PharDose Lab Prelims

March 4, 2019 | Author: Kimberley Anne See | Category: Topical Medication, Solubility, Solution, Iodine, Chocolate
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Prep 8-18...


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy

Preparation 8: White Ointment EXPERIMENT: Category: ointment, Category: ointment, official USP Ingredients: Ingredients: white wax white petrolatum Synonym: Synonym: Salve Chrisma Simple ointment Unguentum simplex Description: white Description: white semisolid preparation that is insoluble in water Method of preparation: fusion method Computations:

Packaging: 10 gram ointment jar, glassine paper Label: red (external) POST-LAB: Ointment -semi-solid preparation intended for external application to skin and mucous membranes  Methods of preparation:  Levigation -mechanical incorporation performed by trituration in a mortar or on a slab with spatula and an ointment tile (porcelain/glass) -drug material is levigated with the vehicle or a miscible liquid component (propylene glycol, mineral oil) to form a concentrate -concentrate is diluted GEOMETRICALLY w/ the remainder of the base Fusion  -use of heat -heat 1st the substance w/ the HIGH MELTING POINT using water bath -then add soft and oleginous material

Ointment bases:  Hydrocarbon bases (oleaginous bases) -usually petrolatum modified waxes/liquid petrolatum -not water-washable, occlusive, anhydrous, insoluble in water Ex: synthetic ester, benzoinated lard, olive oil, cottonseed oil, lanolin derivatives  Absorption bases -hydrophilic -can absorb water -anhydrous material or hydrous bases -non water-washable water-washable Ex: hydrophilic petrolatum, wool fat f at (anhydrous lanolin), aquaphor, aquabase, polysorb  Water-removable bases -oil-in-water bases -water-washable -most commonly used type of ointment base Ex: Hydrophilic ointment, USP, dermvase, velvachol, univase, Galen’s cream, petrolatum rose water ointment  Water-soluble bases -water-washable; -water-washable; greaseless Ex: polyethylene glycol (PEG), propylene glycol ethanol Uses:  Emollient Protection against escape of moisture  (occlusive dressing) Used as a vehicle  Preparation 9: Zinc Oxide Ointment EXPERIMENT: Category: medicated Category: medicated ointment, official USP Ingredients: Ingredients: Zinc oxide Mineral oil (density: 0.8498) White ointment Method of preparation: mechanical incorporation Computations:


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy


Packaging: 10 gram ointment jar, glassine paper Label: red (external) POST-LAB: Ointment -also known as salve or chrisma Types: Unmedicated ointments  -serve as vehicles -protective -emollient -lubricant  Medicated ointments Characteristics of ointments: Homogenous, smooth, free from grittiness   Easily spreadable Never be dispensed if they have slight evidence  of rancidity or mold Container: Ointment jars  -available in clear, opal, amber, and gre en glass, white or green plastic ointment jars  Collapsible tubes **avoid prolonged exposure exceeding 30 degrees Celsius Preparation 10: Sulfur Ointment EXPERIMENT: Category: medicated ointment, official USP Ingredients: precipitated sulfur mineral ointment white ointment Synonym: Unguentum sulfuris Description: yellow, semisolid preparation Method of preparation: mechanical incorporation >Precipitated sulfur: active ingredient >Base: white ointment >Levigating agent: mineral oil **nlt 9.5% and nmt 10.5% sulfur

Packaging: 10 gram ointment jar, glassine paper Label: red (external) POST-LAB: Steel and iron spatula -do not use for ointments containing free acids, iodine, mercury or tannin **Diff. between yellow and white wax **Collapsible tubes are preferable than ointment  jars Preparation 11: Cinnamon water EXPERIMENT: Category: non-medicated aromatic water, NF Ingredients: cinnamon oil purified water Synonym: Aqua cinnamon Sargon cassia Casia nare Cassia oil Description: clear, colorless, saturated aqueous solution w/ cinnamon odor and taste Method of preparation: direct solution method Computations:


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy

Packaging: 30 mL narrow-mouth amber bottle **store in a light resistant container Label: white (internal) POST-LAB: Solution -homogenous mixture of solid, liquid, gas Types: Aqueous solution   Non-aqueous solution hydroalcoholic  -elixir oleaginous  -oil -oleovitamin ethereal  -ether -collodion Aromatic waters -clear, aqueous solutions saturated with volatile oils or other aromatic or volatile substances -should be free from empyreumatic (smoke-like) -used as flavored and perfumed vehicle  Methods of preparation: Distillation  -most satisfactory method of preparation -slowest and most expensive method Ex: rose water Cohobation — repeatedly using the distillate to distill w/ fresh portions of flowers/plant materials to minimize loss of water soluble components] ex: orange/rose flowers  Solution  Direct Solution Method -repeatedly shaking 2g or 2mL of the volatile substance w/ 1000mL purified water -set aside mixture for 12 hrs -filter w/ wetted filtered paper -more convenient than distillation (in terms of time and equipment) -DO NOT AGITATE WHEN DRAWING OFF AROMATIC WATER IF THE EXCESS VOLATILE OIL IS ALLOWED TO REMAIN Alternate Solution Method  -most frequently employed where aromatic waters may be prepared by incorporating

the volatile oil with 15 g of talc w/ a sufficient quantity of siliceous earth or pulped filter paper -Purified water (1000 mL) is added -mixture is agitated for 10 mins -water is filtered Dispersing agent — increases the surface of volatile substance ensuring more rapid saturation of water and forms an efficient filter bed thus producing a clear solution Disadvantages Not permanently stable  Protect from excessive light and heat  Deterioration may be due to volatilization  Decomposition/mold growth   Cloudy preparation and foul odor Preparation 12: Concentrated peppermint water EXPERIMENT: Category: medicated aromatic water, unofficial Ingredients: Peppermint oil 90% ethyl alcohol Purified talc Purified water Synonym: Aqua menthos piperitas Aqua mini Brandy water Method of preparation: Alternate solution method Computations:

Packaging: 30 mL narrow-mouth amber bottle Label: white (internal) POST-LAB: Uses Flavored vehicle 


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy 

Carminative (GI)

Preparation 13: Calcium Hydroxide Topical Solution EXPERIMENT: Category: topical solution, official USP Ingredients: calcium oxide purified water Synonym: lime water Description: clear, colorless, alkaline solution Use: astringent and employed in dermatological situations Method of preparation: simple solution Computations:

Packaging: flint bottle Label: red (external) POST-LAB: Solutions -liquid preparations that contain one or more chemical substances dissolved in a suitable solvent -mixture of mutually miscible solvents -homogenous mixture of 2 or more substances Relative terms of Solubility Descriptive Term

Very soluble Freely soluble Soluble Sparingly soluble Slightly soluble Very slightly soluble Practically insoluble or insoluble

Parts of Solvent Required for 1 Part of Solute 10000

 Methods of preparation:  Simple solution -dissolving the solute in a suitable solvent Ex: NaCl solution, strong iodine solution  Solution by chemical reaction -prepared by reacting two or more solute w/ each other in a suitable solvent Ex: aluminum subacetate solution, magnesium citrate solution, sulfurated lime solution Solution by distillation  -if the solute is a volatile oil Solution by extraction  -drug or pharmaceutical necessities of vegetable or animal origin -also called EXTRACTIVES Different methods of extraction:   Maceration -submerging the solute -no specific temperature Percolation  -submerging the solute using a percolator  Digestion -with the aid of gentle heat Infusion  -“blanching” -addition of hot water [like tea bags]  Decoction -boiling for 15 minutes Preparation 14: Strong Iodine Solution EXPERIMENT: Category: topical solution, official USP Ingredients: iodine crystals purified water potassium iodide — used as a SOLUBILIZING agent Synonym: Lugol’s solution liquor iodi aqueous iodine solution Description: deep brown color w/ iodine flavor Use: antiseptic, germicidal, fungicidal Method of preparation: simple solution ***VERY SLIGHTLY SOLUBLE Computations:


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy

Packaging: 15 mL narrow-mouth amber bottle Label: red (external) POST-LAB: 100 mL -4.5-5.5 g iodine -9.5-10.5 g KI * 1g I dissolves in 2950 mL H2O Strong iodine solution — solution of polyiodies in excess iodide -antigotriogenic Usual dose: 0.3 mL/3x a day Preparation 15: Magnesium Citrate Oral Solution EXPERIMENT: Category: oral solution, official USP Ingredients: magnesium carbonate syrup lemon oil anhydrous citric acid talc potassium bicarbonate purified water Synonym: Lemonada purgante Magnesi citralis Citrate of magnesia Use: saline cathartic Method of preparation: solution by chemical reaction Computations:

Packaging: Label: white (internal) POST-LAB: Magnesium citrate oral solution -colorless to slightly yellow clear effervescent liquid -sweet, acidulous taste -lemon flavor -prone to GROWTH OF MOLDS -any mold spores must be killed during production for stability Preparation 16: Simple syrup EXPERIMENT: Category: simple syrup Ingredients: sucrose purified water Synonym: syrupus sirup, syrup Description: clear solution of sucrose in purified water Use: sweetening agent sweet vehicle basis for many flavored and medicated syrup Method of preparation: percolation Computations:

Packaging: 100 mL flint bottle Label: white(internal) Procedure:


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy

1. Weigh ingredients 2. Set-up percolator 3. Place moistened cotton into the neck of the percolator [to control flow rate (in drops); 20 drops/ minute] Once achieved, clip rubber tubing 4. Add sucrose then place circular filter paper over it. Marbles may be placed to keep the filter paper on top of the sucrose 5. Pour water gently and cover the set up w/ watch glass 6. Let the set up stand for 2 days 7. Release syrup into the erlenmeyer flask 8. Transfer to suitable container POST-LAB: Syrup -concentrated aqueous solution containing sugar usually SUCROSE (a disaccharide) or any sugar substitute Polyols -added to retard crystallization of sucrose -increases solubility of sucrose ex: glycerine, sorbitol Types of syrup: Simple syrup  -clear, concentrated, sweet, aqueous, hypertonic solution with STRIATIONS (higher the concentration, more striations) -concentration: 85% w/v or 65% w/w -specific gravity: 1.313 -self preserving *60-80% concentration makes it self-preserving *lower than 60% concentration: prone to microbial growth *greater than 85% concentration: can CRYSTALLIZE the sucrose present  Flavored/non-medicated syrup -aromatic and pleasantly flavored substance -intended as a vehicle -does not contain any active ingredient -helpful in pediatric patients Examples:

>Glycyrhizza syrup — mask bitter taste of alkaloids >Chocolate syrup — serve as flavorant >Cherry syrup Medicated syrup -aqueous solution of sucrose that contains PHARMACEUTICALLY ACTIVE INGREDIENTS and has a THERAPEUTIC EFFECT Examples: >Ipecac syrup >Ferrous sulfate syrup

 Methods of preparation: Solution without the aid of heat  -mixing ingredients in a large vessel Advantage/s: avoids heat induced conversion suited for heat sensitive ingredients Disadvantage/s: Slowest and most time consuming method Example: Ferrous sulfate syrup Solution with the aid of heat  -rapid method because of heat -can only be used for heat stable substances Advantage/s: Fast method Disadvantage/s: Excessive heating will cause INVERSION **Inversion — a hydrolytic reaction -sucroseglucose + fructose -sweeter syrup with tendency to FERMENT + MICROBIAL GROWTH -caramelization [overheating; >100 C] Examples: >Acacia syrup >Cocoa syrup >Syrup, USP Percolation  -a PERCOLATOR or a COLUMN is used -flow rate of water: 20 drops/minute *percolator   — allow the passage of water slowly thru a bed of crystalline sucrose and will eventually dissolve the sugar Examples: >Tolu balsam


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy

>Simple syrup Addition of sucrose to medicated liquid -simple admixture of a sugar -usually a FLUIDEXTRACT or a TINCTURE -NOT self-preserving Example: >Senna syrup

Preparation 17: Chocolate syrup EXPERIMENT: Category: non-medicated syrup Ingredients: Cocoa powder Sucrose Liquid glucose Glycerin Sodium chloride Vanillin Sodium benzoate purified water Synonym: Cacao syrup chocolate flavored syrup Description: viscous, dark brown syrup w/ the odor and taste of cocoa Use: flavored vehicle Method of preparation: solution with the aid of heat Computations:

Packaging: 15 mL amber bottle Label: white (internal) Procedure: 1. Triturate sucrose, mix cocoa powder


3. 4. 5. 6.

In a beaker, dissolve liquid glucose, vanillin, sodium benzoate and sodium chloride in 8 mL purified water Add glycerine to the solution Mix cocoa mixture to the solution Heat to boiling for 3 mins. Cool. Add enough water

POST-LAB: Boiled for >3 mins? Inversion will take place [especially the sucrose] *Cocoa containing NMT 12% non-volatile ether soluble extractives or fats having a minimum tendency to separate Sodium benzoate and glycerine -PRESERVATIVES -prevents bacterial and mold growth when sucrose concentration is low Preparation 18: Acacia Mucilage EXPERIMENT: Category: mucilage Ingredients: Acacia Benzoic acid Purified water Synonym: Mucilage of acacia Mucilage of acaciae Mucilage of gum arabic Mucilage de gomme Description: thick, adhesive liquid with light brown color Use: demulcent suspending agent employed as an excipient in making pills and troches emulsifying agent for cod liver oil and other substances Computations:


Kimberley Anne See 2A-Pharmacy

Packaging: 15 mL flint bottle Label: white (internal) Procedure: 1. Dissolve benzoic acid in 4 mL purified water by the direct heating method 2. Triturate acacia powder 3. Add benzoic acid solution to the acacia powder 4. Mix by trituration 5. Add water to make 15 mL preparation 6. Strain using cheese cloth (if necessary) POST-LAB: Mucilage -thick, viscid, adhesive liquid prepared by dispersing gum in water -extracting the mucilaginous principle from vegetable substance with water -prone to decomposition -must never be made in large quantities Uses: suspending agent in suspensions emulsifying agent in emulsions excipient in tablet formation demulcent Preservative — must be added to prolong shelf life Natural gum: acacia, tragacanth, karaya, ghatti Synthetic gum: methycellulose, polyvinyl alcohol, carboxymethylcellulose


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