 œ nœ œ#œ2 œ4 œ œ œ3 œ œ ‰ Œ ‰ œ 5 n œ œ # œ Pianist nœ œ 1 3 Great Composers ‰ œœ œœ œj œœj œ™ ‰ & œ ™ œœ œœ œœœ 152 T T œ 1 n œ œ #œ œ bœ ™ nTœ œ™ #œ 152 & T œ 1 n œ œ #œ œ bœ ™ nœ œ™ #œ & cresc. p

‰ ‰

‰ ‰

{{ {{ {{ {{

64•

5

3

1

p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 64

p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 64

64•

2

69

4

8/11/12 08:56:04

09/06/2015 09:21

{{ { {{ { {{ { {{ { {{ {

Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) Wolfgang Amadeus MOZART (1756-1791) ADVANCED ADVANCED œ 2 Ain œ œ Rondo A minor K511 Rondo in minor K511 œ œ œ #œ œ œ œ#œ#œ #œ2 œ5 2 2 1 nœ œ nœ#œ nœ2 2 1 œ 2 2 2 2 n œ 169 #œ œ œ nœ#œ œ œ b œ 2 bœ 2 œ1 nœ nœ#œ2 œ nœ#œ 2 nœ#œ2 œ1 œ & œ œ # œ 2 5 2 œ #œ 2 2 2 œ #œ # œ 169 #œ œbœ 2 nœ nœ2 nœ 2 œ1 œ œ œ nœ#œ2 œ œ nœ œ2 œ #œ œ œ œ2 #œ œ #œ2 œ5 bœ2 2 1 2 # œ n œ p & œ œ œ œbœ nœ#œ œ #œ nœ nœ#œ œ # œ # œ n œ œ œ 169 # œ n œ œ # œ œ 2 œ cresc. œ œ b œ œ œ œ & #pœ2 #œ œ œ œ#œ#œ #œ2 œ5 2 œ#œ2 œ1 nœ œ nœ#œ2 œ nœ#œ nœ2 #œ2 1 œ 2 2 n œ # œ n œ j bœbœ œ#œ nœœj œjbœ n‰œ#œ#œœj œ nœ#œ#œœ ? & pŒ œ#œ œ œ œ™ œ#œ œ œj ‰ cresc. cresc. œj J œ œ œ™ Jœ j œj ‰ #œ4 j œ ? pŒ 4 œ œj ‰ cresc. p œ 2 #œ # œ # j j b œ n œ j œ ? Œ j ‰ 4 j bœ Jœ œ œ œ™ #œ œ #Jœ nœj œj ‰ #œ4 j œ p J2 #œ œ œ j j ? Œ œ œ™ #œ œ œ ‰ œ4 bœ #Jœ ‰ #œ4 œ p œ 2 #œ œ œ n œ J J 4 4 p 2 5 172 1 . nœ. . . . 3 1 3 œ #œ œ œ œ œ2 œ nœ œ5 œ5 2 1 2 1 1 œ œ œ œ œnœ œ. œ. . 3 œ œ œ œ œ # œ œ œ œ 5 œ 172 1 œ œ . 1 œ œ 5 nœ 5 #œ2 œ œ3#œ#œ. œ. . . 1. . œ œ œ 1 œ5 nœ. œ. . . 3 œ#œ3 #œ œ#œ2 œ1 nœ#œnœ1 #œ & 172 #œ œ œ œ 2 nœ œ œ 2 œ . 3 . #œ œ1 œ œ. œ. #œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ1 œ. nœ. œ. œ. nœ. œ3. œ. œ. #œ3 œ # œ 2 œ nœ œ 5 nœ 5 #œ & œnœ œ5 œpœ. 3#œ. . œ1. œ. œ œ1 #œ œ œ œ œ œ œ fœ 5. . œnœ œ. œ. œ. #œ œ#œ2 œ1 nœ#œnœ1 #œ 172 f œ œ œ œ œ & #fœ œ œ 2 œ nœ œ5 œ#œ2 œpœ#œ. #œ. . . . œ. #œ. œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ fœ1 œ™ nœ œ. œ. nœ. 3. . #œœ3 #™ œ œ#œ2 œ1 nœ#œnœ1 #œ œ œ œ. #œœ ™ œ˙™™ ? nœœ nœ œ œnœ œ#œ œJpœ. #œ. #‰œ. œ. œ. ‰œ. . . Œ & fœ ‰ f œœ#™™ œ œ#œ œnœ#œnœ#œ ™™ œ œ œœ . œ J œ ? fœ nœ3 nœ œ œ œJœp ‰ ‰ Œ œœ ™™ ‰ fœ˙™ œ˙™™™ ? œ nJœ3 nœ œœ œ Jœ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ œœ ™™ œœ ™™ ? œ nJœ3 nœ œ œœ œJ ˙™ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ J 3 . œ1. # œ. œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ1 œ2 œ3 2 2 5 5 1. . œ 175 . œ 3 1. . #œ œ œ œ # œ 2 1. # œ œ œ œ 1 #œ œ œ2 œ5 œ œ5 . œ1 # œ. œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ2 œ3 2 . 1. . œ 175 œ . œ & #œ nœ 3 1. . #œ œ œ œ 1 . . n œ œ œ # œ 2 . œ œ œ œ 3 œ # œ 2 5 5 œ œ œ 1. . œ œ # œ 2 œ 175 œ œ œ œ # œ . œ œ 2 œ œ . œ3 1. #œ. #œ œ1. . œ. œ1. # œ. œ n œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ1 2 œ3 œ #œ œ œ #œ2 œ œ œ2 œ5 œ œ œ5 #œ nœ & 175 . pœ f œ œ #œ2 œ 2 œ œ œ œ #œ & œœ3 œ1. #œ. #œ. œ œ ™ œ œ œ # œ ™ œ œ œ œ œ #œ nœ fœ ? & œJ. p ‰ œ™ ‰ Œ ‰ œ nœ ™™ fœ œ ™ œ ? œœœJœ pp ‰ ™™ œ™ ‰ Œ ‰ œ fœ ? Jœ œ™ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ œ™ ™™ œ œ œ ? J œ™ œ™ ‰ ‰ Œ ‰ œ™

TRACK Track 1211 169

177

œ Œ Jœ pJ Œ œ Œj pJ bœ œ œŒ œœ œ œ pœJ œ œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ œ œ pœ bœ œ œ œ bœ œ œ œ œ œœj œ œ pœ œ œ œ œ œœ œ œœ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œœœœœœœ œ œ œ œ b œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œp œ œ œœ œœ œœ œ œ p œ #œ œ œ œ ™ p # œ œ 179 Jœ # œ œ œ œ ™ #œ œ 179 œ ‰ Œ ‰ Œ & ™ œ œ œ œ #œ œ 179 J #œ p ‰ Œ ‰ Œ œ & œJ # œ œ œ œ ™ #œ œ 179 ‰ Œj ‰ Œj œ & p j J ? & ‰œ œ œ œ œ œ ‰ œ œ Œœj œ œbœ œ œ ‰ œ œ œŒ j œ œ œ œ œp œ œ œjnœ œ#œ œ œ œ œ ? ‰œ œ œ œœ œ œ œ œ œ œœj œ œbbœœ œ œ œ œ œ œœj œ œ œœ œ œpœ œ œ œœjnœ œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ ? f‰œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ j œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œj œ œp œ œ œ œ œ j œ#œ œ œ œ œ œ œnœ #œ œ œ œ ? f‰œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œbœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œpœ œ œGreat Composers œ œnœ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ p œPianist 177 & 177 & 177 & ? & ? ? ?

5 2

œ52 œœ52 œ52 œœ‰ œ‰ œ‰ œ‰ œ

f f

p55 Scores - Mozart-FINAL.indd 65 p55_scoresMOZARTrondo_pianistGC-FINAL.indd 65

‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ

Œ Œ Œj œŒ œ œjj œj œœ œ œœ

‰ ‰ ‰ ‰ œ œ œ œ

65•65•

p

69

œ™ œ™ œ™ j #œ œ œ œ™ œ œ œ œj nœ œ œœ œj nœ œ œj nœ œ œ œ nœ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ #œ œ œ

œ Jœ ‰ Jœ ‰ Jœ ‰ œJ ‰‰ œJ œ ‰‰ Jœ Jœ ‰ J

‰ #œœ ‰ ‰ #Jœœ ‰ ‰ #pp Jœœ ‰ Jœ ‰ ‰‰ #pp œJJ ‰ pp œ‰ ‰ pp ‰ Jœ ‰ ‰ Jœ ‰ J

œ #œ œ2 ##œœ œ2 œ2 #œ

#œ #œ #œ #œ œœ œœ œœ œœ

‰ ‰ ‰ ‰‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

j œj ‰ œj ‰ œj ‰ œœ ‰ Jœœ ‰ œJœ ‰ Jœœ ‰ J‰

2

‰ ‰ ‰ ‰‰ ‰ ‰ ‰

œ œ œ œ œ œ œ œ

Œ Œ Œ ŒŒ Œ Œ Œ

œ œ œ œ

œ œ œ œ

U ‰ U ‰ U ‰ U U ‰‰ U ‰ U ‰ U ‰ 8/11/12 08:56:18 09/06/2015 09:21

Teaching and Learning with Bärenreiter Piano Urtext Editions BACH BA 10848 Goldberg Variations, with fingering BA 5191 Well-Tempered Clavier I BA 5192 Well-Tempered Clavier II

BEETHOVEN BA 10851 Grande Sonate pathétique BA 10852 Appassionata Sonata

BRAHMS

You can download Mozart’s music.

BA 9630 Piano Pieces op. 118 BA 9607 Variations and Fugue on a Theme by Handel op. 24

You can’t download his genius!

BA 8767 Children's Corner BA 8769 Suite bergamasque

DEBUSSY

LISZT BA 9650 Sonata in B minor

Bärenreiter Urtext

Your next performance is worth it.

MENDELSSOHNBARTHOLDY BA 9069 Songs without Words

MOZART BA 4861 Piano Sonatas I BA 4862 Piano Sonatas II

MUSSORGSKY BA 9621

Pictures at an Exhibition

SCHUBERT BA 9647 Moments Musicaux D 780 BA 9648 Impromptus D 899, D 935

SKRJABIN Complete Piano Sonatas BA 9616 – Sonatas I BA 9617 – Sonatas II

ns no editio Urtex t pia c si u M For more r Piano ask for ou /2015 and visit 14 0 2 e u g r.com catalo erenreite w w w.ba

Burnt Mill, Elizabeth Way, Harlow, Essex, CM20 2HX, UK · [email protected] · Phone (01279) 828930 · Fax (01279) 828931

Classical Piano Anthology



Original Works selected and edited by Nils Franke



Graded pieces, presented in a progressive order



Well-established repertoire presented alongside rarities



Notes on each piece as well as composer biographies



CD recording of all the pieces played by Nils Franke

Volume 1

Volume 3

Volume 2

Volume 4

Suitable for Grades 1-2 ED 13234 | £ 10.99

Suitable for Grades 3-4 ED 13436 | £ 10.99

Suitable for Grades 5-6 ED 13440 | £ 11.99

Suitable for Grades 7-8 ED 13443 | £ 10.99 66• Great Composers

Available from all good music shops and from www.schott-music.co.uk

p66 Ads.indd 66

11/06/2015 10:06

MEET THE COMPOSER

Inside

the

Beethoven’s 32 sonatas are the heart of the Classical repertoire. Tim Stein looks at their historical background, and advises how to tackle this challenging and profound music

I

t all began with a letter. A love story. Doesn’t it always? In July 1812, Ludwig van Beethoven wrote a letter (found among his papers after his death) addressed to ‘The Immortal Beloved’. Ever since, scholars have been painstakingly sifting through mountains of correspondence in the hope of revealing the great composer’s secret beloved. In Bernard Rose’s controversial 1994 film, The Immortal Beloved, Gary Oldman’s Beethoven (portrayed as a gruff, arrogant womaniser) is played off against three possible objects of his desire: Johanna Reiss (Beethoven’s sister-in-law, and Rose’s intimated target), Anna Marie Erdödy and Giulietta Guicciardi. Whether the film

sometimes been claimed that great men had the good fortune to have been born at the right time. Although this seems like wisdom after the event, it is reasonable to suggest that potential greatness may be nurtured or thwarted by circumstance, and that talent and character may owe as much to environment and opportunity as to heredity. In the game of conjecture can we imagine the way Beethoven might have developed if he had arrived on the musical scene a century earlier or later than he did? In

Beethoven around 1804, detail from painting by W J Mähler

‘Beethoven’s music is difficult but there is an unswerving logic to it – each note that follows has to be that note somehow, it can’t be anything else’

-Teacher and pianist Raymond Banning

fact,’ he surmises, ‘it is impossible to separate Beethoven from his time.’ The urbane Portuguese pianist Artur Pizarro, who has played all 32 sonatas in concert, echoes these sentiments: ‘Maybe there is something to do with this 150- to 200-year gap, between the composition of a work, the writing of a work or the painting of a work and the ability for it to be absorbed by mainstream culture. Beethoven came into that by the beginning of the 20th century, so I suppose it’s riding a kind of high right now.’



was accurate or not, it didn’t hurt Beethoven’s popularity. What is it that makes this composer of such overly played classics as Für Elise and the ‘Moonlight’ Sonata and with his scowl and locks of unkempt, steel-grey hair (so perfectly captured in Stieler’s famous portrait of 1819) so popular? Why do his masterful 32 piano sonatas command such admiration from modern-day concert pianists? In his wonderful book on Beethoven, Denis Matthews, the late pianist and Beethoven specialist, writes: ‘It has

Beethoven was born in Bonn in 1770. His father, Johann, was a court tenor who gave his son lessons on the violin and piano. Ludwig gave his first public concert at the age of seven and Johann, realising his own limitations as a teacher (contemporary reports indicate that the young Ludwig was forced to play against paternal threats of being locked in a darkened cellar) sent his son to Christian Gottlob Neefe, who became his first real teacher. Through Neefe, Beethoven was introduced to the preludes and fugues of Bach which, at that time, were still unpublished and only available in manuscript form. Neefe published an account of Beethoven’s progress in Cramer’s Magazin der Musik, mentioning his pupil’s excellent sight-reading ability, his studies in thorough-bass and composition and his playing of Bach’s ‘48’, before ending with the following comments: ‘This youthful genius is deserving of help to enable him to travel. He would surely become a second Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart were he to continue as he has begun.’

67• Great Composers

p67_GC-Beethoven-FINALish.indd 67

10/06/2015 13:22

MEET THE COMPOSER Beethoven’s first visit to Vienna in 1787, made with the intention of studying with Mozart, came to nothing, though he did get a fleeting opportunity to play to the great man himself. Mozart is said to have reacted rather aloofly until he heard the young man improvise: ‘Keep an eye on him: someday he will give the world something to talk about,’ he said. Barely had Beethoven set foot in Vienna when he was summoned back to Bonn to attend to his dying mother. But on a second visit to Vienna in 1792, he came into contact with Haydn who, propitiously, had stopped off in Bonn on his way to and from London and who agreed to take him on as his pupil. Watershed works Musicologists, perhaps for the sake of clarity if nothing else, have broken Beethoven’s compositions into three clearly defined periods. In the first period, covering the works up until about 1802, and including about ten of his sonatas, the first two symphonies, the ballet Creatures of Prometheus, the six opus 18 string quartets and the first three piano concertos, you can find the influences of composers like Haydn,

More Beethoven in this issue Interpretation Stephen Kovacevich talks about playing Beethoven in an article on the Classical style on page 16 Technique See Graham Fitch’s Masterclass on page 12 Interview Broadcaster and author John Suchet considers Beethoven the man on page 10 How to Play Janet Newman’s step-by-step lesson on the first movement of the ‘Moonlight’, page 26 Beethoven sonatas inside the Scores ‘Moonight’ Sonata, first movement (page 38); ‘Pathétique’ Sonata, Rondo (page 46) with its unprecedented time scale (on its first performance, one audience member famously shouted, ‘I’ll give another kreuzer if only the thing will stop’) and incredible architectural unity. This middle period produced many of Beethoven’s best-loved works, among them the ‘Razumovsky’ quartets, the opera Fidelio, and the ‘Waldstein’ and ‘Appassionata’ sonatas. His final period, from about 1816 onwards, includes the last six piano

Clockwise from top: Pencil drawing of Beethoven, 1818, by August von Klöber; Beethoven on his daily walk, around 1820, pencil drawing by Josef Daniel Böhn; City of Bonn, by J Ziegler after a painting by L Janscha

‘Beethoven’s difficulties seem to be more psychological and organisational than the act of just getting your fingers to fit on to the right keys’

-Concert pianist Artur Pizarro

Mozart, CPE Bach and Clementi. Beethoven, great improviser that he was, pushes the boundaries of piano technique even further, putting ever greater demands on the performer, using bold key modulations and replacing the commonly used minuet with the scherzo. Two signifiers of Beethoven’s middle period are the so-called ‘Heiligenstadt Testament’ (1802), an unsent letter to his two brothers in which Beethoven writes of his despair over his increasing deafness, and the ‘Eroica’ Symphony (1803),

p67_GC-Beethoven-FINALish.indd 68

sonatas (with their widely spaced parts, profusion of trills and silences and an increase in contrapuntal textures), the Ninth Symphony and the last five string quartets. Here, Beethoven seems to have abandoned the traditional Classical three-movement form, with some works (the opus 111 piano sonata) having two movements or, in the case of the opus 131 string quartet, as many as seven. Exploring the sonatas While it’s not uncommon for musicians to refer to Bach’s ‘48’ as the Old Testament and Beethoven’s 32 sonatas

as the New, it’s certainly true to say that, in the words of Scottish pianist Murray McLachlan, ‘it would take more than a lifetime to begin to unravel all of their mysteries.’ Many pianists, from Liszt to Chopin, from Charles Hallé (who was the first pianist to perform the complete 32 sonatas in his celebrated London cycle in 1861) to Eugen d’Albert, and from Artur Schnabel to Alfred Brendel, have influenced generations of musicians through their editions, recordings and interpretations as, no doubt, future pianists will go on doing so. From a performance practice standpoint, as McLachlan has said, the sonatas are ‘watershed works, for in their entirety their compositional development parallels to a striking extent the complex development of the fortepiano’. Over the 28-year period in which the sonatas were written, Beethoven would have seen the typical five-octave Viennese pianoforte of the 1790s, witnessed the introduction of the sustaining and una corda pedals, through to the six-octave Broadwood he was given in 1828. Yet in typically Beethovenian fashion, the German composer was ahead of his game. His ‘Hammerklavier’ Sonata opus 106, for example, was completed in 1818, seven years before he had a piano that could even cope with its demands of register. Several years ago, I spoke with the highly regarded pianist and teacher Raymond Banning (who has

10/06/2015 13:22

since passed on) about why and how pianists should explore the Beethoven sonatas. ‘Anyone who likes a fullblooded, passionate, romantic sound can really get stuck in with Beethoven,’ he said, pointing up the opening of the ‘Appassionata’ (opus 57) as a classic example. ‘There is a meatiness about it, with these big themes and powerful emotions.’ On an emotional level, that’s fine, but are the sonatas, for an amateur musician at least, possible to play? ‘The music is difficult,’ he said, ‘but despite this there is an unswerving logic to it, which makes him an easy composer to memorise. Each note that follows has to be that note somehow, it can’t be anything else. Certainly, if you’re sight-reading your way through some of the sonatas, with all the blemishes and so on, you can still find an underlying rhetoric, the logical phrasing and so on. Whereas with some other composers, this can be a little more challenging.’ Assume you’re coming to Beethoven for the first time, where might you start? Here again, Banning offered up some practical suggestions: ‘The so-called two “easy” sonatas, the G minor and G major (opus 49 nos 1 and 2), which were supposedly written by Beethoven for his own teaching purposes between 1795 and 1797, are excellent pieces to begin with and certainly if you’re a pianist of modest ability. They lie quite well under the hands and the logic is quite straightforward.’ [The second movement of the G major Sonata opus 49 no 2 appeared in Pianist No 20.] Beethoven’s other early sonatas (and don’t be misled by the term ‘early’), like opus 2 no 3 in C, for instance, with its tricky opening thirds, can be extremely awkward ‘unless you get the fingering right,’ advised Banning. Even the Haydnesque first sonata in F minor (opus 2 no 1), with its awkward turns and ornaments, and prestissimo final movement can be very tricky even for the Grade 7-8 pianist. Banning favoured the famous C minor ‘Pathétique’ (opus 13), which was composed in 1797-8 and dedicated to one of Beethoven’s benefactors, Prince Lichnowsky. The sonata shows a strong influence of Dussek and Cramer. Responding to the claim that Beethoven can be unpianistic, Banning cited ‘the gorgeous, lyrical slow movement’ of the ‘Pathétique’, which ‘fits the hands very well. Pianists who are not desperately advanced, should be able to make a fairly decent job of this.’ [The slow movement of the ‘Pathétique’ appeared in Pianist No 20, while the finale is featured inside this issue.] Banning, however, did add a

caveat: ‘In Beethoven, you get what I call a kind of strong rhythmic progression, especially evident in something like the opening of the “Pathétique”. In some hands the thick opening chords can sound incredibly slow and plodding. People have to make the most of the long notes and the rests, something which is so important in Beethoven. You have to feel the semiquavers and the sense of moving forward all the time,’ he says, counting aloud and demonstrating. ‘People so often just drop on to those opening chords and then it just goes dead.’ Banning agreed that Beethoven can be uncompromising, especially in the later sonatas, where the intellectual challenges are paramount, but he nevertheless felt that the sonatas do work under the hands ‘if you just go about it in the right way’. Ergonomically correct Artur Pizarro seems to take the technical difficulties of Beethoven in his stride. ‘My teacher and I just worked through the repertoire from Bach through to Mozart and Haydn, which meant that by the time we got around to Beethoven, my physical and emotional development seemed to go in sync with the chronological progression of the music. Beethoven’s music had, therefore, a strong impact on the overall shape of my hand.’ Pizarro finds that Beethoven’s music is written so beautifully for the instrument, ‘ergonomically correct’, as he puts it, ‘though this doesn’t mean that he doesn’t put in one hurdle after another. Beethoven’s difficulties seem to be more psychological and organisational than the act of just getting your fingers to fit on to the right keys. Technically, his music is almost like physiotherapy for the hands, because when you go back to Bach and Mozart, it’s as if all your muscles and your tendons and your knuckles have been realigned in the right way.’ Despite having recorded the last three sonatas plus the ‘Moonlight’, ‘Tempest’, ‘Pathétique’ and ‘Appassionata’ sonatas for Linn Records, Pizarro’s Beethoven interpretations keep changing. ‘No sooner have I played or recorded a piece, and as soon as I listen to it, I’ve already changed my conception. It’s terrifying,’ he laughs. ‘Though it’s also wonderful, because this is exactly what you want to have happen. It means your mind is never at rest and my conception can change for a whole host of reasons: 1) the performance was good, 2) I wasn’t properly prepared, or 3) I’m exploring avenues I haven’t explored before and probably really shouldn’t. It’s a bit akin to riding a wild horse. You have to hang on for dear life or you will be kicked right off.’ ■

Beethoven resources DISCOGRAPHY There have been some classic recordings made of Beethoven’s sonatas over the years (Backhaus, Schnabel, Kempff, Barenboim, Brendel, Kovacevich, to name but few), and it would be a hard task indeed to pick one above all else. Yet Schnabel’s cycle from the 1930 has, perhaps, come closest than most and is the litmus test by which all other performances have been judged. Individual performances of sonatas also stand out (Richter, Gilels, Horowitz, Arrau, Rubinstein), as have notable performances on period instruments from the likes of Malcolm Binns and Melvyn Tan. The following comprises just a few highly regarded performances of different eras. -Tim Stein COMPLETE PIANO SONATAS Alfred Brendel Philips 412 575-2 (11 CDs) Wilhelm Kempff Deutsche Grammophon 453 724-2 (8 CDs) Daniel Barenboim Deutsche Grammophon 463 127-2 (9 CDs) Paul Lewis Harmonia Mundi HMX 2901902.11 (10 CDs) INDIVIDUAL SONATAS Piano Works Vol 4: Sonatas Nos 11-13; Vol 7: Sonatas Nos 22-26 Artur Schnabel Naxos Historical 8.110756; 8.110761 Sonatas Nos 7, 8, 13 & 14; Sonatas Nos 23, 28, 30 & 31 Solomon Testament SBT 1189; SBT 1192 Sonatas Nos 8, 14, 17 & 23 Artur Pizarro Linn CKD 244 The Late Piano Sonatas (opps 101, 106, 109, 110, 111) Igor Levit Sony Classical 8883703872 BIBLIOGRAPHY Beethoven Barry Cooper (Oxford University Press, 2001) Beethoven Denis Matthews (Dent, 1987) Beethoven Maynard Solomon (Schirmer, 2002) Beethoven – The Man Revealed John Suchet (Classic FM, 2012)

69• Great Composers

p67_GC-Beethoven-FINALish.indd 69

10/06/2015 13:22

R E P E R TO I R E

GROUP DYNAMIC

Chamber music of the Classical era offers fantastic musical treasures for any pianist. Concert pianist and workshop organiser Samantha Ward explains how to get started

P

ianists are renowned for leading lonely existences. For a professional concert pianist, life can be especially isolated: hours of practising alone for the next performance, and, when away on tour, lots of travelling, staying in hotels and eating alone in restaurants. As a pianist, I went through those years of disciplined practising, trying to learn as many solo works as possible in my teens and early twenties, while always having that one-track mind-set of wanting to be a soloist first and foremost. Yet today, while I still love playing solo recitals, my other love lies in the making of music with other musicians. Working with other musicians and creating something together on stage is truly thrilling. My first encounter with the collaborative side of piano playing was at music school when I was put in a piano quintet. Chamber music was all very new to me, but I really loved it, and I continued working with the piano

quintet for a long time, exploring fantastic repertoire. Playing with others added a whole new dimension to music, and opened my eyes to a new way of making music. Before that experience, I had a prejudice against musical collaboration. As a pianist, I had always felt that I wanted to strive to be a soloist only, not a chamber musician. It was almost as if I

missed if we don’t delve into the great chamber works of Schubert, Beethoven and Mozart, to name but a few. We pianists are fortunate in playing one of the most versatile musical instruments, and that’s one reason why I continue to explore as many areas of composition for our wonderful instrument as possible. Playing chamber music has vastly improved my solo playing, making me

Playing chamber music has vastly improved my solo playing, making me home in on harmony, texture and the different voices within the music feared that I would have to sacrifice some part of my solo-playing career if I wanted to play collaboratively too. As I have grown older, I found this is definitely not the case and if anything, chamber music contributes highly to my solo playing. So much of the brilliant repertoire out there written for the piano is not solo and many great works are

home in on harmony, texture and the different voices within the music. It also makes me much more aware of space and timing, because I am no longer playing alone and the other musicians may need me to take more or less time for a particular phrase to work for them. I find myself becoming more aware of the need for harmonic support when it

70 •Great Composers

p70_Chamber-FINALish.indd 70

11/06/2015 10:57

is not always the piano projecting the melody line as one would in a solo performance. Instead, a bass line might be the only thing I need to bring out for a passage while I accompany other instruments playing the melody. Chamber music has made me more free in performance in other ways. As both a soloist and as a chamber musician, I find that rehearsals and concerts very often turn out completely differently, which keeps performances very much alive. No two performances are ever the same, which makes it much more exciting for the performers and audiences alike. In collaboration, the excitement comes as the adrenaline kicks in during performance and the fact that two or more people working together bring different things to the performance on different days. This is what music making is all about! First encounters If you are under the impression that chamber music is something only for the professional pianist, please be assured that there is plenty of repertoire for the amateur pianist to explore, especially the repertoire of the Classical period. There is much to uncover, right up to very demanding works such as Beethoven’s ‘Archduke’ and ‘Ghost’ piano trios. The early Mozart and Haydn trios are a wonderful place to start – Mozart’s G major Trio K496 is one of my particular favourites and, coincidentally, the first one I ever learned. The very first Beethoven Trio, opus 1 no 1 in E flat major, is another real gem. I had the pleasure of playing two wonderful Classical piano trios last summer in a concert with violinist Fenella Humphreys and cellist Brian O’Kane: the Haydn piano trio in E flat major No 45 (Hob.XV:29) and the rarely played Dussek trio in F major op 21 no 3. But Classical chamber music is not just about piano trios (the usual term for a piece for piano, violin and cello) – there are other Classical works to explore

for other combinations of instruments, particularly winds and strings. Hummel and Weber, for instance, wrote delightful little trios for piano, flute and cello (op 78 and op 63 respectively). Then there is the Mozart trio for piano, viola and clarinet K498, the ‘Kegelstatt’ Trio, which is a joy to listen to and not so frequently played. Mozart also wrote two lovely piano quartets and a wind quintet. Also worth exploring is the monumental Schubert ‘Trout’ Quintet, for piano, violin, viola, cello and double bass. We mustn’t forget about duos, which are also very much part of chamber music. Pianists are once again blessed with plentiful repertoire, as other instrumentalists need to play most of their duos with a pianist. The cello, violin, horn, clarinet and flute sonatas (among many others) by eminent Classical composers are yet more examples of amazing piano parts and repertoire. Beethoven’s ‘Spring’ Sonata op 24 for violin and piano is one of my particular favourites. I also adore his cello and piano Sonata No 3 in A major op 69. I listened to Jacqueline du Pré and Daniel Barenboim play this when I was a child and I knew I really had to play it one day. As I mentioned earlier, in recent years I have further developed the chamber music side of my career. I have been lucky enough to forge some partnerships with some wonderful instrumentalists. I also run a festival, Piano Week, which I hold each summer in North Wales, and this year I am introducing chamber music at the festival. I feel a piano festival is not complete without the inclusion of chamber music. At this year’s Piano Week, I will be joining forces with members of the Berkeley Ensemble (John Slack, clarinet, and Gemma Wareham, cello), as well as with violinist Fenella Humphreys, cellist Brian O’Kane and pianist Warren Mailley-Smith. We will play the Beethoven trio for piano,

5

TOP TIPS

1

2 3 4 5

GETTING STARTED WITH CHAMBER MUSIC To start off with, listen to a selection of any of the Mozart, Schubert, Beethoven or Haydn trios, quartets or quintets (or watch them on YouTube to get an idea of the way it all looks and feels on stage). Try to attend a chamber music concert. The buzz of the live performance will really get you going with collaborative repertoire. Talk to your musician friends and ask them whether they’d like to get together to play some chamber music. Maybe you could all choose a slow movement of a Mozart or Haydn trio to start with. Then everyone should learn their parts separately, listening to recordings along the way to get a feel for the full texture of the piece and how it all fits together. Once you’ve learned a piece or a movement, organise a jam session where you all get together to play through the piece you’ve each worked on separately at home. This is a lot of fun and a real eye-opener, particularly if this is a first for you in terms of chamber music collaboration. Try to play with as many different instrumentalists and in as many different combinations and numbers of instruments as you can. This way, you’ll delve into lots of exciting and very different repertoire and you’ll see what combination suits you the best. Different personalities working together is also something that needs to be considered. It is this, combined with a musical compatibility, which will make chamber music really work. You will all know almost straight away when an ensemble works well together – and when it does, go for it!

On-stage chamber music making: a piano quintet featuring pianist AnneMarie McDermott at the [email protected] festival in California (opposite page) and a piano trio at the Verbier Festival in Switzerland (below)

clarinet and cello, and with Fenella and Brian, we will perform the Schubert ‘Notturno’ (D897) for piano trio. We also plan to programme the aforementioned Beethoven Trio in E flat major op 1 no 1 as well as Haydn’s ‘Gypsy’ piano trio (Hob.XV:26). It is such a wonderful feeling to have played a successful concert with fellow musicians and to be able to celebrate that together. The social aspects of playing chamber music are another reason to become involved in it – the joy of having dinner with friends and colleagues you have just worked with, discussing your performance and what you’re going to play next. The time spent travelling together too is a bonus and many a friendship has begun in such a way. I thrive from this interaction with other musicians, not only in a musical way but also in the ‘extramusical’ time we spend together. I urge all pianists to explore the chamber music repertoire written for the piano, in any combination of instruments. It is a vast and wonderful world and one that I feel can still be discovered more by pianists out there who want to explore the full richness of the glorious piano repertoire, not only from the Classical period but spanning many centuries and musical genres. n For more about Samantha Ward and her Piano Week, go to www.pianoweek.com and to www.samanthaward.org

71 •Great Composers

p70_Chamber-FINALish.indd 71

11/06/2015 10:58

MEET THE COMPOSER

Mozart

THE MAN AND HIS MUSIC We’ve all heard about Mozart’s prodigious talents, ground-breaking compositions and flippant personality. But what was this great Classical master actually like? Michael Quinn reveals the reality behind the legend

W

ith enough time and a little effort, it is possible to map out the course of Mozart’s life to an astonishing degree of accuracy. Often, in fact, it is possible to pinpoint both the location and the precise hour of the day for most of the more significant moments in his life. Thus, we know when and where Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born – on 27 January 1756 in Salzburg at 8pm – and where and when he died – in Vienna, at five minutes before one on the morning of 5 December 1791. And in between we can plot the development of a composer whose dominance of the repertoire has never been matched, whose music continues to fill the catalogue and whose popularity has never been greater, but one whose true identity – that of Mozart the man as distinct from Mozart the composer – remains as tantalisingly elusive as his music is gloriously accessible. Chronologies, however detailed and well constructed, can only tell us so much about a life. We know, for example, that Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart was born to the respected pedagogue and composer Leopold, who was at the time in the service of the Prince Archbishop of Salzburg. And that he was the seventh and last of Leopold’s children, of whom only one other (Mozart’s sister, Maria Anna, ‘Nannerl’, five years his elder) survived, outliving her brother by 38 years. We

also know that he learned his first piece of music, a Scherzo by GC Wagenseil, on the piano three days before his fifth birthday between 9pm and 9.30pm, and that around the same period – and even more precociously – he first composed his own original music, an Andante and an Allegro, for piano, both in the key of C major. We know, too, that on 1 September that same year, 1761, Wolfgang gave his first public performance at Salzburg University, albeit as a dancer in a musical play. Within the year, both he and his sister were travelling to Munich – the first of his many childhood traversals of European courts – in the company of their father (whose ambitions for the siblings had increased on discovering their musical abilities) to play before Emperor Maximilian Joseph II. And after that auspicious concert, we know – well, we know the names and dates and catalogue numbers. And, mixed in along with all of that, we know the many myths that coiled tightly around Mozart as he grew from promising prodigy to full-blown phenomenon, to what today we might call a ‘brand’. Yet despite the wealth of documented evidence and the voluminous analysis of it – can there be a composer who has been more discussed, written about and argued over than Mozart? – our sense of who the man was remains, on

the whole, something comparable to a join-the-dots puzzle. The outline is there for all to see, but what does the shape it depicts contain? ‘A phenomenon like Mozart,’ the poet Goethe would later remark, ‘remains an inexplicable thing.’ The Salzburg ‘miracle’ Perhaps the problem lies not with the mysterious nature of what appears to have been Mozart’s all-encompassing personality, but with those who struggled to accommodate his unique musicality. Even his father, an otherwise worldly, educated and disciplined man, seemed unable to explain his son’s musical gift except as the product of something other-worldly and divine, declaring him ‘The miracle which God let be born in Salzburg.’ Despite the secular supremacy of Enlightenment mores, Leopold often found himself compelled to protest his son’s abilities by reaching for supernatural explanations. ‘If it is ever to be my duty to convince the world of this miracle, it is so now,’ he vowed in a letter dated 30 July 1768, ‘when people are ridiculing whatever is called a miracle and denying all miracles. Therefore they must be convinced.’ We can only guess at how the young Mozart accommodated the claims his father made for him. But the

72• Great Composers

p72_ GC Mozart-FINAL.indd 72

10/06/2015 10:02

bitter irony remains that he was never able to attain a position in the world that seemed appropriate to Leopold’s ambition for him. The discrepancy would result in schism in later life: father and fêted son alienated one from the other. Throughout his life, Mozart himself remained sensitive to the suspicion of others that his musical facility was in some way easy, glib or unearned. ‘People make a mistake who think that my art has come easily to me,’ he pointedly complained. ‘Nobody has devoted so much time and thought to composition as I. There is not a famous master whose music I have not studied over and over.’ One thing we can say with certainty about Mozart is that he was intensely inquisitive. Coupled to an intellect as nimble and fleet as any exhilarating phrase he would set to a stave, Mozart’s capacity for learning and his voracious appetite for the new made him a true creature of his enlightened age, even, it seems, as a child. In 1766, aged ten, Mozart had visited Paris with his father and sister, and come to the attention of the author Baron Friedrich Melchior Grimm, who enthused that ‘one could talk interminably about this singular phenomenon. He is, moreover, one of the most loveable of creatures imaginable, who puts wit and spirit into everything he says and does, with all the grace and sweetness of his age’. Added the then much-respected composer Johann Adolph Hasse, ‘Knowing him, it is difficult to avoid loving him.’

MOZART IN THIS ISSUE Interpretation Imogen Cooper on playing Mozart in the article on Classical style, page 16 Masterclass Mark Tanner on learning the Classical repertoire, page 8 How to Play Lucy Parham’s step-by-step lesson on the Rondo in A minor K511, page 24 Mozart scores Minuet II in F K6 (page 32); Rondo in A minor K511 (page 55)

In early adulthood Mozart had developed another, more acute sensitivity to how he felt others, especially his social ‘superiors’, treated him, the result of his having felt snubbed by the Prince Archbishop in Salzburg in his early twenties. His default response ever after was a prickly defensiveness and a distaste for snobbishness. Yet when he felt relaxed in company, he would occasionally relax a little too much, injecting into

Opposite page, bottom: Papageno’s costume for the Berlin performance of The Magic Flute in 1816 This page, from above: Portrait of Mozart, age 14, by Louis-Gabriel Blanchet; manuscript of the Piano Sonata in A minor K310



The vulgar genius One of the most remarkable aspects of Mozart’s all-too-short adult life was how relatively unscathed he seems to have been by the attention and fuss accorded him in his heady, celebrity-anointed childhood. But where the mature Mozart was lacking, it seems, was in a worrying lack of organisation (the want of which must have vexed his methodical father enormously). ‘To make his fortune, I wish he had but half of his talent and twice as much shrewdness,’ an exasperated Baron Grimm exclaimed, ‘and then I should not worry about him.’ There were other things to worry about, too. The adult Mozart was ‘a remarkably small man, very thin and pale’, recalled the Irish tenor Michael Kelly, who had sung the roles of Basilio and Don Curzio in the first production of Le nozze di Figaro. Others would frequently remark on his generally unhealthy appearance – a legacy, some said, of a childhood case of smallpox.

public situations some of the crude, scatological humour that was commonplace within the Mozart family. But if Mozart himself appeared vulgar, there was little he said or wrote in his letters that compared, astonishingly, with those by his mother, many of whose choicest letters are unfit still for publications such as this! Fellow composer, and the closest of Mozart’s friends, Joseph Haydn – who had declared to Leopold, ‘Before God, and as an honest man, I tell you that your son is the greatest composer known to me’ – was also tarred with the disapproving brush of the Viennese intelligentsia, whose grasp of intellectual concepts clearly exceeded their understanding of the creative temperament. Both were sniffily dismissed by one self-regarding civil servant as ‘persons who displayed in their contacts with others no kind of intellectual training… Silly jokes, and in the case of Mozart an irrepressible way of life were all that they displayed to their fellow men.’ Such dismissive judgements would dog Mozart throughout his life. Few would see, because few could comprehend, the toll that a talent such as Mozart’s might take on its possessor. One who did, was the composer’s brother-in-law Joseph Lange, who noted that often when Mozart was occupied with a new work he would ‘speak confusedly and disconnectedly, but occasionally made jests of a nature which one did not expect... indeed he even deliberately forgot himself in his behaviour [and] intentionally concealed his inner tensions behind superficial

73• Great Composers

p72_ GC Mozart-FINAL.indd 73

10/06/2015 10:03

frivolity… taking delight in throwing into sharp contrast the divine ideas of his music and these sudden outbursts of vulgar platitudes, and in giving himself pleasure by seeming to make fun of himself.’ Rather pointedly, that great Fabian leveller, George Bernard Shaw, would approvingly (and somewhat enviously) remark on the centenary of Mozart’s death in 1891 that he had ‘lived the life of a very great man in a very small world’. Vivid talent But if Mozart’s personality was occasionally too big, brash and bold for some of his contemporaries, how much greater and vivid and incomprehensible must his talent have appeared, perhaps even to Mozart himself. ‘When I am, as it were, completely myself, entirely alone and of good cheer – say travelling in a carriage, or walking after a good meal, or during the night when I cannot sleep,’ he once noted, ‘it is on such occasions that my ideas flow best, and most abundantly. Whence and how they come, I know not, nor can I force them.’ Only JS Bach before him had displayed abilities that were as prolix and protean, but even a titan such as Bach did not reshape the entire musical repertoire as profoundly as Mozart did. In every area he excelled. And in every area he innovated. Although he was extremely ambivalent about the piano – ‘I would rather neglect the piano than composition,’ he wrote to his father as late as February 1778, ‘for with me the piano is only a sideline, though, thank God, a very good one’ – it was the one instrument that accompanied him through life from those first miniatures at the age of four to the fateful sketches for his Requiem some three decades later. Think of the 27 piano concertos that Mozart wrote throughout his life (the first in 1767 at the age of 11, the

MORE ON MOZART The Cambridge Mozart Encyclopaedia Ed. Cliff Eisen and Simon P Keefe Cambridge University Press; ISBN: 978-0-521-71237-8 The Faber Pocket Guide to Mozart Nicholas Kenyon Faber & Faber; ISBN: 978-0-571-27372-0 Mozart: Letters & Manuscripts Gilles Cantagrel Abrams; ISBN: 978-0-810-95975-0 In Search of Mozart A film by Phil Grabsky Seventh Art Productions This page, from above: Mozart by Domenico Saverio dalla Rossa, c.1770; a Romantic era view of Mozart composing his Requiem on his deathbed, by William James Grant, 1854

last completed just 11 months before his death in January 1791) as musical stepping-stones and it becomes possible to chart a trajectory that moves from the end of the Baroque through the Classical and towards the first faint glimmers of the Romantic eras. More vividly and valuably, however, they offer vital snapshots of Mozart himself, each revealing how he had matured from one to the other, from the cut-andpaste homages of the first juvenile ‘concertos’ to the ‘transfigured farewell’ of the last, and each demonstrating an imagination whose inventiveness could not be contained. The same could be said of his 18 sonatas, 17 sets of variations and some 65 other pieces for solo piano. They contain, as, arguably, does all of Mozart’s music, that most wondrous of miracles: ‘They combine,’ as András Schiff once observed, ‘the purity of childhood with the wisdom of experience.’ Sublime and serene It’s this very notion of Mozart’s music as some kind of elemental crucible that troubles as much as it transfixes. How could someone as earthy and unsophisticated as Mozart (to judge by some of his own correspondence) produce such sublime and sirenic music? In the most moving scene in Milos Forman’s freely inventive film portrait, Amadeus, the jealous Salieri struggles with that same oil-and-water conundrum, his moment of epiphany, of surrender to the superior abilities of his younger peer, triggered by the irresistibly pure, lark-like rise of the crystal-clear, gravity-free oboe line in the Adagio of the Gran Partita. Mozart himself knew how to square this particular circle. ‘Neither a lofty degree of intelligence nor imagination nor both together go to the making of genius. Love, love, love, that is the soul of genius!’

If that makes him sound conceited or self-aggrandising, it is to misrepresent him. Certainly he knew the worth of his music, and he was not averse to arguing for and vehemently defending it. But a saving grace not to be underestimated was his own capacity to not take himself too seriously. The divine child as self-deprecating adult. Today, over two and a half centuries after his birth, Mozart remains a compelling figure, whose music continues to haunt and hypnotise the heart as well as the imagination. Trying to reconcile what we know of the man with what we hear in his music is the most pleasurable of puzzles, and one that generations of composers have worried away at just as distractedly as the rest of us. Where Dvořák put things as succinctly and simply as anyone when he declared that ‘Mozart is sunshine’, Grieg offered a more profound complement by declaring that he ‘creates like God – without pain’. Half a century later, a more poetically subdued Aaron Copland concluded that ‘Mozart in his music was probably the most reasonable of the world’s great composers. It is the happy balance between flight and control, between sensibility and self-discipline, simplicity and sophistication of style that is his particular province... [He] tapped the source from which all music flows, expressing himself with a spontaneity and refinement and breathtaking rightness that has never since been duplicated.’ But if Mozart’s head, as some of his peers complained, was always in the clouds and his mouth, too often, said others, in the gutter, his feet seemed always to have been planted squarely on the ground. ‘I pay no attention whatsoever,’ he wrote to his father in 1781, ‘to anyone’s praise or blame... I simply follow my own feelings’. And therein, perhaps, lies the simple secret truth of his abiding appeal. ■

74• Great Composers

p72_ GC Mozart-FINAL.indd 74

10/06/2015 10:03

T R AV E L

The Classical trail Michael Quinn takes us on a whirlwind tour of the places where Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven lived, worked and composed – and explains how you can follow in their footsteps

F

The lives of that troika of Classical masters spanned almost a century, from Haydn’s birth in 1732 to Beethoven’s death in 1827. It traversed all points of the European compass, from London in the West to St Petersburg in the East, and from the northern climes of the Hague to Milan in the South.

substantial is the Haydn-Haus museum in Eisenstadt (also in Austria), where Haydn lived for more than a decade while Kapellmeister to the Esterházy court. Seven well-stocked rooms offer a potted life of the composer, with its fascinating collection of autograph scores, period illustrations and portraits and a piano

Salzburg teems with associations with Mozart – hardly surprising given he composed an astonishing 150 works while living there But it is in central Europe, in the village of Rohrau, just a skip and a hop from the Austrian capital Vienna, that our own whistle-stop tour begins – in the house in which Joseph Haydn was born and spent the first six years of his life. The three-room, single-storey thatched cottage is perhaps the most modest of all the many memorials to ‘Papa Joe’, but its uncluttered simplicity surely marks it out as one of the most moving. More

(found at Liszt’s birthplace) that is believed to have been Haydn’s own. It’s in Eisenstadt where you’ll find the imposing marble tomb built in tribute in 1932 by an Esterházy descendant for Haydn’s body to rest. Somewhat ghoulishly, the tomb contains two heads: Haydn’s own, stolen from his original grave, and another head, put there by two notorious phrenologists who stole Haydn’s head (they were eager to



inished reading your back issues of Pianist, exhausted your CD collection, read every historical biography you could find, left frustrated by stuttering videos on YouTube, and still eager to get closer to your favourite Classical composer? What’s stopping you? Despite the ravages of time, the upheavals of war and thoughtlessness of neglect, much of the world inhabited by the holy triumvirate of the Classical era – Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven – remains intact. And in an era of budget-price airlines, cheaper fuel and affordable hotel chains, that world is more accessible than ever. Get into your car, board a train or a plane, and within a matter of hours you could be walking in the footsteps of the great composers, standing beside the bed in which they were born, sitting in the concert hall or opera house where they experienced some of their greatest triumphs, or sipping coffee in a café where they relaxed after exhausting labours or topped up on caffeine before returning to the compositional fray.

75• Great Composers

p75_ GC On Location-FINAL.indd 75

10/06/2015 09:15

T R AV E L

examine the ‘bump of music’ on the composer’s head). It wasn’t until 1953 before body and skull were reunited. For a glimpse of the elevated world that Haydn at his height found himself in, a visit to Eisenstadt’s Esterházy Palace – the scene of some of his most memorable triumphs and one of the most beautiful Baroque buildings in Austria – is a must. Besides access to the lavishly decorated rooms and rolling royal park, the palace hosts a regular programme of concerts featuring Haydn’s music in the splendid surroundings for which it was composed. The patronage of the Esterházy princes went far beyond music and in the nearby Restaurant Henrici you can treat yourself to famous gourmet dishes like the Esterházy-Rostbraten (a rich, peppery, cognac-and-cream sirloin steak) and the almond-meringue and butter cream temptation of an Esterházy torte. In a less formal setting, the pretty 2 Beans Kaffee is a coffee connoisseur’s delight, its homemade cakes and delicious waffle specials an irresistible accompaniment. London figured prominently in Haydn’s career. During two extended visits to the capital, 1791-92 and 1794-95, he composed a dozen symphonies, including the ‘Surprise’, ‘Military’ and ‘Drumroll’ symphonies, as well the ‘Gypsy Rondo’ piano trio. Although the Hanover Square Rooms in which some of has music was first performed was demolished in 1900, the house in Great Pulteney Street in which Haydn lived during his first visit still stands. An official blue plaque commemorating his stay was unveiled in March this year. When Haydn departed London in 1795, it was to return to Gumpendorf (now a suburb of Vienna) where he had bought a house and was to live for 12 years until his death in 1809. Happily, you can still see this house, where he wrote the majority of his late great works including The Creation and The Four Seasons, as it is now home to Vienna’s Haydnhaus museum. With its rooms still arranged as Haydn used them, the Haydnhaus has many memorable items,

among them the composer’s clavichord and fortepiano and his death mask. The Michaelerhaus – where Haydn lived from 1750 to 1755 while studying with the famous conductor Nicola Porpora – is a few steps away from the Michaelerkirche, where the 17-year-old Haydn played the organ. Another church of interest to Haydnophiles is the glistening Maria Treu Baroque Basilica, where the Missa in Tempore Belli was first heard on 26 December 1796. The church later attracted Anton Bruckner, who took exams on its organ and premiered several of his own works there. On your Vienna visit, look out, too, for the resplendent Art Nouveau Anker Clock in Hoher Markt, which features a dozen historical figures moving hourly across the clock face, the last of whom is Haydn. Catch it as it strikes noon when all 12 figures appear to a tune by Haydn.

Previous page: Salzburg This page, above: A room in the Haydn-Haus Eisenstadt; manuscript of Haydn’s sonatas Hob. XVI:40-42 at the Haydn-Haus Eisenstadt Opposite, from top, all in Salzburg: Bust of Mozart; Mozart’s Geburtshaus; Salzburg Festival at night; View of Salzburg

Austrian antecedents At the very heart of the Hapsburg Empire, Vienna’s pre-eminence as a city of music means you won’t have to travel far before you encounter something of historic importance or musical interest. It was a crucial arena for Mozart and Beethoven, too, and we’ll return to it in due course. Few composers in the 18th century were as well travelled as Wolfgang Amadeus Mozart. As a pianistic child prodigy and later as a jobbing composer in adulthood, he regularly traversed Europe. The experience of travelling was clearly beneficial to him, prompting him to write to his father in 1778 that without the many chance discoveries found in travel, those of a ‘superior talent (which without impiety I cannot deny that I possess) will go

to seed if [they] always remain in the same place’. Salzburg, Mozart’s birthplace has changed surprisingly little since he lived there. The home where he spent his first 17 years is now a museum – Mozart’s Geburtshaus – and one of the most visited places in Austria. While its authentically restored rooms offer a glimpse of family living in the early 19th century, Mozart’s own life is revealed in a number of bespoke exhibitions examining the wunderkind’s childhood and various aspects of his career and music. Besides containing a number of original portraits painted during his lifetime (including the last, unfinished scene of the composer at his piano by his brother-in-law Joseph Lange in 1789) letters, assorted mementos belonging to the Mozart family and the composer’s own childhood violin, his clavichord and original manuscripts make this an altogether essential port of call. A short distance away in Salzburg, on the other side of the River Salzach, you’ll find the more spacious house on Markartplatz (complete with a floor dedicated to displays and exhibitions) that the Mozarts moved to in 1773. His father, Leopold, remained in this house until his death in 1787. Originally occupied by a dancing teacher, the house boasts its own ballroom in which regular concerts are given. Salzburg teems with associations with Mozart; hardly surprising given he composed an astonishing 150 works while living there. It’s there you’ll find the imposingly grand headquarters of the International Mozarteum Foundation. Founded in 1842, it plays a key role in keeping Mozart’s legacy alive through concerts, research and support for museums worldwide. It holds a treasure trove of material and a vast repository of recordings in every format, including historic concerts and rare film footage dating back to the silent film era.

76• Great Composers

p75_ GC On Location-FINAL.indd 76

10/06/2015 09:15

© Tourismus Salzburg GmbH (p75; p77 [all]); © Wolfgang Simlinger/Haydn-Haus Eisenstadt (p76, top left); © Landesmuseum Burgenland/Haydn-Haus Eisenstadt (p76, top right)



The Foundation also programmes concerts throughout the year, the highlight of which is the annual Mozart Week Festival (Mozartwoche). Held every January, it hosts around 30 concerts in a 10-day jamboree featuring an A-list array of soloists, ensembles and orchestras. The prestigious Salzburg Festival is another essential experience that regularly stages operas and concerts by Mozart. This year’s season (18 July-30 August) includes Le nozze di Figaro, his first and last symphonies (the mighty ‘Jupiter’), the C minor Mass, Rudolf Buchbinder playing the Piano Concerto No 25 and the three last piano sonatas (Nos 16-18) performed by András Schiff. No less appealing are the many concerts featuring Mozart’s music in countless venues around the city. For sheer contrast alone, pay a visit to Festung Hohensalzburg, the formidable mediaeval fortress that overlooks the city, and the enchanting Marionette Theatre, where you’ll find regular performances of Die Zauberflöte throughout the year. There’s disappointingly little to mark Mozart’s 15-month stay in London, arriving in 1764 as a prodigious eight-year-old who found time when not performing to write his first two symphonies. Ranelagh Gardens (site of today’s Chelsea Flower Show) where Mozart gave a concert on harpsichord and organ still retains its 18th-century charm, while blue plaques mark family residences at 180 Ebury Square in Belgravia and 20 Frith Street in Soho. Happily, London has other compensations in a profusion of concerts and opera throughout the year. Unmissable for Mozartians is Wigmore Hall’s ‘The Mozart Odyssey’, an ambitious project spanning two seasons with the emphasis on the composer’s vast and varied output for chamber music. Opera buffs will need no persuading to beat a path to the Royal Opera House, Covent Garden, in June and July when Christopher Maltman plays the libidinous Don Giovanni, sharing the stage with Rolando Villazón as Don Ottavio, Alex Esposito’s Leporello and the Donna Elvira of Dorothea Röschmann. Ludwig van Beethoven was born in 1770 in one of Germany’s oldest cities, Bonn. First port of call is the impressive Beethoven-Haus on Bonngasse where the composer spent his early years. Now a museum claiming the world’s largest collection of Beethoven memorabilia and artefacts, its unique items include the original manuscript of the ‘Moonlight’ Sonata and the composer’s last pianoforte. Opened in 1989, its elegant Chamber Music Hall hosts concerts throughout the year. Walk over to Münsterplatz to see Ernst Julius Hähnel’s famous bronze statue of a decidedly

77• Great Composers

p75_ GC On Location-FINAL.indd 77

10/06/2015 09:15

T R AV E L

PLAN YOUR VISIT BONN Bonn visitor essentials bonn.de Beethoven-Haus Bonn beethoven-haus-bonn.de Beethoven Festival Bonn en.beethovenfest.de

EISENSTADT

© Michael Sondermann, Stadt Bonn

stern-looking Beethoven scowling from his lofty vantage point. Bonn’s annual month-long Beethoven Festival is an unmissable pilgrimage. This year’s programme (4 Sept-4 October) features András Schiff performing the Diabelli Variations, Iván Fischer’s Budapest Festival Orchestra promising ‘a feast of High and Late Romanticism’, and appearances by cellist Sol Gabetta, the Zubin Mehta-led Israel Philharmonic and Anima Eterna Brugge conducted by Jos van Immerseel. Vienna waits for you Our three composers collide (almost) in Vienna, here Beethoven travelled briefly in 1787 hoping to study with Mozart. Tantalisingly, no evidence exists of any meeting between the two. He returned to the city in 1792, just months after Mozart’s untimely death, on this occasion to study with Haydn, with whom he also lodged. Then the centre of European music making, Vienna was to witness Beethoven’s first triumphs and his rise to fame – and the great composer lived at more than 70 addresses in the city. When the city played host to the Congress of Vienna in 1815, the Congress danced in the Redoutensaal ballroom of the Hofburg Palace, which had earlier rung to the sounds of performances of Beethoven’s Seventh and Eighth Symphonies, and the so-called ‘Wellington’s Victory’ Symphony. On a less grand scale in Vienna is the two-room apartment at Probusgasse 6 in Heiligenstadt, to where Beethoven fled to escape city clamour and tumult exacerbated by his growing deafness. The village (now a suburb of Vienna) famously gave its name to the despairing and deeply moving ‘testament’ Beethoven wrote (but did not send) to his brothers in 1802 as his hearing began

to fail. Now a small museum, it remains as the composer would have known it and houses a collection of personal items, manuscripts and paintings. The Theater an der Wien would also be recognisable to Beethoven (and Mozart, for that matter). It was his home for almost a year and the venue for many important first performances, including his only opera, Fidelio, just as Napoleon’s armies occupied the city in 1805, and the Fourth Piano Concerto and the Fifth and Sixth symphonies in 1808. Unchanged, too, are the former homes of Count Lobkowitz at Lobkowitzplatz 2 – in whose music room Beethoven first performed his Third Symphony – and Johann von Pasqualati (Mölker Bastei 8). On the top floor of this latter building, Beethoven (much to his landlord’s chagrin) knocked through a wall so he could see nearby woods while composing! He lived there for eight years and pride of place in its small but fascinating collection is the piano at which he composed his agenda-changing Fifth Symphony. A brief walk away is Zum Schwarzen Kameel (Bognergasse 5), the inn where Beethoven regularly drank – or ordered deliveries when work could not be interrupted. One hand-written note from 1820 requested ‘two and a half litres of Austrian white wine, fine and regular sugar and the very best coffee’ – stimulants aplenty for a thirsty composer. At his death in 1827, Beethoven was buried in the cemetery at Währing but his remains – and those of Schubert’s – were moved to Vienna’s Zentralfriedhof in 1888 and laid beside each other in an imposing memorial, its tapered white obelisk ornamented with a golden lyre. Framed by mature trees, it’s a solemn but serene place to conclude a tour of the three icons of the Classical era. ■

Beethoven statue in Bonn; Exterior of Beethoven-Haus, Bonn

Eisenstadt visitor essentials eisenstadt-tourismus.at Haydn-Haus Eisenstadt haydn-haus.at Haydn Festival Eisenstadt (3-13 Sep 2015) haydnfestival.at

LONDON London visitor essentials visitlondon.com Haydn Society of Great Britain haydnsocietyofgb.co.uk Wigmore Hall wigmore-hall.org.uk

SALZBURG Salzburg visitor essentials Salzburg.info Mozart houses and Mozart Week Festival (22-31 Jan 2016) mozarteum.at

VIENNA Vienna visitor essentials wien.info Haydnhaus Museum Vienna wienmuseum.at Mozart Haus Vienna mozarthausvienna.at Looking for a tour led by knowledgeable musical experts? Try Kirker Music Holidays at

www.kirkerholidays.com

78• Great Composers

p75_ GC On Location-FINAL.indd 78

10/06/2015 13:00

MEET THE COMPOSERS

The Known Unknowns

The genius of Mozart and Beethoven can make us forget that there are other wonderful composers of the Classical era. John Evans asks us to spare a thought for Haydn, Dussek, Clementi and Hummel

E

his Sonata in A No 26 (Grade 8). Not bad, considering Mozart is represented by five pieces and Beethoven by just two. All credit to the ABRSM for widening its musical net. Nevertheless, despite ABRSM’s laudable efforts, Haydn does seem to be the forgotten man of piano music. He once said that his years at Esterházy when he was shut off largely from the influences and pressures of the outside world had forced him to be original, which is exactly why his piano music, forever bubbling over with wit and invention, needs to be played and enjoyed more. Fortunately, he was blessed with a patron who loved music and gave his resident composer the resources he needed to create music as he pleased. The Baroque style of Bach and Handel was falling out of fashion, and Haydn was among those composers trying to blaze a new trail. He got on very well with his masters, being unfailingly good humoured (no troubled soul, him; he loved a laugh and a practical joke) and producing exactly what they wanted. As a result, Haydn’s music of this period (1761-1790) is largely upbeat, only interrupted around the 1770s when, influenced by the cultural movement called Sturm und

Clockwise from top: Joseph Haydn, Carl Czerny, Muzio Clementi

Drang, it became more intense. He soon reverted to a lighter touch. Haydn’s jocular, uncomplicated personality was all the more remarkable given the challenges he faced prior to his arrival at Esterházy. He was born in 1732 to a humble wheelwright and his wife, a cook. He might have taken up the family business had not his father, who was a keen musician, spotted signs of a musical heart beating in his young son. His father promptly packed him off to a relative, a schoolmaster and enthusiastic chorister; the boy was later head-hunted by the director of music at St Stephen’s Cathedral in Vienna where for nine years he sang in the choir. Inevitably, nature took her course and by the time he was 17, in 1749, he was no longer of use to the church. He was out on his ear, and using both of them, he scraped a living as a music teacher, court musician and street entertainer. All the while, Haydn taught himself theory and counterpoint and began composing. His music, which included an opera and some string quartets, eventually caught the attention of the ruling classes and, following a series of court appointments, finally netted Haydn the jackpot as head of music at Esterházy, in 1761. With his own court orchestra to play with, Haydn’s musical imagination reached fever pitch. There wasn’t a musical form or an instrument he did not write in or for. Easy-going and God-fearing he might have been, but Haydn was also financially astute, too. When, in 1779, he was able to negotiate fresh terms with the Esterházy family, he made sure to include his right to take commissions from outside, and to be paid accordingly. Immediately, he



very high achiever needs the stimulus of a thriving ocean of competitive talent. Would Beethoven, Mozart and Haydn shine so brilliantly had it not been for less celebrated composers such as (in order of their birth) CPE Bach, Muzio Clementi, Jan Ladislav Dussek, Johann Nepomuk Hummel and Carl Czerny? Mozart and Beethoven were possessed of astonishing gifts that even they laboured long and hard to develop, spurred on by a world brimming with equally ambitious composers desperate to be heard. Joseph Haydn is perhaps the exception who proves the rule, having spent the first part of his career isolated from the musical developments of the day while locked away in a far-flung corner of Hungary in the service of the Esterházy court. In fact, to this day, the composer of over 60 keyboard sonatas and numerous other works for the instrument still seems a bit of an outsider, at least to pianists. Inevitably, it’s the keyboard music of Beethoven and Mozart that commands the most attention. It’s easy to see why, of course: who has never heard Beethoven’s ‘Moonlight’ Sonata or Für Elise, or Mozart’s ‘Alla Turca’ from Sonata No 11 in A major or the Fantasy in D minor? They’re all familiar and well-loved pieces that encourage us to explore both composers’ repertoire further. But Haydn’s Sonata in C major No 50, or E flat major No 62 or, indeed, his Variations in A major? ABRSM, the body that oversees the majority of instrumental examinations in the UK and beyond, is at least doing its bit. It publishes four volumes of Haydn’s piano sonatas, while this year’s piano syllabus features no less than five pieces by the composer including his Minuet in G (Grade 1), Allegro in F (Grade 4) and the first movement of

79• Great Composers

p79_GC Haydn and rest-FINAL.indd 79

10/06/2015 13:24

MEET THE COMPOSERS turned his hand to the popular, moneyspinning forms of the day; namely, quartets and symphonies, including the so-called Paris symphonies of 1785. The Classical period was in full swing and Haydn, always a man with an eye on a florin or two, wasted no time in embracing its forms and devices. These works were his passport to wider success. Within a few years Haydn was the toast of the musical world, rubbing shoulders with rising stars including Mozart, who was sufficiently impressed by his older, backwoods friend to dedicate some of his quartets to him. Incredibly, Haydn had served almost 30 years at Esterházy when the new prince called time on the relationship to let Haydn go travelling; fortunately, for the commercially minded composer, still on a retainer. He went to London, then the centre of piano making, to give concerts, notably piano recitals. (Broadwood was a huge supporter of Haydn and eventually shipped one of its advanced pianos to him in Vienna.) Haydn frequently returned to England, on one occasion travelling to Oxford to be awarded an honorary degree. Eventually, Haydn began to divide his time between Vienna, where he taught Beethoven (though the great pupil later claimed he’d learned nothing from him) and Esterházy. Inevitably, as he grew older so his light-hearted manner gave way to bouts of introspection, at times, even depression. His music became deeper, more spiritual and more intense. Where once the young Haydn might have rattled off a brace of pieces in an afternoon, the older man was content to spend as much as a year on a single work such as The Creation. He died in 1809 aged 77. CPE Bach liberates keyboard playing By the time of Haydn’s death, the piano had almost taken on the form we are familiar with today [see article on the keyboards of the Classical era, page 82]. Thanks to its greater reliability, range and resonance, this new instrument was the perfect means of expression for progressive composers such as Haydn’s former pupil, Beethoven. How things had changed since Carl Philipp Emanuel Bach’s day. When this fifth child of the great JS Bach was born in 1714, the ancestor of the piano, sometimes referred to as the fortepiano, had been in existence for only 15 years or so. It was, apparently, a pretty unimpressive thing whose existence was no threat to the clavier, the keyboard of choice at that time. Still, it couldn’t be uninvented, and by the latter years of the 18th century when Mozart was composing, it was considerably improved and on the brink of acquiring radical improvements such as an iron frame and a larger case.

However, without the efforts of CPE Bach (1714-1788), this wonderful new instrument might never have come about for it was he who liberated pianists from the age-old ‘no thumbs’ rule, in turn inspiring them to demand much greater responsiveness and power from their soft-toned pianos. Imagine trying to play without using your thumbs – it’s so restrictive! CPE knew this, and in 1753, while living and working in Berlin and on the cusp of composing what would eventually be over 200 works for the clavier, his favourite instrument, he wrote and had published his Essay on the True Art of Playing Keyboard Instruments. Among its many radical ideas, his volume encouraged the use of the thumb – then largely banned from the keyboard – and, crucially with the Classical period getting into its stride, a more expressive style of playing. As an example of the sort of music best suited to this new, more emotional approach, he composed the Fantasia in C minor, a work full of sharp contrasts and bold harmonic shifts. His book’s proposals and music would influence future generations of pianists, pedagogues and composers, and inspired

From left to right: Jan Ladislav Dussek, Johann Nepomuk Hummel, CPE Bach

INSIDE THIS ISSUE The Scores CPE Bach Solfeggietto in C minor (page 36, with How to Play on page 20) Clementi Sonatina op 36 no 3, third movement (page 42, with How to Play lesson on page 21) Haydn Minuet No 3 in B flat Hob.IX:3 (page 28) Andantino in E flat (page 30, with How to Play lesson on page 15) Hummel Ecossaise op 52 no 5 (page 29) Interpretation Read what Jean-Efflam Bavouzet and Howard Shelley have to say about playing Haydn and Clementi on page 16

no less a person than Mozart to say of him: ‘Bach is the father. We are the children!’ His musical ideas, with their emphasis on personal expression, shaped existing and future composers, including Haydn, Beethoven, Chopin and Brahms. It was an impressive achievement for this son of a superstar, who might have followed his original career path into the law or piggybacked his father’s fame and basked in the vast circle of musical giants it attracted. Instead, by his early twenties, CPE was a successful clavier player who had already composed over 30 sonatas and other keyboard works. He soon gained a position in Frederick the Great’s court orchestra in Berlin. The music-loving royal inspired a series of dedications including two sets of sonatas which, almost overnight, made CPE’s name. Years later, in 1768, he upped sticks to Hamburg to be composer to Frederick’s sister, Princess Anna Amalia. His attention shifted to choral writing. Between 1768 and 1788 he composed over 70 cantatas and 21 settings of the Passion. Nevertheless, at least for pianists, it is his bold, inventive and expressive works, including the Solfeggietto [in this issue’s Scores, page 36] and La Caroline, not to mention his scores of sonatas and concertos, some of them dashed off for courtly consumption, others laboured over lovingly, that he will be best remembered and appreciated for. Clementi ‘duels’ with Mozart While CPE was enjoying the musical high life in Berlin, a 14-year-old Italian boy, born in Rome, was contemplating living out the rest of his childhood in Dorset, England. Muzio Clementi (1752-1832) was a musical lad, picked out for greatness by a wealthy Englishman called Sir Peter Beckford who, on a visit to Rome, heard him play the organ. Beckford persuaded Clementi’s father to let him take the boy to his estate at Blandford Forum, between Poole and Salisbury, to continue his musical education. In reality, young Clementi seems to have done little but practise the harpsichord for hours on end each day until in 1770, aged 18, he was released from Beckford’s control and went to London to perform and conduct. Pianists who have endured his volumes of over 100 studies – called Gradus ad Parnassum – and occasionally mindnumbing sonatinas might wish he’d remained doing just that. However, in 1780 he embarked on a three-year tour of Europe during which he made his name ‘duelling’ with Mozart at the harpsichord for Emperor Joseph II in Vienna, who was keen to see which of them was the best. He declared it a tie but later, Mozart rather uncharitably rubbished Clementi’s playing, saying it was technical and unmusical.

80• Great Composers

p79_GC Haydn and rest-FINAL.indd 80

10/06/2015 13:24

Regardless, buoyed by his success and encouraged by the great composers and performers he encountered, Clementi returned to England in 1783 and remained there in demand as a teacher and performer, for 20 years. His pupils included John Field, whose style of playing would influence Chopin. During this time, Clementi composed some orchestral and chamber pieces but his heart lay with the piano. He wrote a practical guide to playing the piano, and composed over 50 piano sonatas and additional sonatinas, which set pianists all manner of technical challenges (who hasn’t played the Sonatina op 36 no 1?). [The first movement of Clementi’s Sonatina op 36 no 3 appears on page 42]. Mozart’s antipathy towards Clementi extended to advising his sister, Nannerl, not to play them for fear they’d ruin her touch. Erik Satie would later lampoon them in his piece, Sonatine bureaucratique. Others, including Beethoven, were kinder. He admired their pianistic style, ‘pleasing’ melodies and sheer energy, and even recommended his nephew Carl play them. Years later, none other than the great virtuoso Vladimir Horowitz championed them when he added some of them to his repertoire. But Clementi wasn’t only a great teacher and performer – in his day, only Mozart was better known – he was a successful piano maker, too, and even co-founded the Royal Philharmonic Society, which would go on to commission Beethoven’s Ninth Symphony. He eventually retired to Evesham and was buried at Westminster Abbey where the inscription on his tomb reads: ‘Muzio Clementi – the father of the pianoforte’. Dussek, Hummel, Czerny – virtuosos, teachers and more It’s a tribute that wouldn’t look out of place on Jan Ladislav Dussek’s tomb. The Czech-born composer and pianist (1760-1812) was one of the first touring virtuosos, the first to play side-on to his audience, and, thanks to his contacts with the manufacturer Broadwood, the inspiration for today’s large concert grand pianos. Where Clementi focused on the technical in his music, Dussek anticipated the Romantic era with much more daring and expressive compositions. He had a conventional musical training but was a little lazy. Nevertheless, he won a succession of court appointments, partly due to his handsome looks and virtuosic playing, that saw him employed by Catherine the Great in St Petersburg (before a scandal involving a suspected assassination plot

forced his swift departure) and even Marie Antoinette in Paris. He eventually settled in London, then the home of piano making thanks to the pioneering work of the manufacturer John Broadwood. British keyboard player Richard Egarr is one of those who credits Dussek with helping to push Broadwood to extend the range of his pianos and make them stronger, and more resonant in the 1790s. It was what Dussek’s music, which was more Romantic than Classical, demanded. It was one of this ‘new generation’ of more muscular pianos that Broadwood sent Beethoven, and the rest is history. Dussek composed some of his many piano sonatas and concertos during this time, works which would themselves also influence Beethoven. Scandal was never very far away, however, and in the midst of one of these, Dussek fled England for Germany where he resumed his restless, touring life, eventually dying in Paris, his handsome looks long faded. Handsome is not how you’d have described the Austrian-born composer and virtuoso pianist, Johann Nepomuk Hummel (1778-1837). However, with Mozart as his teacher, looks were never going to be that crucial to his career. The young lad was taught by the master for two years, free of charge; he was that impressed with the boy’s playing. Haydn composed a sonata for him when they met later in London, and Beethoven became a friend and fellow student when the pair studied in Vienna. He would go on to play at his friend’s funeral, an event that inspired Schubert to dedicate his last three piano sonatas to him. So what was Hummel’s appeal? His virtuosic abilities, certainly, and his web of influential connections (he was also employed at the same Esterházy court as Haydn), but also his teaching talents and his music. He wrote largely for the piano and composed eight well-regarded piano concertos and 10 piano sonatas that are beautifully crafted and, satisfyingly, full of tension and resolution. Composed very much in the prevailing Classical style, his sonatas were, unfortunately, quickly pushed aside and forgotten by the emerging Romantic movement as, indeed, was Hummel. This was not to be the case with Carl Czerny (1791-1857). Widely considered the father of modern piano technique, his methods and philosophy were passed down the generations from teacher to teacher, so that even the likes of Sergei Prokofiev, Arthur Rubinstein, Claudio Arrau and even Daniel Barenboim could claim a pedagogic connection. Czerny was born in Vienna to musical parents who taught him the piano. He gave his first public recital at the age of nine and from the age of 10 to 13 was

LISTENING GUIDE Haydn: Complete Piano Sonatas Alfred Brendel Philips 416 643-2 (4 CDs) CPE Bach: Complete Piano Solo Works Ana-Marija Markovina hänssler CLASSIC 98.003 (26 CDs) Clementi: The Complete Piano Sonatas (6 volumes) Howard Shelley Hyperion 67632, 67717, 67729, 67738, 67814, 67819 Clementi: Sonatas and other pieces Vladimir Horowitz RCA 7753 Czerny: Piano Sonatas Vol 2 Martin Jones Nimbus NIM5832 (2 discs) Dussek: Piano Concertos Concerto Köln/Andreas Staier pf & cond Capriccio 5072 Hummel: Piano Concertos Nos 2 &3 Stephen Hough English Chamber Orchestra/ Bryden Thomson Chandos CHAN 8507 Listen to Ana-Marija Markovina play CPE Bach’s Solfeggietto on this issue’s covermount CD. taught by no less a virtuoso than Beethoven. In later life, Czerny taught the great man’s nephew. Aged just 15, Czerny launched his teaching career, passing on the performance principles of Beethoven and Clementi to a succession of future stars including the legendary virtuoso Sigismund Thalberg and the great Franz Liszt. He and Liszt became lifelong friends. The famous composer went out of his way to support and promote Czerny’s music, a huge factor in sustaining his former teacher’s career and reputation. Another factor, of course, was the sheer quantity of music Czerny composed: more than 1,000 pieces most, though not all, for the piano. Among them were those fearsome tomes The School of Velocity and The Art of Finger Dexterity, but also sonatas, nocturnes and variations, some for multiple hands. Today piano students shudder at all those monotonous studies but in the years immediately following his death, Czerny was highly regarded, with even Brahms, admittedly a lover of Baroque formality and Classical restraint, praising his work. Just goes to show that piano students can be wrong. ■

81• Great Composers

p79_GC Haydn and rest-FINAL.indd 81

10/06/2015 13:24

MAKERS

KEYBOARDS of the Classical Era

Understanding the strengths and weaknesses of the keyboards used by Mozart and Beethoven will aid you in interpreting their music. Gez Kahan guides you through the intriguing world of fortepianos, pianofortes, actions, knee pedals and more

82• Great Composers

p82_ GC Makers-FINAL.indd 82

10/06/2015 09:14

produced in Vienna) are nowadays referred to as ‘fortepianos’, with the name ‘pianoforte’ reserved for their 19th-century descendants. (No such distinction, incidentally, applied at the time, with both terms in general use: Jane Austen, for instance, writes about the ‘pianoforte’, though modern practice would classify instruments of her time as ‘fortepianos’.) Shape changer The fortepiano didn’t spring up unannounced at the beginning of the Classical era. It had been bubbling away for half a century since Bartolomeo Cristofori invented it in around 1700 in

Opposite, clockwise from top left: 1816 Broadwood grand piano by John Broadwood and Sons; 1801 Erard; piano by Johannes Zumpe and Gabriel Buntebart, London, 1769; c.1800 fortepiano by Rosenberger, Vienna Above: Grand piano from the circle of Johann Andreas Stein, South Germany or Vienna, last quarter of the 18th century

Italy. Gottfried Silbermann took it up some 30 years later in Saxony, while his pupils helped spread the instrument and its manufacture to cultural centres such as Vienna and London, just in time to catch the wave of changing musical taste, and a favourable economic climate. It was then, in the 1750s, that the keyboard really started to develop its own identity – or rather, identities. The looks of earliest instruments have undeniable similarities with the harpsichord, which is no surprise given that harpsichords were the dominant keyboard instrument until well after 1750. Cristofori was a harpsichord builder by trade, Silbermann majored



© Cobbe Collection (p82: top & bottom left; p83); © Finchcocks (p82: top & bottom right)

O

ne would be probably safe in hazarding that the majority of Pianist’s readers likely started their keyboard studies with a diet that included plenty of music of the Classical era. Mozart, Haydn, early Beethoven and the rest are staples in the repertoire (and the grade exam syllabus). It is equally likely that only a handful of readers have even seen – let alone played or heard – an 18th-century piano. Unlike the repertoire, few of the keyboards of the Classical era have stood the test of time, though anyone reading this issue will be aware that the modern piano we know and love has changed quite dramatically from the instruments the composers of that time knew and worked on. There are plenty of clues in the repertoire itself. Look at the restricted range required to play Mozart (compared to 19th-century works by Brahms, say), and it’s easy to deduce that earlier instruments had fewer keys. It’s also possible to infer from the way the range required for Beethoven’s works increased over time that the instrument was probably evolving throughout the Classical period, on its way from a four- or five-octave compass towards today’s seven-and-a-bit octaves. Think about the Alberti accompaniments and fast fingerwork found in much of the Classical repertoire. Was that just the fashion of the times, or was it also influenced by the characteristics, particularly the action, of the instruments themselves? We might also ask why a composing genius not known for sloppiness should pepper a score with sfz markings when our modern piano is so ill suited to articulating that particular dynamic, or deliberately indicate pedalling that often seems to obscure rather than illuminate his musical message. We might well conclude, even from those few examples, that keyboard instruments back then were different. You don’t need to be a musicologist to verify that. There are places [see boxout, page 85] where you can see the instruments of the Classical era – though you probably won’t be allowed to play them because they’re too delicate to allow budding Liszts to get their hands near them. There are also recordings, generally made on modern-built replicas, in which you can hear these instruments. Sight and sound will confirm that most keyboard instruments manufactured from 1750 to 1820 are unlike modern pianos in so many respects that they might be considered different instruments. To distinguish them, these early instruments (and particularly models

83• Great Composers

p82_ GC Makers-FINAL.indd 83

10/06/2015 09:14

MAKERS in organs and harpsichords, and his pupils also trained on harpsichords. The resemblance to harpsichords went beyond the shape of the case: some of these early instruments had the white naturals and black sharps we’re used to, but many had black naturals and lighter coloured sharp keys. It wasn’t all ebony and ivory, either. Many different woods might be used for the keys. The real differences, however, lay beneath the bonnet. Cristofori’s instruments used a pair of strings per key, where the modern piano has three throughout most of the instrument. The strings themselves were thinner, though not as thin as on a harpsichord. The hammers were leather covered rather than felt. Frames were wooden, and even the bracing tended to be wooden – in fact, the first cast-iron piano frame appeared in the late 1820s, after the Classical era. All these factors influenced the sound, which was not just smaller in volume than today’s pianos and with much less sustain, but tonally different – a ‘true’ sforzando accent, yielding a change in timbre as well as volume, was easier to achieve than on later instruments. The downside was that the tone did vary significantly across the registers, being rather thinner in both the bass and treble, while the middle register was closer to the sound of a modern piano. But the fortepiano was a work in

progress, and makers were continually searching for improvements, so generalisation is dangerous. The earliest pianos (a term I’ll use from here on to describe the Classical era instruments) didn’t have pedals, though they did have some form of damper control, via hand stops at first, and later through knee levers. Pedals started appearing during the 1770s, though it wasn’t until 1795 that Beethoven called for pedalling in a manuscript, having previously indicated ‘with the knee’ when sustain was required. Makers experimented with various options: Mozart’s piano had two knee levers, one for raising all the dampers, the other raising just those in the treble; Beethoven’s Broadwood had a split damper pedal allowing bass and treble dampers to be raised separately. It was a similar story with the una corda (literally ‘single string’), which was present, as a stop rather than a pedal, on Cristofori’s instruments, predating damper control. On early instruments, it shifted the hammers so they struck only one of the two strings, giving a noticeable change in timbre as well as volume. As triple-stringing came in, some makers allowed the performer to select between una corda, due corde and tre corde (the latter is specified in some Beethoven works). That, sadly, is not an option available today. Although we still call it an una corda, the term is

This page, from top: Marie Antoinette’s piano, by Sébastien Erard, Paris, 1786-87; John Broadwood and Son square piano, London, 1795. Opposite, from top: JC Bach’s piano by Johannes Zumpe & Gabriel Buntebart, London, 1777-78; c.1805 Walter Square (travelling piano)

a misnomer when applied to triplestrung modern pianos, where the pedal on a grand shifts the hammers so they strike two instead of three strings. It’s even more of a misnomer on an upright, where it moves the hammers closer to the strings, reducing the travel and therefore the volume, but still striking all three strings and thus not changing the timbre. Pianos of the time might also have other controls to moderate volume, to apply material to the strings to induce a buzzing (a ‘bassoon’ stop), or to mimic a harpsichord. Among the more ridiculous controls to modern ears are ‘janissary stops’, which allow fans of Turkish marching music (en vogue at times in Classical-era Vienna) to incorporate cymbal crashes into their playing. Action plans However, it is in the action and therefore the touch that we find the most fundamental difference in the instruments that the great Classical composers played. Silbermann had followed Cristofori’s original design, which, suitably refined by later makers, ultimately led to what became known as the English action. Many of his successors in Germany and Austria, however, opted for a simpler (and cheaper) solution: the Viennese action. While the English action eventually won out and became the template for the actions found in today’s instruments, it was the Viennese action that composers such as Mozart, Haydn and the younger Beethoven would have been more familiar with. The Viennese action was lighter, requiring – according to Edwin Ripin, an authority on early pianos – only a quarter of the force to depress a key

84• Great Composers

p82_ GC Makers-FINAL.indd 84

10/06/2015 09:14

© Cobbe Collection (p84; p85: top); © Finchcocks (p85: bottom)

In London at the beginning of the Classical period, a grand (forte)piano cost £40, more than the average yearly income – the market, then, was mainly restricted to wealthy noblemen compared to a modern piano, and therefore making fast passages easier to play. On the other hand, getting the best from its dynamic range required an extremely sensitive touch. Then, as now, some makers were better than others. Mozart was scathing about those whose cost-cutting led them to dispense with the escapement mechanism that removes hammercontact from the strings immediately after the initial strike. ‘Only one maker in a hundred bothers about this,’ he wrote to his father in 1777. ‘But without an escapement it is impossible to avoid jangling and vibration after the note is struck.’ That passage is an aside in which the composer is praising the pianos of Johann Andreas Stein of Augsburg, who is credited with perfecting what became known as the Viennese action (though Mozart’s letter actually predates the finished ‘Prellmechanik’ action by four years). Stein had studied under Gottfried Silbermann’s nephew, and in turn passed on his expertise to his daughter Nannette, who moved to Vienna and continued the business after her father’s death under her married name of Streicher. The firm, which provided pianos for Beethoven among others, remained in business, still using Stein’s Viennese action, until 1894. Mozart, however, was not among its customers. He bought his piano, some years later, from Anton Walter, who built pianos along the same principles in Vienna. It is one thing for a renowned composer to buy a state-of-the-art fortepiano. What, though, could his public reasonably aspire to? At the beginning of the Classical period, most of them couldn’t. In London, for instance, a grand (forte)piano cost upwards of £40, which was rather more than the average yearly income at the time – and the upright as we know it was 76 years away. The market, in other words, was practically restricted to wealthy noblemen. The times, though, were a-changing. The industrial

revolution was beginning in England, bringing prosperity to the rising middle class, and bang on cue, Johannes Zumpe’s square pianos arrived on the scene. Zumpe had trained under Silbermann then emigrated to London, where he worked for Burkat Shudi, an émigré Swiss harpsichord maker. In 1761 he went independent, building his square pianos. This instrument (which wasn’t square but rectangular, and was called a table piano in Germany) wasn’t his invention, but Zumpe was the first to make them affordable. They sold for £15–£20, and from the late 1760s onwards they went like hot cakes. Within a few years, the piano, which had taken 60 years to gather momentum, had all but replaced the harpsichord, and Zumpe and other English manufacturers of square pianos were scarcely able to keep up with demand, both domestic and from abroad. Innovation followed, not only in London and Vienna but elsewhere in Europe – and in the newly independent USA, though America’s heyday really belongs to the Romantic rather than the Classical era. Sadly, only one manufacturer out of all the makers of Classical era pianos has survived to the current day. John Broadwood, like Zumpe, worked for Shudi. When Shudi died, Broadwood, who had married his daughter, Barbara, renamed the firm – and prospered. The Broadwood action was superior to that of the Zumpe and led directly (albeit with later refinements introduced by Sébastien Erard) to the one we know today. Indisputably the premium English make, by the end of the Classical period, Broadwood was making in the region of 1,500 fortepianos a year, the majority of them square pianos. Though perhaps, given the continual innovation and improvement the company undertook, it would be more accurate to say that by 1820 they were no longer fortepianos, but pianofortes – and ready for the new music of the Romantics. n

Meet the family

Where to see keyboards of the Classical era The majority of surviving Classical era pianos are held in museums and collections. What follows is not an exhaustive list – a web search will throw up several possibilities, though visitors should always check first to confirm that the exhibits they’re hoping to see are actually on show and not on loan to other collections. One of the best known in the UK is the Cobbe Collection at Hatchlands Park, Surrey. This includes instruments owned or played by composers such as Johann Christian Bach (who gave some of the earliest piano recitals in London and was a business associate of Johannes Zumpe), Mozart, Haydn and Beethoven, while the makers represented include Stein’s workshops, Walter, Streicher, Zumpe, Broadwood, Erard and many others. Check the website for details of the keyboard collection, and for concerts and guided tours where you can hear the instruments being played. Similarly Finchcocks, in Kent, has a fine selection of Classical era instruments by the same makers, and likewise puts on concerts. The restoration and conservation workshops of John Broadwood and Sons are also located at Finchcocks. Readers in North America are well served by the likes of the Metropolitan Museum of Art in New York (which contains one of the three surviving pianos by Cristofori), and the Museum of Fine Arts in Boston. Again, a web search will uncover more collections.

Plan your visit at cobbecollection.co.uk, finchcocks.co.uk, metmuseum.org and mfa.org

85• Great Composers

p82_ GC Makers-FINAL.indd 85

10/06/2015 09:14

SHEET MUSIC REVIEW

Bound to impress Itching to get the Classical repertoire under your fingers? Michael McMillan rounds up the best of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven scores for all levels of players

A

lthough the piano was invented around the turn of the 18th century, it took a few decades for it to gain traction on the prevailing musical landscape. The first known piece of music written specifically for the piano was published in 1732 (the year Haydn was born), and the lives of the great Classical composers coincided with the rapid evolution and development of the piano, creating a huge groundswell of solo work for the instrument that we still enjoy today. All the music written in the Classical period has long since gone out of copyright, so if you have a printer in good working order, along with several reams of paper and a handful of ink cartridges, you could decide to print out thousands of pieces of classical piano music downloaded from the Internet. The complete solo piano works of Beethoven, Mozart, and Haydn, for example – amounting to roughly 3,000 pages – could all be at your fingertips, and at a fraction of the cost of buying all the music. However, when it comes to sheet music, there are many subtle considerations that come into play other than cost, convenience, and portability. We all have different peferences and priorities that we look for in our choice of editions, based on a variety of qualities, such as: how clearly the music is printed and spaced out on the page, whether the musical text reflects the latest scholarship, the edition’s aesthetic appeal, the size and colour of paper, the quality of its binding, its bulkiness, whether or not it stays open easily on the music stand, the appropriateness of (or absence of ) fingering/pedalling suggestions, the existence of awkward page turns, whether or not it contains

introductory notes and essays about the music, a glossary of musical terms, and a critical commentary. All the major music publishers publish the piano works of the three giants of the Classical period – Beethoven, Mozart, and Haydn – with slight variations in these factors. My overview, I hope, will help to narrow down and better inform your selection of repertoire and choice of edition. (Follow the footnotes to the last page of this article for complete details about the publications mentioned here.)

V rlag G. Henle Ve

BEETHOVEN Alfred Music’s catalogue contains a number of inexpensive books that are appropriate for pianists in their first few years of study. The easiest one is Beethoven – First Book for Pianists1, which can be bought with or without a demo CD; it is edited by Willard Palmer, and contains ten of his easiest pieces (Grade 1 to 4), such as the Ecossaise in G (WoO23), Lustig, Traurig (WoO54), and Sonatina in G (Anh 5 no 1). Palmer has recycled half the content of this book and put it into Beethoven – 16 Easiest selections2 (Grade 3-5), which also contains, most notably, Für Elise and the Sonatina in F (Anh 5 no 2), while he has absorbed the whole of the First Book into Beethoven – An Introduction to his Piano Works3, which contains seven additional pieces around Grade 5. The fonts and musical engraving in this latter book look a little dated compared to the others, but there are helpful introductory notes, with particular focus on Beethoven’s use of slurs and ornamentation. These three books present the musical text with editorial guidance on matters of dynamics, pedalling, phrasing, and realisation of ornaments, but if you’d rather do without this input, I’d suggest Beethoven – Easy Piano 86• Great Composers

p86_sheet music GC-FINALish.indd 86

10/06/2015 13:27

Variations in C minor are also available from Henle. The first volume of Variations13 from Wiener Urtext contains all these variations and more, but the musical text is a little more cramped than in the Henle volumes. If you can’t wait to get started on the Sonatas at this stage, a good place to begin your journey would be Alfred’s two-volume set of Selected Intermediate to Early Advanced Piano Sonata Movements14 edited by Maurice Hinson. Finally, we turn to the sonatas, for which there have been more editions than any other collection of works in the keyboard literature. Bärenreiter has published just two of the sonatas – op 13 ‘Pathétique’ and op 57 ‘Appassionata’15 – both of which have been edited by Jonathan del Mar, who prepared Bärenreiter’s acclaimed edition of all nine symphonies. These are the only modern editions I know about that have no editorial fingering, so if this aspect ranks highly for you, look no further than these beautifully presented, slightly-larger-than-average volumes. If the lack of fingering is a dealbreaker, however, you’ll need to look elsewhere, and if you’d like some assistance in this area from worldrenowned pianist Murray Perahia, Henle’s new edition of individual sonatas16 contains his fingering suggestions. This new edition is only half complete, so Henle’s 50-year-old Wallner edition is still available for the remaining sonatas. The new Gertsch/ Perahia editions look more attractive, however, distinguish between dots and wedges, and presumably contain updated research to warrant their creation. Since the two Henle volumes of the 32 Sonatas are based on the Wallner edition, they have become less desirable than other modern editions, and, at around 300 pages each, these tomes are also rather unwieldy. The Tovey/Craxton edition is also showing signs of its 80-year-old age, and has been usurped in the ABRSM’s catalogue by their recent edition prepared by Barry Cooper17. The complete sonatas in this edition are available individually or in three volumes (the volumes can also be acquired all together in a slipcase). In Jonathan del Mar’s opinion, this is a ‘relatively diplomatic edition adhering very closely to the First Edition, resisting the temptation to adjust editorially to more “probable” readings’. This observation aside, both the volumes and individual sonatas are sumptuously presented, with crystal clear musical text on off-white paper, good binding, extensive historical information, and a readable, detailed commentary completing a very impressive and affordable package indeed.

rtann M Scohzuam Ur Urtext

ll D-dur mote sona ierhavro Klleg Al 84 us28 KV Op inorD major min in bata no Son Alle Piagro op.8 K. 284

g

G. Henle Verla

480 3 106

063-8 ISMN 979-0-2018-1 y Printed in German

HN 1063

13.01.2012

10:15:50

www.henle.com

HN 1063 Mozart

Cover.indd 1



Pieces and Dances4 from Bärenreiter. This collection has a good cross-section of 17 easy pieces up to Grade 5, but do bear in mind that with only a brief introductory preface, and with mostly six staves to a page (compared to four staves with Alfred’s editions), it isn’t as friendly towards young pianists. All the books mentioned so far provide a good overview of Beethoven’s easiest material, but if you’re after a particular work, you of course have the option of buying the most popular easy selections separately – the Two Sonatinas Anh 55, from Henle, for example. If you want to delve further into Beethoven’s dances (German Dances, Country Dances, Eccosaises, Ländler, Minuets and Waltzes), which constitute a significant proportion of his easiest pieces, Alfred’s Beethoven – Dances for the Piano6 contains 41 individual dances, only seven of which are reproduced in the books already discussed. Collectors looking for a more comprehensive selection of dances, and are willing to pay double the price, can find all these dances and 30 more in Henle’s Dances for Piano7. Moving the survey up a level to around Grade 5-8 brings into focus the three sets of Bagatelles, easier Variations, the three ‘Kurfürsten Sonatas’ WoO47 that are often referred to as Sonatinas, and the easiest movements of the 32 Sonatas. Alfred Brendel has edited the complete sets of Bagatelles8 (opp 33, 119, 126 – 24 pieces in total) for Wiener Urtext. This edition of these quirky miniatures will be of benefit for performers for the distinguished pianist’s fingering. The complete bagatelles are also contained in the same publisher’s Selected Piano Pieces9 volume, which costs about twice as much. For the extra money, you get 63 more pages of Brendel-edited music, including the two Rondos (op 51), Rage Over a Lost Penny (op 129), Für Elise, Andante in F (WoO57), six Eccosaises (WoO83), Fantasie (op 77), Polonaise (op 89), Allegretto in C minor (WoO53), and Klavierstück in B flat (WoO60). If you can live without the Eccosaises, though, and are not bothered about Brendel’s fingering, Henle’s Piano Pieces10 contains all the same music for a similar price, plus a few more pieces such as the three easy sonatas (WoO47) and Sonatinas (Anh 5 no 1 & 2, WoO50, WoO51). If the latter seven pieces are all you want, Alfred publishes the set as Seven Sonatinas11. Beethoven wrote many sets of variations for the piano, and several are within the grasp of those who have reached Grade 6-8. Three charming ones – WoO64, WoO70, and WoO77 – are published as a set by Henle12, and going up another level, the 32

87• Great Composers

p86_sheet music GC-FINALish.indd 87

10/06/2015 13:27

SHEET MUSIC REVIEW

Haydn Urtext

aviersonaten Sämtliche Kl Band I no Sonatas Complete Pia Volume I

g

G. Henle Verla

238

Wiener Urtext’s fairly recent (late 1990s) edition of the complete sonatas18 has been prepared by Peter Hauschild and is also published in three volumes, while individual sonatas are available up to op 49. Unlike the ABRSM or Henle editions, which rely on one source for their fingering suggestions, the fingering for a sonata in this series comes from one of ten different pianists (e.g. Gerhard Oppitz, Hans Kann, Boris Bloch, Pavel Gililov, Alexander Jenner). In comparison to the new ABRSM edition, Jonathan del Mar believes this one to be ‘more lax’, by granting markings from later editions equal weight to the first edition without distinguishing them through the use of editorial brackets, but the details are so minute that you probably wouldn’t spot them unless you were specifically looking for them. The binding of the volumes is exemplary, allowing the music to fold open very easily, and textual clarity does not suffer in comparison to its rivals. The German preface has been translated into French and English, but the critical commentary is unfortunately all in German. Alfred’s sonata edition19 is the least expensive of all the ones reviewed here, and was completed by Stewart Gordon within the last decade. Nine of the sonatas have been published individually, and the complete set has been divided into four, easy-to-handle volumes. In addition to the primary sources, Gordon has consulted editions by d’Albert (Fischer), Arrau (Peters), Bülow (Schirmer), Casella (Ricordi), Craxton/Tovey (ABRSM), Geoffroy (Lemoine), Kohler/Ruthardt (Peters), Krebs (Kalmus), Martienssen (Peters), Schenker (Dover), Schnabel (Simon & Schuster), and Wallner (Henle) to provide immensely valuable commentary via footnotes to many of the pages. For example, in reference to a problematic ornament in the first movement of op 10 no 1, you’d

discover that Tovey suggests a particular execution, but that Schnabel rejects Tovey’s solution, and instead recommends two others. Schenker offers another idea, and Gordon puts forth his own realisation. This collation of editorial information is a fantastic resource, and excellent introductory notes are provided along with metronome markings for every movement by Casella, Czerny (1842 and 1850), Moscheles, Bülow and Schnabel. There are only three potential drawbacks

Why Urtext matters Bärenreiter’s piano editor, Dr Britta Schilling-Wang, shares her views Why are Urtext editions important? Part of the answer is that many non-Urtext editions contain arbitrary ‘corrections’ – for example in slurs and phrasing, articulation, ornamentation, accidentals, dynamics and instructions. This means that the music has been tacitly altered, sometimes considerably, in a way that is not evident to the performer. Bärenreiter uses the term ‘Urtext’ for its scholarly-critical editions in which the musical text has been established by leading experts drawing on all available and authoritative sources. The aim is to reproduce, as closely as possible, the work in the form the composer intended. Editorial interventions that might be necessary in the case of doubtful or unclear variant readings are kept to the minimum and are listed in the Critical Commentary: the main focus is on the work in its original form, free of any extraneous additions. Bärenreiter editors track down sources all over the world, deciphering barely legible manuscripts and investigating mistakes, contradictions and intended differences. In the course of their detective work, they are often faced with tricky questions: does the autograph manuscript, a first printed edition, a corrected working copy, or a revised second edition reflect the composer’s final intentions? How significant are comments in letters made by the composer or other contemporaries? Bärenreiter Urtext editions of piano music are not only intended for specialists but also for pupils, students, teachers and music lovers, offering a wealth of information that ensures a reliable basis for both teaching and self-study. This includes an easy-to-read music layout, with practical page-turns and fold-out pages, making inconvenient turns unnecessary. The presentation includes suggestions for performance, providing information on questions of historical performance instructions, ornamentation, pedalling and articulation. The Bärenreiter piano music catalogue includes the composers of the Viennese classics, with new Urtext editions being issued regularly, including Beethoven’s piano sonatas in separate volumes and new volumes of Haydn’s Complete Piano Sonatas.

I can find in this admirable edition. Firstly, Gordon has decided not to differentiate between dots and wedges. Although he provides a perfectly reasonable justification, all the other modern editions mentioned here have adopted both forms of articulation and I expect some pianists will want to follow this trend. The other two misgivings are trivial but worth mentioning; the binding benefits from being smyth sewn (section sewn), but still requires a little encouragement to stay open, and, for some people, Alfred’s customary white paper isn’t as easy on the eye or as classy as the off-white or cream colour used by other publishers. To summarise, those who prefer not to have the distraction of editorial fingerings in their copy will be drawn towards Bärenreiter’s scholarly editions, but there are currently only two sonatas in their catalogue. Wiener Urtext provides good all-round editions, but if you’re after a copy of an individual sonata, other editions have extra features going for them. I’d recommend choosing between the Henle (Gertsch/Perahia), ABRSM, and Alfred editions depending on availability (only ABRSM offers a complete selection), how much weight you give to footnotes (Alfred), editorial commentary (ABRSM), paper colour (Henle/cream, ABRSM/ off-white, Alfred-white), whether or not you want wedges in your music (if you do, Alfred is out), and how highly you value Perahia’s fingering (Henle). Similar considerations apply to the sonata collections from Alfred, ABRSM and Wiener Urtext. The ones from ABRSM strike me as providing the best overall package, while the wealth of information in the footnotes and slimmer volume-size provide a strong argument for Alfred’s edition. If all the editorial add-ons have no appeal, you’d probably prefer Wiener Urtext – take your pick!

88• Great Composers

p86_sheet music GC-FINALish.indd 88

10/06/2015 13:27

expensive, but an affordable softback version is published by Bärenreiter, and these volumes can be bought all together in a five-volume slipcase31, which consists of two volumes for the Sonatas, one for Variations, one for Miscellaneous Works, and one for the Notebooks of Mozart and his Sister; with the exception of the last volume, they are also sold separately. With no fingering in these volumes whatsoever, these editions are geared towards the serious performer. Just a couple of the sonatas (K331 & K545) are printed individually, and these do include fingerings by Matthias Kirschnereit. HAYDN A good place for beginners to look for easy music by Haydn is in Alfred’s First Book for Pianists32, which contains eight pieces around Grade 2-4. Most of these are the easiest movements from Haydn’s easiest sonatas, which are often referred to as sonatinas. For an overview of Haydn’s works with a wider range of difficulty, try Alfred’s Introduction to His Keyboard Works33, which contains the First Book and a few more pieces, such as the first movement of his Sonata in D (Hob.XVI:37) which was set at Grade 8 on the 2012-14 Trinity exam syllabus. This book begins with an extensive and readable ten-page preface by the editor, George Lucktenberg, detailing Haydn’s life and career, information about the pieces, and a discussion of Haydn’s ornamentation. Editorial additions are all marked in lighter, grey print. Another book with a good cross-section of pieces at the early intermediate level is Alfred’s At the Piano with Haydn34, edited by Maurice Hinson, which has no overlap of repertoire with the other two books. Haydn wrote more piano sonatas than the combined sum of Beethoven and Mozart, and to celebrate the Haydn anniversary in 2009 (200 years after his death), Wiener Urtext released a revised version of Christa Landon’s landmark edition35 (1966) of the complete Haydn piano sonatas. Fingering is provided by Oswald Jonas in all four chronologically-presented volumes, each of which contains a three-page preface by Ulrich Leisinger, the editor, detailing the historical background to the music in each volume. Robert Levin provides three pages of Notes on Interpretation and up to ten pages of Suggestions for Embellishments, which all goes to explain why each volume has ‘Landon/ Leisinger/Levin/Jonas’ printed on the front cover. The musical text is easy on the eye, benefitting from a new engraving, and the binding is typically secure and flexible, allowing pages to fold flat effortlessly. Sonatas Nos 26, 35, 37 or 49 are published individually, and the four easiest sonatas36 are



MOZART Mozart wrote many pieces in his youth that are suitable material for beginners. Wiener Urtext’s First volume of Piano Pieces20 contains 150-odd pages of music from this period, including 18 pieces from the Notebook for Nannerl, and the complete set of 42 pieces that make up the London Musical Notebook, which Mozart composed at the age of eight while in London. If this is overkill, you can find a more modest quantity – 12 pieces – of the easiest Mozart works in Alfred’s First Book for Pianists21. Editorial suggestions for fingering, tempo, articulation, dynamics, and realisation of ornaments are provided in grey print. For a greater range of difficulty, Mozart: An Introduction to His Keyboard Works22 and At the Piano with Mozart23 from the same publisher offer good samples of his work, from elementary minuets to larger works such as the D minor Fantasy (K397), Variations (K300), and Rondo in D major (K485). These latter three pieces are immensely popular with pianists around the Grade 6-8 level, and should you wish to buy them individually I’d recommend editions by Bärenreiter (Variations)24, and Wiener Urtext (Fantasy, Rondo)25, 26; the music is immaculately presented in all three. Students playing these pieces would also be ready for some of Mozart’s easier Sonata movements, and 17 of these have been collected by Maurice Hinson in Selected Intermediate to Early Advanced Piano Sonata Movements27; performance practice notes are included, as is a suggested order of study. If you’re after a copy of a single sonata, ABRSM (ed. by Stanley Sadie) and Henle (ed. Ernst Herttrich) both publish all the sonatas individually as well as in two volumes. The ABRSM single sonata editions28 are cheaper and have more readable introductory notes, while the Henle editions29 are more recent, having been revised in 1992, and are aesthetically more pleasing. The Wiener Urtext edition30 by Ulrich Leisinger is still more recent (2004), but only four sonatas are published individually (K310, K330, K457, and K545). All the sonatas are published in their excellent two-volume collection, though, and you can buy both together for a worthy discount. Bärenreiter’s Mozart catalogue originates from The New Edition of the Complete Works of Mozart edited by the International Mozarteum Foundation. The keyboard solo music that makes up just 5 of the project’s 132 volumes (or around 850 pages out of a total of 25,000), were first published between 1961 and 1986. The original, hardbacklinen editions are prohibitively

89• Great Composers

p86_sheet music GC-FINALish.indd 89

10/06/2015 13:27

SHEET MUSIC REVIEW available as a set, but if you’re after a complete collection of the sonatas, I can’t think of any reason why you wouldn’t get these four volumes. This wouldn’t be a cheap investment, but to make the cost a little less eye-watering, you can buy the complete set directly from their shop for about a 15 per cent discount. Henle also publishes the complete Haydn sonatas37, but does so in three volumes, while individually, Henle also prints the sonatas mentioned above (with the exception of No 26) but also Sonatas No 20, 23, and 40. The musical text, edited by Georg Feder, is taken from Henle’s Complete Haydn Edition (1971). Compared to Wiener Urtext’s edition, the music is a little smaller and less spacious, with seven staves on a page not uncommon, and the lack of critical commentary within each volume and a brief, one-page preface will, for some readers, also count against this edition. If you’re interested in just the easiest sonatas, however, and would like more than just the four in Wiener Urtext’s easy volume, I’d recommend a book in Henle’s catalogue called Nine Little Early Piano Sonatas38; some of the easiest movements have been set on exam syllabuses at Grade 2. COLLECTIONS Intermediate and early advanced students (Grade 4-7) may find collections and anthologies of classical music a more cost-effective and practical way of accessing the repertoire most suited to their abilities. There are three albums in Alfred’s catalogue that stand out. Firstly, their Sonatina Album39, compiled by Louis Köhler, contains an excellent selection of favourite sonatinas, rondos, and other pieces, including all six of Clementi’s op 36, Kuhlau’s op 20 and the first three of his op 55 set. The spiral comb binding allows the music to fold flat, and although the musical text would ideally be more spacious and pleasing to the eye you can’t really ask for much more at this price point. The Sonatina Album has two big brothers in the form of Sonata albums40 edited by Maurice Hinson. The first volume is the more attractive; it contains 12 of Haydn, Mozart and Beethoven’s easiest sonatas (Grade 6-8). The second volume presents the next 10 hardest sonatas (e.g. Beethoven’s opp 13, 26, and 27 no 2), and if you’re playing at this level, I’d suggest considering the editions covered earlier. And finally, the Anthology of Classical Piano Music41, also edited by Hinson, is a superb 248-page comb-bound volume containing the works of 27 composers. The text is razor-sharp, and a wide range of difficulty (Grade 3 to 8) means you can keep coming back for more music as your skills improve. Looking elsewhere, Nils Franke has selected and edited both Schott’s Classical Piano Anthology series42 and Wiener Urtext’s Primo series43, the second volume of which contains works by Haydn, Mozart, and Cimarosa. Schott’s three volumes contain around 20-30 pieces (Vol 1 = Grade 1-2, Vol 2 = Grade 3-4, Vol 3 = Grade 5-6), mixing some well-known works with less familiar repertoire. Volume 2 has a particularly interesting selection, and my only quibble overall would be that since all the written text, including the useful teaching notes and biographical information, is written in three languages, only 84 out of the 164 pages in the series actually has music printed on them (note that a final fourth volume has just been added to the series). The books all come with demo CDs recorded by Franke. The volume in the Primo series doesn’t come with a CD, has a narrower range of difficulty (Grade 3-5), and fewer composers, but has a better quality of layout, presentation, and 10 sonatas by Cimarosa that deserve to be heard more often at this level. Performance practice notes (called Practice tips) are included, and a selection of Beethoven’s works can be found alongside those of Schubert and Hummel in the third volume. ■

SCORES DISCUSSED (in order of appearance) Beethoven 1 First Book for Pianists (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73900-7761)* 2 16 Easiest Selections (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73902-0227)* 3 An Introduction to his piano works (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73902-2979)* 4 Easy Piano Pieces and Dances (Bärenreiter; BA6560, ISMN: 979-0-00649-8550)* 5 Two Sonatinas Anh 5 (Henle; HN365, ISMN: 979-0-20180-3654)* 6 Dances for the Piano (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-7390-2-7301)* 7 Dances for Piano (Henle; HN449, ISMN: 979-0-20180-4491) 8 Bagatelles (Wiener Urtext; UT50054, ISBN: 978-3-85055-0543)* 9 Selected works (Wiener Urtext; UT50003, ISBN: 978-3-85055-0031)* 10 Piano Pieces (Henle; HN12, ISMN: 979-0-20180-0127)* 11 Seven Sonatinas (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73902-7301) 12 Three Variation Works (Henle; HN132, ISMN: 979-0-201801-322) 13 Variations Vol 1 (Wiener Urtext; UT50024, ISBN: 978-3-85055-0239) 14 Selected Intermediate to Early Advanced piano sonata movements (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73902-1644)* 15 Individual sonatas, Bärenreiter; e.g. op 13 ‘Pathétique’: BA10851, ISMN: 979 -0-00654-2055*; op 57 ‘Appassionata’: BA10852, ISMN: 979-0-00652-8165* 16 Individual sonatas, Henle; e.g. op 53 ‘Waldstein’: HN946, ISMN: 979-0201809-465 17 Sonata volumes, ABRSM; e.g. Vol 1: ISBN: 978-1-86096-245-5*; Individual sonatas, ABRSM; e.g. op 13: ISBN: 978-1-86096-746-7* 18 Sonata volumes, Wiener Urtext; e.g. Vol 1: UT50107, ISBN: 9783-85055-1007; Individual sonatas, Wiener Urtext; e.g. op 27 no 2 ‘Moonlight’ UT50114, ISBN: 978-3-85055-1069 19 Sonata volumes, Alfred; e.g. Vol 1: ISBN: 978-0-73902-7356*; Individual sonatas, Alfred; e.g. op 81a: ISBN: 978-0-73907-3254* Mozart 20 Piano Pieces Vol 1 (Wiener Urtext; UT50229, ISBN: 978-3-85055-6422) 21 First Book for Pianists (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73901-9603)* 22 An Introduction to His Keyboard Works (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-88284-2547)* 23 At the Piano with Mozart (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73902-1873)* 24 Variations on Ah, Vous dirai-je Maman (Bärenreiter; BA5765, ISMN: 979-0-00652-4365)* 25 Fantasy in D minor (Wiener Urtext; UT50245, ISBN: 978-3-85055-6170) 26 Rondo in D K485 (Wiener Urtext; UT51022, ISBN: 978-3-85055-6460) 27 Selected Intermediate to Early Advanced Piano Sonata Movements (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73903-0530 )* 28 Individual sonatas, ABRSM; e.g. K284: ISBN: 978-1-85472-1624* 29 Individual sonatas, Henle; e.g. K284: HN1063, ISBN: 979-0-20181-0638 30 Sonata volumes,Wiener Urtext; e.g. Vol 1: UT50226, ISBN: 978-385055-6071* 31 Complete Works for Piano Solo (Bärenreiter; BA5749, ISMN: 979-000652-5621, five volumes)* Haydn 32 First Book for Pianists (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73900-5897)* 33 An Introduction to his Keyboard Works (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73900-6160)* 34 At the Piano with Haydn (Alfred; ISBN: 3808103412)* 35 Sonatas, Wiener Urtext; e.g. Vol 1: UT50256, ISBN: 978-3-85055-6538 36 The Easiest Piano Sonatas (Wiener Urtext; UT50273, ISBN: 978-3-850556828) 37 Sonatas, Henle; e.g. Vol 1: HN238, ISMN: 979-0-20180-2381* 38 Nine Little Early Piano Sonatas (Henle; HN645, ISMN: 979-0-201806457) Collections 39 Sonatina Album (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73901-6589)* 40 Sonata Album Vol 1 (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73903-3197)* 41 Anthology of Classical Piano Music (Alfred; ISBN: 978-0-73901-3663)* 42 Classical Piano Anthology (Schott; e.g. Vol 2: ED13436, ISBN: 978-184761-1451)* 43 Easy piano pieces with practice tips (Wiener Urtext; Vol 2: UT52003, ISBN: 978-3-85055-7467) Books marked with an asterisk (*) are available at the Pianist Digital Store: http://pianistm.ag/digitalshop 90• Great Composers

p86_sheet music GC-FINALish.indd 90

10/06/2015 13:27

View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.
SUPPORT KUPDF