Petroleum Engineers Handbook, Part 1

July 11, 2017 | Author: MaryJane Ayisha Sado-Obah | Category: Pump, Petroleum, Chemistry, Energy And Resource, Nature
Share Embed Donate


Short Description

Handbook for petroleum and chemical engineers, this book is useful for the design engineer and for the processing of cru...

Description

Click Here To Continue

Petroleum Engineering Handbook Editor-in-Chief Howard B. Bradley Professional/Technical Training Consultant

Associate Editors Fred W. Gipson Senior Engineering Professional (retired) Conoco Inc.

Mohamed Mortada President Mortada Intl. Inc.

Aziz S. Odeh Senior Scientist Mobil R&D Corp.

Lewis L. Raymer President Lewis L. Raymer Enterprises

Phillip S. Sizer Senior Vice President/Technical Director Otis Engineering Corp.

Gerry L. Smith Engineering Consultant (deceased)

Third Printing Society of Petroleum Engineers Richardson, TX, U.S.A.

@Copyright 1987 by the Society of Petroleum Engineers. Printed in the United States of America. All rights reserved. This book, or parts thereof, cannot be reproduced in any form without written consent of the publisher.

Third printing, Feb. 1992, incorporating minor changes on Pages 22-3,30-3, 30-4, 33-2, and 51-52.

ISBN 1-55.563-010-3

ii

Preface The 1962 edition of the Petroleum Production Handbook filled a need at that time for a comprehensive compilation of practical information and data covering production equipment and reservoir engineering. This 1987 edition updates the original 48 chapters and adds 11 new ones. New technology, developed over the past 25 years, resulted in improved equipment, materials, and methods. They are described and discussed in the revised original chapters and in the new ones. The 11 new chapters are the following: Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter Chapter

7-Electric Submersible Pumps 1‘&Offshore Operations 19-Crude-Oil Emulsions 4%Miscible Displacement 46-Thermal Recovery 47-Chemical Flooding 48-Reservoir Simulation 5 l-Acoustic Well Logging 52-Mud Logging 58-SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard 59-SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard

This 1987 edition, now called the Petroleum Engineering Handbook, provides a current and worthwhile addition to the industry’s literature for students and experienced professionals working in the petroleum industry. The handbook is again divided into three sections: Sec. 1, Mathematics (one chapter); Sec. 2, Production Engineering (18 chapters); and Sec. 3, Reservoir Engineering (40 chapters). There are 57 chapters written by professionals who are recognized as authorities in their fields of expertise. Chap. 58 is a revised version of the 1982 SI Metric System of Units and SPE Metric Standard, and Chap. 59 is the 1986 revision of the 1984 Standard SPE Letter and Computer Symbols for Economics, Formation Evaluation and Well Logging, Natural Gas Engineering, and Petroleum Reservoir Engineering. The Mathematics section presents the basic tables and calculation procedures required by persons engaged in petroleum production. The Production Engineering section covers basic types of materials, methods, and tools available for use in petroleum operations, including their capabilities and proper applications. The Reservoir Engineering section treats gas, oil, condensate, and formation water properties and correlations; reservoir rocks and traps; primary, secondary, and tertiary recovery data and methods; oil and gas reserves; formation evaluation, including well logging methods; and well treating methods. The what, why, how, and now-what aspects of each topic are emphasized. Also, at the end of the appropriate chapters, key equations are presented with SI metric units. Special acknowledgment is due the SPE staff for their immeasurable help and advice, the associate editors for their avid dedication to the technical-editing task, and all the authors who contributed much time and effort to provide the timely and excellent information included within each chapter. We are much indebted to the editor-in-chief of the 1962 edition, Thomas C. Fricke. and to the original group of authors for their arduous 3-year job of developing the original edition of the Petro/eum Production Handbook. Special thanks are due Ed Mayer of THUMS and B.J. Dotson of Mobil Oil Corp. (now retired) for their advice and helpful discussions on the proper use of the 1986 SPE standard letter symbols throughout the handbook and for their editing of Chap. 59, the SPE Letter and Computer Symbols Standard. Our hope is that by proper application of the updated information contained within the second edition of this handbook, the petroleum-industry professional will be led to more efficient production and use of the world’s petroleumenergy resources. Howard B. Bradley Editor-in-Chief

Acknowledgments The Society of Petroleum cited material.

Engineers

sincerely

thank\

the following

organizations

and individuals

for permission

to use the

Chap. 2 Figs. 2.1 through 2.3 and 2.6 through 2.8, from Casino,

Tubi,l~, and Drill Pipe,

API Spec.

5A, 38th edition.

API.

Dallas

(1985).

Fig. 2.9, from Line Pipe, API Spec. 5L, 35th edition. API. Dallas (1985). Figs. 2.10A, 2.10B, 2.11, 2.12, and 2.14 through 2.18, from 7hrt&inR, &g;,lg, 1 Ith edition, API. Dallas (1985). Table 2.1, modified from Cusing, Tubing,

and Drill Pipe,

and 7’hveud hl.~fcct;or2,

API

Spec,SB.

API Spec. 5A, 37th edition, API, Dallas (1984). Tubing, and Drill Pipe,“ Bull., USS. Pittsburgh.

Tables 2.2, 2.5 through 2.7, and 2.25 through 2.27, “Casing,

PA

(1972).

Tables 2.3, 2.4, and 2.24, API. Dallas

modified

from “Performance

Propertics

of Casing,

Tubing,

and Drill Pipe,”

Apf Bu//. 5~2,

(1983).

Tables 2.8 through 2.11 and 2.28,

from “USS

Seamless

Casing.

Tubing,

and Drill Pipe,”

Bu//, , USS. Pittsburgh,

PA

(1972).

Table 2.14, Bull. 664. National Supply Co.. Houston. Tables 2.31 through 2.33, 2.36, and 2.37, from Line Pipe, API Spec. 5L. 34th edition. API, Dallas (1984). Tables 2.38 through 2.43, from “Formulas and Calculations for Casing, Tubing. Drill Pipe. and Lint Pipe Properties.” API Bull. 5C3,

third edition

with Supplement

No. 1. API.

Dallas (1983). Inspection.

Tables 2.44 through 2.54, from Thrrudit~~. Gaging, und thread No. 4. API.

Dallas

API Spec.

5B,

10th edition

with Supplement

(1983).

Chap. 3 Figs, 3.1 and 3.3, and Tables 3.1 through 3.33, from Speci’carionsfor Spec. 6A. 14th and 15th editions, API. Dallas (April 1. 1986). Fig. 3.2, courtesy McEvoy Co., General Catalog 58-59 (Jan. 1959). for AWHEM Fig. 3.5, from Eichenberg, R., “Design Consideration 22, 1957. Figs. 3.6 through 3.17, courtesy Otis Engineering Corp.. Dallas.

Wellhcad

15,000

and Chrisrtnas

psi Flanges,”

ASME

Tree Eyuipment.

Paper

57.PET-23,

API

Sept.

Chap. 4 Figs. 4.1 through 4.11, from Patton,

L.D. and Abbott, W.A.: Well Completions and Workovers: Energy Publications, Dallas (1985) 57-67. Tables 4.1 and 4.2, from Pucker Culculations Handbook, Baker Oil Tool Div. (1971). second

The Systems

Approuth.

edition,

Chap. 5 Fig. 5.1, from Winkler.

H.W.:

“How

to Design

a Closed

Rotativc

Gas Lift System-Part

I: Proccdurc,”

World Qj/ (July

1960) 116-19.

Figs. 5.2, 5.5, 5.6, and 5.18, from Gus Lij?, Book 6 of API Vocational

Training

Series,

revised

edition.

API. Dallas

(1984)

65.

Fig. 5.3, from Winkler.

H.W.: “Here’s How to Improve Your Gas Lift Installations-Part I : Pressure at Depth World Oil (Aug. 1959) 63-67. Figs. 5.4 and 5.29, from Winkler. H.W. and Smith. S.S.: Cameo Gas Liji Manual, Cameo Inc.. Houston (1962) A2-001. U.S. Patent No. 2.339.487 (Jan. 1944). Fig. 5.7, from King, W.R.: “Time and V 0 Iumc Control for Gas Intermitters,” in Gas-Lift Technology,” API Drill. and Prod. Pruc. (I 959) 24-60. Fig. 5.21, from Kirkpatrick. C.V.: “Advances Fig. 5.25, from Gas Lt”, Book 6 of API Vocational Training Series. API. Dallas (1965) 109. Fig. 5.33, from CLlmco Cornplere Service Cuialog, Cameo Inc. (1962) 42. Determinations.”

Chap. 6 Figs. 6.1, 6.5, 6.7, 6.12, 6.13, 6.31, 6.40, 6.44, 6.47, 6.49, and 6.51, and Table 6.18, courtesy Gardena.

Trico

Industries.

CA,

Figs. 6.2, 6.3, 6.6, 6.8, 6.11, 6.14, 6.15, 6.19 through 6.24, 6.26 through 6.29, 6.32 through 6.39, 6.41 through 6.45, 6.48, 6.50, 6.52, 6.53, and 6.55, and Table 6.1, from National-Oilwell. Los Nietos. CA. Fig. 6.9, courtesy Otis Engineering Corp., Dallas. Figs. 6.17 and 6.52, and Tables 6.3, 6.12, and 6.17, courtesy Dresser Industries, Dallas. Fig. 6.18 and Table 6.4, courtesy of Highland Pump Co. Inc.. Midland. TX. Fig. 6.56, from Si;ing und Selecrion of Electric Submersible Pump Installations, API RP I IU, second edition, API. Dallas (May 30, 1986).

Table 6.2, courtesy

Kobe Inc.,

Huntington

Park,

CA.

Chap. 7 Figs. 7.1 through 7.18 and 7.20 through 7.32, and Table 7.1, courtesy Bartlesville.

TRW Energy

Products

Group,

Reda Pump

OK.

Chap. 8 Fig. 8.1, from Subsurface Pumps and Fitrings, API Spec. 11 AX, seventh edition, API, Dallas (June 1979). Figs. 8.3, 8.5, and 8.7, courtesy Oilwell Div. of U.S. Steel Corp., Garland, TX. V

Div.,

Chap. 9 Figs. 9.2 and 9.3, and Tables 9.1 through 9.4, from Sucker Rods. API Spcc. 119, 2lst editmn. API, Dallas (May 1985). Figs. 9.5 and 9.9, and Table 9.9, from Cure und Hundling of Sucker Rod.,, API RP 1 IBR. seventh edition. API. Dallas (May 30, 1986).

Fig. 9.10 and Tables 9.10 and 9.11, from [email protected] I, 1986). Table 9.7, from Design

Culrulurions

Plu~fic Sucker Rods, API Spec.

for Sucker Rod P~inpini:

1 IC, first edition.

Systems,API RP I 1L. third edition,

API,

API,

Dallas

(Jan,

Dallas

(Feb.

1977)

Chap. IO Figs. 10.1, 10.3, 10.6, 10.7, 10.9 through 10.12, and 10.14 (pumping unit), courtesy Lufkin Industries Inc., Lufkin. TX. Fig. 10.8, from Design Calculations for Sucker Rod Pumping Sytems (Convenrional Units), API RP 1 IL. third edition. API. Dallas

(Feb.

1977).

Figs. 10.13, 10.16 through 10.20, and 10.24 through 10.28, and Tables 10.5, 10.7, and 10.9, from Sargent

Oil Well Odessa, TX. Fig. 10.14 (engine), from Arrow Specialty Co., Tulsa, OK. Fig. 10.15, from Waukesha Engine Div.. Dresser Industries Inc., Waukesha. WI. Fig. 10.21, from Mom-s and Generators, MG l-1978. Natl. Electrical Manufacturers Assn.. Washington. DC (1978). Figs. 10.29 through 10.31, from Ronk Electrical Industries Inc., Nokomis. IL. Figs. 10.32 and 10.33, from Classijcnlion of Areas for Electrical lnstullations at Drilling Rigs and Production Facilities on Land and on Marine Fixed and Mobile Platform, API RP 5009, second edition, API, Dallas (July 1973) 8. Tables 10.2 and 10.3, from lnsrullation and Luhrimtim of Pumping Units, API RP 1 IG, second edition. API. Dallas (Feb. 1959) and Supplement (Jan. 1980). Tables 10.6 and 10.10, from Motor Application and Muintenunce Hundbook, second edition, R.W. Smeaton (ed.), McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc.. New York City, Table 1 on Page 3-7 and Table 3 on Page I l-3. Equipment

Co.,

Chap. 11 Figs. 11.1 and 11.3, from C-E Natco, Tulsa. OK. Fig. 11.4, from Design and Fuhricution of Gulvunixd

Products, American Hot Dip Galvanizer Assn. and the Zinc Inst. 1983). Fig. 11.7, from CBI Industries Inc. (Chicago Bridge and Iron Co.), Oak Brook, IL. Figs. 11.9 and 11.10, from Fenix & Scisson Inc., Tulsa. OK. Table 11.1, from Bolted Production Tanks, API Spec. 129, 12th edition, API Div. of Production, Dallas (Jan. 1977). Tables 11.3 and 11.4, from Venting Atmospheric cmd LowPressure Storage Tunk.7, API Std. 2000, third edition, API, Dallas (Jan. 1982). (Nov.

Chap. 12 Fig. 12.2, courtesy Jaragua S.A. Industrias Mechanicas. Sao Paula, Brazil. Figs. 12.7 and 12.8, courtesy Fisher Controls Co., Marshalltown. IA. Figs. 12.16 and 12.19, courtesy ACS Industries Inc., Woonsocket, RI. Fig. 12.18, courtesy Peerless Mfg. Co., Dallas. Fig. 12.20, courtesy Plenty Metrol. Newbury. England. Fig. 12.21, courtesy Vortec. Inc.. Woodside. CA. Fig. 12.22, courtesy Porta-Test Systems, Ltd., Edmonton, Alta., Canada. Figs. 12.24, 12.26, and 12.40, courtesy C-E Natco, Tulsa, OK. Tables 12.9 and 12.10, courtesy Cornsign Computer Program, Ellis Engineering Inc., Houston. Tables 12.11 and 12.17, from KWIC Index of Intl. Standards, Intl. Organization for Standardization. Geneva. Tables 12.12, 12.18, and 12.19, from ASME Boiler and Pressure Vessel Code, Sec. VIII, Div. 1, New York City (1984). Tables 12.13 and 12.14, from Megyesy, E.F.: Pressure Vessel Handbook, Pressure Vessel Handbook Publishing Inc., Tulsa,

OK.

Table 12.15, from Kimmell,

G.O.: “Stage Separation,” paper 48.PET-15 presented at the ASME Annual City, Oct. 1949. Table 12.16, “Separation Flash Calculations, Process Version 0882,” Simulation Sciences Inc., Houston.

Meeting.

Oklahoma

Chap. 13 Fig. 13.2, courtesy The Bristol Co. Fig. 13.3, from Ori’ce Constunt Tub/es. American Gas Assn., Report No. 3, revised (1969). Also, ANSI/API 2530. Fig. 13.4 and Tables 13.2a, 13.2b, and 13.4, from GPSA Engineering Dutubook, Gas Processors Suppliers Assn., Tulsa, OK (1972).

Figs. 13.20 through 13.22, courtesy Fischer Governor Table 13.1, courtesy American Meter Co.. Inc.

Co.

Chap. 14 Fig. 14.5, from GPSA Engineering

Dutuhook,

ninth edition.

fifth revision,

Gas Processors

Suppliers

Assn.,

Tulsa,

OK

(1981).

Fig. 14.14, from NGSMA Handbook. Figs. 14.19 through 14.21, and Tables 14.1 and 14.2 from Campbell, Processing.”

Campbell

Petroleum

Series,

Norman,

OK (1962) 2.

vi

J.M.:

“J.M.

Campbell

Gas Conditioning

and

Chap. 15 Figs. 15.1 through 15.3, and Table 15.9, from Desl,qn and hstd/don API RP l4E,

third edition,

API,

Dallas

(1981)

of O&how

Figs. 15.4 through 15.6, and Tables 15.2 through 15.5, from GPSA Engineerirlg Tulsa, OK (1980). Fig. 15.8, courtesy Paragon

P~C~CY;OH ~l+t~~

Pip;~

~~~~~~~~~~~

22. Durchx~k,

@IS Processors

Suppliers

Assn..

Engineering

Services

Inc..

Houston.

Fig. 15.11 and Table 15.10, courtesy Perry Equipment Co., Mineral Fig. 15.12, courtesy C-E Natco, Tulsa. OK. Fig. 15.13, courtesy U.S. Filter. Fluid System Corp.. Whittier, CA. Figs. 15.15 and 15.19, from “Oil-Water Separator Process Design.” Wastes, API. Dallas (1975) Chap. 5. Fig. 15.20, Engineering Spccialtiea Inc.. Covington. LA. Tables 15.6 and 15.7, from Amr~rictr~~ ~triiov7d .bmk~rd. York City (1981).

Wells,

TX.

API Manual

on Disposal

of Refinery

Wastes.

Volume

ANSI B26.5.

ASME,

New

on Liquid

Pip

/%mgr.s

arzd

F/m&

FirtirrRs.

Chap. 18 Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.

18.32, 18.36, 18.38, 18.40,

Technology

Fig. Fig. Fig. Fig.

18.41, 18.43, 18.44, 18.45,

courtesy

CanOcean

Resources Ltd., New Westminster, B.C., Canada. Services. Irvine. CA. courtesy Hamilton Bros. Oil Co., Denver. from Lagers, G.H.C., Gusto, B.V., and Bell, C.R.: “The Third Generation Lay Barge.” Proc., Conference (1974) 1, 35-46. courtesy Apache, Santa Fe Intl. Corp., Alhambra. CA. courtesy Swan Wooster Engineering Ltd., Vancouver, B.C., Canada. from Willits. K.L.: “Well Completions in the Prudhoc Bay Field.” Pet. Eng. (Feb. 1976). courtesy Brian Watt Assocs., Houston.

courtesy Fluor Subsea

Offshore

Chap. 19 Figs. 19.1, 19.3, and 19.6 through 19.8, courtesy Shell Development Co., Houston. Figs. 19.4, 19.5, 19.9, and 19.10, courtesy Baker Performance Chemicals Inc., Santa Fe Springs, Fig. 19.12, courtesy ASTM, Philadelphia. PA. Fig. 19.17, courtesy Chemineer-Kenics. Dayton. OH. Fig. 19.18, courtesy Modular Production Equipment Inc., Houston. Figs. 19.19, 19.29, and 19.30, courtesy C-E Natco Inc.. Tulsa, OK. Figs. 19.20 and 19.32, courtesy Hydrocarbon Research Inc.. Long Beach, CA. Figs. 19.21, 19.22, and 19.28, courtesy Energy Recovery Div., Daniel Industries Inc.

CA

Chap. 20

of Nutuuu/ Gus Eng;nrcr;ng, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959). Figs. 20.2B and 20.2C, from Brown, G.G. ~1 nl.: “Natural Gasoline and the Volatile Hydrocarbons.” Natural Gas Assn. of America. Tulsa OK (1948). Factor for Sour Natural Gases,” Cdn. J. C!zerrr. Gl,q. (1972) Fig. 20.4, from Wichert, E. and Aziz. K.: “Compressibility 49, 269-75. Figs. 20.8 and 20.9, from Stiel. L.I. and Thodos, G.: “The Viscosity of Non-Polar Gases at Normal Pressures.” AICIfE J. (1961) 7, 61 l-20. Proc~. , Natural Gas Fig. 20.10, from Matthews, T.A.. Roland. C H.. and Katz, D.L.: “High Pressure Gas Measurement.” A$sn. of America (1942) 41-51. Fig. 20.14 and Table 20.1, from Perry. R.H. and Chilton, C.H.: C/~cwicz/ 0tgin~er.s ffmdbook. fifth edition. McGrawHill Book Co Inc., New York City (1975). Table 20.2, from GPSA Enyi~~wriufi Dorcrbonk, ninth edition. fifth revision. Gas Processors Suppliers Aasn.. Tulsa. OK, Figs. 20.2A and 20.3, from Katz, D.L. ef (il.: Hcr!rdhook

Chau. 21 Fig. 21 .l, from Gq~~/oym/ic~ c$ C/ic,n~ic,tr/ T~~c~/tno/o,e~,The Interscicnce Encyclopedia Inc. ( 1953) 10, 1 17. Fig. 21.3, after N&on. W.L.: Parrnlertr?~ Rc$rrrj:v ~ri,t~irt~~~ri/t~, fourth edition, McGraw-Hill Book Co Inc., New York City (1958)

910-37.

Fig. 21.4, courtesy Hansen. D.N. and Hurd. C.O., Shell Devolopmcnt Co , Prtrd~wrn Rc$wr (Aprtl 1945). Figs. 21.7 through 21.21, from ASTM Slcrf&rcl.c 011 Pt,/ro/c~trfi P,.oc/lrc~f.s crnd Lubricants. Part 24, ASTM, Philadelphia ( 1975) 796.

Fig. 21.22, from Matthews.

Proc,., Natural Gas T.A.. Roland. C.H.. and Katz. D.L: “High Prcssurc Gas Measurements.” (1942) 41. r!f’Oil Fir/t/ Hwlrr,c&~orr S\stc~rns, Reinhold Figs. 21.23 and 21.24. from Standing. M. B. : l’r~lrr/tif,/rrc, t/rid Phcrsr Brhcr~~io~ Publtshing Corp.. New York City (1952). Fig. 21.25, from Standing. M.13.: “A Prcssurc-Volulnc-Tcmpcraturc Correlation for Mixtures of California Oil and Gases.” Drill. curd Prod. Pm , API ( 1937) 275. Fig. 21.26, courtesy Calitornia Rcjcarch Corp., 1947. ‘Fable 2 I .7, from Nelson. W. L. : Pr~f-oic,lr!~r Rc:/iucy\ En,g;n~criyy, fourth edition, McGrawHill Book Co. Inc.. New York City (11)5X) 910-37. Table 21.10, from “A Guide to World Export Ct-udcs.” Oil & Gtrv J. (1976). Table 21.11, courtesy Bartlcavillc Energy Technology Ccntcr. Bartlc~ville. OK. Aasn. of America

vii

Chau. 22 Figs. 22.1 through 22.3, from Standing,

M.B.: Volumetric and Phase Behavior of Oil Field Hydrocarbon Systems, Reinhold Publishing Corp., New York City (1952). Fig. 22.4, from Katz, D.L.: “Prediction of the Shrinkage of Crude Oils,” Drill. and Prod. Prac., API (1942). Figs. 22.5, 22.9, and 22.13, courtesy California Research Corp. Figs. 22.19 and 22.20, from Baker, 0. and Swerdloff, W.: “Finding Surface Tension of Hydrocarbon Liquids,” Oil & Gas 1. (Jan. 2, 1956).

Chap. 23 Fig. 23.9 from GPSA Engineering Databook, Gas Processors Suppliers Assn., ninth edition, Tulsa, OK (1972). Systems,” Figs. 23.12 and 23.13 from Reamer, H.H., Fiskin, J.M., and Sage, B.H.: “Phase Equilibria in Hydrocarbon lnd. Eng. Chem. (Dec. 1949) 41, 2871.

Chao. 24 Fig. 24.3,

from Hoke, S.H. and Collins, A.G.: Mobile Wellhead Analyzerfor Oil-Field Waters, ASTM STP 735 (1981) 34-48. Fig. 24.9, from Burcik: Properties of Petroleum Reservoir Fluids, John Wiley Figs. 24.11 and 24.12, from PI-Petroleum Information,

the Determination & Sons Inc.,

of Unstable

Constituents

in

New York City (1957).

Chap. 25 Figs. 25.3 and 25.4, from Kobayashi, R.: “Vapor-Liquid dissertation, U. of Michigan, Ann Arbor (1951).

Equilibria

in Binary

Hydrocarbon-Water

Systems,”

PhD

Figs. 25.5, 25.10, 25.21, 25.23, and 25.24, and Table 25.4, from Katz, D.L. et al.: “Water-Hydrocarbon

Systems,” Gas Engineering, McGraw-Hill Book Co. Inc., New York City (1959) 189-221. Figs. 25.6, 25.8, and 25.33, from Kobayashi, R. and Katz, D.L.: “Vapor-Liquid Equilibria for Binary Hydrocarbon-Water Systems,” Ind. Erg. Chem. (1953) 45, 440-5 1. Fig. 25.7, from Alder, S.B. and Spencer, C.F.: “Case Studies of Industrial Problems, Phase Equilibria and Fluid Properties Proc., Equilibrium Fluid Properties in the Chemical Industry (1980) 465-95. in the Chemical Industry,” Fig. 25.14, from von Stackelberg, M.: “Solid Gas Hydrates,” Natunvissenschaften (1949) 36, 327-33, 359-62. Figs. 25.17 through 25.20, from Sloan, E.D.: “Phase Equilibria of Natural Gas Hydrates,” paper 67f presented at the 1983 AIChE Summer Natl. Meeting, Denver, Aug. 28-31. Fig. 25.22, from Song, K.Y. and Kobayashi, R.: “Measurement and Interpretation of the Water Content of a MethanePropane Mixture in the Gaseous State in Equilibrium with Hydrate,” Ind. Eng. Chem. Fund. (1982) 21, No. 4, 391-95. Fig. 25.25, from Deaton, W.J. and Frost, E.M.: Gas Hydrates and Their Relation to the Operation of Natural Gas Pipe 8, USBM, Washington, DC (1946). Lines, Monograph Fig. 25.30, from Saito, S., Marshall, D.R., and Kobayashi, R.L: “Hydrates at High Pressures: Part II. Application of AIChE J. (1964) 10, No. 5, Statistical Mechanics to the Study of the Hydrates of Methane, Argon, and Nitrogen,” 734-40. Fig. 25.32, from Dodson, CR. and Standing, M.B.: “Pressure-Volume-Temperature and Solubility Relations for Natural Gas-Water Mixtures,” Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1944) 173-79. Figs. 25.34 through 25.36, from Peng, D.-Y. and Robinson, D.B.: “Two- and Three-Phase Equilibrium Calculations for Coal Gasification and Related Process,” Thermodynamics of Aqueous Systems with Industrial Applications, S.A. Newman (ed.), Symposium Series 133. ACS (1980) 393-414. Figs. 25.37 and 25.41, from Scauzillo, F.R.: “Inhibiting Hydrate Formations in Hydrocarbon Gases,” Chem. Eng. Progr. (1956) 52, No. 8, 324-28. Figs. 25.38 through 25.40, from Gas Conditioning Fact Book, Dow Chemical Co., Midland, MI (1962) 69-71, Table 25.5, from Dharmawardhand, P.B.: “The Measurement of the Thermodynamic Parameters of the Hydrate Structure and Application of Them in the Prediction of Natural Gas Hydrates,” PhD dissertation, Colorado School of Mines, Golden (1980). Handbook

of Natural

Chap. 26 Fig. 26.1, from Fraser,

H.J. and Graton, L.C.: “Systematic Packing of Spheres-With Particular Relation to Porosity and J. Geol. (Nov.-Dec. 1935) 785-909. Figs. 26.3 and 26.30, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas. Fig. 26.5, 26.24, and 26.25, from Stevens, A.B.: A Laboratory Manual for Petroleum Engineering 308, Texas A&M U., College Station (1954). Fig. 26.7, from Krumbein, W.C. and Sloss, L.L.: Stratigraphy and Sedimentation, Appleton-Century-Crofts Inc., New York City (1951) 218. Fig. 26.27, from Klinkenberg, L.J.: “The Permeability of Porous Media to Liquids and Gases,” Drill. and Prod. Prac., API, Dallas (1941) 200-13. Fig. 26.29, from Kennedy, H.T., VanMeter, O.E., and Jones, R.G.: “Saturation Determination of Rotary Cores,” Pet. Eng. (Jan. 1954) B.52-B.64. Permeability,”

Chap. 27 Table 27.12, courtesy Alaska Oil & Gas Conservation Commission, Anchorage. Tables 27.13 through 27.15 and 27.17, courtesy Core Laboratories Inc., Dallas. Table 27.16, from European Continental shelf Guide, Oilfield Publications Ltd., Ledbury,

Herefordshire,

England

(1982).

Chap. 28 Figs. 28.3 and 28.4, from Rose. W.: U.S. Patent No. 4,506,542 (1985). Fig. 28.7, from Rose. W.: “Permeability and Gas Slippage Phenomena.”

Drill.

and Prod.

Pruc.,

API.

DalIah (1948)

127-35.

Fig. 28.8, from Stone. H.L.:

“Probability Model for Estimating Three-Phase Relative Permeability.” J. Ccl,z. P

an 8,000-ft-long singleweight string of any OD and weight suspended freely in rotary mud with a specific gravity of 1.45, then cemented 2,100 ft up. Determine the amount the top of the casing has to be lowered for a zero stress at the top of the ccment. For rotary mud with this specific gravity, C’3=0.8151. 0=8,000 ft, and L’=2,100 ft. Solution. L(j =C(j(D-L’)L’

=O. 16235 x253.70 =0.8151x0.00000136(8,000-2,100)2,100 =41.19

in.

L,7 =C.jff,L

=0.0000011085x5,900x2,100 = 13.7 in.

=0.ocKl0004x5,ooo(3,500+3,000+500) =0.002x7.000 = 14 in.

TABLE 2.23-API

TUBING RANGE LENGTHS

Ranae

Ld ‘LO -L,, 1

=41.19=27.19

14 in.

2

Total range length,inclusive, ft 20 to 24 28 to 32 Range length for 95% or more of carload 2 Permissiblevariation, maximum ft 2 20 28 Permissiblelength,minimum ft

PETROLEUM

2-38

TABLE 2.24-MINIMUM 1 -~~

2

3

4

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF TUBING

5

6

~~

7

8

9

11

IO

Threaded and Coupled

OD of Coupling (in.) Nominal Weight (lbmlft) OD do (in.)

Threads and Coupling Nonupset

-1.14 1.050

1315

1.660

Grade

Upset ID d, (in.)

1.14 1.14 1.14 1.14

1.201.20 1.20 1.20 1.20

1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70 1.70

1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80 1.80

1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72 1.72

H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80,N-80 c-90

0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133 0.133

1.049 1.049 1.049 1.049 1.049

2.10

H-40

0.125

1.410

2.40 2.40 2.40 2.40 2.40

2.33 2.10 2.33 2.33 2.33 2.33

H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90

0.140 0.125 0.140 0.140 0.140 0.140

1.380 1.410 1.380 1.380 1.380 1.380

2.40

H-40

0.125

1.650

2.76 2.40 2.76 2.76 2.76 2.76

H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90

0.145 0.125 0.145 0.145 0.145 0.145

1.610 1.650 1.610 1.610 1.610 I.610

2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30 2.30

1.900

Upset

Integral Joint

Wall Thickness e (in.)

2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75 2.75

2.90 2.90 2.90 2.90 2.90

-

H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80,N-80 c-90

0.113 0.113 0.113 0.113 0.113

-0.730 0.824 0.824 0.824 0.824 0.824

Drift Diameter (in.)

Nonupset

Regular

Special Clearance

d oc

d oc

d ocs

0.730 0.730 0.730 0.730

1.313 1.313 1.313 1.313 1.313

1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660

-

0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955

1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.660

1.900 1.900 1.900 1.900 1.900

-

-

-

-

1.286 -

2.054 -

2.200,

-

1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286

2.054 2.054 2.054 2.054

2.200 2.200 2.200 2.200

-

-

-

-

-

1.516 -

2.200 -

2.500 -

-

1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516

2.200 2.200 2.200 2.200

2.500 2.500 2.500 2.500

-

Tubing

Special Tubing Joints

The performance of the tubing that is run inside the casing to conduct oil or gas to ground level is important. Tubing not only must withstand the same stresses to which casing is subjected, but also must resist the corrosive action of well fluids that in some areas is severe. API has developed specifications that meet the major needs of the oil and gas industry. ‘.2.4-7 API specifications and bulletins provide standard dimensions, strength and performance properties, and the required gauging practice to ensure complete interchangeability. Tables 2.22 and 2.23 give the tensile requirements and range lengths of API tubing. Listed in Table 2.24 are the minimum performance properties of tubing. Tables 2.25 through 2.27 give the dimensions, weights, and tolerances of nonupset and external-upset tubing, couplings. and integral-joint tubing upsets (see also Figs. 2.6 through 2.8). Multiplication factors for converting net footage to gross linear footage are given in Table 2.28. Equations for calculating performance properties of tubing are found in the section on equations.

A number of special tubing joints are useful when more strength, leak resistance, or clearance is needed than that provided by the standard API nonupset, upset, or integral joints. These special joints obtain their improved properties by various means, such as couplings or box ends with seal rings of teflon, etc.; special thread profiles, such as Acme or buttress; torque shoulders: metal-to-metal seals; internal upsets; external upsets; integral joints; and flush joints.

Design of Tubing Strings: Oil, Water, and Mud-Weight Factors For information on oil, water, and mud weight factors needed in the design of tubing strings, refer to Table 2.14, which lists these factors for casing. The same table also will apply to tubing design.

Safety Factors The following safety factors are commonly used in the design of tubing strings. These safety factors will be used

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

2-39

LINE PIPE

TABLE

2.24-MINIMUM 12

13

PERFORMANCE

PROPERTIES

14

15

Collapse Resistance

Internal Yield Pressure

IntegralJoint Drift Diameter (in.) -

OD of Box

d,, (in.) -

OF TUBING

16

17

Strenath (Ibf) Threaded and Coupled Integral

(Psi)

(Psi)

Nonupset

Upset

7,530 10,360 14,130 15,070 16,950

6,360 8,740 11,920 12,710 14,300

13,310 18,290 24,950 26,610 29,940

10,960 15,060 20,540 21,910 24,650

19,760 27,160 37,040 39,510 44,450

1.550 1.550 1.550 1.550 1.550

7,270 10,000 13,640 14,550 16,360

7,080 9,730 13,270 14,160 15,930

1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286 1.286

1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880 1.880

5,570 6,180 7,660 8,490 11,580 12,360 13,900

5,270 5,900 7,250 8,120 11,070

1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516 1.516

2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110 2.110

4,920 5,640 6,640 7,750 10,570 11,280 12,630

4,610 5,340 6,330 7,350 10,020 10,680 12,020

in the example tubing string design. The designer has the responsibility to select safety factors to suit particular needs: collapse strength, I, 125; joint yield strength, 1.80; and internal yield pressure. 1.00.

Single Weight and Grade Tubing String. Table 2.29 includes design data and safety factors for an 1 I ,OOO-ft single weight and grade upset tubing string with an OD of 27/, in. Selection of Nominal Weight and Grade. Formulating a table similar to Table 2.30 is convenient when the nominal weight and grade of tubing are selected to meet the adopted safety factor requirements. Table 2.30 is based on the safety factor requirements, collapse resistance, joint yield strengths, and internal yield pressures that can be found in Table 2.24. Cols. 1 through 4 and 7 were obtained directly from Table 2.24. Grades C-95 and L-SO, which have restricted yield-strength ranges, were eliminated from consid-

11,810 13,280

18

Joint Yield

7,680 10,560 14,410 15,370 17,290

0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955 0.955

(continued)

-

-

15,530 -

26,740 -

21,360 29,120 31,060 34,950

36,770 50,140 53,480 60,170

19,090

31,980

26,250 35,800 38,180 42,960

43,970 59,960 63,960 71,950

-

Joint 15,970 21,960 29,940 31,940 35,930 22,180 22,180 30,500 30,500 41,600 44,370 49,920 26,890 26,890 36,970 36,970 50,420 53,780 60,500

eration because the well conditions did not warrant the use of such premium grades of tubing. The collapse setting depths in Col. 5 were obtained by dividing collapse resistance (Co]. 3) by the 0.5-psi pressure gradient and 1.125, the safety factor. The joint yield-strength setting depths (Co]. 6) were obtained by dividing the joint yieldstrength values in Col. 4 by the nominal weight per foot (Col. 1) and I .80, the safety factor. Col. 7 was obtained directly from Table 2.24 and required no modification because the entire string may be subjected to an internal pressure equal to the BHP. It is apparent from Table 2.30 that 21/,-in., 6.5~lbm N-80 upset tubing will be required because it is the lowest grade that provides adequate collapse resistance, joint yield strength, and internal yield pressure strength.

Collapse Safety Factor. The collapse

safety factor of 2.029 in Table 2.29 was determined by dividing the 1 I, 160-psi collapse resistance in Col. 3 of Table 2.30 by the 0.5-psiift pressure gradient and the 11 ,OOO-ft length of the string.

PETROLEUM

2-40

TABLE 2.24-MINIMUM 1

2

3

4

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF TUBING (continued) 5

6

7

8

9

10

11

Threaded and Cowled OD Nominal Weight (Ibm/ft) OD do (in.)

Threads and Coupltng Nonupset

2.063

Upset -

-

23/E

27/b

-

4.00

Integral Joint 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 3.25 -

4.60 4.00 4.60 4.00

4.70 4.70

4.60 5.80 4.00

4.70 5.95

4.60 5.80 4.60 5.80 4.00 4.60 5.80

4.70 5.95 4.70 5.95 4.70 5.95

6.40 6.40 6.40 7.80 8.60 6.40 7.80 8.60 6.40 7.80 8.60 6.40 7.80 8.60

6.50 6.50 6.50 7.90 8.70 6.50 7.90 8.70 6.50 7.90 8.70 6.50 7.90 8.70

-

1 -

-

of Couollna fin.1 Upset

Grade

Wall Thickness e (in.)

H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90

0.156 0.156 0.156 0.156 0.156

~1.751 1.751 1.751 1.751 1.751

H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 P-105 P-105 c-90 c-90 c-90

0.167 0.190 0.167 0.190 0.167 0.190 0.254 0.167 0.190 0.254 0.190 0.254 0.167 0.190 0.254

2.041 1.995 2.041 1.995 2.041 1.995 1.867 2.041 1.995 1.867 1.995 1.867 2.041 1.995 1.867

1.947 1.901 1.947 1.901 1.947 1.901 1.773 1.947 1.901 1.773 1.901 1.773 1.947 1.901 1.773

2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875 2.875

3.063 3.063

2.910 -

3.063 3.063

2.910 2.910

3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063 3.063

2.910 2.910 2.910 2.910 -

H-40 J-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 P-105 P-105 P-105 c-90 c-90 c-90

0.217 0.217 0.217 0.276 0.308 0.217 0.276 0.308 0.217 0.276 0.308 0.217 0.276 0.308

2.441 2.441 2.441 2.323 2.259 2.441 2.323 2.259 2.441 2.323 2.259 2.441 2.323 2.259

2.347 2.347 2.347 2.229 2.165 2.347 2.229 2.165 2.347 2.229 2.165 2.347 2.229 2.165

3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500 3.500

3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668 3.668

3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460 3.460

ID d, (in.)

Drift Diameter (in.) ~

Nonupset

d,,

Regular

d,,

Special Clearance

d ocs

2.910 -

2.910 2.910

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-41

TABLE2.24-MINIMUM

12 ___~

13

14

PERFORMANCE

15

PROPERTIES

16

OF TUBlNG(continued)

17

18

19

20

Internal IntegralJoint OD of Box

Drift Diameter (in.) 1.657 1.657 1.657 1.657 1.657

-

-

2.325 2.325 2.325 2.325 2.325 -

-

-

-

-

-

Upset Collaose Resistance

Plain-end and Nonupset

(Psi)

(Psi)

5,590 7,690 10,480 11,180 12,430

5,290 7,280 9,920 10,590 11,910

5,230 5,890 7,190 8,100 9,520 11,040 14,330 9,980 11,780 15,280 15,460 20,060 10,940 13,250 17,190

4,920 5,600 6,770 7,700 9,230 10,500 14,040 9,840 11,200 14,970 14,700 19,650 11,070 12,600 16,840

5,580 7,680 10,470 13,020 14,350 11,160 13,890 15,300 14,010 18,220 20,090 12,380 15,620 17,220

5,280 7,260 9,910 12,600 14,060 10,570 13,440 15,000 13,870 17,640 19,690 11,890 15,120 16.870

Reaular Coupling (Psi)

Special Clearance Coupling (psi) -

-

-

~

Joint Yield Strength (Ibf) Threaded and Coupled

Nonupset

Upset

-

5,600 7,700 10.500 13,960

10,500 10,720

11,200 14,890 14,700 19,540

11,200 11,440 14,700 15,010

12,600 16,710

12,600 12,860

30,100 36,000 41,400 49,500 56,500 67,400 96,600 60,300 71,900 103.000 94,400 135,200 67,800 80.900 115,900

5,280 7,260 9,910 12,600 14,010 10,570 13,440 14,940 13,870 17,640 19,610 11,890 15,120 16,820

5,510 7,260 9,910 10,340 10,340 10,570 11,030 11,030 13,870 14,480 14,480 11,890 12,420 12,420

52,800 72,600 99,000 32,100 149,400 05,600 140,900 59,300 138,600 184,900 209,100 118,800 158,500 179,200

5,600 7,700 -

-

-

Integral Joint 35,700 49,000 66,900 71,400 80,300

-

52,000 -

-

71,700 -

-

97,800 126,900

-

104,300 135,400 136,900 177,700 -

-

117,400 152,300

-

-

72,500 99,700 135,900 169,000 186,300 145,000 180,300 198,700 190,300 236,600 260,800 163,100 202,800 223,500

-

~ -

PETROLEUM

2-42

TABLE 2.24-MINIMUM 1

2

HANDBOOK

PERFORMANCE PROPERTIES OF TUBING (continued) 5

4

3

ENGINEERING

6

7

8

10

9

11

Threaded and Coupled OD Nommal OD do (in.)

--

3%

4

Weight (Ibmlft)

Threads and Coupling Nonupset

Upset

7.70 9.20 10.20 7.70 9.20 10.20 7.70 9.20 10.20 12.70 7.70 9.20 10.20 12.70 7.70 9.20 10.20 12.70 9.20 12.70

9.30 9.30

-

9.30 -

-

12.95 -

-

9.30 -

-

12.95 -

-

9.30 -

-

12.95 9.30 12.95

-

-

-

9.50 9x0 9.50

-

11.00 -

-

11.00 -

-

11.00

-

9.50 9.50

4%

12.60 12.60 12.60 12.60 12.60

Grade H-40 H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 J-55 c-75 c-75 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 c-90 c-90 c-90 c-90 P-l05 P-l05

0.216 0.254 0.289 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.375 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.375 0.216 0.254 0.289 0.375 0.254 0.375

3.068 2.992 2.922 3.068 2.992 2.922 3.068 2.992 2.922 2.750 3.068 2.992 2.922 2.750 3.068 2.992 2.922 2.750 2.992 2.750

2.943 2.867 2.797 2.943 2.867 2.797 2.943 2.867 2.797 2.625 2.943 2.867 2.797 2.625 2.943 2.867 2 797 2.625 2 867 2.625

4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250 4.250

H-40 H-40 J-55 J-55 c-75 c-75 L-80, N-80 L-80, N-80 c-90 c-90

0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262 0.226 0.262

3.548 3 476 3.548 3.476 3.548 3.476 3.548 3.476 3.548 3.476

3.423 3 351 3.423 3.351 3.423 3.351 3.423 3.351 3.423 3.351

4.750

H-40 J-55 c-75 L-80, N-80 c-90

0.271 0.271 0.271 0.271 0.271

3.958 3.958 3.958 3.958 3.958

3.833 3.833 3.833 3.833 3.833

5.200 5.200 5.200 5.200 5.200

Integral Joint

12.75 12.75 12.75 12.75 12.75

-

of Coupling (in.) Upset

Wall Thickness e (in.)

ID d, (in.)

Drift Diameter (in.)

Nonupset

d,,

Regular

d,, 4.500

-

00” Size (In.) 1.050 1.315 1.660

(4;;

Diameter of Recess

L nl,”

d, IIn)

(in.)

4.180

4.500 -

4.180

4.500 -

4.180

4.500 -

4.180

4.500

4.180 -

4.500 -

4.180 -

4.500 4.500 4.500

4.180 4.180 4.180

-

-

4.750 4.750 4.750 -

5.000 5.000 5.000

4.750 5.000 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563 5.563

Maximum Bearing Face Diameter Soecral Bevel

b

(dbt) max (In.)

Weight (lbm)

1.313 1.660 2.054

3% 3% 3%

1.113 1.378 1.723

1.181 1.488 1.857

0.51 0.84 1.29

2.200 2.875 3.500

33/4 4% 5’/a

1.963 2.438 2.938

2.050 2.625 3.188

1.23 2.82 5.15

4.250 4.750 5.200

5% 5%

3.563 4 063 4.563

3.875 4.375 4.850

8.17 9.57 10.76

6%

4.180

5.000

Width of Beartng Face (In.)

d ocs

4.500

TABLE 2.25-NONUPSET TUBING COUPLING DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TOLERANCES (FIG. 2.6)

Minrmum Length

Special Clearance

-

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

TABLE

~~

12

2-43

2.24-MINIMUM

13

PERFORMANCE

14

PROPERTIES

15

16

OF TUBING

17

(continued)

18

19

20

Internal Upset

IntegralJoint Drift Diameter (in.)

OD of Box d,, (in.)

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

Collapse Resistance

Plain-end and Nonupset

(Psi)

(Psi)

4,630 5,380 6,060 5,970 7,400 8,330 7,540 10,040 11,360 14,350 7.870 10,530 12,120 15,310 8,540 11,570 13.640 17,220 13,050 20,090

4,320 5,080 5,780 5,940 6,990 7,950 8,100 9,530 10,840 14,060 8,640 10,160 11,560 15,000 9,720 11,430 13,010 16,880 13,340 19,690

4,060 4,900 5,110 6,590 6,350 8,410 6,590 8,800 7,080 9,590

3,960 4,590 5,440 6,300 7,420 8,600 7,910 9,170 8,900 10,320

10,320

4,590 5,720 7,200 7,500 8,120

4,220 5,800 7,900 8,430 9,480

4,220 5,800 7,900 8,430 9,480

-

-

-

-

TABLE

-

-

-

-

2.26-EXTERNAL-UPSET

TUBING

OD Regular and Special Special Bevel’ * Clearance? d ocs Size’ (in.) ;:, (in.) 1.660

1.050 1.315 1.660

1.900 2.200

1.900

2.500

L ml”

(in.)

(Psi)

(Psi)

5,080

5,080 -

6,990

6,990 -

9,530

9,530 -

14,060 -

9,990 -

10,160

10,160 -

15,000 -

10,660 -

11,430 -

11,430

16,880 13,340 19,690

11,990 13,340 13,990

Nonupset 65,100 79,500 92,600 89,500 109,400 127,300 122,000 149,100 173,500 231,000 130,100 159,100 185,100 246,400 146,400 179,000 208,200 277,200 208,900 323,400

Integral Joint

Upset

103,600 -

-

142,500 -

-

194,300

-

276,100 -

-

207,200

-

294,500 -

-

233,100 -

-

331,300 272,000 386,600

-

123,100 169,200 230,800

-

72,000 4,590

-

6,300

-

8,600 9,170

-

DIMENSIONS,

Width of Diameter of Beanng Face Recess Regular dr (in.)

Threaded and Coupled

b (in.)

99,000 135,000 144,000

-

246,100 162,000 -

276,900

-

104,400 143,500 195,700 208,700 234,800

144,000 198,000 270,000 288,000 324,000

-

WEIGHTS,

AND

TOLERANCES

Maximum Bearing Face Diameter (dbr),,,ax (in.) Special Bevel

Special Clearance

1.488 1.684

-

(FIG. 2.7)

Weight (Ibm) Soecial Regular Clearance

-

3% 3% 3%

1.378 1.531 1.875

%2 %2 ‘/8

2.006

0.84 1.26 1.49

-

37/8 4% 5%

2.156 2.656 3.156

‘A? %2 732

2.297 2.828 3.381

1.85 3.42 5.29

5% 6

3.813 4 313 4.813

‘/i ‘/i ‘/i

4.125 4.625 5.156

% wi

3.063 3.668

2.910 3.460

3% 4

4.500 5.000 5.563

4.180

Q/2

Minimum Length

COUPLING

Joint Yield Strength (Ibf)

Special Clearance Coupling

Regular Coupling

-

6%

2.752 3.277 3.965 -

9.02 10.62 13.31

2.38 3.45 5 22 -

PETROLEUM

2-44

do

d,

BASIC POWERTIGHT

Fig. 2.6-Nonupset

j-+-+=4 0 BASIC

POWERTIGHT

HANDTIGHT

MAKEUP

MAKEUP

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

MAKEUP

tubmg and coupling

HANDTIGHT

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.7--External-upsettubing and coupling.

r

DASHED

LINES

INDICATE

POWERTIGHT

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.8-Integral-joint tubing.

e

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-45

TABLE 2.27~-INTEGRAL-JOINT

TUBING UPSET DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TOLERANCES

(FIG. 2.8)

Upset Dimensions (in.1

On.)

Nommal Weight; Upset and Threaded* (Ibmlft)

1.315 1.660 1.660 1.900 1.900 2.063

1.72 2.10 2.33 2.40 2.76 3.25

OD

do

Pin

Box

ID+ + 0.015

MinImum Length

Length of Taper MInimum

d4

d,”

L,”

L ,“t

d Ob

-

0.970 1.301 1.301 1.531 1.531 1.672

1% 1% 1% 1% 1% I’%6

‘A ‘A ‘/4 ‘h ‘/4 ‘/4

1.550 1.880 I.880 2.110 2.110 2.325

OD” + 0.0625

2.094

OD + 0.005 - 0.025

Minimum Length,

L,”

Length of Taper

L B”f 1

1.750 I.875 I.875 2.000 2.000 2.125

1 1 1 1 1

Diameter of Recess

dr 1.378 1.723 1.723 1.963 1.963 2.156

‘Nommal vwghts, upset.and threaded,are shown forthe purpose of identification inordermg .‘The mr~mum OD d,. ISllmlted by the mlnimum lengthof lullcrest threads(see Table 2 46) ‘The nxmmum ID.d,, IShmited by the drift test

TABLE 2.28-GROSS

OD (in.)

LINEAR FOOTAGE FROM NET FOOTAGE, API TUBING

Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibm/ft)

Number of Threads per inch

Make-Up Loss Per Joint (in.\

10 10 IO 8 a

Multiplication Factor for Average Joint Length 20 ft

30 ft

1.625 2.063 2.313 2.375 2.563

1.0068 1.0087 1.0097 1.0100 1 .OlOEi

1.0045 1.0058 1.0065 1.0066 1.0072

B 0 B 8 B

1.938 2.125 2.375 2.500 2.625

1.0081 1.0089 1.0100 1.0105 I.0111

1.0054 1.0059 1.0066 1.0070 1.0074

10 IO IO 10

1.125 1.250 1.375 1.438

1.0047 1.0052 1.0058 1.0060

1.0031 1.0035 1.0036 1.0040

Nonupset Tubing wb

2% 3% 4 4%

all all all 9.50 12.60

External Upset Tubing

2% 27/a 3%

4 4%

all all all 11.00 12.75

IntegralJointTubing 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.063

1.72 all all 3.25

TABLE 2.29-DESIGN SAFETY FACTORS FOR SINGLE WEIGHT AND GRADE TUBING STRING Design data for an 11 ,OOO-ft string of 27/8-in.-OD upset tubing with 9.625~lbmlgal mud weight and 5,500-psi BHP Safety Factor Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibmlft) Grade 6.50

6.680

Type Thread API

(fU

Collapse

Joint Yield Strength

11,000

2.029

2.03

Amount

Internal Yield Pressure (Psi) 1.92

Width of Face Minimum b

PETROLEUM

2-46

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 2.30-27/8-in.-OD UPSET TUBING SETTING DEPTHS IN COLLAPSE, TENSION, AND INTERNAL PRESSURE RESISTANCE, INCLUDING SAFETY FACTORS Setting Depth (ft) Nominal Weight per Foot (Ibmlft) Grade ~H-40 6.50 J-55 6.50 N-80 6.50

Joint Yield Strength

Internal Yreld Pressure

Collapse Resistance (psi)

Joint Yield Strength (Ibf)

Collapse 1.125

1.80

1.00

5,580 7,680 11,160

72.500 99,700 145,000

9,920 13,653 19,840

6,197 6,521 12,393

5,280 7,260 10,570

(Psi)

Safety Factors

Joint Yield Strength Safety Factor. The joint yield

Line Pipe

strength safety factor of 2.03 was determined by dividing the 145,000~lbm joint yield strength in Col. 4 by 6.50 lbm, the nominal weight per foot, and the 11 ,OOO-ft length of the string.

Line pipe is used by the oil and gas industry to transport oil, gas, and water. API has developed specifications for line pipe6-8 to meet the needs of the oil and gas industry. These provide standard dimensions, strength and performance properties, and the required thread gauging practice to ensure complete interchangeability. Tables 2.31 through 2.37 include dimensional and strength data of API line pipe. Tables 2.3 1 and 2.32 give the tensile requirements and tolerances on lengths of API line pipe. Performance property data applicable to standard-weight, threaded line pipe are given in Tables 2.33 :hrough 2.35 and Fig. 2.9. Table 2.36 gives the dimensions, weights, and test pressures of extra-strong threaded line pipe. Table 2.37 lists the dimensions, weights, and test pressures of plain-end line pipe. Equations for calculating performance properties of line pipe are found in the following section.

Internal Yield Pressure Safety Factor. The internal yield pressure safety factor of 1.92 was determined by dividing the 10.570-psi internal yield pressure in Col. 7 by 5,500 psi, the BHP. Stretch in Tubing When Freely Suspended in Fluid Media When tubing is subjected to an axial stress, either tension or compression, that does not exceed the elastic limit of the material, the stretch or contraction may be determined by Eqs. 1 and 2 for casing. These equations also are applicable to tubing.

Equations for Calculating Performance Properties of Casing, Tubing, and Line Pipe

TABLE 2.31-TENSILE

Minimum Yield Strength Grade A25 A

(Psi)

X42 X46 x52

25,000 30,000 35,000 42,000 46,000 52,000

X56

56,000

X60’

60,000

X65

65,000

x70

70,000

B

REQUIREMENTS OF LINE PIPE Minimum Ultimate Tensile Strength (Psi)

Minimum Elongation in 2 in.’ w

45,000 48,000 60,000 60,000 63,000 66,000‘* 72,000t 71,000’ * 75,000+ 75,000* * 78,000’ 77,000’ * 80,000+ 82,000

‘The mimmum elongation I”2 in shall be thatdetermmed by the qualion I” Table 2 1 .-Forp,pelesslhan20 I” OD Wh any wallth~cknass and forp,pe 20 I” OD and largerwithwallfhlcknessgreaterthan 0 375 I” ‘For p,pe wth a 20.1n OD and largerwllha wallthicknessof 0.375 I” and less ‘The m,n,m”m “lhmatetens+sstrengthforGrade X60 ElectricResistanceWelded Pipe I”allsizesand wallthicknesses shall be 75.000 PSI

API developed equations for calculating the performance properties of API casing, tubing, and line pipe.’ These equations were used to calculate the performance properties for non-API grades of casing and tubing, except for the collapse resistance of HC-95 casing. The collapse resistance of HC-95 casing is assumed to be the same as that published by Lone Star Steely for their proprietary S-95 grade. This proprietary grade is offered by other manufacturers under various 95 designations.

Collapse Pressure Equations The minimum collapse pressures given in API Bull. 5C2 are calculated by means of Eqs. 3, 5, 7, and 9, adopted at the API 1968 Standardization Conference and reported in API Circular PS-1360, Sept. 1968. ‘u Eqs. 4, 6, and 8 for the intersections between the four collapse pressure equations have been determined algebraically and are included for use in calculating the applicable d,/e range (ODiwall thickness) for each collapse pressure equation. Factors FA, Fs, Fc, FF, and FG are calculated by Eqs. 12 through 16. The collapse pressures for Tables 2.3 and 2.4 are calculated with the specified values for d,, and c. The calculated d,/e was rounded to two decimals. The collapse pressure calculations were carried to eight or more digits and rounded to the nearest 10 psi to produce the final values in the tables.

CASING,

TUBING.

AND

2-47

LINE PIPE

TABLE

2.32-TOLERANCES

ON

LENGTHS

Shortest Length in 95% of Entire Shrpment

Shortest Length in EntireShipment

‘By

agreemen,

between

the purchaser

and the manufacturer

TABLE

Nominal Size (In.)

OD (2,

tolerances

(ft)

shall

35.0

-

apply

to each

17.5 35.0

26 3 75% of average agreed upon

-

carload

2.33-STANDARD-WEIGHT THREADED WEIGHTS. AND TEST PRESSURES

Nominal Werqht: Threads and Coupling’ (Ibmlft)

(ft)

-

9.0 14.0 40% of average agreed upon lhese

Minimum Average Length EntireShipment

8.0 -

16.0 22.0

Plain-End Pipe Single random lengths Double random lengths As agreed upon lengths in excess of 20 ft'

Shortest Length in 90% of Entire Shrpment

m

(ft) Threaded-and-Coupled Pipe Single random lengths Double random lengths

OF LINE PIPE’

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, (FIG. 2.9)

Calculated Weiaht Wall Thickness

ID

Platn End

Threads and Couplrng”

Test Pressure (psi)

(ii.)

d, (in.)

(ll%ft,

(ErF)

Grade A25

Grade A

Grade El 700 700 700 700 700

0.405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050

0.25 0.43 0.57 0.86 1.14

0.068 0.088 0.091 0.109 0.113

0.269 0.364 0.493 0.622 0.824

0.24 0.42 0.57 0.85 1.13

0.20 0.20 0.00 0.20 0.20

700 700 700 700 700

700 700 700 700 700

1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875

1.70 2.30 2.75 3.75 5.90

0.133 0.140 0.145 0.154 0.203

1.049 1.380 1.610 2.067 2.469

1.68 2.27 2.72 3.65 5.79

0.20 0.60 0.40 1.20 1.80

700 1,000 1,000 1,000 1,000

700 1,000 1,000 1.000 1,000

700 ,100 ,100 ,100 ,100

3.500 4.000 4.500 5.563 6.625

7.70 9.25 11.00 15.00 19.45

0.216 0.226 0.237 0.258 0.280

3.068 3.548 4.026 5.047 6.065

7.58 9.11 10.79 14.62 18.97

1.80 3.20 4.40 5.60 7.20

1,000 1,200 1,200 1,200

1,000 1.200 1,200 1.200 1,200

,100 ,300 1,300 1,300 1,300

8 8 10 10 10

8.625 8.625 10.750 10.750 10.750

25.55 29.35 32.75 35.75 41.85

0.277 0.322 0.279 0.307 0.365

8.071 7.981 10.192 10.136 10.020

24.70 28.55 31.20 34.24 40.48

14.80 14.00 20.00 19.20 17.40

1,160 1.340 930 1,030 1,220

1,350

12 12 14D 16D 18D 20D

12.750 12.750 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000

45.45 51.15 57.00 65.30 73.00 81 .oo

0.330 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375 0.375

12.090 12.000 13.250 15.250 17.250 19.250

43.77 49.56 54.57 62.58 70.59 78.60

32.60 30.80 24.60 30.00 35.60 42.00

960 1,060 960 840 750 680

1 ,090

1 1'h 1% 2

2% 3 3'/2 4 5 5

-

1,570 ,090

,200 ,430 ,240 ,120 980 880 790

PETROLEUM

2-48

TABLE2.34-MINIMUMCOLLAPSE

RESISTANCE

STANDARD-WEIGHT

Nominal Weight per Foot

OD

Nominal Size (in.)

do

ANDJOINTSTRENGTH THREADED LINE PIPE

Collapse Resistance (psi) Grade

(in.)

(lbmlft)

A25

A

0

'h 'I4

0.405

% '12 s/4 1 1 '14 1%

0.675

0.25 0.43 0.57 0.86 1.14 1.70 2.30 2.75 3.75 5.90 7.70 9.25 11.00 15.00 19.45 25.55 2935 32.75 35.75 41.85 45.45 51.15 57.00 65.30 73.00 81.00

6,980 6.820 5,830 5.640 4.800 4.540 3,860 3,530 3,030 3,280 2,900 2,670 2,490 2.110 -

8,380 8,180 7.000 6,770 5,760 5,450 4.630 4.230 3,640 3.940 3,480 3.200 2.930 2.380 2,020 1,190 1.580 780 950 1,310 780 1,010 840 620 440 320

9,770 9,540 8,160 7,900 6,720 6,360 5,400 4,940 4,240 4,590 4,050 3,670 3,270 2,630 2,200 1,270 1,700 820 1,010 1,410 810 1,070 880 630 440 320

0.540 0.840 1.050

1.315 1.660

1.900

2

2.375

2 ‘h

2.875

3

3.500

3%

4.000

4

4.500

5

5.563

6

6.626 8.625 8.625

: IO

10.750

10

10.750 10.750 12.750 12.750 14.000 16.000 18.000 20.000

IO 12 12

IOD 16D 18D 20D

TABLE 2.35a-MINIMUM

Area

-5.000

d?!!!

0

5.000

10.000

(sq I"I

15,000 CoIlawe

5.96

0 072

9.420

8.990

6.380

7.590

6 620

5.460

0125

9.200

a.780

8.180

7.410

6470

5,330

7.42

0167

7.860

7.510

7,000

6.340

5 530

4,560

771

7.610

9 29

025 0333

6.480

7.270 6.180

6.770 5,760

6.140 5.220

5 360 4 560

4,410 3.750

5.850

9.09

0 494 0.669

6.130 5.210

4.970

5.450 4.630

4.940 4 200

4.310 3.660

3.550

11.86 13 1 15.42

0 799

4,760

4,540

4,230

3 830

3350

2,760

3.75

1075

4.090

3.900

3.640

3 300

2.800

2.370

2075 35

59 77

14.16 16 2

1704 2 228

4.430 3.910

4,220 3.730

3.940 3.480

3.570 3.150

3.110 2.750

2,570 2.260

260 3174

3.570

3.430

3.200

2,900

2.530

2.080

3.190

3.080

2.930

2.710

2.370

1.950

43

2.570

2.490

2.380

2,230

2.040

1.730

23.66 31 14

5581 7265

2.160

2.100

2.020

1 900

1.750

1.560

1.250 1.670

1,230 1,630

1.190 I.580

1.140 1.510

1.080 1.410

1,000 1,280

730

690

4 45

925 11

5563 6625 8625

15 1945 2555

a625

2935

26 79

a 399

10.75

3275

3853

9178

810

a00

780

760

1075

3575

35.02

10072

880

820

2945

11908

1.360

950 1.310

920

41 a5

1.000 1.390

900

1075

1.260

1.180

1.100

1275 1275

4545 51 15

3864

12676

34

14.579

14

57

3733

16

653

18

73 at

5333

2312

20

a00

790

780

750

720

680

1.060

1.040

1.010

970

930

860

16052

a70

860

a40

al0

780

730

4267

10408

630

620

620

600

590

560

48

20 764

440 320

440

440 320

440

440 320

430

320

A

B

1.77 2.69 3.79 5.30 9.73 10.7 15.4 18.9 23.2 37.4 46.7 54.3 61.9 79.2 95.8 107 133 122 141 178 173 205 226 253 376 294

2.21 2.36 4.73 6.63 12.2 13.4 19.2 22.9 28.0 45.3 56.4 65.5 74.5 95.1 115 128 159 146 168 213 206 244 283 301 238 349

A25 1.65 2.52 3.55 4.97 9.12 10.0 14.4 16.8 20.5 33.2 41.3 47.9 54.5 69.4

320

20,000

320

(PSI) 25.000

Pressure

30,000

35.000

45 000

-

-

-

40000

(OSII

-

3.020

2375

la99 2156

OF

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE A

6.14

177

HANDBOOK

Jomt Strenath il.000 Ibf) Grade '

Axtat Stress

Weight per Fool (Ibmlft) do/e

ENGINEERING

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

50.000

CASING TUBING. AND LINE PIPE

2-49

TABLE 2.35b-MINIMUM

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE A25 Axial Stress (PSI)

d,

(In 1

Welght per Foot (lbmift)

Area d,/e

-

10000

-5,000

0

5.000

10.000

(sq tn.)

025

596

0072

7.950

7.570

6980

6180

5 150

0.54

043

0125

7.760

7.400

6820

6.030

5030

0675

0 57

6 14 742

0 167

6.640

6 330

5830

5160

4300

0 64

0 86

7 71

025

6.420

6.120

5640

4.990

4 170

105 1315

1 14 17

9 29 9 89

0333 0 494

5.470 5 170

5.210 4 930

4800 4.540

4250 4020

3540 3350

166

23

1186

0 669

4.390

4.190

3860

3420

2850

1.9 2.375

2.75 375

131 1542

0 799 1075

4.010

3.820 3 290

3.530 3.030

3.120 2680

2 600 2240

2875

59 77

1416

1704

3.560

3.280

2.900

2420

162 177

2 228

3.730 3 300

3,140

2900

2.560

3030

2.890

2670

2360

2.140 1.970

2 820

2.710

2490

2.210

1.840

2 300

2 220

2110

1.950

1630

9 25

45

11

1899

2 68 3 174

5563

15

2156

43

20.000

25.000

30.000

35.000

40.000

45.000

50.000

Collapse Pressure (PSI)

0405

35 4

15.000

3.450

TABLE 2.35c-MINIMUM

-

COLLAPSE RESISTANCE UNDER AXIAL LOAD, GRADE B Axial Stress (PSI)

Weight Area

- 10.000

-5.000

0

5.000

10,000

15,000

20,000

(In i

per Foot (Ibmlft)

0405

025

5 96

0072

10.870

10.400

9.770

9.000

8.070

6,980

5.700

0 54 0675

043

0 125

10.610

10.150

9,540

8.790

7.880

6.820

5.570

0 57

614 742

0 167

9.070

025

8.780

7520 7.280

4.760

7 71

8.160 7,900

5.830

086

8.680 8.410

6.740

084

6.530

5,640

4.610

105 1315

1 14 17

9 29 9.89

0333 0 494

7.480 7.070

7.150

6,720 6.360

6.190 5.860

166

23

11.86

0 669

6.010

5,400

4,980

5.550 5.260 4,460

4.800 4.540 3.860

3.920 3.710 3.150

19

2 75

0 799

4,940

4,550

4,080

3,530

2.880

375

1075

5.490 4.720

5 250

2375

13 1 1542

4.520

4.250

3.910

3.510

3.030

2.480

2875 35 4

59 77

1416

1704

5,110

4.890

3.280

2.680

2 228

4510

4.310

4.230 3,730

3.800

16 2 17 7

4.590 4050

3.350

2.900

2,360

268

3970

3.840

3670

3.440

3.080

2.670

2.180

d

925

do/e

6.770 5.750

45

11

18 99

3174

3530

3,080

2.850

2.490

2.040

15

2156

2 810

2.630

2.490

2.320

2,110

6625 8 625

1945 2555

23 66 31 14

43 5 581 7 265

3.420 2,730

3270

5563

2 340

2280

2200

2.100

1.810 1.600

1330

1270

1.230

1.970 1 170

1.810

1310

1.100

1.020

8625 1075

29 35 32 75

26 79 38 53

a 399

1770

1,740 830

1700

1.640

1560 770

1450

1.310

1075

35 75

3502

10072

1050

1,030

1010

10 75 12 75

41 a5 4545

2945 3864

11908 12876

1480

1450

1410

980 1.360

12 75

51 15

34

14 579

1.120

1,100

810 1,070

14

57

3733

16052

900

890

16

653

4267

18408

630

630

880 630

18 20

73 81

48 53.33

20 764 2312

440

440

440 320

9 178

25,000

30,OOC

35.000

40.000

45.000

Collapse Pressure (PSI)

(sq ln 1

840

830

320

I320

820

800

740

-

700

940

890

830

1.210

1.110

790 1,040

1290 770

740

690

1,000

940

880

860

830

790

620

610

590

740 570

440

440

440

430

320

320

320

320

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

-

50.000

2-50

PETROLEUM

TABLE

Nominal Size (in.) ‘ii ‘/4 x3 % % 1 1 ‘Al 1% 2

% 3

3% 4 5 6 8 IO 12

TABLE

2.37a-PLAIN-END Size

Nominal (in.)

Desrgnatron

‘/a ‘/i ‘/4 ‘/4

Standard xs Standard xs Standard xs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs Standard xs xxs

xl % ‘h %

% Yi vi VI 1 1 1 1’/4 1 ‘/4 1 ‘/4 1% 1’/2 1 ‘/2

OD (in.) 0.405 0.405 0.540 0.540 0.675 0.675 0.840 0.640 0.840 1.050 1.050 1.050 1.315 1.315 1.315 1.660 1.660 1.660 1.900 1.900 1.900

2.36-EXTRA-STRONG WEIGHTS.

00 do

(in.) 0.405 0.540 0.675 0.840 1.050 1.315 1.660 1.900 2.375 2.875 3.500 4.000 4.500 5.563 6.625 8.625 10.75 12.75

AND

Wall Thickness e (in.)

0.31 0.54 0.74 1.09 1.48 2.18 3.02 3.66 5.07 7.73 10.33 12.63 15.17 21.09 28.89 43 90 55.82 66.71

0.095 0.119 0.126 0.147 0.154 0.179 0.191 0.200 0.218 0.276 0.300 0.318 0.337 0.375 0.432 0.500 0.500 0.500

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS,

0.24 0.31 0.42 0.54 0.57 0.74 0.85 1.09 1.71 1.13 1.47 2.44 1.68 2.17 3.66 2.27 3.00 5.21 2.72 3.63 6.41

0.068 0.095 0.088 0.119 0.091 0.126 0.109 0.147 0.294 0.113 0.154 0.308 0.133 0.179 0.358 0.140 0.191 0.382 0.145 0.200 0.400

HANDBOOK

THREADED LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, TEST PRESSURES

Nominal Weight: Threads and Coupling * (Ibmlft)

PlainWall End Thickness Weight (in.) (Ibmlft)

ENGINEERING

Test Pressure Grade (psi) Grade A25

Grade A

Grade El

850 850 850 850 850 850 1,500 1,500 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,800 2,700 2,400 2,300 2,100 1,700 1,400

850 a50 650 a50 650 850 1,600 1,600 2,500 2,500 2,500 2,800 2,800 2,800 2,700 2,400 2,000 1,600

850 850 850 850 850 850 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,300 1,700 1,700 1,700 -

WEIGHTS,

AND

TEST

PRESSURES,

Minimum ID (in.) 0.269 0.215 0.364 0.302 0.493 0.423 0.622 0.546 0.252 0.824 0.742 0.434 1.049 0.957 0.599 1.380 1.278 0.896 1.610 1.500 1.100

Grade A Standard 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 1,200 1,800 2,200 1,200 1,800 2,200

‘,I’~ to 1%

in.

Test Pressure (psi) Grade B

Alternative Standard -

-

-

700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 1,300 1,900 2,300 1,300 1,900 2,300

Alternative

-

-

Grade A25 700 850 700 850 700 850 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 700 850 1,000 1,000 1,300 1,400 1,000 1,300 1,400

CASING,

TUBING,

TABLE

AND

LINE PIPE

2.37b-PLAIN-END

2-51

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TEST PRESSURES, 23/8 lo

Wall OD

Weight

do (in )

wpe (Ibmlft)

Thickness e (In 1

M1ri,mum

ID d. (In1

Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

A25

Grade 8

x42

X46

x52

X56

X60

X65

x70

1.260 -

1.470 -

1.760 2,200

1,930 2.410

2.180

2,350 2,940

2.520

2.730

2,940

3,000

3,000

3,000

2.310 2.890

2.530

3,000

3,000

2.860 3,000

3,000

3,000 3,000

3.000 3,000

3,000

2,650

2,910

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

2,990

3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000 3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3,000

3,000 3,000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3,000

3,000

3,000 3,000

3.000 3,000 3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3,000 3,000

3,000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3,000 3,000

3,000 3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

2 03

0083

2 209

Standard AlteUlatlVtZ

600 -

2'18

2 64

0 109

2 157

Standard Alternatwe

800

23/a

3 00 3.36

0 125 0 141

2 125 2 093

Standard AlternatIve

1.000 -

Standard

1,000 -

Alternative 2%

3 65

0 154

2 067

Standard

2.500 2.500

Alternative

2.500 -

3,000

3,000

3.000

3,000

Standard Alternative

1.300 -

2.500

2 500 -

3,000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3.000

1,400

2.500

2.500 -

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3,000

3.000

3,000 3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000 3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000

3,000 3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000

3,000 3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000

3.000

1.460

1.590

1.800

1.940

2.080

2.250

2.430

1.820

1.990

2.250

2,430

2,090

2.370

2.550

2.810 2.960

3.000

1,910

2.600 2.730

1 999

Alternative Standard

567

0250

1 875

2%

6 28

0281

Standard

1813

Alternative Standard Alternative Standard

2%

9 03

0436

1503

21/a

2 47

0083

2 709

Alternatfve Standard AlternatIve

278

322

0 109

2.657

Standard Alternat!ve

2%

367

0 125

2 625

Standard AlternatIve

27/e

4 12

0 141

2 593

2%

453

0156

2 563

2 "a

4 97

0172

2 531

Standard Alternative Standard

5 40

0188

2499

2.500 -

2.500

1.400 -

2.500

1.400 -

2.500 -

2.500 -

600 -

1.040 -

1210 -

800 -

-

1.000 -

-

1.000 -

-

-

1.000 -

1.950

2.280 -

Standard 1.000 Alternatfve

2.150

2,500

Alternative

2 ?+

Standard

1,000

2.350

2,500

AlternatIve 2 ?&

5 79

0203

2 469

Standard

1,000

2.500

2.500

Alternative 2VB

613

0216

2 443

2!Q

701

0250

2 375

Standard

766

0276

2 323

2'ie

1369

0552

1 771

Standard Altetnatlve Standard Alternative Standard

303

0083

3 334

Standard

3 95

0 109

3282

Standard Altername Standard

3'12

4 51

0 125

3 250

22

5 06

0 141

3 218

3 '/I

5 57

0 156

3188

3'.'2

6 11

0172

3 156

3'T

665

0 188

3 124

Standard Allernallve Standard Alternattve Standard Alternative

3' '2

7 58

0216

3068

Standard Alternative

3'12

868

0250

3000

31'2

9 66

0281

2 938

3',2

10 25

0300

2 900

3'1

18 58

0 600

2 300

Alternative

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

2.920 3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

2.470

2.710

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000 2,730

3.000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000 3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3:ooo

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000 3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000 3,000

3.000

3 000 3,000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3,000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

1.300 -

2.500 -

2.500

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000

2.500 -

3.000 3,000

3,000

2.500 -

3.000 3,000

3.000

1.400

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

850 -

1.000 -

1.200 1.490

1.310

1.480

1,590

1.710

1.850

1,990

1.640

1.850

1,990

2.130

2.310

2.490

600 800 -

-

-

-

1.000

1 290

1 500 -

1.000 -

-

-

3,000

1.570

1,720

1,940

2,090

2.240

2.430

2.620

1.960 l.f300

2.150 1.970

2.430 2.230

2.6'20 2400

2.800 2570

3.000 2.790

3.000 3,000

2.250

2.460

2.790

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

2.030

2.220

2.510

2.710

2.900

3.000

3.000

2.540

2.780

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

2.250

2.460

2.780

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

2.810 2.460

3.000 2.710

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3 000

3.000 3.000

1.000 -

1.600 -

1.870

1 000 -

1770 -

2060 -

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

1 000 -

1.930 -

2260 -

2.710 3.000

2.970

3000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

1.000 -

2220 -

2500

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

2500 -

3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000

2500 -

3000 3000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

2500

2 500 -

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3,000

2500

2500

3.000

3000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3000

3000

3.000

3,000

3 000

2500

3.000

3000

3000 3.000

3.000

2500

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3000

3000

3000

3000

3.000

3.000

3 000

Standard Alternative

Standard

3,000

2.500 -

Altername

Standard

3,000

2.500 -

Standard

Alternative

3.000

2,710

1.200 -

Alternative Standard Alternative

2,960

2 400

2.500

Alternative 3'f2

2.620

2.500

Alternative 3'h

3.000

2,390 2.190 2,740

1.100

Alternative

27/i

3,000

2,500

2 031

0 188

2%

3,000

1,200 -

0 172

4 39

1 939

-

2,730

1,100

405

2%

0218

-

-

2,330

2%

5 02

-

Grade

1,000 -

Altetnatlve Standard

2%

ure ~OSI)

Grade A

2%

2318

Te Xl Press

59/,, in.

1 300 -

3.000

2-52

PETROLEUM

TABLE 2.37b-PLAIN-END

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TEST PRESSURES, 23/s to 5%,

Wall

OD

Welghl

do (in )

Woe (Ibmift)

4

347

i-htckness

ID

e

d.

(In 1 0083

Millmum Grade A25

(In J 3834

4

453

0 109

3 782

4

5.17

0125

3750

Standard Alternatwe Standard Alternatwe

600

Standard

581

0 141

3 718

Standard Alternative

4

640

0156

Grade

Grade

X60

X65

x70

1,050 1,310

1 150 1,430

1,290 1.620

1390 1.740

1,490 1,870

1620 2,020

2,180

1,140 -

1,370 1,720

1,500 1.880

1.700 2,130

1830 2290

1,960 2.450

2,130 2,660

2,290 2,860

1,310

1,580

1,730

1,950

2 100

2,250

2.440

2,630

1,970

2,160

2440

2630

2.810

3.000

3,000

1,780

1,950

2,200

2370

2.540

2.750

2,960

2220

2.430

2,750

2960

3,000

3.000

3,000

1970

2 150

2430

2620

2.810

3,000

3,000

2.460

2.690

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

2.170

2.370

2,660

2.890

3,000

3,000

3,000 3,000

2,710 2,370

2,970

3.000 2.930

3.000

3,000

3,000

2.590

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000 3.000

2,960

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000

750 -

870 -

980 1,120

800 -

1.270

-

1,400 -

1.640 1.810 -

1,200

1.690

1.970 -

3656

4

7 65

0188

3624

AlternatIve Standard Alternative

4

911

0 226

1480

1.550 -

0172

3 548

Standard

1.200

1001

0250

3 500

Standard

11 16

0281

3438

4

1250

0318

3364

4'$

3.92

0083

1334

Standard Alternallve Standard

2,850 3.000

3,000 3,000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3.000

2.250

2.620

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3,000 3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

930

1.020

1.150

1.240

1.330

1.440

1.550

1.160

1.270

1.440

1.550

1,660

1.800

1.940

2,530

2.800 -

2.800

2.800

660

770

AlternatIve

41'2

5 84

0 125

1250

4112

6 56

0 141

4218

Standard Alternative

-

Standard AlternatIve

800 -

1.000

1.170

1.400 1.750

1.530 1.920

1.730 2.170

1.870 2330

2,000 2.500

2.170 2.710

2.330 2,920

1.130 -

1.320

1.580 1.970

1.730 2.160

1.960 2.440

2110

2.260 2.820

2.440 3.000

2,630

2.630

1,250 -

1.460

1.750

1.910

2.160

2330

2.500

2.700

2.910

1.380

1.610

2.180 1.930

2.390 2.110

2.700 2.390

2910 2570

3.000 2,750

3.000 2,980

3,000 3.000

2,410

2,640

2,980

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000

1.500 -

1.750 -

2.110 2,630

2.310 2,880

2.610 3,000

2810 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3.000

1.620 -

1,890 -

2,270

2,490

2,810

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

1.200

1.750 -

2.040 -

2.840 2,450

2.690

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

1200

1.900 -

2.210

2,650

2.910

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3,000

2 000 -

2,330 -

2.800

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

2.620 -

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3000 3.000

3.000 3.000

Alternawe

2 250 -

3.000 3.000

Standard

2 500

2 800 -

2 700

2.800 -

Standard Alternative

4'2

7 24

0156

4188

4%

7 95

0172

4 156

4%

8 66

0 188

4 124

Standard Allernatwe Standard AlternatIve Standard Alternative

4:/z

9 32

0203

4094

Srandard AlternatIve

4%

1001

0 219

4062

4'i2

1079

0 237

4026

Standard

1.000

1.200 -

-

Alternailve

4':z

1135

0 250

4000

41'2

1266

0 281

3938

41'2

1396

0 312

3876

4%

1498

0337

3826

Standard Altt?rnatlVe Srandard AlternatIve Standard

Aliernatwe

4 'h

1900

0438

3624

4'12

2251

0531

3438

4' 2

27 54

0674

3 152

1740

2.370

Alternallve 4

Grade X42

2.030

Alternallve 4

Grade

Grade

X56

1.000

7 03

Te!it Press1,re (PSI)

Grade

Standard

4

(continued)

X46

Grade E

3688

Allernatwe Standard

in.

HANDBOOK

Grade

Grade A

Alternatwe 4

ENGINEERING

Standard Alternatwe Standard Allernallve Standard Aliernatwe

1.700

-

2.800 -

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3000

3.000 3000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3 000

3 000 3 000

3.000 3 000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3 000

3.000

3 000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3.000 3.000

2 800 -

2 800 -

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

3,000

2.800

2.800 -

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

-

3 000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

540

630

750

820

930

1,000

1.040

1.160

1,250

810

1,130 1410

1.240 1550

1.400 1.750

1.500 1.910

1.630 2 020

1.750 2.120

1.890 2.360

Standard Allernatlve

2.800

3,000

Standard Standard

670

0 156

5397 5 312 5251

Standard

840

1010

940 1.180

1079

0 188

5187

Slandard

1.010

1220

1.420

1.700

1.870

2.110

2.270

2.430

2.640

2.840

12 50

0219

5125

Standard

1.420

1.650

1.990

2.170

2.460

2.650

'59;e '5q16

1462 1585

0 258

5047

Slandard

1.180 1200

1670

1.950

2.340

2.560

2.890

3.000 3 000

3.000 3.000

0281

5 001

Standard

1520

1820

2 120

2.550

2.790

3.000

3.000 3.000

2.830 3.000

'59.6 '!Y.,

17 50 1917

0312 0344

4 939

1680 1860

2 020

3.000

3.000

2 230

2.360 2 600

3.000

4875

Standard Standard

3.000

3.000

'59.6

20 78

0375

4813

Standard

2 020

2430

2.800

3.000

'5qr6 'S916

2704 3296

0 500 0625

4 563 4 313

Standard Standard

2 700 2800

2 800 2 800

2.800 2 800

'5916

38 55

0750

4063

Standard

2 a00

2 800

2 800

*59,,6 '59!.6

4 86 7 26

0083 0 125

'59,,

9 01

'536 '59',6

3 000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3 000

3.000 3 000

3,000

3.000

3.000 3 000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3 000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3000

3.000 3 000

3.000 3.000

3 000 3 000

3.000 3.000

3 000 3,000

3 000

3 000

3 000

3.000

3 000

3.000

3.000

3.000

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE

PIPE

TABLE 2.37c-PLAIN-END

2-53

LINE PIPE DIMENSIONS, WEIGHTS, AND TEST PRESSURES, 65/8 to 12% in.

Wall OD d, JpL

Welghl w,e (Ibm/fli

rhickness

MInImum

ID

Grade

d> A

(In )

Standard

A

Grade

AlternatIve

Standard

5 80 7 59

0 083 0109

6 459 6407

450 590

560 740

6%

8 68

680

850

790

9 76

0125 0 141

6375

65/i

6 343

770

960

890

S8 65,8

@B

10 70

0156 0172

6313

850 930 1.020

1.060 1 170

530 690

990 1090

E

Allernauve

Test Pressure (PSI) Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

Grade

X42

X46

X52

X56

X60

X65

x70

980 1.280 1.470

1050 1380 1580

1.130 1.480 1.700

1.220 1.600 1.840

1,320 1.730 1,980

Grade

El60 1,140

990

790 1.040 1 190

1.120

1,340

1.470

1.660

1790

1.920

2.080

2,230

1.240

1.480

1.620

1.840

1980

2.120

2,300

2.470

1360

1640

1,790

2.030

660 860

1300

65/B 658

1185 1292

1.280

1,190

1490

1.790

1.960

2.210

2180 2,380

2,340 2.550

2,530 2,770

2,730

0 188

6281 6249

65k

1392

0 203

6 219

I 100

1,380

1290

1498

0 219

6 187

I 190

1490

1390

1.930 2.080

2,110 2.280

2,390 2.580

2570 2780

2.760

658

1.610 1740

2.980

2.990 3.000

3,000 3.000

65,8

1702

0 250

6125

1360

1,700

1580

1980

2.380

2,600

2.940

3,000

3,000

3,000

3.000

65's 6$

18 97 2104

0 280 0 312

6065 6001

1520 1700

1,900 2.120

1 780 1980

2.220 2.470

2.660 2.970

2,920 3.000

3.000 3,000

3,000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3.000

6=8

2308

0.344

5937

1870

2.340

2 180

2,500

3,000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

65s

2503

2.550

2380

28.57

5875 5761

2.040

6&

0 375 0 432

2,730 -

3,000 3.000

3,000 3,000

3,000 3,000

3,000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3,000

3.000 3.000

6%

32 71

0 500

5625

2720

2,800

2 800

2.800

3,000

3,000

3,000

0 562 0 625

5501 5375

2.800 2.800

2.800 2.800

2.800 2.800

2,800 2,800

3,000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000

36 39 40.05

3,000 3.000

3,000

tY, 6518

3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3,000

63,

5187

2.800

2.800

2 800

2,800

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

5 125

2.800 2 800

2.800

2800 2800

2,800 2,800

3,000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3,000 3,000

3,000

2.800

3,000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

2.980

45 35

0 719

65.8

47 06

6%~ I+/,

63 73 11 35

0 750 0 875

4875

0.125

8375

520

650

610

760

910

1.000

1.130

1.220

1,300

1.410

1.520

e=,a

14.11

8313 8 249

650

810

1.250

1.410

1.520

1,630

1,760

890 -

950 1,140 -

1,140

780

760 920

1.370

1.500

1.700

1,830

1.960

2.130

1.900 2,290

1,480

1.620

1.840

2.000

2 120

2.290

2.470

1.330 1.520

1,600 1,830

1.750 2.000

1.980 2.260

2.130 2.430

2,290 2,610

2.480 2.830

2.670 3.000

f35.,

1694

0.156 0 188

85/,

1826

0 203

8219

858 8Q

1966 22.36

0 219 0 250

0 la7 8 125

85g

24 70

0277

B5,a

27

0 312

ES,,

28 55

0 322

85,b 858

30 42 3304

0.344 0375

8%8

38 30

85.8

910 1.040

1.140 1.300

1070 1.220

8071

1,160

1.450

1350

1.690

2.020

2.220

2,510

2,700

2.890

3.000

3.000

BOO1

1.630

2,820

3,000

3.000

2.580

2.910

3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000

1,960

2,280 2,350

2.500

1.680

1520 1570

1.900

7981

1300 1340

3.000

3.000

7937

1440

1.790

1.680

2,090

2,510

2.750

3,000

3,000

3.000

3.000

1.570

1.960

1830

3,000 3.000

3.000 3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

0 500

7625

2.130 -

3.000

43 39

2.290 -

2.740 3,000

3,000

1830

2.280 2.670 -

3.000

0 438

7875 7749

3,000 3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3,000

3 000

70

B58

48 40

0 562

7501

2350

2.800

2740

2.800

3,000

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

53.40

2.800

2800

2.800

3.000

3.000

3,000

60 71

7375 7187

2610

8%

0 625 0719

3.000 3,000

3,000

es,*

2.800

2.800

2.800

2.800

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3,000

I+,*

6308

0750

7125

2.800

2.800

2800

3,000

3.000

6776

0812

7001

2.800

2.800

2,800

3.000 3,000

3.000

8bB

2.800 2.800

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3,000 3,000

@g

72 42

0

6875

2.800

2.800

2800

2.800

3.000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

ass 10%

81 44 1765

1000 0 156

6625 10438

2.800 520

2.800 650

2800 610

2.800 760

3.000 1040

3.000 1.130

3,000 1.280

3.000 1380

3.000 1.480

3.000 1.600

3.000 1.730

10%

21 21

0188

10374

630

790

730

1.370

1.550

1.660

1 780

1.930

2.080

2287

0203

10 344

920 -

1250

103s

1.480

1.670

1.800

1,930

10 '4

2463

0219

10312

1350 1450

1.590

1.800

1.940

2,080

2.090 2,250

2.250 2,420

10% 10%

28 04 31 20

0250 0 279

10%

34 24

0307

10%

3023

103> 10'2

875

730

920

860

1.070

10250 10192

840

1.050 1 170

980

1.220

1660

1,820

2.060

2.210

2370

2,570

2.770

1.090

1 360

1850

2.030

2650

2.870

3.000

1.030

1290

1.200

1500

2040

2,230

2.290 2.520

2.470

10136

2.720

2910

3.000

3.000

0344

10 062

1 150

1440

1.340

1 680

2280

2,500

2.830

3.000

3000

3.000

3.000

40 48 48 24

0365

10020 9 a74

1.220 1.470

1 530

1.430 1710

2420 2910

2.660

3.000

3000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000 3.000

3000

3.000

3.000

10%

54 74

0 500

9 750

1 780 2 140 -

3000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3000

10x4

61 15

0 562

9 626

1.880

2 350

2.200

2.740

3000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

1034

6758

0625

2 620 2 800

2.440 2.800

3.000

3,000

3.000

3.000

2 BOO

3000

3.000

3,000

3.000 3.000

3000

0 719

2.090 2.410

3000

7703

9 500 9 312

2 800

1012

3000

3.000

3.000

10% lOi*

8618 92 28

0812 0875

9126 9 000

2.720 2.800

2 BOO 2.800

2.800 2.800

2 800 2.800

3000 3000

3.000 3.000

3 000 3.000

3,000 3.000

3000 3,000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

1034 10 3&

9830 104 13

0 938 1 000

0874 a

2.800 2800

2.800 2 800

2.800 2800

2 800 2 800

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3.000 3.000

3000 3000

1OJ1

12683

8 250

2.800

2 800

2.800

2 800

3.000

3.000

3000

3.000

3.000

3.000

3.000

490 530

610 660

570 620

710 770

960 1050 I 140

1.050 1 150

1.190 1300

1.280 1400

1.380 1500

1.490 1630

1.610 1750

1.250

1.410

1.520

1.620

1.760

1.890

1.640

1.750

1.900

2 040

0438

1250

750

1213 1231

23 11 2522

0 172 0188

12406 12374

1231

27 20

0203

12344

123J

29 31

12312

12J.4

3338

0219 0 250

12'4

3742

0 281

12 250 .~ 12 188

930

1830

620 710

770

790

900 1030

1.230 1400

1.340 1530

1.520

880

720 820

1730

1.870

2.000

2 170

2 330

990

930

1 160

1570

1.720

1.950

2.100

2.250

2.440

2.620

2-54

PETROLEUM

BASIC

POWERTIGHT

MAKEUP

HANDTIGHT

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

MAKEUP

Fig. 2.9-Line pipe and coupling.See Table 2.33 for pipe dimensions.

Yield-Strength Collapse-Pressure Equation. The yieldstrength collapse pressure is not a true collapse pressure. but rather the external pressure, p!, that generates minimum yield stress, o,,, on the inside wall of a tube as calculated by Eq. 3.

where FA , FB, and Fc are equation factors established by the API task group on performance properties (Table 2.39) and uY is yield pressure.

Plastic Collapse-Pressure Equation. The minimum collapse pressure

for the plastic range of collapse

(3) ~,,=a?. Eq. 3 for yield strength collapse pressure is applicable for d,/e values up to the value corresponding to the intersection with the plastic collapse (Eq. 5). This intersection is calculated by Eq. 4. Applicable d,/e ratios for yieldstrength collapse are shown in Table 2.38.

(d,h)?,

=

\I(FA -2)’

+8(F,+F,/u,.) ~(FB

....

TABLE

..

.... .

H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -60 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 -90 c-95 -100 P-105 P-110 -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180

16.40 and 15.24 and 14.81 and 14.44 and 13.85 and 13.60 and 13.38 and 13.01 and 12.85 and 12.70 and 12.57 and 12.44 and 12.21 and 12.11 and 12.02 and 11.92 and 11.84 and 11.67 and 11.59 and 11.52 and 11.37 and 11.23 and

PRESSURE

less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less less

‘Grades mdlcatedwthout letter dewgnatlon are notAPI grades but aregrades ,nuse or grades being consideredfar“se. “The do/e range values were calculated from Eqs. 4 and 12 through 14 to eightor more dIgIts

(5)

-2)

....

d,/e Range'*

. ..

The equation for minimum plastic collapse pressure is applicable for d,/e values ranging from (d,/e),y, (Eq. 4 for yield-point collapse pressure) to the intersection with Eq. 7 for transition collapse pressure, (d,/e),,,. Values for (d,/e),T are calculated by

+Fc/q)

2.39-YIELD COLLAPSE EQUATION RANGE

Grade'

+(F,

-Fc.

(&FB)

is

(4)

(d,Mp~=

TABLE

a#, -FF) Fc +a,,(FB -FG)

>

..

2.39- -EQUATION FACTORS AND FOR PLASTIC COLLAPSE Equation Factors*

Grade** H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -60 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 -90 c-95 -100 P-105 P-110 -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180

FA

FE

2.9500.0465 2.976 0.0515 2.991 0.0541 3.005 0.0566 3.037 0.0617 3.054 0.0642 3.071 0.0667 3.106 0.0718 3.124 0.0743 3.143 0.0768 3.162 0.0794 3.181 0.0819 3.219 0.0870 3.239 0.0895 3.258 0.0920 3.278 0.0946 3.297 0.0971 3.336 0.1021 3.356 0.1047 3.375 0.1072 3.412 0.1123 3.449 0.1173

FC

754 1,056 1,206 1,356 1,656 1,806 1,955 2,254 2,404 2,553 2,702 2,852 3,151 3.301 3,451 3,601 3,751 4,053 4,204 4,356 4,660 4,966

.

d,/e RANGES

d,/e Range' 16.40 lo 27.01 15.24 to 25.63 14.81 to 25.01 14.44 to 24.42 13.85 to 23.38 13.60 to 22.91 13.38 to 22.47 13.01 to 21.69 12.85 to 21.33 12.70 to 21.00 12.57 to 20.70 12.44 to 20.41 12.21 to 19.88 12.11 to 19.63 12.02 to 19.40 11.92 to 19.18 11.84 to 18.97 11.67 to 18.57 11.59 to 18.37 11.52 to 18.19 11.37 to 17.82 11.23 to 17.47

‘The d,/e range valuesand equationfactors were calculated from Eqs 4, 6. and 12 thraugh 16 to eightor more dlglts “Grades lndlcated withoutletter deslgnatlonare not API grades but are grades I” “se or grades being consideredforuse

(‘3

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-55

where FF and Fc are equation factors (Table 2.40), and the subscript pT denotes transition pressure. The factors and applicable d,/e range for the plastic collapse equation are shown in Table 2.39.

Transition Collapse-Pressure Equation. The minimum collapse pressure for the plastic to elastic transition is calculated with

zone

The applicable d,,/e range for elastic collapse in Table 2.41.

Collapse Pressure Under Axial-Tension Stress. The collapse resistance of casing in the presence of an axial stress is calculated by modifying the yield stress to an axial-stress equivalent grade according to Eq. 10.” oya =[J1-0.75(a,lo,)2

PTyay

(s-FG).

_.

...

(do/e) TE =

3FB/FA

,

..

. ..

.

where the subscript TE denotes elastic transition. The factors and applicable do/e range for the transition collapse-pressure equation are shown in Table 2.40.

Elastic Collapse-Pressure Equation. The minimum collapse pressure lated with

for the elastic range of collapse

--C.5un/ay]ay,

is calcu-

aa = axial stress (tension is positive), psi, = minimum yield strength of pipe, psi, and UY = yield strength of axial-stress equivalent (TYa grade, psi. Collapse-resistance equation factors and d,le ranges for the axial-stress equivalent grade are then calculated with Eqs. 4, 6, 8, and 12 through 16. With the equation factors for the axial-stress equivalent grade, collapse resistance under axial load is calculated with Eqs. 3, 5, 7, and 9, with d,/e rounded to two decimals. The reduced collapse-pressure calculations are carried to eight digits in all intermediate steps, and the final answer is rounded to the nearest 10 psi. Eq. 10 is based on the Hencky-von Mises maximum strain energy of distortion theory of yielding. Calculate the collapse pressure of 7-in., 26-lbm P-l IO casing with an axial stress of 11,000 psi. The wall thickness is 0.362 in.; a, = I 1,000 psi, and u,, = 110,000 psi.

Example Problem 4. 46.95 PE=(d,,e),(d,,e)-*l*.

TABLE

.‘....“‘........

2.40-EQUATION FACTORS AND FOR TRANSITION COLLAPSE Equation Factors’

Grade*

l

H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -60 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 c-90 c-95 -100 P-105 P-lIO -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180

F, 2.063 2.003 1.989 1.983 1.984 1.990 1.998 2.017 2.029 2.040 2.053 2.066 2.092 2.106 2.119 2.133 2.146 2.174 2.188 2.202 2.231 2.261

F, 0.0325 0.0347 0.0360 0.0373 0.0403 0.0418 0.0434 0.0466 0.0482 0.0499 0.0515 0.0532 0.0565 0.0582 0.0599 0.0615 0.0632 0.0666 0.06825 0.0700 0.0734 0.0769

(10)

where

Eq. 7 forpT is applicable for do/e values from (d,/e),T (Eq. 6 for plastic collapse pressure) to the intersection (d,/e)TE with Eq. 9 for elastic collapse. Values for (d,/e) TE are calculated with 2tF,IF,

is shown

do/e

RANGE

do/e Range’ 27.01 lo 42.64 25.63 to 38.83 25.01 10 37.21 24.42 to 35.73 23.38 to 33.17 22.91 to 32.05 22.47 lo 31.02 21.69 to 29.18 21.33 to 28.36 21.00 to 27.60 20.70 to 26.89 20.41 to 26.22 19.88 to 25.01 19.63 lo 24.46 19.40 IO 23.94 19.18 lo 23.44 18.97 to 22.98 18.57 to 22.11 18.37 to 21.70 18.19 10 21.32 17.82 to 20.60 17.47 lo 19.93

TABLE

2.41-d,/e

RANGE

FOR

ELASTIC

COLLAPSE

do/e Grade’ H-40 -50 J-K-55, D -80 -70 C-75, E L-80, N-80 c-90 c-95 -100 P-l05 P-110 -120 Q-125 -130 -135 -140 -150 -155 -160 -170 -180

Range*’ 42.64 and 38.83 and 37.21 and 35.73 and 33.17 and 32.05 and 31.02 and 29.18 and 28.36 and 27.60 and 26.89 and 26.22 and 25.01 and 24.46 and 23.94 and 23.44 and 22.98 and 22.11 and 21.70 and 21.32 and 20.60 and 19.93 and

greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater greater

‘Grades lndlcated ~~tho”,letter deslgna,,on are notAPI grades but aregrades ,nuse or grades being consideredforuse “The d,/e range values were calculated from Eqs 8. 12,and 13 to e,ghtor more d,g,,s

2-56

PETROLEUM

Solution. Substitution U\(, =[A -0.5(

-0.75(1

into Eq. IO gives

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

and

1.000/110.000)’

I I .000/l lO.OOO)] 1 lO.OOO= 104,087 psi.

Substitution of uiir for u, in Eqs. 4. 6, 8. and I2 through I6 results in the following values. F,A FB Fc FF F,

= = = = = w,, /fJ) \,I= (~l,,le),,~ = (tl,,/e) T& =

3.158, 0.0789. 2.675. 2.051. 0.0512 12.59. 20.75. and 27.02.

Expressed in metric units, Eqs. 12 through respectively.

The i/(,/e range for yield collapse is 12.59 or less; for plastic collapse, 12.59 to 20.75; for transition collapse. 20.75 to 27.02; and for elastic collapse. 27.02 or greater. The d,,/e is 710.362, or 19.34, indicating that collapse is in the plastic range. Substitution of F, (3.158). FB (0.0789). and Fc. (2,675) into Eq. 5 for plastic collapse yields

Fc=-3.2126+0.030867u,.-l.5204x10-ho,~ +7.7804x

10-‘“o ?,3 *

and 323.7x

IO” ( 2y;;;,d

>z

F,, = P,, =a~,~,IF~l(d,,~e)-F~l

I5 become.

-Fc

2

3F,lF,A

-FR/F,

>(

I-

2 f F, lF,d >

= 104,087(3.158/19.34-0.0789)-2.675 =6. I IO psi

FGZP

FFFR

FA

.

(16)

HC-95 Casing. The collapse

resistance of casing in the presence of an axial stress is calculated with Eq. 1 I. which is based on the total strain energy theory of yielding.”

P

0.644 With the values listed in API standards, critical areas were calculated to three decimals, and the joint strengths were rounded to 1,ooO Ibf.

(35)

” ”

,.....,

Load. (37)

Tubing Joint Strength. Tubing joint strength

is calculated from Eqs. 3 I and 32 as the product of the specified minimuti yield strength for the steel grade and the area of section under the root of the last perfect pipe thread or of the area of the pipe body, whichever is smaller. The areas of the critical sections of regular tubing couplings, special-clearance couplings, and the box of integral-joint tubing are. in all instances, greater than the governing critical areas of the pipe part of the joint and do not affect the strength of the joint. For calculations that are based on the thread root area. W, =uv x0.7854[(d,,-2hti)* and for calculations of the pipe,

(31)

-d,‘].

that are based on area of the body

W, =u\ x0.7854(d,,’

-di*).

(32)

where h,, = height of thread (0.05560 for 10 threads/in. and 0.07125 for 8 threads/in.), in. Joint strength was calculated to an accuracy six digits and rounded to 100 lbf.

of at least

Joint Strength of Round-Thread Casing with Combined Bending and Internal Pressure. Joint strength of round-thread casing subjected to combined bending and internal pressure is calculated from Eqs. 33 through 39 on a total load basis and is expressed in pounds. These equations were based on Clinedinst’s paper. ” Tables of joint strength of API round-thread casing with combined bending and internal pressure are given in API Bull. 5c4. I6 Full Fracture Strength. Wh, =0.95A,u,,,

.

.

(33)

Jumpout and Reduced Fracture Strength.

where W,,h=piA;,,.

..

.(38)

Relationship Between Bending and Curvature Radius. 6=5730/r,,,..

.

(39)

In Eqs. 33 through 39, to ID, sq in., A;(, = area corresponding area of the pipe wall under A IP = cross-sectional the last perfect thread [0.7854 or (d,,-0.1425)‘-(d,,-2c)?]. sq in., ft, 6= bending, degrees/l00 F.,,. = ratio of internal pressure stress to yield strength, or /Tid,,/2a, t’, WI, = total tensile failure load with bending, Ibf, w,, = external load, lbf, wjo = total tensile load at jumpout or reduced fracture, lbf, total tensile load at fracture, Ibf. Wjil = head load, lbf, Wsf, = w, = total load, the least of Wh, W, , or WC,, lbf, and rh = bending radius of curvature, ft. Calculations were made to six or more digits accuracy without intermediate rounding of areas. The final joint strength values were rounded to the nearest 1,000 lbf. The equations for joint strength on a total load basis are based on a work by Clinedinst, I5 who covers the development of combined loading joint strength equations and the determination of material constants and equation coefficients based on the results of an API-sponsored research project where 26 tests were made on 5%-in., 17-lbmifi K-55 short round-thread casing.

Line-Pipe Joint Strength The following equations for the fractured strength and the pullout or jumpout strength of API threaded line-pipe joints have been adapted from Clinedinst’s I2 equations:

(1+0.5F.,,)u, + L+0.14d,

1

Minimum

.

(34)

fracture

Wf=0.95AJPuu,,,

strength

is .

.

.

. .(40)

PETROLEUM

2-62

TABLE

2.45-LINE-PIPE

THREAD

HEIGHT

DIMENSIONS,

ENGINEERING

in. (FIG. 2.11)

Thread Element

27 Threads Per Inch p = 0.0370

18 Threads Per Inch p = 0.0556

14 Threads Per inch p = 0.0714

11% Threads Per Inch p = 0.0070

8 Threads Per Inch p=O.l250

0.866p 0.760~ 0.033p 0.073p

0.0321 0.0281 0.0012 0.0027

0.0481 0.0422 0.0018 0.0041

0.0619 0.0543 0.0024 0.0052

0.0753 0.0661 0.0029 0.0063

0.1082 0.0950 0.0041 0.0091

“tc = h, = h, = f,s = f,” = f,, = f,, =

HANDBOOK

= sharp thread height = thread height of pipe

h, h,

h, = thread height of coupling L lp = thread pitch f, = thread root truncationof pipe

-. TAPER

and minimum

i

=

t4

fen

I

I i

~_ IN. PER FT 162.5 MM

PER Ml

ON

,

f:I

= thread crest truncationof coupling

DIAM

is UP

1

= thread root truncationof coupling = thread crest truncationof pipe

*x,5-,

pullout strength

(J” + L,+0,14d,

f,, f

. .

.

.(41)

.

where Ajp = 0.7854[(d, -2hti)* -(d, -2e)2)], sq in., Wf = minimum joint fracture strength, lbf WiJO = minimum joint pullout strength, lbf,

hti = thread height (0.0950 for 8 threads/in.; 0.0661 for 11% threads/in.; 0.0543 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0422 for 18 threads/in.; 0.0281 for 27 threads/in.), in.. h = engaged height of thread or h,j (fC,>+f,,) (0.0900 for 8 threads/in.; 0.0627 for 11 % threads/in.; 0.0515 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0399 for 18 threads/in.; 0.0267 for 27 threads/ in.), in.,’ fC,Y = crest truncation of pipe (Table 2.45), and fc,= crest truncation of coupling (Table 2.45).

Hydrostatic Test Pressures for Plain-End Pipe, Extreme-Line Casing, and Integral-Joint Tubing. The hydrostatic test pressures for plain-end pipe, extreme-line casing, and integral-joint tubing are calculated with Eq. 42 except for Grade A25 line pipe, Grades A and B line pipe in sizes less than 23/,-in. OD, and threaded and coupled line pipe in sizes 6%-in. OD and less, which were determined arbitrarily.

2ufe PH=-

d,,

,

. .

. . .

. . . .

. . . . .

. . .

. . .

(42)

where pi

= hydrostatic test pressure rounded to the nearest 10 psi for line pipe and to the nearest 100 psi for casing and tubing, psi, and uf = fiber stress corresponding to the percent of specified yield strength as given in Table 2.46, psi.

TAPER

=

%

IN.

PER FT 162,s

MM

PER MI

ON

DIAM.

Fig. 2.11-Line pipe thread form. Buttresscasing thread form and dimensions for casing sizes 4% to 133/8in.

Hydrostatic Test Pressure for Threaded and Coupled Pipe. The hydrostatic test pressure for threaded and coupled pipe is the same as for plain-end pipe except where a lower pressure is required to avoid leakage caused by

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE PIPE

2-63

TABLE 2.46-FACTORS

FOR TEST PRESSURE EQUATIONS Fiber Stress as Percent of Specified Minimum Yield Strength

Grade A, A, x, x, K

Standard Test Pressures

Size (in.)

B B u u u

H-40, ?5:. K-55 H-40, J-55, K-55 L-80, N-80 c-75 c-95 P-105 P-l IO

2?/8through 3% over 3V2 4% and smaller 6s/Band 85/ 10% through 18 20 and larger 95/sand smaller 10% and larger allsizes allsizes allsizes allsizes allsizes

Alternative Test Test Pressure Pressures Rounding

60 60 60 75 85 90

75 75 75

80 60 80 00 80

80 80 -

80 80

60 00

10 10 10 10 10 IO 100 100 100 100 100 100 100

-

Maximum Test Pressure. osi’ Standard 2,500 2,800 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 3,000 10,000** 10,000*

Alternative 2,500 2,800 3,000 10,000 10,000 -

l

10,000’

*

10,000” 10,000**

T t

‘Highertestpressuresare permiwble by agreement between purchaserand manufacturer ‘;Platn-end p!pe IStestedto 3,000 psimaximum unlessa htgherpressureISagreed upon by the purchaseran+ manufacturer. No maxnnum tat pressure,excepl thatplain-endpope IStestedto 3,000 PSI maximum unlessa higherpressureISagreed upon by the purchaserand manufacturer

insufficient internal yield pressure of the coupling or insufficient internal pressure leak resistance at Plane d,,, or d, calculated with Eqs. 19 and 43, respectively.

Internal Yield Pressure for Couplings. The internal yield pressure for the coupling is calculated with Eq. 19 and rounded to the nearest lo0 psi. For round-thread casing and tubing, dl is calculated with Eq. 20. For line pipe. d, =d, -(L, where

+L,o)Ff

h,,.=0.0321

for 27 threads/in.:

TABLE 2.47-EXTREME-LINE

1

2

3

. (43)

+h,,.-2f,,,. 0.0481

for 18

threads/in.; 0.0619 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0753 for 11% threads/in.; 0.10825 for 8 threads/in., and f,.,, =thread root truncation (Table 2.47), 0.0012 for 27 threads/in.; 0.0018 for 18 threads/in.; 0.0024 for 14 threads/in.; 0.0029 for I1 % threads/in.; and 0.0041 for 8 threads/in. For buttress-thread casing, d, is calculated with Eq. 21. Eq. 19 bases the coupling hydrostatic pressure on the assumption that the coupling is stressed to 80% of minimum yield strength at the root of the coupling thread at the end of the pipe in the power-tight position. The basis of this equation was adopted at the 1968 API Standardization Conference. ”

CASING THREADING AND MACHINING DIMENSIONS-SIZES (FIGS. 2.13, 2.15, AND 2.17)

4

5

6

7

8

9

10

11

5 THROUGH 75/ in.

12

13

Threadinaand MachininaDimensions(in.1 Drift

Diameter Nommal

OD

Weight

(In)

(Ibmlft)

-15.00 5

5%

6%

7

7%

18.00

Made-Up

for

H

A

Joint ID

Bored upset

Maximum

Minimum

4.198 4.198

4 183 4.183

4.504 4.504

4.506 4.506

I

Minimum

Maximum

MinImum

4.938 4.938

4.827 4.827

4.829 4.829

4.819 4.819

Maximum ~4.821 4.821

B

C

D

E

G

4.208 4.208

4.545 4.545

4.235 4.235

4.575 4.575

J 4.975 4.975

15.50

4.736

4.721

5.008

5.010

4.746

5.048

4.773

5 079

5.442

5.331

5.333

5.323

5.325

5479

17.00 20.00

4.701 4.701

5.008 5.008

4.610

5.010 5.010 5009

4.711 4.711 4 619

5.048 5.048 5.048

4.738 5 079 4.7313 5 079 4.647 5.079

5.442 5.442 5.441

5.331 5.331 5.330

5.333 5.333 5.332

5.323 5.323 5.323

5.325 5.325 5.325

5.479 5.479

23.00

4.686 4.686 4 595

6.523

6.412

6.414

5.007

5479

24.00 28.00

5.781 5 731

5.766 5 716

6.089 6088

6.091 6090

5741

6129

5.768

6160

6.522

6411

6413

6.403 6 403

6.405 6405

6.559 6 559

32.00

5 615

5.600

6.088

6.090

5.624

6 129

5.652

6.159

6.522

6.411

6.413

6.404

6.406

6.560

23.00

6.171 6 171

6.156

6.477

6518 6518 6518

6.208 6.208 6.160

6.549 6.549 6.549

6.912 6.912 6.912

6.801 6.801

6.803 6.803

6.948

6.792

6.794

6479

6.182 6.182 6.134

6.794

6.477 6.477

6.479 6.479

6.792

6156

6.801

6.803

6.792

6.794

6.948 6.948

6.479

6.042

6 518

6.069

6.548

6.911

6.800

6.802

6.792

6 794

6.948

5 949 5.869

6 517 6517

5.977 5.897

6.548 6.548

6.911 6.911

6.800

6.802

6.800

6.802

6.793 6.793

6795 6.795

6.949 6.949

26.00 29.00

5.792

6 130

5.818

6.160

6.123

6.108

32.00 35.00

6.032 5.940

6.017 5.925

6477 6.476

6.478

38.00

5.860

5.845

6.476

6.478

26.40 29.70

6.770

6.755

7072

7.074

6.782

7 113

6.807

7.148

7.511

7.400

7.402

7.390

7.392

7.546

6.770

7072

7.113

6.807

7.148

7.511

7.400

7.402

7.390

7.392

6.705

7072

7.074 7.074

6.782

33.70

6.755 6690

6.716

7 112

6.742

7.147

7.510

7.399

7.401

7.390

7.392

7.546 7.548

39 00

6.565

6.550

7071

7.073

6.575

7.112

6.602

7.147

7.510

7.399

7.401

7.391

7.393

7.549

PETROLEUM

2-64

TABLE

2.47-EXTREME-LINE

CASING

THREADING

AND

MACHINING DIMENSIONS-SIZES

Internal-Pressure Leak Resistance at Plane d,, or d,. The internal pressure leak resistance at Plane ‘I,,, or d,, is calculated with Eq. 22 and rounded to the nearest 100 psi. Dimensional data on API threads were taken from API Specification 5B for threading, gauging, and thread inspection of casing, tubing, and line-pipe threads. For information on gauges and gauging, and thread inspection equipment and inspection. refer to Ref. 6. Fig. 2.10A shows the basic dimensions of line-pipe threads and casing and tubing round-thread hand-tight makeup. Tables 2.42, 2.43, and 2.48 give the tabulated data for casing short-thread. casing long-thread. and linepipe thread dimensions. Fig. 2. IOB shows and Table 2.44 lists the basic dimensions of buttress casing threads, handtight makeup. Thread dimensions of nonupset tubing,

TAPER

=

HANDBOOK

5 THROUGH 7% in. (continued)

external-upset tubing, and integral joint tubing are listed in Tables 2.49 through 2.5 I. Thread height dimensions for line pipe are given in Table 2.45 and for casing and tubing in Table 2.52. The respective thread forms are shown in Figs. 2. I I and 2.12. Buttress casing thread forms and dimensions for 4% through 12-in. sizes are shown in Fig. 2.1 I and for l&in. and larger are shown in Fig. 2.12. Machining details for 5- through 75/,-in. casing are given in Fig. 2.13 and for 8%. through 10% -in. casing in Fig. 2.14 and the tabulated data are given in Tables 2.47 and 2.53. respectively. The box and pin entrance threads are given in Figs. 2.15 and 2.16. Also, the product thread form for 5- through 75/,-in. sizes, 6 threads/in., 1 l/z-in. taperift on diameter is shown in Fig. 2.17, and for 8xthrough lox-in. sizes, 5 threads/in., 1 %-in. taperift on

API Threading Data

L

ENGINEERING

diameter

-~---i

1 IN. PER FT 183.3 MM

is shown in Fig.

2.18.

, &Xl5 ~~. ~~ - -. ~-.~--

PER MI ON

DIAM.

Fig. 2.12-Casing and tubinground-threadform.Buttresscasing threadform and dimensions for sizes 16 in.and larger.

CASING,

TUBING,

AND

LINE

PIPE

2-65

TABLE 2.48-LINE-PIPE

THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)

End of Length (in ) End

Number

Pttch

Length:

Center of

Face of

Mlnlmum Length.

Total

Diameter

Coupling.

Coupling

Pipe to

End of

at Hand-

Power-

to Hand-

of

Tight

Hand-

Pipe to

Tight

Tight

Tight

Couphng

Coupling

Standoff

Plane

Make-Up

Plane

Recess

Recess

Thread Turns

of

Threads

of

Pipe to

Tight

Effective Vamsh

Plane

Threads

Point

L,

L2

Lb

Per Inch

L PC (in.)

d, On.1

Diameter Of

Depth

L Ih

d ci

D cr

(In.1

(in.)

(In.1

Hand-

n so

Full Crest Threads From

End

of Pipe’ L (Ini

'/e

0405

27

0.1615

0 2639

0 3924

0 37360

0.1389

0.1 198

0.468

0.0524

3

'/a

0.540

18

0.2278

0.4oia

0 5946

0 49163

0.2179

0.2001

0.603

0 1206

3

9'8

0.675

18

0.240

0 4078

0 6006

0.62701

0.2119

0.1938

0.738

0.1147

3

vi

0.840

14

0320

0.5337

0 7815

0 77843

0.28io

0.2473

0.903

0.1582

3

3/q

1.050

14

0.339

05457

0 7935

0 98887

0.2690

0.2403

1.113

0.1516

3

1

1.315

1 1 ‘/2

0.400

0.6828

0.9845

1.23863

0.3280

0.3235

I ,378

0.2241

3

1 ‘A

1 660

1 1 ‘/2

0.420

0 7068

1 0085

1 58338

0 3665

0.3275

1.723

0.2279

3

0.3565

1%

1.900

1 1 ‘12

0.420

0.7235

1.0252

1 82234

0.3498

0.3442

1.963

0.2439

3

03732

2

2 375

1 1 “2

0436

07565

i 0582

2 29627

0 3793

0.3611

2.469

0 2379

3

04062

2'12

2.875

8

0.662

1.1375

1.5712

2 76216

0.4913

0 6392

2.969

04915

2

06342

3

3 500

a

0.766

1 2000

1.6337

3 38850

0.4913

0 6177

3.594

0 4710

2

0.6967

3'12

4 000

a

0.821

1 2500

1 6837

3.88881

0.5038

0.6127

4.094

0.4662

2

0.7467

4

4.500

8

0.844

1.3000

1 7337

438712

0.5163

0.6397

4.594

0.4920

2

0 7967

5

5563

8

0 937

1 4063

1.8400

544929

0.4725

0.6530

5.657

0.5047

2

0.9030

6

6 625

a

0.958

1.5125

1 9462

650597

0.4913

0.7382

6.719

0.5861

2

1.0092

8

6625

8

1.063

1.7125

2.1462

850003

0.4788

0.8332

a.719

0.6768

2

1.2092

10

10 750

8

1.210

1.9250

2.3587

10 62094

0.5163

0.8987

lo.844

0.7394

2

1.4217

12

12 750

a

1.360

21250

25587

12 61781

0 5038

0 9487

12.844

0.7872

2

1.6217

14D

14.000

a

1.562

2.2500

2.6837

13 87263

0.5038

0.8717

14.094

0.7136

2

17467

16D

16 000

a

1 812

2.4500

2.8837

15 87575

0.4913

0.8217

16.094

0.6658

2

1.9467

1aD

18 000

a

2.000

2.6500

3.0837

I 7.87500

0.4788

0.8337

18.094

0.6773

2

2.1467

20D

20 000

8

2.125

2.8500

3 2837

19 87031

0.5288

0 9087

20.094

0.7490

2

2.3467

Included taper on dtameter. allwe.%

-

03325

0.0625 in /in

TABLE 2.49-INTEGRAL-JOINT

TUBING THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A) End of Pipe

Length (tn.) End of Pioe to Major OD dn (in.)

Diameter d, (In.)

Number

of

Threads Per Inch

Pitch

Total End of Pipe to

HandTtght-

Effective Vanish

Plane

Threads

Pomt

L,

L2

L,

Diameter

to Thread

Length:

Run-out in Box

Face of Box IO Hand-

at HandTight

PowerTight

Tight

Plane

Make-Up

Plane

d, (In)

L PI (In )

(In.)

L Ih

MInimum Length, Full Crest Threads,

Depth

HandTight

of Box

of Box

Standoff

Recess

Recess

Thread

D,,

Turns

Lc

” so

W.)

Diameter

d cr )

m

(In )

From

End

of Pope’

1.315

1.315

10

0 479

0 956

1 125

t .2532a

0.500

0446

1.378

0.225

1 660 1.900

1.660 1 900

10 IO

0 604 0 729

i 081 1 206

1 250 1 375

1 59826 1 83826

0.500 0500

0446 0446

1.723 1 963

0.350 0475

2.063

2 094

10

0 792

1.269

I 438

2.03206

0.500

0446

2.156

0538

Included taper on diameter

allsues. 0 0625 in IIn.

2-66

PETROLEUM

TABLE 2.50-NONUPSET

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TUBING THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)

End of Length (in.) End of

Total

Pipe to

Major OD

Diameter

do

*, (in.)

(‘“.I

HandNumber

of

Threads

Pitch

Face of

Coupling,

Coupling

MInImum Length,

Diameter

Full Crest

End of

at Hand-

Power-

to Hand-

of

of

Tight

Tight

Tight

Tight

Coupling

Coupling

Standoff

Plane

Make-Up

Plane

Recess

Recess

Thread

Effecttve Vanish

Plane

Threads

L,

Length:

Center of

Pipe 10

Tight

Per Inch

Pipe 10

Point

L2

d c,

Lf/i (in.)

d, (in.)

L4

(in.)

Threads From

Turns ;“:,

“so

End

of Pipe* Lc (in.)

1.050

1.050

10

-0.925 0.448

1.094

0.98826

0.500

0.446

1.113

2

0.300

1.315

1.315

10

0.479

0.956

1.125

1.25328

0.500

0.446

i ,378

2

0 300

1.660

1.660

10

0.604

1.081

1.250

1 S9826

0.500

0.446

1.723

2

0.350

1.900

1.900

10

0.729

1.206

1.375

1.83826

0.500

0.446

1.963

%s

2

0.475

2%

2.375

10

0.979

1.456

1.625

2.31326

0.500

0.446

2.438

%6

2

0.725

27/s

2.675

10

1.417

1 894

2.063

2.81326

0.500

0.446

2.938

%s

2

1.163

3%

3.500

10

1.667

2.144

2.313

3.43826

0.500

0.446

3.563

% 6

2

1.413

4

4.000

a

1.591

2.140

2.375

3.91395

0.500

0.534

4.063

%

2

1.375

4%

4500

8

1.779

2.328

2.563

4.41395

0.500

0.534

4.563

%

2

1.563

Included taper on diameter. allsizes, 0.0625 in./ln 'L, =L, L, =L,

-0 900 I” torlo-threadtubing,but not lessthan 0 300 I” = 1 000 I” lors-threadtubing

TABLE 2.51-EXTERNAL-UPSET

TUBING THREAD DIMENSIONS (FIG. 2.10A)

Length (in)

Major OD do (in.)

Diameter da (in.)

of

Threads

HandTight

Tight

Tight

Coupling

Coupltng

Standoff

Make-Up

Plane

Recess

Recess

Thread Turns

Coupling,

at HandTight

Power-

Plane

Plane

Per Inch

Pipe to

L, o-

L2

L4

*, (in.)

L,* tng

0.956

1.125

1.25328

0.500

0.446

1.081

1.250

10

1.206

1.375

1.40706 1.75079

0.500 0.500

0.446 0.446

2.094

10

0.792

1.269

1.438

2.03206

0.500

2.594 3.094

a a

1 154 1 341

1 703 1 890

1.938 2.125

2.50775 3.00775

0.500 0.500

3%

3.750

8

1.591

2.140

2.375

3.66395

4 4%

4.250 4.750

8

1.716 1.641

2.265 2.625

2 500 2.390

4.16395 4.66395

10 10

1.660

1.469 1.812

1.900

2% 2%

8

DC, (in)

(In.)

0.604 0.729

1.315

1.050 1.315

Length, Depth of

Diameter

Effective Vanish Point Threads

Minimum Diameter of

Total End of

Tight

Length. Face of Coupling to Hand-

End of Pipe to HandNumber

Pitch

End of Pipe to Center of

“so

1.378 1.531

Full Crest Threads From

1, (in.) 0.300

1 .a75

: 2

0.350 0.475

0.446

2.158

2

0.538

0.534 0.534

2.656 3.158

2 2

0.938 1.125

0.500

0.534

3.613

2

1.375

0.500 0.500

0.534 0.534

4.313 4.813

2 2

1 500 1 625

Included taper on diameter, allSizes, 0.0625 in /in 'L, = 1~ - 0 900 in fatlo-threadtubing,bul not lessthan 0 300 in Le = L n - 1 000 ,n forS-threadtubmg.

h IC

TABLE 2.52-CASING AND TUBING ROUND THREAD HEIGHT DIMENSIONS, in. (FIG. 2.12)

Thread Element h, = 0.866p h,,=h,=0.626p-0.007 srs= S,”=0.120p+0.002 SC, =sc, =0.120p+0.005

10 Threads Per Inch p=0.1000

8 Threads Per inch p=O.1250

0.8660 0.05560

0.10825 0.07125

0.01400

0.01700

0.01700

0.02000

End

of Pipe’

TAPER

=

%

IN. PER

FT 162.5 MM

PER

MI

ON

S,S = thread root truncationof pipe SK = thread root truncationof coupling SC, = thread crest truncationof pipe = thread crest truncationof coupling S LT = thread pitch

DIAM.

CASING, TUBING, AND LINE PIPE

2-67

TABLE 2.53-EXTREME-LINE

1

2

3

CASING THREADING AND MACHINING DIMENSIONS-SIZES (FIGS. 2.14,2.16, AND 2.18)

4

5

6

7

8

10

9

Threading and Machining

85/ THROUGH 10% in,

11

12

13

Dimensions

(in.)

G

Minimum

Maximum

Minimum

Maximum

~ 8.418

8.420

8.408

8.410

8.601

8.408 8.409

8.410 8.411

8.601 8.602 8.602

Drift Diameter OD (in.)

0%

9%

10%

for Bored

Nommal Weight

Made-Up Jofnt ID (Ibmlft)

upset

A Maximum

H Minimum

B

8.148

D 7.762

E

8.569

J

7725

7.710

8.100

8.102

36.00 40.00

7725 7.663

7.710 7.648

8.100 8.100

8.102 8.102

7.737 7.674

8.148 8.148

7.762 7.700

8.192 8.192

8.569 8.569

8.418 8.418

8.420 8.420

44.00

7.565 7451

7.550 7.436

8.100 8.099

8.102 8.101

7.575 7.460

8.147 8.147

7.602 7.488

8.191 8.191

8.568

8.409

8.411

8.568

8.417 8.417

8.419

49.00

8.419

8.410

8.412

8.603

40.00 43.50

8.665 8.665

8.650 8.650

9.041 9.041

9.043 9.043

8.677 8.677

9.089 9.089

8.702 8.702

9.134 9.134

9.512 9.512

9.361 9.361

9.363 9.363

9.351 9.351

9.353 9.353

9.544 9.544

47.00

8.621

8.606

9.041

9.043

8.633

9.089

9.512

9.381

9.363

9.351

9.353

9.544

a475

8.460

9.040

9.042

8.485

9.088

8.658 8.512

9.134

53.50

9.133

9.511

9.360

9.362

9.352

9.354

9.545

45.50 51.00

9.819 9.719

9.804 9.704

10.286

9.829

10.334

9.854

10.378

10.607

10.597

9.729

10.334

9.754

10.378

10.756 10.756

10.605 10.605

10.597

10.790 10.790

9629

9.614 9.514

10.286

10.334 10.334

9.864 9.564

10.756

9.529

9.639 9.539

10.378

60.70

10.288 10.288

10.378

10.756

10.605 10.605

10.607 10.607

10.599 10.599

55.50

10.286 10.286

10.288 10.288

10.597 10.597

10.599 10.599

10.790

,CHECK

CREST

n+ -~ 223 8 863 2192 6.813 17305 6”/,6 170 lOY,e 265 1 1 0 7 5 2 7 3 1 8 5 0 0 2 1 5 9 0 _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ _ -

wl6

‘345 bar ‘See Table 3 16 skerch

REQUIREMENTS FOR TABLE 3.20 ,,3,4,and5 SeeTable 2 R1n9.groove radius r,g shall Ye jhz m (0 79 mm] for 9roove widths “& and ‘s/S2 m [8 73 and 11 91 mm]. 1/,6 1”. (1 59 mm] for wdths ‘Xz and 2’& [13 49 and 16 67 mm] 6 Except for bore of welding-neck flanges, dtmenslons for suxs 11%6 III to 23/,5 !n [46 0 to 65 1 mm]. mclus~ve, are ldentlcal with 3,000.PSI [207-bar] flanges I” Table 3 19 7 and 8 See Table 3 19

Surface Safety Valves (SSV’s) An SSV on the Christmas tree is usually the second valve in the flow stream. Hence it is the second master valve, if it is in the vertical run, otherwise it is a wing valve. SSV’s can be located downstream of the well in the process train at such places as (1) flowline headers, (2) suction, discharge, and bypass on a compressor (the bypass safety valve safe mode is open instead of closed), or (3) at the entrance to the sales pipeline or the pipeline leaving a platform. Most SSV’s are reverse-acting production-gate valves with piston-type actuators (Fig. 3.8). Valve-body pressure against the lower stem area moves the gate to the up/closed position. Control pressure applied to the piston pushes the gate to the down/open position. Usual-

ly a spring is used to close the valve if valve-body pressure is not present. Valve-body pressure and piston/stem area ratio determine the control pressure required. Large-ratio pneumatic actuators are used because the larger ratio permits use of lower control pressure. Lower-pressure control-system valves can be simpler and more reliable. Compressed air or produced gas are the usual control fluids. Control pressures are generally 250 psi or less. Low-ratio hydraulic actuators are used where the SSV is to be controlled by the same system that controls the SSSV, or where limited space is available on the Christmas tree (Fig. 3.9). Control pressures are generally slightly greater than the shut-in pressure of the well.

Fig. 3.8—Pneumatic-powered ratio-piston surface safety valve.

Fig. 3.9—Pneumatic and hydraulic surface safety valves

PETROLEUM

3-22

TABLE

3.21-API

TYPE 6BX INTEGRAL

FLANGES

FOR 5,000-AND Bmc

Nommal Sue and Bore (in1

OutsIde Diameter

lmml

On)

2.000 PSI(138 bar)

26%

6795

41

3.000 PSI (207 bar)

26%

6795

5,000 PSI (345 bar)

13% 716% 18% 2 1%

346.1 425.5 476.3 539.8

'*I"&

429 46.0 52.4

10,000 ps, (690 bar)

I'%16 2%6

Small Diameter of Hub

Large Diameter of Hub

w 2.000 MI (138 bar) 3.000 psr (207 bar) 5,000 ps; (345 bar1

10,000 ps, (690bar)

1

[mm]

(m)

(in)

bml

(ln)

743 0

73/,6 166

vu

159

43%

1102 6"/>, 161 1

870.0

30%,

7763

75&

186

518

15 9

26% 30% 35% 39

673 772 905 991

4x6 1127 la'%, 5% 1302 21% 6'7/,21659 26%~ 7% 181.0 29%

481 0 5556 674 7 7588

16"/,6 20% 23%, 26%

423 9 527 1 598 5 679.5

4% 3 6 6%

114 76 152 165

ve 74 % "AS

159 19 1 159 175

183 187 200

1% 12%~ 14%4

a4 1 08 9 1000

2'3/>2 61.1 12y32 2% 65.1 1% 2'5& 746 2%

47 48 52

ve % K

9.5 9 5 9 5

3% 92.1 2M 4"/32 110.3 2% 5% 1461 2% 7'& 182.6 3%

57 64 73 81

V8 3% W 3/s

9.5 9 5 95 9 5

3% 3'Xs 4vj6

95 94 103

5% s/s 5/s

159 15.9 15.9

4% 3 6% 6%

114 76 156 165

9 'h 10% 12',$6 14'/IS

232 2%. 270 2'Ysq 316 2-/s, 357 31/s

1794 2286 2794

18% 21% 25%

479 552 654

4%. 4% 5%6

34%

42.1 42 1 44.1

3% 3% 3'%.

51.2 563 702 79.4

120 7 4% 5'9,& 142.1 73/,e 1826 813/,,2238

1032 1238 141 3

6% 1683 6% 1683 Sz5/,z223 0 9% 2413

11% 14% 17%

3016 374.7 450 9

IO 12% 15%

20

21% 25'%a 29% 33%

5525 6556 752.5 8477

lS'/z 4953 23'1/,6 601.7 21?/~ 674 7 30 762 0

(in.) [mm]

Raised Face Diameter (ln)

[mm]

Gr0CW? OD (1n.1

/mm]

=/s 15.9 19.1 % 15.9 % 13/,rj206

Dimensions Width of GKPSe (in)

Depth of GrCO!e

[mm]

(in.) [mm]

t3ng Number

1%

1.88

48

13%

349

31"',,,804 9 30.249 768.32 0902

22.91

2',3221.43

BX-167

2

2.12

54

17

432

32%

831.9 30.481 774.22 1.018 25.86

25'3221.43

8X-168

590.6 676.3 603.3 885.8

16 16 20 24

178 1% 2 2

1.75 2.00 2.12 2.12

45 51 54 54

12% 14% 17% 18%

318 368 445 476

I8 21%~ 24"& 27%

4572 535 0 627.1 701.7

V,s 1429 *'kn 6.33 '3& 18.26 % 19 05

BX-160 8X-162 8X.163 BX-165

141.3 146 1 1586

8 8 8

088 088 0.88

23 23 23

5 5 5%

127 127 133

4 4% 4%

101 6 2.893 104 8 3062 111.1 3395

'& ?& '%a

5 56 5 56 5 95

EX-150 8X-151 8X-152

'/s 1 1'/a

100 112 125

26 29 32

6 6% 8

152 171 203

5% 6 7%

131 8 152.4 184 9

'%a 6 75 's,64 7 54 ?%a 8 33

8X-153 8X-154 BX-155

37%

9525

39%

10001

13% t16% 18% 2 1%

346.1 425.5 476.3 539.8

23% 26% 31% 34%

* *11% 6 1'%6

429 46 0 524

5% 6%

4',&

65 1 77 6 1032

7% 184 2 8% 2159 1O3/,6 2588

5% 71:s 9 11

1302 1794 2286 2794

ll'Y,s 15% 18% 22%

13% 16% 18% 21%

346 1 4255 4763 5396

26% 30% 36% 40%

3%6

Lenath of Siud Bolts

lmml (ln 1 lmml

24

679.5 6795

6

254.0 327.0 400.1

Facing andGroove Diameter of Bolt H&S

[mm]

26%

5%

Radus at Hub

29%

65.1 77 8 1032 1302

W )

Length of Hub

Imml

Diameter Number 01 Bolls of Bolts (117 ) (m ) [mm]

26%

2’h 2%

PRESSURE

835.8

7%6 7% 7%

bml

Boltmg Dlmensms Diameter of Bolt Circle

WORKING

1041 4='/2>126 2 322%~

346 1 30% 768 425 5 345ie 872 476 3 40'5/,,1040 5398 45 1143

Nominal Sam and Bore

MAXIMUM

HANDBOOK

Flange Dlmerwons

Total Thickness

[mm1 -__ bn)

lO,OOO-psi’

ENGINEERING

~

I3 6 8

u 3'4 %

3000 4032 4763 5652

12 12 16 16

1'/a 1'h 1'h 1%

125 162 1 62 1 88

32 42 42 48

8% 11% 13 15

222 286 330 381

6'%s 11% 14% 16%

6731 7763 9255 10224

20 24 24 24

1w 1% 2% 2%

200 200 238 262

51 51 61 67

17% 17% 22% 24'h

438 445 572 622

20% 517.5 22"/,,576.3 27'A6 696.9 30% 781.1

16063 16.832 22.185 24.904

408.00 478.33 563.50 63256

0786 0.705 1.006 1.071

1996 1791 25 55 27 20

73.48 0.450 11 43 77.77 0.466 11 84 8628 0.498 12 65

4.046 10277 0.554 14 07 4685 11900 0.606 1539 5.930 150.62 0.698 17 73

220.7 6.955 301.6 9.521 358.8 11 774 428.6 14064 17.033 18.832 22752 25.507

17666 0666 241 83 0.921 29906 1039 35723 1.149

1692 23 39 26 39 2918

3/s 9 53 %6 11 11 'h 1270 %h 1429

8X-169 8X-156 BX-157 BX-158

43264 1279 478 33 0 705 57790 1290 64788 1373

5/s 15 88 3249 8 33 17.91 z'& 32 77 23& 18 26 % 19 05 3487

6X-159 6X-162 EX-164 BX~l66

'345and 690 bar '.ThlSflange 14InaCtIve avaIlable on s&x?clal Olderonly +ThtstlangewasadopledJ"ne 1969and shall be markedwth boththeworking ,xessure (50OOWP)and thetest ~ressure,10,000TPI ,nadd,l,on ,aalher mark,nSrequwemenfs

WELLHEAD

TABLE

EQUIPMENT

3.22-API

AND

FLOW CONTROL

3-23

DEVICES

TYPE 68X WELDING-NECK

FLANGES

FOR lO,OOO- AND 15,000-psi’

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Basic Flange Dlmenslons Nominal Size and Bore

OutsIde Diameter

bml 10.000 psi

429 460 524

(690 bar)

**1”/j6 1'3/.. ,”

15,000 PSI (1035 bar)

2%6 244 6

3% 6 4x5 7'/< 6

Large Dlametet of Hub

Total Thickness

S"Mll Diameter of Hub

(1"1 10.000 DSI (690 ba;)

. f1',< c 1 '% 6

2%6

42 9 46.0 524

(in) 5%. 5%6%

[mm]

(in.) [mm]

(tn.) [mm]

lvx 1v3* I'%4

42 1 42 1 44 1

3%6 84 1 3'/2 88.9 3'Yje 1000

2'Y32 29/~6 2'7,6

12x2 47 129/,1 48 2%2 52

51 2 58.3 70 2

4% 120 7 5f=/32142 1 73/,6 182.6

35/e 92.1 4"/s2 110 3 5% 1461

(in)

[mm]

I % ?/8

9 5 95 9 5

57 64 73

3/s =/a 318

95 9 5 9 5

9% 232 lO~/n 270 12%6 316

2'/64 2's& PS&

1302 1794 2286

14%6 357 18v.. 479 21% 552

31% 794 4'/16 1032 47/s 1238

6"/,vj2236 11R 301.6 14% 374.7

7x6 1826 10 254.0 127/n 327.0

3Y,e 81 3% 95 3('/(6 94

3h 5/a 78

9.5 159 159

2794 346 1 425 5

25% 30'14 34%,

654 768 872

5Y6 141 3 65/s 1683 65/s 1683

17% 4509 21% 5525 2513/,56556

15% 19'h 23'%6

4'& 4'h 3

108 114 76

s/s s/a %

159 159 19.1

42 9 46 0 524 651 778 103 2 1794

75/e 8%..” 6% IO ll%e 143/,, 19vn

194 208 222 254 287 360 505

1% 12%.2 2% 2'/;, 33/32 4"&

3"/18 32'/w 4%51/15 6%, 7"/js 12'3h6

48 48 54 57 64 73 92

?/s 3/a k % Vs Ye VI3

9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 95 95 159

44 5 45 2 50 8 57 2 64.3 786 119 1

937 97.6 111.1 128.6 1540 195.3 3254

400.1 495.3 601 7

21Y,6 68 3 2'3h. ,” 71 4 3'/4 82 6 31%6 100 0 4'3/16 122 2 6'/4 158 8 10% 2762 Facmg

Dlametet of Bolt Holes

8 a

61.1 65 1 74.6

651 778 1032

Diameter Number of Bolts (1") [mm] of Bolts (1"1

141 8 146 1 1588

(m ) [mm]

Imml

183 187 200

7%6 7% 7%

% % %

068 088 088

23 23 23

Length of Stud Bolts (in) [mm] 5

Ralsed Face Dwneter (in.) [mm]

2'14 2'/2 2'ls

178 1% 2Vs 2'14 2'12 27/e 35/s

and Groove Dlmenslons

G"JOVt? 00

Width of Groove

(in.)

[mm]

73.48 0.450 77.77 0.466 8623 0498

(1”)

127 127 133

4 101 6 4?e 104.8 43/a 111 1

2.893 3.062 3395

5%~ 6 7%,

4.046 102.77 0554 4685 11900 0606 5.930 150.62 0.698

131 8 1524 184 9

Depth of GVXNe

[mm]

(tn.) [mm]

mng Number

11 43 11 84 1265

'/w 556 :i; 5 56 's/h4 5 95

BX-151 BX-152

1407 1539 1773

‘%4

'!/64 6 75 754 2'ka 8 33

BX-153 BX-154 BX-155

291,s 65 1 3'& 778 4'& 1032

7'/s 184 2 a','* 215 9 lOz& 2588

8 8 8

7/s 1 1'/s

100 112 125

26 29 32

152 171 203

5'18 1302 7'h. .I 1794 9 2286

11'v,/,6 3000 15'/s 4032 18% 4763

12 12 16

1'ia 1'/2 1'h

125 1.62 162

32 42 42

222 286 330

8"h 220 7 6.955 176.66 0.666 16 92 IlVe 301 6 9.521 241.83 0.921 2339 14'/s 358 8 11.774 299.06 1.039 2639

3/s 9 53 '/,e 11 11 '/2 12 70

BX-169 BX-156 BX-157

221/n 5652 26% 6731 30%~ 7763

16 20 24

1% 1'/a 1 '/a

1.88 200 200

48 51 51

381 438 445

1678 428 6 14.064 357.23 1.149 29 18 203/s 517 5 17.033 432.64 1.279 32 49 22'%8 576.3 18.832 476.33 0.705 17.91

5/E =h4

14 29 15 66 8.33

8X-158 8X-159 6X-162

a 8 8 8 8

% % xl 1 1'18

0.88 100 1.00 1.12 125 1.50 1.62

23 26 26 29 32 39 42

133 140 152 171 191 235

3'3A, 96.8 43/,6 106.4' 4% 114.3 5'/4 133.4 6'/,, 154.0 7Vs 193.7 12 304.8

',& 5.56 "32 5.56 '%4 5 95 '%A 675 '?& 7.54 VM 8 33 '/I/(6 11 11

BX-150 BX-151 6X-152 BX-153 BX-154 BX-155

11 135/a 16% 15,000 PSI (1035 bar)

[mm]

R&us at Hub

On.) lmml (ln)

BoltingDlmensons Diameter of Bolt Circle

Nominal SIX and B0te

Length of Hub

2794 346 1 425 5

* *1 'j/,6 429 I?/,6 46 0 52 4 2%6 65 1 3% I 77 8

2%6

6 1524 65/16 1603 6% 174.6 7'/s 2000 9% 2302

324

2.893 3.062 3.395 4.046 4.685 5.930 9.521

73.48 77.77 66.23 102.77 119.00 150.62 241.83

0.450 11 43 0.466 11 84 0 498 12 65 0.554 14.07 0.606 15 39 0 698 1773 0.921 23.39

91.

BX-156

REQUlREMENTSFORTABLES3.22ANO3.24 1 Dueto thed~ff~cuity offteld weldingAPI Types 2 and 3 materialfrom which theseilangesaremade,atransjt~on p~ecemay beshopwelded tothebase flangeand theweld properlyheattreatedThisfrans~t~on pieceshallbe made from the same or smlar matenalas the pipetowhich IIISLobewelded by the cusfomer Trans~t~on prxe ID and OD al the heldweid~ngend. and 11smaternal. shallbe speclfled on the purchase order 2 The lengthof the lransit~on pwe shallbe greatenough thalthe near from fleid weldmg willnot affect the metallurgIcal properws of the shop weld 3 The API monogram shallbe apphed lo the weldmg-neck flange(solld outl~nej The API monogram does "at applyto the shop weld or the trans,tion p,ece 4 D~mensianh,,may be omlttedonstudded connections

3-24

PETROLEUM

TABLE 3.23-API

TYPE 68X INTEGRAL

FLANGES

FOR 15,000-AND

20,000-psi’

ENGINEERING

MAXIMUM

WORKING

HANDBOOK

PRESSURE

Basic Flange Dimensions” Nominal sze and Bore [mm]

(In ) 15,000 psi (1035 bar)

W'%s 1 '%s

429 460 524 2% 6 651 3%, 77.6 4'116 1032

7'116 1794 9 2266 11 2794 20,000 psf (1360 bar)

460 524 2% e 65 1 3x5 778 4x6 1032 7s/16 1794

136

2%6

Small Ofameter of Hub

Total Thtckness

(in)

[mm]

(In.) [mm]

(in.) [mm]

(In)

194 206 222 254 267 360

19s 505 25'/z 646 32 813

1% 44.5 12=& 45 2 2 50.6 2'14 57.2 2'%, 64.3 33h2 76.6 41& 119.1 5% 146.1 7% 167.3

3"/,6 93.7 3zYz2 97.6 4% 111.1 5'/,s 126.6 6%~ 154.0 7"/,6 195.3 12'%8 325.4 17 431.0 23 564.2

211/,,,66.3 1% 2'=A6 71.4 1% 3s 62.6 2'18 3'%6 100.0 2’14 4'%, 122.2 2'12 6'/4 156.6 2'/8 lo'/8 276.2 3Vx0 13% 349.3 47/8 161J/(64270 9%~

lo'/8 257 llYjs 267 12'3/,6325 14'/,, 357 17%~ 446 25'3& 656

2'12 63.5 5% 2'Y,6 71.4 6%~ 3'18 79.4 6'3& 3s 05.7 79h6 43/,s 106.4 9%~ 6'/2 165.1 153hb

7% 83/,6 8% 10 115/?6 143/,6

WI6

Large Diameter of Hub

OutsIde Dtameter

fin ) 15,000 PSI -42.96 t l"A6 (1035bar) 1s

(m.)

[mm]

46.0 52 4 65 1 77 8 103 2 1794 2266 2794

6%~ 67/a 7s 9x6 11x6 16% 21% 26

46 0 52 4 65 1 77 8 103.2 1794

8 203.2 9'/,6 230.2 10%~ 261.9 11%~ 267.3 14'/,6 3572 21'3/,,6 5540

152.4 -3148 160 3 8 1746 8 2000 a 230.2 8 290.5 6 426.6 16 552.5 16 711.2 20

Length of Stud Bolts

(fn) [mm]

(in.)[mm]

(lo.) [mm]

1 1l/a 1 3/s 1'12 1% 2

088 1 00 00 12 125 1 50 1 62 200 212

23 26 26 29 32 39 42 51 54

5'/4 5% 6 6% 7'/2 9% 12% 15% 19'/4

133 140 152 171 191 235 324 400 489

1 15% 1'/a 1% 1% 2

ll2 125 136 150 1 66 212

29 32 35 39 46 54

7% a'/4 9% 10 12% 17%

191 210 235 254 311 445

78 '/s

8 8 6 6 6 16

(in.) [mm]

(In.)[mm]

46 46 54 57 64 73 92 124 236 49 52 59 64 73 97

Ys 9.5 318 95 318 9 5 % 9 5 l/s 9 5 =/P. 95 i/s 159 V8 159 5% 159 % "h 318 Ye % %

9 5 9 5 9 5 9 5 95 159

Facing and Groove Drmensrons” Diameter of Bolt IdOleS

Diameter Number of Bolts of Bolts on I

[mm]

Radius at Hub

133.4 4%~ 109.5 l'%s 154.0 5 127.0 2'/,6 173 0 5"/,6 144.5 2%~ 192.1 65/,, 1603 2% 242.9 Et'/8206.4 2'/s 365.6 13%6 338.1 3'%6

Bolting Drmensrons” Dtameter of Bolt Circle

Nommal Stze and Bore

[mm]

Length of Hub

Ratsed Face Drameter

Wldlh of Groove

Groove OD

Depth of GVXXe

(in)

[mm]

(In)

[mm]

(In.) [mm]

Rfng Number

3'%r 96.8 43/16-106.4 1143 133.4 154.0 193.7 304.8 361.0 454.0

2.893 3.062 3 395 4.046 4.665 5 930 9.521 11 774 14064

73.46 77.77 66 23 102 77 119 00 150 62 241.63 299.06 35723

0.450 0.466 0 496 0 554 0.606 0.696 0921 1039 1149

11.43 11.64 12.65 14.07 15.39 17.73 23.39 26.39 29.16

%, 5 56 %z 5 56 's/s4 5 95 '%a 6 75 'g& 7 54 2’/k4 a 33 ‘/,6 11 11 Vz 12 70 q/~6 1429

6X-150 BX-151 BX-152 6X-153 6X-154 BX-155 BX-156 BX-157 BX-156

117.5 131.6 150.8 171.5 219.1 3524

3.062 3395 4.046 4665 5.930 9 521

77 77 86 23 102 77 11900 150 62 24163

0 466 11.84 'h2 5 0 496 12.65 '%a 5 0 554 14.07 '7/6. 6 0606 15.39 '%a 7 0 698 17.73 "kn 0 0921 2339 '/,6 11

__

56 95 75 54 33 11

BX-151 6X-152 BX-153 0x-154 BX-155 BX-156

'1035and 1380 bar .'See Table321 sketch +Th,sIlangeIS,nact,ve. available 0" spew1 orderonly

TABLE 3.24-API

TYPE 6BX WELDING-NECK

FLANGES

Basic Flange

FOR 20,000-psi’

Large

Small

Size and

Outside

Total

Diameter

Diameter

Length

Bore

Diameter

Thtckness

of Hub

of Hub

of Hub

(in.)

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

(In.)

[mm]

(in.) __~

(in.) ~1’s

WI6 wl6

[mm]

at Hub

(in.) --

]mm]

(In.) [mm]

(In.) ]mm]

l’%

46.0

lo'/8

257

2'12

63.5

5'/4

133.4

4%5

109.5

l’s/,6

49

3/a

9.5

2%6

52.4

lls/,,j

287

2’3/,6

71.4

6’/,,

154.0

5

127.0

2’/,6

52

%

9.5

2% 6 3x6

65.1 77.6

12’3/la 14’/le

325 357

3’/n 3 V8

79.4 65.7

6’3/la 7%5

173.0 192.1

5”/,, 6%~

144.5 160.3

2s/,, 2’/2

59 64

Ya 3%

9.5 9 5

4%~ 7%6

103.2 179.4

179/,6 446 25'3/16 656

43/,6 6’12

106.4 165.1

9%s 153/1k

242.9 385.8

8’18 13%6

206.4 338.1

27/a 3’3/,,6

73 97

3/s %

9.5 15.9

Diameter of Bolt Circle

Diameter Number of Bolts

of Bolts (in.)

Facina Diameter

Length

of Bolt Holes

(m)

[mm]

46.0 52.4

8 9’/,,

203.2 230.2

El El

1 1 ‘/a

1.12 1.25

29 32

and Groove

of Stud

Raised Face

Groove

Bolts

Diameter

OD

(in.) --(In.) [mm1

PRESSURE

Radius

(mm]

Bolttng Dimensions”

Size and Bore

WORKING

Dimensions”

Nominal

Nominal

MAXIMUM

lmm]

7’/2 w/4

191 210

9%

(in.) --~ 45/s 5a/18

[mm]

(in.)

117.5 131.6

Dimensions”

Width

of

Groove

3 062 3.395

[mm] -~ 77.77 66.23

(in.) 0.466 0.498

[mm] ~-11.84 12.65

Depth

of

Groove _________ (In.) [mm]

Ring Number

r/s2 ‘5/64

5.56 5.95

BX-151 BX-152

65.1

lO%s

261.9

6

1 ‘I4

1.36

35

235

5’%6

150.6

4.046

102.77

0.554

14.07

‘764

6.75

8X-153

3x6

77.0

lls/,a

2873

8

1 a/a

1.50

39

10

254

6%

171.5

4 685

119.00

0.606

15.39

‘a/&

7.54

BX-154

4’/,a

103.2

14%~

357.2

8

1%

311

8%

219.1

5 930

150.62

0.698

17.73

*‘/64

6.33

BX-155

179.4

21’+‘,6

554.0

16

46 54

12’/4

7lyta

1.88 2.12

17’/2

445

1376

352.4

9 521

241.83

0.921

23.39

‘/,e

11.11

BX-156

'1360 bar. '*See Table 322 sketch

2

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

TABLE 3.25-API

AND FLOW CONTROL

3-25

DEVICES

TYPE 6BX BLIND AND TEST FLANGES

FOR lO,OOO- AND 15,000-psi’

MAXIMUM

WORKING

PRESSURE

Basic Flange Dimensions Nommal Size and Bore

10,000 psi (690 bar)

Large Diameter” of Hub

Small Dlameler” of Hub

Outside Diameter

Total Thickness

(I”.) [mm]

(I”.) [mm]

11% 11%,+

7%$ 7% 7Vs

183 187 200

(1”) [mm] -1”/3? 42.1 1% 42.1 14’/64 44.1

3sj& 84.1 3% 68.9 3’%, 100.0

2’3/32 2%. 2’S/,,

9’18 232 270 10% 12%~ 316

21,&a 51.2 219h, 58.3 Z-164 70.2

4% 5’& 7%5

120.7 142.1 182.6

3% 4,‘&, 5%

1% I=,&

44.5 45.2

3J& 32%2

93.7 97.6

2 2% 2”/32 33/52

50.8 57.2 64.3 78.6

4% 5’/,6 6%~ 71%~

wl, 2%

42.9 46.0 52.4

65.1 3x6 77.8 4’/,5 103.2

194 7% 8y16 208 222 52.4 6% 254 651 10 3%6 77.8 11%~ 287 4’116 103.2 14%~ 360

15,000 psi f1Y16 (1035 bar) I’%s

42.9 46 0

wl6 2%

(in.) [mm]

(in.) [mm] -61.1 65.1 74.6

1*%2 1%. 21/,

92.1 110.3 146.1

2% 2% 27/s

60.3 71.4

.-

2”/la 213/,,

111.1 128.6 154.0 195.3

82.6 3% 3’7,s 100.0 4’3/,e 120.7 6’/4 158.8

(I”.) 10,000 DSI (690 b;r)

1’%6 VW;

WI6 2% 31x6 41x6

15,000 psi 1VW (1035 bar) l’s/,6

WI6 29h 3x6 41x15

Dwneter of Bolt Orcle

Diameter Number of Bolts of Bolts (in)

Radus al Hub

(in.) [mm] --47 48 52

(m ) [mm] % % M

9.5 9.5 9.5

57 64 73

3/s % 3/s

9.5 9.5 9.5

17/ 17/s

48 48

% %

9.5 9.5

2% 2% 2% 2%

54 57 64 73

3/s % H %

9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5

Facing and Groove Dimensions

BoltingDimensions Nominal Size and Bore

Length” of Hub

Diameter of Bolt Holes

Length of Stud Bolts

Raised Face Diameter

(in) [mm]

(in.)[mm]

(tn.) [mm]

Groove OD

141 3 146 1 158.6

8 8 8

% % %

0.88 0.88 0 88

23 23 23

5 127 5 127 5’/1 133

4 4’/8 4%

101.6 2.893 104.6 3.062 111 .I 3.395

[mm] (in.) [mm] -~ --~ 73.48 0.450 11 43 77.77 0.466 11 84 86.23 0.498 1265

,65.1 71/n 184.2 77.8 5% 215.9 103.2 lOY,e 258.6

6 8 8

78 1 1‘/a

1 00 1.12 1.25

26 29 32

6 6% 8

152 171 203

5% 6 79/z

131.8 4.046 152.4 4.685 184.9 5.930

102.77 0.554 1407 119.00 0.606 1539 150.62 0.698 1773

6 8

% T/e

0.88 100

23 26

5% 5%

133 140

3’%6 96.8 2.893 4%/16 106.4 3.062 4% 114.3 3.395 5’/4 133.4 4.046 6x6 154.0 4.685 7% 193.7 5.930

[mm] 42.9 46.0 52.4

42.9 4.6.0 52.4 65.1 77.8 103.2

(in.) [mm] 5%. 5%. 6V4

6 6%~ 67/e 7’/0 9% 11%~

152.4 160.3 174.6 200.0 230.2 290.5

8 8 8 8

78 1 1l/s 1%

1.00 1.12 1.25 1.50

26 29 32 39

6 6% 7% 9’h

152 171 191 235

(in.)

Width of Groove

Depth of GK?OW (in) [mm]

Ring Number

%, -_ 5.56 ‘h> 5.56 ‘5/s4 5 95

BX-150 BX-151 8X-152

I’/& 6.75 ‘?/~a 7.54 2’& 8.33

BX-153 BX-154 BX-155

‘/32 5.56 x2 5.56

BX.150 BX-151 BX-152 BX-153 BX-154 6X-155

73.48 0.450 11 43 77.77 0.466 11.84 86.23 102.77 119.00 150.62

0.498 0.554 0.606 0.698

12.65 14 07 15 39 17.73

1% 5 95 ‘1/., 6.75 ‘?& 7.54 z’/s4 8.33

‘690and 1035 bar. “Type BX blindflanges mus1 be provided witha prolongon therearface,described by thelargeand smalldwwters and lengthofthehub.

I-----dol

B TO RlNG GROOYE ,YUST GE CONCENTR,C WmflN O.Q10TOTAL lNOfCATOR R”NO”T

I

FdbCl

I

LOCATED WITHIN 0.03 OF THEOffETICAL E.C AND EOUAL SPACING TOP VfEW

h” ‘,NE PlPE THffEADS

L

all2

1

;::,I; h,

FLANGE

SECTION

;y=b’e may be omlted

on studded flanges

3.29)

PETROLEUM

3-26

Pressure

Difference

Sensing

Types

Ambient

Pressure

Balanced

Sensing

Type

Two Control

ENGINEERING

Piston, Lines

HANDBOOK

Single

Control

(Flapper

Line

Valve)

(Ball Valve)

H

c

LOW-Pressure ControlLlrE

1 3-way Block and Bleed Valve

K Low-Pressure A,,or Gas Source

A

C

M W,reluwRelrlevable Tubmg SaletyValve

Emergency Shul-Down Valve

Hydraulic ControlMamlold

N

Cas,nglTublng A”““llJSiclr ConlrolFlwd

0

Tub,ng Retrievable Tubng SafetyVatve

D-

E

Surface-ConiroUed SaletyValve

P

Ram Latch Hanger System

F

Hydrauhc Surface SaletyValve

a

scoop Head

G

Pneumal~c Surface SafetyValve

General

R

LocatorHead

S

Hydraulk Set Hangar

Schematic

Fig. 3.10-Types

Dual Installation

Annular

To Tubing Hangar and Retrievable Valves

Control

of subsurface safety valves and completions

Single Line

Line,

Control Small

Parallel

Line

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

TABLE 3.26-API

DEVICES

3-27

TYPE 6BX BLIND AND TEST FLANGES Basic Flanae

Size and

Outside

Total

BOW

Diameter

Thickness

(In.) ~1?/16

[mm]

(in.)

79.4

3%

85.7 1064

65.1

12’3/6

Bolting

Circle

3%

52.4

103.2

of Bolt

325

257

4%s

Bore

635 71.4

lO’/e 115/,6

77.8

Size and

287

2% Z’S6

46.0

3%,

Diameter

[mm]

On 1

WI6 PA6

Nominal

lmml (in.)

lmml

43/lF,

[mm]

of Bolts

Diameter of Bolts (in.)

Lengtht

Radius

of Hub

of Hub

of Hub

at Hub

@ml

W

[mm1 W

5%

1334

6%~

154.0

45/,6 5

109.5 127.0

6’3/,6

1730

5”/,6

144.5

7%5

192.1

WI,

VI6 2%

160.3

9%6

242.9

8%

206.4

On.) -__

8

~

1’5/rs

Imml (IN l/s 49 52 V8

9.5

2%

318

9.5

2%

73

3/a

9.5

of Bolt

Groove

Holes

Bolts

Diameter

OD

(in)

[mm]

9.5

3/a

Raised Face

[mm]

Imml 9 5

59 64

Length of Stud

(in.)

PRESSURE

Small Dlametert

Basic Flange Diameter

WORKING

Diametert

Dimensions”

Number

MAXIMUM

Dimensions” Large

Nommal

-~(in ) 11%

FOR 20,000-psi’

Dimensmns*

Width



of

Depth

Groove

of

Groove

(m)

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

(1~)

[mm]

Ring Number

46.0

8

203.2

1

1.12

29

7%

191

4%

117.5

3.062

77.77

0.466

11.84

‘/zz

2’/16

52.4

9’/,6

230.2

8

1 ve

1.25

32

8%

210

53/16

131.8

3.395

86.23

0.498

12.85

‘s/s4

5.95

6X-152

2%6

65.1

105-G

261 9

8

1 ‘/4

1.38

35

9%

235

5’5%

150.6

4.046

102.77

0.554

14.07

“/~a

6.75

6X-153

31x6

77.8

115h6

2873

8

1%

1.50

39

10

254

6%

171.5

4.685

119.00

0.606

15.39

‘?&

7.54

5X-154

14%~

357.2

8

1 314

1.88

48

12’/4

311

8%

219.1

5.930

150.62

0.698

17.73

2’/64

8.33

BX-155

4x5

103.2

5.56

Bx-151

‘1380 bar “See Table 325sketch +Type 68X blind flanges must be provided wth a prolong on the rear lace, described by Ihe large and small diameters and length of the hub

SSV’s usually have a stem protruding from a threaded boss on the actuator cylinder head for several reasons. 1, Stem position gives a visual position indication. 2. A position-indicator switch can be attached to provide telemetry feedback information. 3. A manually operated mechanical or hydraulic jack can be attached to open a closed safety valve where the control pressure source is downstream of the safety valve or where system failure makes control pressure unavailable. 4. A lockout cap, or heat-sensitive lockout cap, can be attached to hold the valve open while wireline work is being done through the valve or when the control system is out of service for maintenance. ’ Special Designs. Special designs of SSV’s may have various modifications. 1. Extra-strong springs for cutting wireline, should an emergency occur while wireline work is in progress. Special hardened gates are used for these valves. 2. Extra extension of the cylinder from the valve for nesting of two pneumatic actuators on a dual valve or tree where there is not enough space for the large cylinders to be mounted side-by-side. 3. Cover sleeve or cylinder over the bonnet bolting to protect the bolts from tire. 4. Integral pressure sensors to monitor flowline pressure and control the safety valve. Selection. When ordering an SSV the entire system should be considered. The size of the valve is determined by the flowstream in which it is installed. If it is to be in the vertical run of the tree, it should be the same size as the lower master valve. Pressure, temperature, and service ratings should be the same as for the lower master valve. Actuator specifications should consider control system pressure that is available. Valve body pressure. ratio, and control pressure are related by 2(Pvh) Pcl

=

F,,,

, ..

. ..

.

(3)

where pcl = control pressure, p,+, = valve body pressure, and F,,,. = actuator ratio. Materials for the actuator parts that contact flowline fluids should be consistent with the service and valve body. Subsurface Safety Valves (SSSV’s) SSSV’s are used because they are located in the wellbore and isolated from possible damage by fire, collision, or sabotage. They are designed to be operational when needed most-in catastrophies. but they are more difficult to maintain. SSSV’s are recommended for use with an SSV. Control circuit logic should be designed to close the SSV for routine alarm conditions. Under catastrophic conditions both valves close. SSSV’s are either subsurface- or surface-controlled (Fig, 3.10). Selection. Various features should be considered selecting an SSSV (Fig. 3.11). Tubing-Retrievable

vs.

in

Wireline-Retrievable.

Tubing-retrievable valves have larger bores through the valve for less flowing pressure drop and allow wireline work through the valve without having to retrieve the valve. Since the tubing-retrievable valve is a part of the tubing string and requires a workover rig for retrieval. maintenance is more expensive. Wireline-retrievable valves are located in special landing nipples that are part of the tubing string, and they can be retrieved for maintenance with lower cost wireline methods (Fig. 3.12). Valve Type. The most common type of valves are rotating ball and flapper. Single-Control Line vs. Balance Line. Permafrost, paraffin problems or other equipment such as centrifugal or hydraulic pumps may require setting the safety valve deep, and thus require a balance line (two-control-line system).

3-28

PETROLEUM

TABLE X27-API

Ring Number R20 R23 R24 R26 R27 R31 R35 R37 R39 R41 R44 R45 R46 R47 R49 R50 R53 R.54 R57 R63 R65 R66 R69 R70 R73 R74 R82 R84 R85 Ra6 R87 Raa R89 R90 R91 R99

Pitch Diameter of Ring andGroove

--

(in.)

2’%s 3% 3% 4 4% 4% 5% 5% 6% 7% 7% as6 8%6 9 10%

10% 12% 12% 15 16% 18% i 8% 21 21 23 23 2% 2% 3% 3% 3’5h6

4% 4% 6% 10% 9%

Mm1 68.26 82.55 95.25 101.60 107.95 123.83 136.53 149.23 161.93

180.98 I 93.68 211.14 211.14 228.60

269.88 269.88 323.85 323.85 381.00 419.10 469.90 469.90 533.40 533.40 584.20 584.20 57.15 63.50 79.38 90.49 100.01 123.83 114.30 155.58 260.35 234.95

TYPE R RING-JOINT

(in.)

[mm]

%6 7.94 7/16 11.11 'hs 'A6 7,6

11.11 11.11 11.11 7h6 11.11 y,e 11.11 T/j6 11.11 '/js 11.11 %6 11.11 '/js 11.11 '/j6 11.11 % 12.70 54 19.05 T/,6 11.11 5/e 15.88 T/j6 11.11 % is.88 7,s 11.11 1 25.40 y,s 11.11 =/s 15.88 'he 11.11 v4 19.05 '/z 12.70 % 19.05 56 11.11 5s 11.11 'h 12.70 v8 15.88 5/8 15.88 vi 19.05 3/4 19.05 7/a 22.23 1% 31.75 y,s 11.11

Oval (in.) -9/,6 "/,8 "A6 "A6 "A6 "/,5 '& "A6 "A6 "A5 "/16 "A6 3/i 1 "As 7/s "As 7% "/,6 15/ls 1%~ % 'l/16 1 3/4

1 -

Octagonal

[mm] 14.29 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 17.46 19.05 25.40 17.46 22.23 17.46 22.23 17.46 33.34 17.46 22.23 17.46 25.40 19.05 25.40 -

HANDBOOK

GASKET

Height of Ring

Width of Ring

ENGINEERING

(in.) ‘12

[mm]

12.70 =/s 15.88 % 15.88 =/0 15.88 % 15.88 5/s 15.88 % 15.88 51% 15.88 xl 15.88 v8 15.88 S/8 15.88 s/s 15.88 "h,j 17.46 'S/16 23.81 73 15.88 '3h6 20.64 5% 15.88 'se 20.64 va 15.88 1% 31.75 %I 15.88 's6 20.64 =/a 15.88 's6 23.81 1%~ 17.46 '%s 23.81 5/a 15.88 =I8 15.88 "/,s 17.46 '3/ls 20.64 '3/ls 20.64 's6 23.81 '%6 23.81 1'/,6 26.99 1% 38.10 5/a 15.88

Width of Flal of Octagonal Ring (in.) ~0.206 0.305 o.xl5 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.305 0.341 0.485 0.305 0.413 0.305 0.413 0.305 0.681 0.305 0.413 0.305 0.485 0.341 0.485 0.305 0.305 0.341 0.413 0.413 0.485 0.485 0.583 0.879 0.305

[mm] 5.23 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 7.75 a.66 12.32 7.75 10.49 7.75 10.49 7.75 17.30 7.75 10.49 7.75 12.32 a.66 12.32 7.75 7.75 a.66 10.49 10.49 12.32 12.32 14.81 22.33 7.75

TOLERANCES (InI -.

“r

(wdth of ring,see Note 3)

g: b,D d,{ ,, ,O 23O

(widthof groove) (averagepitchdiameter01 rmg) (average pitchdiameterof groove) (radiusm rmgs) (radiusI” groove, (angle).

Cc--,--i OCTAGONAL

OVAL

GROOVE

1.The 23’ suriaceson both grooves and octagonalringsshallhave a surfacefinish no rougherthan 63 RMS 2.A smallbead on the centerof e,therova,or oclagonalrmgs. locatedso that,tw,llnot enterthe groove,IS permwible 3 A plustolerance of % in [l 19 mm] on rmg heightISpermitted, prowded the varlataon m heightofany given rmg does not exceed X4 I” 1039 mm] throughoutthe entireclrcumterence

+oooe + l/64 *0008 +1/64,-O ~0008 10007 *0.005 -fl/64 -

Imml + 0.20 to39 to20 +039.-O f 0.20 f0.17 *0.12 t 0.39 max + ‘ho

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

TABLE

Rwt Number -~~ R20 R23 R24 R26 R27 R31 R35 R37 R39 R41 R44 FM5 R46 R47 R49 R50 R53 R54 R57 R63 R65 R66 R69 R70 R73 R74 Ra2 R04 R85 R86 R87 R08 R89 R90 R91 R99

DEVICES

TYPER RING-JOINTGASKET(continued)

3.27-API

Radius in Octagonal Ring

3-29

Depth of Groove

Width of Groove

Approximate Distance Between Made Up Flanges

Radius in Groove

(in.)

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

‘/j6 '/I 6

1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59

‘14

6.35 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 9.53

' %2 'S/3* '5/s* '5/s* '5/s* '5/s* '5/s* 'S/3* 'S/32 '5/z* 'S/32 '5/z* "/a*

8.73 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 13.49

12.70 7.94 11.11 7.94 11.11 7.94 15.88 7.94 11.11 7.94 12.70 ‘12 9.53 "/s 12.70 '/2 7.94 %6 7.94 % 6 9.53 3/s % 6 11.11 '/I 6 11.11 12.70 % 12.70 '/2 Yi6 14.29 1x16 17.46 7.94 =i 6

25& 'S/s2 21/s* 'S/3* 2'/32 'S/32 l'hij '5/a* 2& 'S/3* 25/32 '%2

19.84 11.91 16.67 11.91 16.67 11.91 26.99 11.91 16.67 11.91 19.84 13.49

'A 6 7132 'i 6 l/32 'i 6 '/x2 3/32 '/a* 'A 6 '/& 'i 6 'As

1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 2.38 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 1.59

25& 'S/3* '5/a* "/S>

19.84 11.91 11.91 13.49

'A 6 '/a* '/32 '/16

1.59 0.79 0.79 1.59

3il6 Yl.9 %6 '/a

21/32 Q2 =/32 *5& =/x2 15/E

16.67 16.67 19.84 19.84 23.02 33.34 11.91

'A 6 'i 6 'A 6 ',I 6

1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 0.79

%2

% 6

%6 %6 '/l6 %6 %6 %6 'il6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 'A 6 y3p 'il6 '/I 6 'A6

%6 %6

'/I 6 'il6 %6 %6 '/l6

1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59

% 6

1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59

%6 3& 'i 6

1.59 2.38 1.59

% 6

'il6

%6 Y's Yl6 %6 %6 Y’s %6 %6 %6 %6 %6 w % s/l 6 y'6 %6 y'6 %6 =/a %6 y'6 %6

Equalizing Valves. For equalizing pressure differentials across the closed valve rather than equalizing from an external source. Soft Seat vs. Lapped-Metal Seat. Soft seats can have less minor leakage, but are more susceptible to damage, especially at higher pressure.

Subsurface-Controlled Subsurface Safety Valves (SSCSV’s). These valves sense flow conditions in the well at the valve and close when the flow exceeds a preset limit. They are usually located in a landing nipple in the tubing. There are two main types. Excess flow valves sense the pressure drop across an orifice in the valve and close the valve when the increased flow rate causes the pressure drop to increase past a preset limit. Low-pressure valves have a stored reference pressure in the valve. The valve closes when tubing pressure at the valve draws down below the reference pressure due to restriction of the formation. Both types of valves depend on a flow rate substantially in excess of normal maximum. The presumption is that essentially a complete structural failure (opening) of

‘732

(in.) ~J/32 '/& j/31

[mm]

0.79 0.79 0.79 ‘/32 0.79 0.79 '/a2 ‘/32 0.79 0.79 y& 0.79 '/32 0.79 '/aa 0.79 '/3* 1132 0.79 T/z2 0.79 1.59 'A 6

56 3/Z '/a2

-

(in.) 732 %6 3/16 3il 6 3h Yils 3/l 6 %6 3/16 %6 3/'5 %6 '/a 6i32

3/16 Y32 %6 %2 3/'6

'i2 Yl6 %2

3/16 3/6 '/a

%2 3/6

3/16 ‘/16

%6 3h6

[mm1 4.0 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 4.8 3.2 4.0 4.8 4.0 4.8 4.0 4.8 5.6 4.8 4.0 4.8 4.8 3.2 4.8 4.8 4.8 3.2 4.0 4.0 4.0 4.8 4.8 7.9 4.8

the Christmas tree exists ahead of the choke. Caution must be exercised that the well is capable of closing the valve at the setting used. Surface-Controlled Subsurface Safety Valves (SCSSV’s). These valves are normally controlled by pressure maintained by a unit at the surface in response to a pilot system. Pressure is transmitted to the safety valve through a small-diameter parallel-tube control line in the annulus or through the tubing/casing annulus in conjunction with a packer below the safety valve (Fig. 3.10). Volumetric compression and expansion of the control fluid usually makes the small tubing system preferable to the annulus conduit even though it is not as rugged. However, the small tubing will convey higher control pressures more economically. When the control pressure is released, a spring and well pressure on the control piston will close the valve. Since well pressure is not always assumed dependable, some valves have a second line, or balance line, to the surface, which is filled with control liquid. This provides a hydrostatic pressure to the back side of the piston for closure. Single control-line valves have depth failsafe

3-30

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERINGHANDBOOK

TABLE3.28-APITYPERXPRESSUREENERGlZEDRING-JOINTGASKETS

Ring Number RX20 RX23 RX24 RX25 RX26 RX27 RX31 RX35 RX37 RX39 RX41 RX44 RX45 RX46 RX47 RX49 RX50 RX53 RX54 RX57 RX63 RX65 RX66 RX69 RX70 RX73 RX74 RX82 RX84 RX85 RX86 RX87 RX08 RX89 RX90 RX91 RX99 RX201 RX205 RX210 RX215

Outside Diameter of Ring (In.)

[mm1

3 34%4 41x4 4% 4% 42%2 5% 55%

76.20 93.27 105.97 109.54 111.92 118.27 134.54 147.24 W& 159.94 ‘W& 172.64 7%4 191.69 V’s4 204.39 84%4 221.85 8% 222.25 w32 245.27 11%4 280.59 11% 283.37 13"/& 334.57 13% 337.34 152'/G4 391.72 1725h4 441.72 185%4 480.62 1Q%2 483.39 21%4 544.12 213?!32 550.07 231%~ 596.11 232x2 600.87 2?& 67.87 wm 74.22 3% 90.09 4% 103.58 w&4 113.11 5% 139.30 57/w 129.78 6% 174.63 11 'Ym 286.94 w64 245.67 2.026 51.46 2% 62.31 3=/x 97.63 53% 140.89

‘Tolerancean fhese dmens~ons is +0

Total Width of Ring (in.)

[mm]

-8.73 "A '5&

11.91 11.91 8.73 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 11.91 13.49 19.84 11.91 16.67 11.91 16.67 11.91 26.99 11.91 16.67 11.91 19.84 13.49 19.84 11.91 11.91 13.49 15.08 15.08 17.46 18.26 19.84 30.16 11.91 5.74 5.56 9.53 11.91

'% ' %2 '%2 '%2 '% '%2 '%2 '5/x* '% '%2 '% ' %2 %2 '%2 %2 ‘%2 vi2 '%2 1’h ‘%2 v32 ' x2 %2 '%2 %2 ‘%2

'%2 '%2 '%2 '%2 ’ ‘A 6 2%~ %2 1% '% 0.226 %2 3/e ' %2 -0 015 m

[co

Width of Flat (in.)

[mm]

Height of Outside Bevel (in.)

0.1824.620.1253.18 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.182 4.62 0.125 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.188 0.263 6.68 0.271 0.407 10.34 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.582 14.78 0.333 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.271 0.407 10.34 0.263 6.66 0.208 0.407 10.34 0.271 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.167 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.263 6.68 0.335 8.51 0.188 0.188 0.335 8.51 0.208 0.407 10.34 0.407 10.34 0.208 0.292 0.479 12.17 0.297 0.780 19.81 0.254 6.45 0.167 0.057 0.126 3.20 0.072 0.120 3.05 0.213 5.41 0.125 0.167 0.210 5.33

[mm] 4.24 4.24 3.18 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.78 6.88 4.24 5.28 4.24 5.28 4.24 8.46 4.24 5.28 4.24 6.88 5.28 6.88 4.24 4.24 4.24 4.78 4.70 5.28 5.28 7.42 7.54 4.24 1.45* 1.83' 3.18* 4.24'

Height of Ring (in.)

[mm]

3/h

19.05 25.40 25.40 19.05 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 25.40 28.58 41.28 25.40 31.75 25.40 31.75 25.40 50.80 25.40 31.75 25.40 41.28 31.75 41.28 25.40 25.40 25.40 28.58 28.58 31.75 31.75 44.45 45.24 25.40 11.30 11.10 19.05 25.40

1 1 Y4 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1% 1 =/s 1 1 ‘h 1 1 '/4 1 2 1 1 7/4 1 1% 1 'I4 1% 1 1 1 1% 1 '/a 1'/4 1 '/4 1% 12% 1 0.445 0.437 0.750 1.000

-0 38 mm]

TOLERANCES on I (wdlh of rmg) (wdth of flat) (helghlof chamfer) (depth of groove) lwldthof aroavel iheIghtoi ring) fOD of rlnal

+0008,-0000 +0006,-0000 +oooo,-003 +002.-o + 0 008

+0008.~0000

lmml +020.-000 i-0 15 -000 +ooo -079 +039.-o + 0 20

+0020.-0000 10005 * 0 02 max + “”

‘A plustolerance of0 006 I” iorb, and h, ISpermeted providedIhevanalioninwdfh or helghlof any rungdoes nofexceed 0 004 m throughout11sentire wcumference

NOTE 1 The pressurepassage hole ,llustrated ,nthe RX nng crosssecl,onISreqwed I”ringsRX-82 through RX-91 only Cenlerlmeofholeshallbe locateda!mldpolnlofdlmenslonb, Hole diametershallbe ‘;s I” [l6 mm] forringsRX-82through RX-65.?Izz I” [24 mm] forrmgs RX-86 and RXG37.and 1s in 13 2 mm] iorringsRX-68 lhrough RX-91 NOTE 2 The 23O surfaceson both rungsand grooves shallhave a surfacefimshno roughe:than 63 RMS

WELLHEADEQUIPMENTAND

FLOWCONTROL

TABLE 3.28-API

Ring Number

-z--.-u RX20

RX23 RX24 RX25 RX26 RX27 RX31 RX35 RX37 RX39 RX41 RX44 RX45 RX46 RX47 RX49 RX50 RX53 RX54 RX57 RX63 RX65 RX66 RX69 RX70 RX73 RX74 RX82 RX84 RX85 RX86 RX87 RX86 RX89 RX90 RX91 RX99 RX201 RX205 RX210 RX215

Radius in Ring (in.) 'A6 '/'6 'A6 '/16 '/'6 '/'lj '/'6 'h '/s '/16 '/Is '/16 'Alj 'As 3/32 '/'#j l/16 '/[email protected]? 1/,, '/'6 ?/a2 'A6 '/,6 %6 Z/32 '/16 ys2 '/'6 '/16 '/'6 '/16 '/'#j '/16 '/'+j s2 Ys2 '/'6 '/& '/& 'h2 '/,6

[mm) 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.30 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 1.59 2.38 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 2.38 1.59 0.40" 0.40" 0.79" 1.59"

DEVICES

TYPE RX PRESSURE

[mm]

'/4 %6 %6 l/4 7' 6 %6 %6 %6 7' 6 %6 %6 %6 %6 3/s

6.35 7.94 7.94 6.35 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 7.94 9.53 ‘12 12.70 %6 7.94 7,s 11.11 =/IR 7.94 7/1; 11.11 %6 7.94 %! 15.88 %6 7.94 56 11.11 =/I16 7.94 '/2 12.70 3/a 9.53 ‘/2 12.70 %6 7.94 %6 7.94 va 9.53 7/16 11.11 7/16 11.11 '/2 12.70 ‘/2 12.70 %6 14.29

732 732 ‘/4 %6

3.97 3.97 6.35 7.94

ENERGIZEDRING-JOINTGASKETS(continued)

Pitch Diameter of Groove

Width of Groove

Depth of Groove (in.)

3-31

(in.)

-u

’%2

(in.)

lmml

8.73 '5/a* 11.91 '5% 11.91 "h 8.73 'S/32 11.91 'S/a2 11.91 'S/32 11.91 'S/a2 11.91 '5/m 11.91 'S/32 11.91 'S/16 11.91 'y'6 11.91 'S/32 11.91 "/3* 13.49 25/x2 19.84 'S/a2 11.91 *'/22 16.67 '5/x2 11.91 2%~ 16.67 ‘5/32 11.91 l'/,E 26.99 ‘S/3211.91 Q2 16.67 'S/32 11.91 25& 19.84 "/a2 13.49 =/32 19.84 '5/32 11.91 'S/3* 11.91 "/32 13.49 2%~ 16 67 Q2 16.67 25& 19 84 2542 19.84 2& 23.02 15/ls 33.34 '$ 11 91 732 5.56 %2 5.56 3/s 9.53 '5/a* 11.91

limitations. The limit is determined by the ability of the spring to overcome friction and the force of the hydrostatic pressure against the piston without help from well pressure. A depth limitation of the two-control-line system may be the time for closure due to control liquid expansion and flow restriction in the small-diameter long control line. Control System The control system is the interface system between the power source, the sensors, and the safety valves. The design of the control system depends on several factors: (1) type of power source available-compressed air, produced gas, or electricity: (2) pressure and volume requirements of the safety valves; (3) number and types of sensors (pneumatic-twoor three-way valves-or electric); (4) power requirements and limitations of the pilots; (5) number and type of indicators (position status.

[mm]

211/1668.26 3% 82.55 3% 95.25 4

101.60 107.95 i; 123.83 5% 136.53 5% 149.23 6% 161.93 7% 180.98 7% 193.68 as/,, 211.14 85/16 211.14 9 228.60 105/ 269.88 10% 269.88 12% 323.85 123I4 323.85 381.00 :s,* 419.10 18% 469.90 18% 469.90 21 533.40 21 533.40 23 584.20 23 584.20 2% 57.15 2% 63.50 3% 79.38 90.49 3%6 3'5/,6 100.01 4% 123.83 4'/2 114.30 6% 155.58 lo'/4 260.35 9% 234.95 -

Radius in In Groove (in.) -%2 'h2 %2

‘h 'I.32 'Lx2 552

‘h 'Lx2 ‘Ii2 %2

'L32

752 ‘A6

%6 %2 '/I3

%2 %6 %2

%2 'h 'A 6

‘h ‘A3 ‘A6 'A6 'h x2 %6

‘/l6 %6

'A 6 'A 6 'A6 3,i2

'h2 %2

‘/64 %2

‘/32

[mm] 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 0.79 1.59 1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 0.79 2.38 0.79 1.59 0.79 1.59 1.59 1.59 0.79 0.79 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 1.59 2.38 0.79 0.79 0.40 0.79 0.79

Approximate Distance Between Made Up

(In.) Imml -9.5 3/s ‘%2 ‘732

15/32 ‘X2 ‘5/32 ‘732

'%2 ‘%2

' %2 ' %2 ' %2 ' %2 2g/32 ' %2 .-

’732 ' %2

’ %2 ' %2 2% ‘%2

1% ' Y32 2% ' %2 23/32 ' %2 ' 5/32 3% 3/s

V8 3/a

310 23/32

%I ' =I32 -

-

11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 18.3 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 11.9 21.4 11.9 11.9 11.9 18.3 15.1 18.3 11.9 11.9 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 9.5 18.3 19.1 11.9 -

-

pressure status, first-out sensor): (6) telemetry interface: and (7) logic required. (Will any pilot shut all the safety valves or should certain sensors close certain valves or combinations of valves?) We recommend a time delay after SSV’s close before the SSSV’s close, and that SSSV’s open first. Most systems are pneumatically powered because compressed air or gas is usually available. The power needed by most pilots and safety valves is pneumatic or hydraulic. Power is consumed only when a valve is being opened; most of the time the system is static. Most electrically powered sensors continuously consume power and are sensitive to short-duration power transients. Electra-hydraulic systems arc well suited to cold environments. The air or gas supply should be kept clean and dry. Electrical power should be protected from transient disruptions, especially in the sensor circuitry. Such precautions greatly enhance reliability.

PETROLEUM

3-32

TABLE

Ring Number BX-150 BX-151

8X-152 BX-153 BX-154 BX-I 55 BX-156 8X-157 BX-158

3.29-API

(in.)

wl6 2%6 3% 4’/,6 71/16 9 11

ENERGIZED

Outside Diameter of Ring

Nominal Size

-42.9 1’%6 I’%6

TYPE BX PRESSURE

[mm]

(in.)

RING-JOINT Total Width of Ring

Height of Ring

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

ENGINEERING

GASKETS

Diameter of Flat (in,)

[mm]

2.84272.190.3669.300.3669.30 3.008 76.40 0.379 9.63 3.334 84.68 0.403 10.24

0.379 0.403

9.63 10.24

2.79070.87 2.954 75.03 3.277 83.24

65.1 77.8 103.2 179.4 228.6 279.4

3.974 4.600 5.825 9.367 11.593 13.860

100.94 116.84 147.96 237.92 294.46 352.04

0.448 0.488 0.560 0.733 0.826 0.911

11.38 12.40 14.22 18.62 20.98 23.14

0.448 0.488 0.580 0.733 0.826 0.911

11.38 12.40 14.22 18.62 20.98 23.14

3.910 4.531 5.746 9.263 11.476 13.731

99.31 115.09 145.95 235.28 291.49 348.77

16.800 15.850 19.347 18.720

426.72 402.59 491.41 475.49

1.012 0.938 1.105 0.560

25.70 23.83 28.07 14.22

1.012 0.541 0.638 0.560

25.70 13.74 16.21 14.22

16.657 15.717 19.191 18.641

423.09 399.21 487.45 473.48

46.0 52.4

BX-159 BX-160 BX-161 BX-162

13% 163/4 16%

346.1 346.1 425.5 425.5

BX-163 BX-164

18% 18%

476.3 476.3

21.896 22.463

556.16 570.56

1.185 1.185

30.10 30.10

0.684 0.968

17.37 24.59

21.728 22.295

551.89 566.29

BX-165 BX-166

21% 21%

539.8 539.8

24.595 25.198

624.71 640.03

1.261 1.261

32.03 32.03

0.728 1.029

18.49 26.14

24.417 25.020

620.19 635.51

BX-167 BX-168 BX-169 BX-170 BX-171 BX-172

26% 26% 5% 9 11 13%

679.5 679.5 130.2 228.6 279.4 346.1

29.896 30.128 6.831 8.584 10.529 13.113

759.36 765.25 173.52 218.03 267.44 333.07

1.412 1.412 0.624 0.560 0.560 0.560

35.86 35.86 15.84 14.22 14.22 14.22

0.516 0.632 0.509 0.560 0.560 0.560

13.11 16.05 12.93 14.22 14.22 14.22

29.696 29.928 6.743 8.505 10.450 13.034

754.28 760.17 171.27 216.03 265.43 331.06

13%

Hole Size

Width of Flat

Outside Diameter of Groove

Depth of Groove

Width of Groove

Ring Number

(in.)

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

(in.)

BX-150 BX-151 BX-152

-7.98 0.314 0.325 0.346

8.26 8.79

%6 %6 %6

1.6 1.6 1.6

-5.56 %2 %2 ’ %4

5.56 5.95

BX-153 BX-154 BX-155 BX-156 BX-I 57 BX-158

0.385 0.419 0.481 0.629 0.709 0 782

9.78 10.64 12.22 15.98 18.01 19.86

‘A 6 %6 %6 1 ‘/a ‘/a

1.6 1.6 1.6 3.2 3.2 3.2

’ ‘/A ’ gh4 v64 VI.5 ‘12 g/l 6

6.75 7.54 8.33 11.11 12.70 14.29

4.046 4.685 5.930 9.521 11.774 14.064

102.77 119.00 150.62 241.83 299.06 357.23

0.554 0.606 0.698 0.921 1.039 1.149

14.07 15.39 17.73 23.39 26.39 29.18

BX-159 BX-160 BX-161 BX-162

0 869 0.408 0.482 0.481

22.07 10.36 12.24 12.22

‘/a ‘/a ‘/a

=/s %6 43/&

%a

3.2 3.2 3.2 1.6

%4

15.88 14.29 17.07 8.33

17.033 16.063 19.604 18.832

432.64 408.00 497.94 478.33

1.279 0.786 0.930 0.705

32.49 19.96 23.62 17.91

BX-I 63 BX-164

0.516 0.800

13.11 20.32

‘/a ‘/a

3.2 3.2

*a/3* 23/22

18.26 18.26

22.185 22.752

563.50 577.90

1.006 1.290

25.55 32.77

0X-165 8X-166

0.550 0.851

13.97 21.62

‘/a ‘/a

3.2 3.2

vi vi

19.05 19.05

24.904 25.507

632.56 647.88

1.071 1.373

27.20 34.87

BX-167 BX-168 BX-169 BX-170 BX-171 BX-172

0.316 0.432 0.421 0.481 0.481 0.481

8.03 10.97 10.69 12.22 12.22 12.22

‘A 6 %6 X6 ‘A6 %s X6

1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6 1.6

2’/~ 2%~ V6

21.43 21.43 9.5 8.33 8.33 8.33

30.249 30.481 6.955 8.926 10.641 13.225

768.32 774.22 176.66 220.88 270.28 335.92

0.902 1 ,018 0.666 0.705 0.705 0.705

22.91 25.86 16.92 17.91 17.91 17.91

vi4 %4 v64

[mm]

(in.)

[mm]

2.89373.48 3.062 77.77 3.395 86.23

HANDBOOK

(in.)

[mm]

0.45011.43 0.466 11.84 0.498 12.65

TOLERANCES

(in1

b,’ b, 3 dg h;’

0,

(widthof ring) (widthof Ilat) (hole we) (depth 01 groove) (00 Of groove) !heigM PI ring) (wldt”

Of grOO”e,

d,

(00 of ring) (OD of flat) (rad,usI” ““9)

L=

mw

d,

+ 0 008,-0.000 +0006,-00w “One +o 02, -0 +0004.-0000

+ 0.008.-0 000 +0004.-0000 + 0 000.- 0.006 too02

Imml tom-000 to 15.-000 “DW +o 39.-o +o lO,-000 +o.zo.-000

‘A plusfoleranceof0 006 ,n fo,b, and h, ISpermlUed providedIhe “ariall~” I”widthDI heightof any r,ngdoes notexceed 0 004 I” throughout11s entire cw cumference

SHARP CORNER

NOTE

,, shallbe 6 10 12% of the gaskelh,

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

DEVICES

3-33

Tubing Retrievable

13 in. Wireline Retrievable h

I SingleContrDl

I Two Control

1

Fig. 3.1 l-Subsurface

safety valve design

options

Hydraulically powered safety valves require a pump/control unit in the system (Fig. 3.13). The preferred type of pump is the ratio-piston pneumatic-overhydraulic pump. These pumps have pneumatic pressure operating on a relatively large piston to push a relatively small pump plunger. Low pneumatic pressure can thus develop high hydraulic pressure. The output pressure is easily controlled by the pressure of the input power gas, which can be controlled by a simple demand-pressure regulator. Pressure maintenance is automatic and continuous. Care should be taken to select a pump that is free of continuous bleeding of gas and that will not stall in its reciprocating motion at the end of a stroke. Valve control and system logic is performed by pneumatic/hydraulic or pneumatic/pneumatic relays. These relays permit the use of either bleed (two-way) or block and bleed (three-way) sensors (Figs. 3.14 and 3.15). Relays are reset manually to put the system back in service after a closure. This safety feature ensures that a person is present to determine that the cause for closure has been corrected and that reopening would not be hazardous.

in.

Fig. 3.12-Tubing-retrievable and wireline-retrievable controlled subsurface safety valves.

surface-

Circuit design determines the hierarchy of closure. All surface and subsurface safety valves should close in case of fire, collision, and manual actuation of the emergency shutdown system (ESD). Many systems close only the SSV of a single well when sensors on a single well actuate because of high liquid level, high pressure resulting from freezing or valve malfunction downstream, or low pressure resulting from flowline rupture or backpressure

Filter

Regulators

Pneumatic

Relay

‘Ire

Supply Gas n

Tank

lsolatlon Valve Fig 3.13-Basic

Relief Valve

Strainer hydraulic

control

circuit

Hydraulic Relay

3-34

PETROLEUM

Fig. 3.14-Single branched system for two hierarchies trol (bleed-type sensors).

of con-

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

bleed (two-way) or block-and-bleed (three-way). Electric sensors interface with pneumatic systems with solenoid valves. Conditions that are usually monitored include (Fig. 3.16): (1) pressure-high or low because of flowline or pressure vessel blockage or rupture: (2) level-high or low in separator or storage tank resulting from control valve system malfunction; (3) fire-heat is sensed by fusible plugs or fusible control line, flames are sensed by ultraviolet detectors, and temperature is detected by infrared detectors; (4) toxic or flammable gas mixtures-detectors located at four or more locations around the perimeter or in enclosures; (5) manual control-ESD system valves at boat landings, living quarters, and other critical locations. Pressure sensors should be located at any point in the production system where sections of the system can be isolated by a check valve or block valve, or where there is a change in pressure due to a choke or pressure reducing valve. lo Pressure sensors may have a moving-seal sensing element or an elastic element such as a Bourdon tube. Moving-seal sensors have poorer repeatability but are considerably less susceptible to damage by abuse and overpressure.

valve failure. Sometimes several wells on a platform or lease will be closed as a group if they are high vs. low pressure, oil vs. gas wells, etc. Every system should be designed to suit the characteristics of the wells and the severity of consequences of malfunctions. Platforms and compact land leases may have all the control system in a cabinet or console. Communication between the cabinet and well should be with control system media. If well pressure is piped to sensors in the cabinet, the well fluids may freeze and prevent proper operation. There is also the danger of high-pressure, high-volume flow from a ruptured line and leakage of toxic or flammable fluids to an enclosed area. Electric devices and lines usually need to be explosion proof. Requirements for the designation “explosion proof” are explained in the Nat]. Electrical Code. s API RP14F9 defines which installation areas require explosion-proof equipment.

Regulations Governmental regulations control the design and operation of some safety shut-in systems. For example, the Minerals Management Service of the U.S. government controls installations in the outer continental shelf (OCS) waters of the U.S. The rules are published in the OCS Order No. 5. 6 The OCS orders require that safety valves installed in or on wells in the federally controlled waters be made according to the ANSIIASME SPPE-1 ” specification and API Specs. 14Ai2 and 14D.7 ANSIIASME SPPE-1 is an extensive quality-assurance specification. API Specs. 14A and 14D are performance and design specifications for SSSV’s and SSV’s.

Sensors Sensors monitor conditions that indicate production system hazards or malfunctions. The sensor then actuates an integral pilot valve or switch to activate a control valve. The pilot valve and/or control valve may

Most flow-control functions are described in this chapter in the sections on Wellheads and Safety Shut-In Systems, and in Chaps. 11 through 16. Some valves and controls are discussed in Chaps. 4 (Production Packers) and 5 (Gas Lift). Other flow-control devices are discussed in the following.

n

Other Flow-Control Devices

I

4Lir SUPPlY

Valve

Pressure Sensors

Level Sensors

Actuator

Valve

Relay Valve

Fire (Heat) Sensors

kManual (ESD) Electric Solenoid (Computer Control)

On Pilot Line Fig. 3.15-Single branched system trol (block-and-bleed-type

for two hierarchies sensors).

of con-

Fig. 3.16--Remote

controlled

SSV system

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW

CONTROL

DEVICES

Landing Nipple ProfIle Klckover TOOI

A

Nipple

__

Male Packing Adapter

c-

___

Spht Ring

1

0.Rng

Valve or Plug

R

Female Packing Adapter

Fig. 3.18-Side

l

L

V-Packing

1

0.Rng

L

Female Packing Adapter

pocket

mandrel.

they do not obstruct flow up through the tubing. Sidepocket-mandrel valves can be removed by wireline for redressing the seals, which are subject to damage when the circulation path is first opened. Sliding-sleeve valves can be provided with landing-nipple profiles for isolation with a wireline lock mandrel in case of sealing failure. Sliding-sleeve valves can be incorporated in safety-valve nipples to isolate the control line when the safety valve is removed. Tubing Plug

Fig. 3.17-Sliding

sleeve

valve

The tubing should be plugged to prevent flow or loss of control when the tree and/or master valve is to be removed. Plugs are available for landing nipples in the wellhead and for nipples in the tubing string. Tubing plugs are set and retrieved with wireline methods. Chemical Injection Valves

Input Safety Valves (ISV’s) Injection wells can be protected by the safety shut-in systems discussed earlier in this chapter. The ISV is a lower-cost safety valve that can be used for wells where there is only flow downward into the well. It is basically a check valve mounted on a wireline-retrievable mandrel located in a landing nipple. Upward flow closes the valve. Circulating Devices Circulating devices are wireline-operable valves or devices used to permit selective communication between the tubing and the tubing/casing annulus. Variations include (1) sliding-sleeve valve (Fig. 3.17), (2) sidepocket mandrel and inserted “dummy” valve (Fig. 3.18). and (3) potted nipple and lock mandrel. Sliding-sleeve valves and side-pocket mandrels permit wireline operations to be performed through them, and

Some wells require frequent or continuous injection of small quantities of chemicals, such as methanol, for protection from freezing or as inhibitors for corrosion control. The chemicals can be injected down through a small-diameter parallel tubing or through the tubing/casing annulus. Chemical injection valves can be installed in a circulating device to better control the injection rate and to provide backflow protection.

Corrosion Wellhead Corrosion Aspects Corrosion has often been defined as the destruction of a metal by reactions with its environment. The attack may be internal or external and may result from chemical or electrochemical action. Internal attack usually results from weight loss corrosion (“sweet corrosion”) caused by the presence of CO* and organic acids, or sulfide or chloride stress cracking

3-36

corrosion (“sour corrosion”) caused by the presence of HzS. chlorides, or a combination of these elements. External attack usually results from “oxygen corrosion” caused by exposure to atmospheric oxygen, “electrochemical corrosion” caused by the flow of electric currents, or a combination of the two. One or more methods may be employed to control corrosion in wellhead equipment, depending on the type of corrosion present and the economics involved: (1) use of special corrosion-resistant alloys, (2) injection of an effective inhibitor, (3) application of effective coatings, and/or (4) properly applied and maintained cathodic protection. Although a detailed discussion of corrosion is not the purpose of this section, it is necessary to describe briefly the various types of corrosion encountered in wellhead equipment to explain the various methods of control. Internal and external corrosion are controlled differently and are discussed separately. Internal Corrosion Weight Loss Corrosion. Weight loss corrosion is usually defined as corrosion occurring in oil or gas wells where no iron sulfide corrosion product or H 1 S odor exists. Corrosion of this type in gas-condensate wells is often attributed to CO2 and organic acids. Although noncorrosive in the absence of moisture, when moisture is present, CO? dissolves and forms carbonic acid. Carbonic acid with the organic acids contributes to corrosion. The quantity of CO2 dissolved in the corroding fluid determines the severity of corrosion. Generally, corrosion can be expected when the partial pressure of the CO?, at bottomhole conditions, exceeds 30 psi. The partial pressure of COZ can be easily determined: partial pressure equals (total pressure) times (percent CO*). Wellhead Protection Methods. Wellhead protection methods for weight loss corrosion may take two forms. 1. An effective inhibitor, protective coatings. or special-alloy equipment is generally required when the CO? partial pressure, at bottomhole conditions, exceeds 30 psi. 2. Special-alloy equipment is generally required when the CO1 partial pressure, at bottomhole conditions, exceeds 100 psi. Sulfide or Chloride Stress Cracking Corrosion. Sulfide or chloride stress cracking corrosion is defined as corrosion occurring in oil or gas wells when hydrogen sulfide or chlorides are present. Iron sulfide appears as a black powder or scale. Hydrogen sulfide, like COz, is not corrosive in the absence of moisture. If moisture is present. the gas becomes corrosive. If CO? is also present, the gas is more severely corrosive. Attack by H?S causes the formation of iron sulfide. and the adherence of the iron sulfide to steel surfaces creates an electrolytic cell. The iron sulfide is cathodic to the steel and accelerates local corrosion. Hydrogen sulfide also causes hydrogen embrittlement by releasing hydrogen into the steel grain structure to reduce ductility and cause extreme brittleness. Wellhead Protection Methods for Sulfide or Chloride Stress Cracking. These protection methods take three

forms

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

1. Special alloy equipment is generally required when pressures exceed 65 psia and the partial pressure of H 1S exceeds 0.05 psia. 2. Proper injection of an effective inhibitor. 3. Carbon and low alloy steels that should not exceed a hardness level of HRC 22. Extreme Sour Senfice. This is sometimes referred to as critical service. An extreme sour condition exists when both CO1 and HIS are present in the well fluids. In this case, protection is required for both sulfide stress cracking and metal loss. In general, stainless steel, Monel*, or other nonferrous materials are used for this service. API Spec. 6A refers to NACE Standard MR-01-75 as the governing standard for materials to resist sulfide stress cracking. I3 External Corrosion Oxygen Corrosion. Oxygen corrosion is caused by the oxidation or rusting of steel due to exposure to atmospheric oxygen or a corrosive atmosphere. The severity of corrosion depends on temperature, erosion of the metal surface, property of corrosion product, surface films, and the availability and type of electrolyte. Salt water causes a very rapid increase in corrosion rate. On offshore installations, wellhead equipment is often subjected to one or more of three zones of attack: (I) the underwater or submerged zone, (2) the splash zone (most severe), and (3) the spray zone. Wellhead Protection Methods for Oxygen Corrosion.

The protection methods for oxygen corrosion include (1) use of special-alloy equipment, (2) application of effective external protective coatings of metallic or nonmetallic materials, and (3) use of cathodic protection for the underwater zone. Electrochemical Corrosion. There are two major types of electrochemical corrosion. One type is somewhat of a reverse plating reaction caused by stray direct electric currents flowing from the steel anode to a cathode. Another type of electrochemical corrosion occurs when pipe or a wellhead is exposed to certain types of moist soil. Bimetallic corrosion, another form of electrochemical corrosion aggravated by use of dissimilar metals, is often called galvanic corrosion. Wellhead Protection Methods for Electrochemical Corrosion. There are four protection methods for elec-

trochemical corrosion: (1) use of properly applied and maintained cathodic protection, (2) application of effective external surface coatings, (3) avoiding use of dissimilar metals, and (4) use of electrical insulation of surface lines from wellhead assembly. Material Selection Table 3.30 shows the general accepted materials for various wellhead services.

Special Application High Pressure Seals Flange connections for pressures through 20,000 psi have been standardized by API and the specifications for these flanges are given in API Spec. 6A.’ However, other pressure-sealing elements in wellhead equipment

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW CONTROL

TABLE

DEVICES

3-37

3.30-ENVIRONMENTS

AND APPLICATIONS Gas/Gas-Condensate

Wells LOW-TemDerature

1. Casing 2. Casing

heads hangers

3. None 4. None 5. None 6. Intermediate casing heads 7. Casing hangers 8. Gaskets 9 Bolts 10. Nuts 11 Tubing heads 12. Tubing

hangers

Part

General Service

H,S

body housing slips pack-off gasket bolts’

Al A J K H M

nuts*

N,N2

see see see see see

body Item Item Item Item Item

housing top bottom pack-off

13. Tubing head adapters 14. Tees and crosses 15. Valves

body body body bonnet

16. Adjustable

17. Positive

A A, A2 A3 61 62 Cl C2 0 E F G H J K L M Ml M2 M3 N N, N2 N3 P R S T

chokes

chokes

bonnet gasket bonnet bolts gates seats stems body bonnet stem seat body bull plug

2 3 4 5 1

Al -

Al,61 Al Al K Al Al Al Al H M A,Bl A,Bl R Al Al R R Al Bl

H,S/

General Service

H,S

CO,

A3 A J K,L H M,Ml M2,M3 Nl,N2

Al,A2 A J K.L F,G M.M3

H,S/ CO,

A3 A J K H M,Ml ,M2

co2 A3 A J K F,G M

co2 A3 A J K F,G Ml,M2

N,Nl,NZ

N,N2

Nl,N2

N3

A3 -

A3 -

Al ,A2

A3

Al,A2

-

-

-

-

A1,Bl A3 A3 K,L

AI,Bl Al Al K,L

Al,Bl A3 A3 K,L

A3,P A3,P A3,P A3,P

P P P P

H.G M,Ml M2,M3 A3 A3 D A3 A3 S T A3 R

F.G M,MS

A3 -

Al ,A2 A J KL H M,M2.M3

-

Al ,Bl Al Al

Al ,B 1 Al Al K

Al,Bl A3 A3 K

A3 A3 A3 A3

Cl Cl Cl Cl

c2 c2 c2 c2

H,G Ml .M2

F,G M

F.G Ml,M2

H M3

A3,B2 A3,BZ D A3 A3 s T A3 82

Cl Cl

c2 c2 D c2 c2 S T c2 82

Al Al R Al Al R R Al R

A1,Bl A3 A3 K

c’, c2 S T c2 Bl

AlSl4130 or ASTM A487-9 (normalized) AISI4130 or ASTM A467-90 (quenched 8 tempered) AlSl4130 or ASTM A467-90 modriledby mckel AISI4130 or ASTM A407-90 or 90 modriiedcontrolled hardness HRC 22 Carbon sleelsuch as AISI 1020, 1030, 1040 Carbon steel. controlled hardness HRC 22 max AlSt410 S S or ASTM A217-CA15 AlSt410 S S or ASTM A217-CA15 controlled hardness HRC 22 r,,ax K-500 Monel, HRC 36 max 17.4PH. CondltrOnHi 150 (final heat-treating temperature) AISI316 S S annealed AISI304 S S annealed Softll0” AlSl8620 carbonrtrrded Elastomer,Hycar Elastomer,Hydrl” Bolts, ASTM A19387 Bolts. ASTM A193B7M GiRC 22 max) Bolts. ASTM A453grade 660 Bolts, A320.L7 Nuts,ASTM A194-2H Nuts,ASTM A194GHM (HRC 22 max) Nuts.ASTM A194-2 Nuts:AsTM A194, grade 4 or 7 ASTM A487-CA6NM S S AlSl 4140 low alloy K-500 Monel withcarbldetrrm AtSl4140 wth carbrdetrrm

‘Ballsand nuts must not be burredor covered I” accordance wllh NACE

MR

01-75

KL Al Al Al Al

,A2 ,A2 ,A2 ,A2

N3

Cl Cl E C2 C2 S T C2 R

A3 A J K,L F,G M,Ml M2.M3 Nl,N2

Waterflood

F,G M N,N2

A3 -

L P P F,G M,Ml M2,M3 C2 C2 D C2 C2 S T C2 R

Al Al G M F F E Al Al S T -

PETROLEUM

3-38

TABLE

3.31-CHARPY

Size of

NOTE

IMPACT

[mm]

(ft-lbm)

100 75 50 25

15.020 12.5 10.0 5.0

REQUIREMENTS

(ft-lbm)

[J]

lo.014 8.5 7.0 3.5

17 14 7

[J] 12 9 5

Purchasersare cautionedthatthe energy valuestabulatedabove have been selected10 cow a broad range 01 possiblephysicalproperues,and care should be exercwd ln energy value ~nterpretahons for the higherstrengthTypes 2 and 3 matemls where mlnlmum energy valueshave no, been clearly estabkhed

practice fire test for valves. I4 The fire test is conducted in a flame with a temperature of 1,400 to 1,600”F for a 30-minute test period.

such as valve seat, valve stem, fittings, hanger-packer, casing secondary seals, lockscrews, etc., have not been standardized and are subject to agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. Seals other than flange seals for 20,000 psi and higher working pressures require special consideration because of the difficulty in sealing these high pressures, which are usually encountered in combination with hostile fluids and are subject to agreement between purchaser and manufacturer. Low- and High-Temperature

Subsea Applications Although subsea wellhead and Christmas-tree equipment has been available for a number of years and a number of installations have been made, most of the installations have been made in relatively shallow water. Equipment is now being designed for use in water depths of several thousand feet. Various methods for installing. operating, repairing, or replacing subsea equipment are being utilized such as by remote operation, the use of divers. or the use of submarines or robots. At this time, subsea equipment is proprietary, with each manufacturer pmviding his own design. Subsea installations are designed for specific projects and are agreed on by the manufacturer and the customer. Offshore wells can be broadly classified as those drilled from a fixed or bottom-supported platform or from a floating platform. Floating platforms are either of the semisubmersible or floating-ship type.

Application

Unless otherwise specified, API Spec. 6A for wellhead equipment is designed to operate in temperatures from -20 to 250°F. Low Temperature. API Spec. 6A also provides specifications for materials to operate in temperatures below -20°F. Materials operating in extremely low temperatures become brittle and have low impact resistance. API Spec. 6A specifies minimum impact values at -25”F, -5O”F, and -75°F test temperatures. The specified impact values are shown in Table 3.31.

Fixed Platform Drilling. Offshore wells drilled from a fixed platform normally are drilled with the wellhead and the BOP’s on the platform. The well is completed with the Christmas tree attached to the wellhead on the platform. Wells drilled using a bottom-supported drilling rig (jackup rig) normally utilize mudline-suspension wellheads. The wellhead is installed on the ocean floor, with riser pipe extending from the wellhead to the rig floor. The well is drilled with BOP’s attached to the riser

High Temperature. As the temperature rises, the strength of steel decreases. Table 3.32 shows the working pressure-temperature relationship of wellhead steel pressure containing parts at temperatures from -20 to 650°F. There are some applications where valves with fireresistance capability are required, particularly on offshore platforms where a fire on one well endangers the other wells. API provides API RP 6F, a recommended

TABLE

HANDBOOK

Minimum impact Value Permitted for One Specimen Only Per Set

Minimum Impact Value Required for Average of Each Set of Three Specimens

Specimen (in.) -3.93 2.95 1.97 0.98

V NOTCH

ENGINEERING

3.32-PRESSURE/TEMPERATURE

Temperature

(OF) - 20 to 250 300 350 400 450 500 550 600 650

RATINGS Maximum

I”Cl - 29 to 121 149 177 204 232 260 228 316 343

(Psi) 2ooo1955 1905 1860 1810 1735 1635 1540 1430

(bar) 138 134.8 131.4 128.2 124.8 119.6 112.7 106.2 98.6

OF STEEL

Workinq

(Psi) 3ooo2930 2860 2785 2715 2605 2455 2310 2145

PARTS

Pressure

(bar) 207 202 197.2 192 187.2 179.5 169.3 159.3 147.9

(Psi) -iiGi---4880 4765 4645 4525 4340 4090 3850 3575

(bar) 345 336.5 328.5 320.3 312 299.2 282 265.5 246.5

WELLHEAD

EQUIPMENT

AND FLOW

CONTROL

DEVICES

pipe and the completion is made at the top of the riser pipe. above water, usually on a fixed platform that is installed for the completion. Floating Drilling Vessels. Wells drilled utilizing floating drilling vessels normally utilize remote subsea equipment. The wellhead equipment is installed on the ocean floor. The BOP’s are installed on the wellhead on the ocean floor. Riser pipes connect the equipment on the ocean floor with the vessel. Guidelines extending from the wellhead to the vessel are used for guiding equipment to the wellhead. For water depths too deep to utilize guidelines, guidelineless drilling systems are available. The guidelineless systems are normally used with dynamically positioned vessels. Guidance is accomplished by the use of acoustics, sonar, or TV. The completion (installation of the Christmas tree) on remote subsea equipment can be made either on the ocean floor or on a platform by utilizing tieback equipment. A variety of completion systems can be utilized for the production of oil and gas in various subsea environments. Some of these include single-well (diverassisted or diverless) satellite, platform, template, production riser, caisson or capsule (wet or dry), or combinations of the various basic systems. SPPElOCS Equipment. The U.S. Geological Survey (USGS), in cooperation with API and ASME. has established rules and regulations for safety and pollution prevention equi ment (SPPE) used in offshore oil and gas operations. 8 As described under Surface Safety Valve, the USGS rules and regulations require an SSV on each Christmas tree installed in federal offshore waters. The specification governing SSV’s is API Spec. 14D. ’ To qualify as a manufacturer and/or an assembler of SPPE equipment, a company must become an SPPE certificate holder. To become an SPPE certificate holder, a company must be qualified by ASME to certify compliance with ANSIlASME SPPE-1 standard on quality assurance and certification of safety and pollution prevention equipment used in offshore oil and gas operations. ’ ’ An SPPE certificate holder certifies his equipment by marking it with an authorized OCS symbol.

Independent Screwed Wellhead API Independently

Screwed Wellhead Equipment

This section covers casing and tubing heads having upper-body connections other than API flanges or clamps, in l,OOO- and 2,000-psi working pressures. A typical arrangement of this equipment is shown in Fig. 3.4. Lowermost Casing Heads. Lowermost casing heads are furnished with a lower thread, which is threaded onto the surface pipe. Usually the top of the casing head is equipped with an external thread to receive a threaded cap used to compress the packing to make a seal and hold the slips down. The top thread can also be used to support a companion flange with an API ring groove and bolt holes for attaching standard BOP’s.

3-39

Casing Hanger. The casing-hanger slip segments are wrap-around type with a lower capacity than API casing hangers. The slips can be dropped through the BOP’s to support the casing, but the seal must be placed around the suspended casing after the cutoff has been made. Intermediate Casing Heads. Intermediate casing heads in this class are identical in design to lowermost casing heads. If an intermediate-casing string is used, it is usually suspended in the lower-casing head with a thread positioned just above the lower-casing head to permit easy installation of the intermediate-casing head. If proper spacing is impractical, the intermediate casing may be cut off a few inches above the lower-casing head and a socket-type nipple with a top thread welded to the intermediate casing. Then the intermediate casing head can be attached to the thread. Tubing Heads. A tubing head threads onto the top thread of the production string to support and seal the tubing string. The tubing may be supported with a set of slips and sealed with a sealing element compressed with a cap screwed down on top of the tubing head. Maximum capacity of the slip-type tubing hanger is about 125,000 Ibm of tubing weight. A mandrel or doughnut tubing hanger may be used to support the tubing if desirable. Maximum weight-supporting capacity of this type of tubing hanger is limited only to the weightsupporting strength of the tubing head. A BOP can be attached to the tubing head with a companion flange for protection while running tubing. A stripper rubber may also be used to strip the tubing in or out of the hole under pressure, if needed. If a stripper rubber is used, it can be placed in the tubing-head bowl and a separate bowl can be attached to the tubing head to support the slip assembly or mandrel hanger. Casing heads arc available in all standard sizes with working pressures of 1,000 psi and lower. Tubmg heads are available in working pressures of 1,000 and 2,000 psi. Both units are usually furnished with two 2-in. linepipe outlets, although 3-in. outlets are available. Christmas-Tree Assembly. Christmas-tree assemblies for this type of equipment are usually very simple. If the well is expected to flow, a master valve is screwed onto the top tubing thread, a nipple and tee are screwed into the master valve, and a wing valve and choke are screwed into the tee. Selection. In selecting this class of equipment, the following factors should be considered. 1. Casinghead and tubing-head components should be constructed of cast steel or forged steel and should be full-opening. 2. Casing-hanger slips should be of drop-through type. 3. Caps used to hold down the suspension members and provide a seal should have hammer lugs for easy effective installation. 4. Both casing heads and tubing heads should be easily adaptable, with a full-opening adapter, to a standard BOP.

PETROLEUM

3-40

References 1. S/w;ficcrrion.s fi,r t+‘c//hetrd (r!rr/ C/trr.cirrrcr.cTree Eqrr;pwrrf. API Spec. 6A. 15th edition. API. Dallas (April I. 19861. 2. Reu~mmmdd Prucricr for Cart fmd lJsc of Cmrny cd Tuhui,q. API RP SCl, 12th editjon. APl. Dalla (March 19X1). 3. “Bulletin on Performance Propcntca of Casing. Tubing and Drill Ptpe.” 18th edition, API Bull. 5CZ. API, Dallas (March 1982). 4. Spr~~iJjmf~vr.~ fhr Cusiq Tuhip ad DrYi/ Pipc~ API Spec. 5A. 36th edition, API. Dallas (March 1982). 5. SpeciJkarions for Line Pipe. API Spec. 5L. 33rd e&ton. API. Dallas (March 1983). 6. Prdutrion Sa~?r~ Swrrrrts. OCS Order No. 5. U.S. Dept. of the lntenor (Jan. 197.5).

12. 13.

14. IS.

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

, , ~-- -r-.---. -. ANSliASME SPPE-I-82 and Addendum SPPE-lh-19X.3. ANSIIASME. New York City. Sprc~jfjuilim fiw Suhsur/ia P .Sojer~ Vo/w Equipmwl, API Spec. 14A. fifth edition, API. Dallas (March 1981). Muiericrl Reyuiwmrt~~\ , Sulfide S/r-c, t.5 Crtrdiu~ Rei.c rum M~~rnlli~~ Mtrlrricrl fiw Oi!fir/ci Eyrrii,nxvrr. N ACE Standard MR-01-75, NACE. Houston (1978). Rrc~ommcndcd Pwricc,for Fit-c, Tc\tj/r Vu/w.s. API RP 6F. third edition. API, Dallas (Jan. 1982). Fowler. E.D. and Rhodes. A.E.: “Checklist Can Help Specify Proper Wellhead Material.“ Oil and Gus J (Jan. 1977) 59-6 I,

Chapter 4

Production Packers L. Douglas Patton, L.D. Patton & ASSOCS.*

Production Packers Classification and Objectives Production packers generally are classified as either retrievable or permanent types. Packer innovations include the retrievable seal nipple packers or semipermanent type. The packer isolates and aids in the control of producing fluids and pressures to protect the casing and other formations above or below the producing zone. All packers will attain one or more of the following objectives when they are functioning properly. 1. Isolate well fluids and pressures. 2. Keep gas mixed with liquids, by using gas energy for natural flow. 3. Separate producing zones, preventing fluid and pressure contamination. 4. Aid in forming the annular volume (casing/tubing/packer) required for gas lift or subsurface hydraulic pumping systems. 5. Limit well control to the tubing at the surface, for safety purposes. 6. Hold well servicing fluids (kill fluids, packer fluids) in casing annulus. Once a tubing-packer system has been selected, designed, and installed in a well there are four modes of operation: shut-in, producing, injection, and treating. These operational modes with their respective temperature and pressure profiles have considerable impact on the length and force changes on the tubing-to-packer connections.

Tubing-To-Packer

Connections

There are three methods of connecting a packer and a tubing string, and the tubing can be set in tension, compression, or left in neutral (no load on the packer, tension nor compression). ‘Author

of the chapter

on lhis QC

in the 1962 edltm

was W.B.

Bleakley

1. Tubing is latched or fixed on the packer, allowing no movement (retrievable packers). Tubing can be set either in tension, compression, or neutral. 2. Tubing is landed with a seal assembly and locator sub that allows limited movement (permanent or semipermanent packers only). Tubing can be set only in compression or neutral. 3. Tubing is stung into the packer with a long seal assembly that allows essentially unlimited movement (permanent packers only). Tubing is left in neutral and it cannot be set in tension or compression. A retrievable packer is run and pulled on the tubing string on which it was installed. No special tubing trips are required. It has only one method of connection to the tubing - latched or fixed. The tubing can be set in tension, compression, or left in neutral. Tubing-length changes will result in force changes on the packer and tubing. In deep or high-temperature wells the rubber element may “vulcanize” and take on a permanent set, making release very difficult. Permanent and semipermanent packers can be run on wireline or tubing. They have three methods of tubing connection: latched (fixed), landed (limited movement), or stung in with a long seal assembly (free movement). Special tools plus milling are needed to recover it from the well. When left for long periods of time without movement, the seal assembly and polished bore (in the packer) may stick together.

Packer Utilization And Constraints Understanding uses and constraints of the different types of packers will clarify the factors to consider before selecting the best packer and will illustrate how they achieve their specific objectives.

4-2

PETROLEUM

-Seal

-

Element

-Seal

-Slips

E Fig. 4.1--Solid-head

ENGINEERING HANDBOOK

Slip8 Element

Perfs

retrievable compression packer

Retrievable Packers Solid-Head Compression Packer. Retrievable compression (weight-set solid-head) packers are applied when annulus pressure above the packer exceeds pressure below the packer, as in a producing well with a full annulus. This situation precludes gas lift. Fig. 4.1 shows this type of packer. ’ The constraints of a solid-head compression packer are: 1. Packer release can be hampered by high differential pressure across packer. 2. Packer may unseat if a change in the operational mode results in a tubing temperature decrease (tubing shortens). 3. Tubing may corkscrew permanently if a change in the operational mode results in a tubing temperature increase (tubing lengthens). Solid-Head Tension Packer. Retrievable tension packers generally are used when pressure below the packer is greater than the annulus pressure above the packer, such as in an injection well or low-pressure and -volume treating (Fig. 4.2). These packers also are used in shallow wells where the tubing weight is insufficient to set a compression packer properly. Constraints of the solid-head retrievable tension packer are: 1. Release is difficult with high differential pressure across the packer. 2. Tubing could part if a change in the operational mode results in a temperature decrease. 3. Packer could release if a change in the operational mode results in a temperature increase. Isolation Packer. A retrievable isolation packer (Fig. 4.3)

Fig. 4.2-Solid-head

retrievable tension packer.

is used when two mechanically set packers are to be set simultaneously. It requires anchor pipe on the plugged back depth below it to use tubing weight to shear the pins that hold the packer in the unset mode. It can be used to isolate old perforations or a damaged spot in the casing temporarily. This packer is for temporary use only and should be retrieved as soon as its purpose is accomplished. Control-Head Compression Packer. The control-head retrievable compression packer (Fig. 4.4) has a bypass valve to alleviate the packer release problem resulting from excessive differential pressure. The valve is on top of the packer. It is opened, equalizing the pressure across the packer, by picking up the tubing without moving the packer. As with the solid-head packer, using tubing weight, this packer holds pressure from above only. It is not suitable for injection wells or low-volume and -pressure treating. Constraints are: (1) the bypass or equalizing valve could open if an operational mode change results in a tubing temperature decrease, and (2) tubing could corkscrew permanently if an operational mode change results in a tubing temperature increase. A control-head retrievable compression packer run with an anchor is basically a treating packer. It holds pressure from below without tubing weight because the anchor holds the packer and constrains its movement. Pressure across the packer is equalized through a valve operated by picking up on the tubing (Fig. 4.5). Temperature changes have the same effect as they have with the controlhead compression packer without an anchor. Control-Head Tension Packer. The control-head retrievable tension packer is released easily even if high

PRODUCTION PACKERS

4-3

1 -Seal

Tail

Valve

-

Soal

-

Slipr

Element

Element

Pipe

E

Fig. 4.3-Isolation

,

Perft3

packer is held in place with shear pins.

differential pressure exists across the packer during normal operations. This pressure is equalized by a valve on top of the packer that is opened by lowering the tubing without moving the packer. This type packer holds pressure from below only, with tubing in tension, and is not suitable for wells with well servicing fluid in the annulus. Constraints of a control-head tension packer are: (1) premature bypass valve opening could occur with a tubing temperature increase as the tubing elongates, and (2) tubing could part with a tubing temperature decrease as the tubing contracts. Mechanically Set Packer. Mechanically set retrievable packers (Fig. 4.6) have slips above and below the seal element and can be set with either tension, compression, or rotation. Once the packer is set, the tubing can be left in tension, compression, or neutral mode. How the tubing is left is dictated by future operations to be performed. Careful planning of these subsequent operations is needed to neutralize temperature and pressure effects on the tubing and the equalizing valve. The mechanically set retrievable packer is suitable for almost universal application, the only constraint being found in deep deviated wells where transmitting tubing movement will be a problem. Hydraulic-Set Packer. The retrievable hydraulic-set packer (Fig. 4.7) also has slips above and below the packing element. It is set by applying the hydraulic pressure in the tubing to some preset level above hydrostatic pressure. Once the packer is set, the tubing may be put in limited tension, compression, or left neutral. The packer generally is released with tension-actuated shear pins. It is universally applicable, the only constraint being its high cost.

4 I

Porfa

-

Fig. 4.4-Control-head compression equalizing valve.

packer employs a top

Common Constraint - All Latched Packers. Severe tubing length changes resulting from changing temperatures can develop sufficient forces to move the packer in the casing. This can happen in old corroded casing or in the harder grades of new casing such as P-l 10. The teeth on the slips “shave” the pipe, thus loosening their grip. Permanent Packers The polished sealbore packer (Fig. 4.8) is a permanenttype or semipermanent packer that can be set with precision depth control on conductor wireline. It also can be set mechanically or hydraulically on the tubing. A locator sub and seal assembly is attached to the bottom of the tubing and is stung into the polished bore receptacle of the packer. Isolation is achieved by the fit of the seals inside the polished bore. This packer allows all three connection methods--fixed, limited movement, or free movement-that subsequent operations will dictate. It is ideal for wells subject to frequent workover because the tubing is retrieved easily. Permanent packers are especially useful where tubing temperature may vary widely because the seals slide up and down in the polished bore. They can be retrieved by using a special tool on the end of the tubing in place of the seal assembly, but a round trip with the tubing is required. There is one important constraint with this packer-if the tubing remains in a place for a long time at the same temperature and no movement occurs between the seals and the polished bore, the seals may stick to the polished bore surface, creating a tubing-retrieval problem. The seal assembly length (Fig. 4.8) should allow sufflcient free upward tubing movement during stimulation treatments and permit tubing weight slackoff to eliminate seal movements during the producing life of the well.

4-4

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Valve -

Valve Slips

-Piston Slips (Anchor)

Seal -Seal

E lement

Element Slips

-

Slips

k-

E

Perfs

Fig. 4.5-Treating compression packer is held by an anchor containing piston slips.

Perfs

Fig. 4.6-Mechanically set dual-slip packer has slips above and below rubber element.

Considerations For Packer Selection

Packer Mechanics

Packer selection requires an analysis of packer objectives for the anticipated well operations, such as initial completions, production stimulation, and workover procedures. Considering both current and future well conditions, the packer with the minimum overall cost that will accomplish the objectives should be selected. Initial investment and installation costs should not be the only criteria. Overall packer cost is related directly not only to retrievability and failure rate but to such diverse factors as formation damage during subsequent well operations or replacement of corkscrewed tubing. Retrievability will be enhanced greatly by using oil or solid-free water rather than mud for the packer fluid. Frequency of packer failures may be minimized by using the proper packer for the well condition and by anticipating future conditions when setting the packer. Permanent packers are by far the most reliable and, when properly equipped and set, are excellent for resisting the high pressure differentials imposed during stimulation. They are used widely when reservoir pressures vary significantly between zones in multiple completions. Weight-set tension types of retrievable packers will pcrform satisfactorily when the force on the packer is in one direction only and is not excessive.

The end result of most packer setting mechanisms is to (1) drive a cone behind a tapered slip to force the slip into the casing wall and prevent packer movement, and (2) compress a packing element to effect a seal. Although the end result is relatively simple, the means of accomplishing it and subsequent packer retrieval varies markedly between the several types of packers. Some packers involve two or more round trips, some require wireline time, and some eliminate trips by hydraulic setting. The time cost should be examined carefully, especially on deep wells using high-cost rigs. In some cases higher initial packer costs may be more than offset by the saving in rig time, especially offshore.

Surface/Downhole

Equipment Coordination

Setting a packer always requires surface action and in most cases either vertical or rotational movement of the tubing. Selection of the packer must be related to wellhead equipment. The well completion must be considered as a coordinated operation. The surface and downhole equipment must be selected to work together as a system to ensure a safe completion. This is especially true in highpressure well applications.

Corrosive Well Fluids Materials used in the packer construction must be considered where well fluids contain CO, or H,S in the presence of water or water vapor. Sour Corrosion (Sulfide or Chloride Stress Cracking Corrosion). Even small amounts of H,S with water produce iron sulfide corrosion and hydrogen embrittlement The Natl. Assn. of Corrosion Engineers specifies that materials for H$ conditions be heat-treated to only a maximum hardness of 22 Rockwell C to alleviate embrittlement. Hardness has no effect on iron sulfide corrosion, however. For critical parts where high strength is required, [email protected] is resistant to both embrittlement and iron sulfide corrosion. Corrosion inhibitors may be required to protect exposed surfaces. Sweet Corrosion (“Weight Loss” Corrosion). CO, and water cause iron carbonate corrosion, resulting in deep pitting. For ferrous materials, low-strength steels or cast

4-5

PRODUCTION PACKERS

II I

k -

Valve

/ Slip8

-Seal

Element

Setting

II

Stinger with aeai eaaamb

-

Port

Siipr

-Seal

Hydraulic

-

Eiemen siipr

\Poiirhed real

5LEPerfs 7 Fig. 4.7-Hydraulic

packer is set by tubing pressure.

iron are desirable to resist stress concentrations from pitting. Critical parts of production equipment can be made of stainless steel with 9% or higher chromium. Corrosion inhibitors may be required to protect exposed surfaces.

Bimetallic or galvanic corrosion resulting from contact of dissimilar metals should be considered. Usually this is not a problem, since steel is the anode, or sacrificial member, and the resulting damage is negligible because of the massive area of the steel compared with the lessactive stainless of K-Monel.

Fig. 4.8--Retrievable. permanent-type polished sealbore.

bora,

Perfe

packer is made with

torily to 450°F with a 15,000-psi differential pressure. Because of seal rigidity it may not perform well below 300°F. With temperatures below 250”F, Nitrile @ rubber can be used with metallic backup for static seals. The performance of [email protected] seals becomes marginal at 300°F. A tubing-to-packer seal consisting of vee-type rings of Kalrez,@ Teflon,@ and [email protected] in sequence with metallic backup have been satisfactory (under limited movement) up to 300°F and lO,OOC-psi differential pressure. Retrievability

Sealing Element The ability of a seal to hold differential pressure is a function of the elastomer pressure, or stress developed in the seal. The seal stress must be greater than the differential pressure. In a packer sealing element, the stress developed depends on the packer setting force and the backup provided to limit seal extrusion. The sealing element may consist of one piece or may be composed of multiple elements of different hardnesses. In a three-element packer, for example, the upper and lowermost elements are usually harder (abrasion resistant) than the center element. The center element seals off against imperfections in the casing, while the harder outside elements restrict extrusion and seal with high temperature and pressure differentials. Many packers also include metallic backup rings to limit extrusion. Where H2S or CO2 is present, seal materials and temperature and pressure conditions must be considered carefully. [email protected] resists H,S or chemical attack up to 450°F; but Teflon seal extrusion can be a problem. With controlled clearance and suitable metallic backup to prevent extrusion, glass-filled Teflon has performed satisfac-

Consideration of retrievability must combine several factors, relative to packer design and use. Retrievable packers are released by either straight pull or rotation. In a deviated hole, applied torque usually can develop more downhole releasing force than pull, although sometimes it also is necessary to manipulate the tubing up and down to transmit the torque to bottom. The packer sealing element should prevent solids from settling around the slips. Usually the bypass on a controlhead packer opens before the seal is released; this allows circulation to remove sand or foreign material. High setting force is needed to provide a reliable seal under high differential pressures, but it should be recognized that the resulting seal extrusion can contribute to the retrieval problem. A jar stroke between release and pickup positions is an aid in packer removal. The method of retracting and retaining slip segments is a factor in retrievability. Bypass area around the packer is also important. Where external clearance is minimized to promote sealing, the internal bypass area must be sufficiently large to prevent swabbing by the sealing element when pulling out of the hole.

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

4-6

Fishing Characteristics A permanent packer must be drilled out to effect removal. This usually presents little problem because all material is millable. Some expensive variations of permanent packers provide for retrieval but retain the removable seal tube feature. Removal of stuck retrievable packers usually results in an expensive fishing operation because components are nondrillable and require washover milling. When selecting packers, consider the volume and type of metal that must be removed if drilled and the presence of rings or hold-down buttons that may act as ball bearings to milling tools. Through-Tubing

Packer Type Compression Tension set Mechanical set Hydraulic set Dual Permanent* Semipermanent’

COMPARISON PACKERS

OF PRODUCTION

Tubing-Casing size (in.)

Typical Cost Index’ *

2 x 5% 2 x 5’/2 2 x 5% 2 x 5% 2x2x7 2 x 5% 2 x 5’/2

1 .oo 0.925 1 54 2.30 5.85 1 .a5 2.30

‘Electric-lme setting charge not Included. “Cost of simple compresston packer= 1 00

Operations

Packers with internal diameters equal to that of the tubing should be used to facilitate through-tubing operations. Also, tubing should be set to minimize or alleviate buckling where through-tubing operations are anticipated. Purchase Price Table 4.1 presents a range of packer cost indices. The most economical types are weight-set and tension packers. However, inclusion of a hydraulic hold-down with a compression packer will increase the initial cost from 20 to 100% _ Multistring hydraulic-set packers are usually the most expensive and also require many accessories.

Tubing/Packer

TABLE 4.1-COST

HANDBOOK

System

Advantages By using a properly selected packer, well operations will be more efficient. Wireline pressure and logging operations will proceed faster and smoother. Longer flowing life will be achieved with the use of a packer through the optimal use of the gas energy. The use of a packer in a gas well, with a tailpipe run below the perforations, will alleviate the problem of gas wells heading, loading up with water, and dying prematurely. (The water is produced continuously as a mist and is not allowed to build up over the perforations.) This use of a packer and tail pipe will not control the natural water influx, but will keep the water moving along until such time as the available pressure is less than the pressure required to flow. Where Packers Are Not Used Packers are not run in rod-pumped wells, unless extraordinary circumstances such as dual completion call for one. Electric submersible pumped wells would not have a packer, except when used with uphole subsurface safety valves required by government safety regulations for offshore wells. Many naturally flowing, high-volume, sweetcrude wells are produced up the annulus without packers; a small tubing string is run to be used to kill (circulate) the well or for running certain logs or pressure gauges. Dry, sweet-gas wells often are produced up both the tubing and the annulus and have no packers. Operational Well Modes There are four modes of operation that any given well might experience: (1) shut-in; (2) producing (either liquids, gas, or a combination); (3) injecting (hot or cold

liquids, or gases); or (4) treating (high, low, or intermediate pressures and volumes). The usual mode of operation is only one of the factors that need to be considered when selecting a particular type of packer to be used in a well. Subsequent operations and their pressures and temperature changes are likely to be extremely important to packer utilization success. 2,3 Typical temperature-vs.-depth profiles are illustrated in Fig. 4.9. These profiles are similar to those measured in wells operating in one of four modes: shut-in, production, injection, or treatment. Fig. 4.9a depicts a typical geothermal gradient, with the temperature increasing with depth to the bottomhole temperature (BHT). Every time a well is shut in, the operating temperature profile will begin to move toward the shape of the natural geothermal profile. Producing well temperature profiles for both gas and oil are shown in Fig. 4.9b. The wellhead temperature of an oil well will be somewhat less than BHT. The amount of cooling as crude flows to the surface will depend on several factors: (1) the relative amount of oil and water, (2) the specific heats of the oil and water, (3) the flow rate, (4) the gas/liquid ratio, and (5) the vertical flow pressure drop that controls gas liberated and attendant cooling effect. The temperature profile of a gas well may have a wellhead temperature lower than ambient. In any case the wellhead temperature of a gas well will depend on the BHT, the flow rate, the pressure drop in the tubing, the specific heat of the gas, and other factors. Injection temperature profiles can be quite varied (Fig. 4.9~). The profile will depend on such factors as the nature of the injection fluid (liquid or gas), the rate of injection, and the injected fluid temperature (cold liquid or gas, hot gas or liquid, or even steam). The liquids injected will tend to have little heat loss down the tubing, while the gas injected will tend to pick up or lose heat to approach the BHT. While treating is simply a special case of the injection mode, and it is temporary in nature, it is considered important enough to be discussed separately. As with the liquid injection profile, the treating liquid will not pick up any appreciable amount of heat as it moves down the tubing and the treating temperature profile is essentially vertical (Fig. 4.9d). As illustrated in some examples later, the important thing about these profiles is not their shape but how much the shape and temperature change from one operational

4-7

PRODUCTION PACKERS

temperature \ \ \

+ BHT

-+ BHT Temperature

Temperature

0.

-

b: PRODUCING

a: SHUT IN

lnlsction

C

+

Treating

0

temperature

Cold

-

temperature

+

Hoi

or

\

\ \

(0I G I I

L ; \G \ i \ \ 00

Temperature

+ EHT

+ BHT

-

c: INJECTING

0.

Temperature

-

d: TREATING

Fig. 4.9-Temperature profiles for four possible modes of oil and gas wells: a. Shut-in, b. Producing, c. Injecting, d. Treating.

mode to another, and how those temperature changes atfeet the tubing and packer system. It is strongly recommended that anticipated temperature profiles of each operational mode be drawn accurately when planning various steps of any completion or major workover. Fig. 4.10 shows the pressure profiles of the four modes of well operation. Fig. 4.10a illustrates a typical shut-in well with well servicing fluid in the wellbore. The slope of the profile and the height to which the fluid level rises on the depth scale (and in the wellbore) will depend on the average reservoir pressure, PR, and the gradient of the well servicing fluid. Fig. 4. lob shows the profiles of typical producing oil and gas wells. A liquid injection pro-

file (Fig. 4.10~) is similar to the shut-in profile, the difference being that the bottomhole injection pressure, (pi)bh, is greater than the average reservoir pressure, p R The wellhead pressure, p,&, can have any value, from a vacuum to several thousand psi. The gas injection profile may have a reverse slope on it or may have a normal but steep slope, depending on the rate, tubing size, and bottomhole injection pressure. The treating pressure (Fig. 4.1Od) is a special temporary case of the injection profile. The bottomhole treating pressure, (pt)bh , often will be greater than the injection pressure, especially in a fracturing job. The surface pressure will be constrained by the burst strength of the

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

4-8

Wellhsed

Prereure

0

-

0

Preerure

prearure

Preerure

-

b: PRODUCING

a: SHUT IN InjectIon

HANDBOOK

Treating

preasuro

-

c: INJECTING

0

Preeaure

preaeure

-

d: TREATING

profiles for four possible operational modes of oil and gas wells: b. Producing c. In jetting d. Treating.

Fig. 4.10-Pressure

tubing and casing, and safety considerations. The slope of the pressure profile will depend on the tubing size, the treating rates, and the treating pressure downhole, (pt)bh. It is recommended that pressure profiles of each operational mode be drawn for each step of a completion or major workover. As the examples will point out, the importance of pressure changes from one well mode to another and their effects on the tubing and packer system cannot be overemphasized.

Tubing Response Characteristics Changing the mode of a well (producer, injector, shutin) causes changes in temperature and pressures inside and outside the tubing. Depending on (1) how the tubing

a. Shut-in

is connected to the packer, (2) the type of packer, and (3) how the packer is set, temperature and pressure changes will effect the following. 1. Length variation in the tubing string will result if the seals are permitted to move inside a permanent polished seal-bore packer. 2. Tensile or compressive forces will be induced in the tubing and packer system if tubing motion is not permitted (latched connection). 3. A permanent packer will be unsealed if motion is permitted (tubing contraction) and the seal assembly section is not long enough. 4. Unseatingof a solid-head tension (or compression) packer will occur if it is not set with sufficient strain (or weight) to compensate for tubing movement.

PRODUCTION PACKERS

4-9

5. The equalizing valve will open prematurely on control-head packers (tension or compression). The net result of any of these five events could reduce the effectiveness of the downhole tools and/or damage the tubing, casing, or even the formations open to the well. Failure to consider length and force changes may result in costly failures of such operations as squeeze cementing, acidizing, fracturing, and other remedial operations. Formation damage may result. In addition, the tubing string could be corkscrewed or parted. Potential length changes under extreme conditions determine the length of seals necessary to remain packedoff with a polished seal-bore packer. Potential induced forces need to be calculated to prevent tubing damage, unseating packers, or opening equalizing valves. The two major factors that tend to lengthen or shorten the string (movement permitted) are4y5 (1) temperature effect and (2) pressure effects-piston, ballooning, and buckling effects. Buckling will only shorten the tubing string. The other factors may shorten or lengthen the tubing string. If motion is prevented, tension or compression forces are induced. It is important to understand and remember the direction of action of the length and force changes. It is equally important to remember that a string of tubing landed in any packer is initially in a neutral condition, except for any subsequent mechanical strain or set-down weight applied by the rig operator. After the tubing is landed, the factors that cause changes in length or force are always the result of a change in temperature and pressure. Temperature Effect Thermal expansion or contraction causes the major length change in the tubing. AL,=8.28~10-~

xL,xAT,

b Psn

Pr

(6)

Large

bore

packer

Small

bore

pack

Fig. 4.11 -Tubing and packer systems, illustrating various areas and pressures necessary for movement or force calculations.

In most cases, the temperature effect provides the major length or force change when changing from one operational mode to another. Piston Effect The length change or force induced by the piston effect is caused by pressure changes inside the annulus and tubing at the packer, acting on different areas (Fig. 4.11). The force and length changes can be calculated as follows. F=AP,(A,i-Ati)-Ap, (tubing)

(A,,-A,) (annulus)

. . . . . . . (3)

and

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . (1) ~t=~[AP,(AI)‘-Ati)-Ap,(Apr-A,,)1,

where

(pregure

AL,, = change in tubing length, ft, Lt = tubing length, ft, and AT = change in average temperature,

xAT,

...

.

area)

where “F.

Length changes are calculated readily if the average temperature of the tubing can be determined for the initial condition and then again for the next operation and the next, etc. The average string temperature in any given operating mode is one-half the sum of the tempe_ratures at the top and at the bottom of the tubing. The AT is the difference between the average temperatures of any two subsequent operating modes. If the motion is constrained, forces will be induced as a result of the temperature change. The temperatureinduced force is F=201 xA,

acting on differential

t. .(4)

, . . . . . . . . . . . . (2)

where F = force (tensile or compressive, depending on direction of T), lbf, and = cross-sectional area of the tubing wall, AhV sq in.

E = modulus of elasticity, psi (30 x lo6 for steel), A,i = area of packer ID, sq in., Ali = area of tubing ID, sq in., A,, = area of tubing OD, sq in., Apr = change in tubing pressure at packer, psi, and Ap,, = change in annulus pressure at packer, psi. Note that the length change, AL,,, is a product of LIEA,, and the piston force (Eq. 3). The piston force is the sum of two pressures acting on two areas-one for the tubing and one for the annulus. Fig. 4.1 la shows that for a large bore packer, annulus pressure causes downward force while tubing pressure causes an upward force. For a small bore packer this situation is reversed (Fig. 4.1 lb). The force greatest in magnitude will determine the resulting direction of action. An accurate schematic of the tubing and packer bore for each case should be made for proper determination of areas, forces, and the resulting direction of action.

4-10

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

TABLE 4.2-TUBING CONSTANTS FOR USE IN DETERMINING BUCKLING MOVEMENT CAUSED BY PRESSURE DIFFERENTIALS

OD (in.)

(lb!& 2.40 2 90 3.40 3.40 4.70 6.50 9.20

1.660 1.900 2.000

WI6 2% 2% 3'1,

Alo

A,t

A,

I

(sq in.)

(sq in.)

(sq in.)

(irx4)

2.164 2.835 3.142 3.341 4.430 6.492

1.496 2.036

0.663 0.799

0.195

2.190

0.952

2.405 3.126 4.680

0.936

9.621

7.031

2.590

1.304 1.812

0.310 0.404 0.428 0.784 1.611 3.885

s 1.448 1.393 1.434

1.389 1.417 1.387 1.368

wt+w*-w, Tubing OD (in.)

Weight (Ibmlin.)

1.660

w,=o.200

1.900

W, = 0.242

2.000

w, =0.283

W, and W,d (Ibmlin.) WS

Wft

wfd

2

Wff wfd

W, = 0.392

WE w,

2%

W, =0.542

3%

W,=O.767

8.0 59.8

9.0 67.3

10.0 74.8

11.0 82.3

12.0 89.8

13.0 97.2

14.0 104.7

15.0 112.2

0.0450.0520.0580.0650.0710.0780.0840.0910.0970.1040.1100.116 0.122 0.131 0.103 0.112 0.140 0.065 0.075 0.084 0.094 0.115 0.123 0.132 0.079 0.097 0.106 0.062 0.070 0.088 0.172 0.135 0.147 0.159 0.184 0.006 0.098 0.110 0.123 0.123 0.133 0.142 0.104 0.114 0.066 0.076 0.085 0.095 0.177 0.204 0.095 0.109 0.122 0.136 0.190 0.150 0.163 0.073 0.083 0.094 0.104 0.135 0.146 0.156 0.114 0.125 0.101 0.145 0.188 0.202 0.217 0.159 0.174 0.116 0.130 0.176 0.203 0.162 0.095 0.108 0.122 0.135 0.189 0.149 0.211 0.172 0.192 0.230 0.249 0.268 0.288 0.134 0.153 0.182 0.203 0.223 0.243 0.263 0.284 0.304 0.142 0.162 0.337 0.421 0.196 0.253 0.281 0.309 0.365 0.393 0.225 0.274 0.304 0.335 0.365 0.395 0.426 0.456 0.213 0.243 0.500 0.541 0.291 0.333 0.365 0.416 0.458 0.563 0.625

W,

W, = 0.283

‘Ibmlgal “lbmlcu

7.0* 52.3"

Wft W, W fl W,

16.0 119.7 0.150 0.141 0.196 0.152 0.218 0.167 0.231 0.217 0.307 0.324 0.450 0.487 0.666

17.0 127.2 0.159 0.150 0.209 0.161 0.231 0.177 0.246 0.230 0.326 0.344 0.478 0.517 0.708

18.0 134.6

0.169 0.159 0.221 0.171 0.245 0.187 0.260 0.243 0.345 0.364 0.506 0.548

0.749

R.

Ballooning and Reverse Ballooning

where

Internal pressure swells or balloons the tubing and causes it to shorten. Likewise, pressure in the annulus squeezes the tubing, causing it to elongate. This effect is called The ballooning and reverse “reverse ballooning.” ballooning length change and force are given by AL,=2.4xlO-’

XL,

Apt -Fm 2A~an F,,2_1

. . (5)

r = radial clearance between tubing OD, dl,, and casing ID, d,i, =(dCi -d,)i2, in., I = movement of inertia of tubing about its diameter= n/64(d,, ’ -d,i 4), in. 4, W, = weight of tubing, lbmiin., [email protected] = weight of fluid in tubing, lbm/in., and Wfd = weight of displaced fluid, lbm/in.

and F=0.6(A~,A,i

-AISanA,oj,

..

..

(6)

where Aj5, = change in average tubing pressure from one mode to another, psi, isi 0, = change in average annulus pressure from one mode to another, psi, and F,i = ratio of tubing OD to ID (Ref. 5 uses R). Buckling Effects Tubing strings tend to buckle only when p f is greater than pa,,. The result is a shortening of the tubing; the force exerted is negligible. The tubing length change is calculated using

~ = [email protected]&anj2 f 8-W W,+ wfi- Wfd)

(7)

Buckling only shortens the tubing and in most wells it will be the smallest constraint. For use with the radial and inertia calculations, values for AI,, A,;, A ,,,,, I, F,i, and (W, + Wp - wfd) can be found, for most tubing sizes, in Table 4.2. The net or overall length change (or force) is the sum of the length change (or forces) caused by the piston, ballooning, and temperature effects. The direction of the length change for each effect (or action of the force) must be considered when summing them. It follows that for a change in conditions, the motion (or force) created by one effect can be offset, or enhanced, by the motion (or force) developed by some other effect. Moseley6 presented a method for graphically determining the length and force changes (Eqs. 5 through 7). This method is particularly useful on a fieldwide basis where wells have the same size tubing, casing and packers. When planning the sequential steps of a completion or workover, care should be taken to consider the temperatures and pressures in each step, once the tubing

4-11

PRODUCTION PACKERS

and packer system becomes involved. By careful selection of packer bore and use of annulus pressures, one or a combination of pressure effects could be employed to offset the adverse length or force change of another effect.

Key Equations in SI Metric Units A&=l.4935X10-5L,XAT F=741,934A,,.xAT

Combination Tubing/Packer

Systems

Uniform completions have been discussed previously (i.e., a single tubing and casing size). Hammerlindl ’ presented a method for solving problems with combination completions. His paper in particular covered two items not covered by Lubinski et al.4 He includes a direct mathematical method for calculating forces in uniform completions where tubing movement is not permitted and a method for handling hydraulic packers set with the wellhead in place. A combination completion consists of (1) more than one size of tubing, (2) more than one size of casing, (3) two or more fluids in the tubing and/or annulus, or (4) one or more of these.

Tubing/Packer Forces on Intermediate Packers Intermediate packers are an integral part of the tubing string. Examples are dual packers in the long string or selective completion packers. The packer-to-tubing force on the intermediate packer is needed so that wells can be treated through the completion system. Without proper design, it is possible to shear the release mechanism in the intermediate packer(s), which could result in an expensive failure of the completion or workover. Hammerlind18 wrote an extension on his’ and Lubinski’s4 earlier works that developed a theory required to solve for the intermediate packer-to-tubing forces. The calculation procedure regarding pressure effects requires working the problem from the lowest packer to the surface in stages. The first stage is the tubing between the bottom and second packer. The second stage is the tubing between the second and third packer (or the surface, if there are only two packers). The procedures are the standard ones for uniform completions. The only changes are those to determine the changes in length as a result of applied forces on the intermediate packers; also the actual and fictitious force calculation procedure is modified. Interested readers are referred to Hammerlindl’s 1980 paper’ for additional information on the nebulous fittitious force of Lubinski et al. 4

AL,=

. . . . . . . . . . . . . . ...(I) _.

(2)

3.6576L, [AFt(A,i -At;)-Ap..(A,,j

-A,,)].

EA tn,

Since Table 4.2 is not available in SI metric units, Eq. 7 is solved in English units (inches) and the result is converted to SI metric units (meters). where AL, and L, are in m, ATis in “C, F is in N, A’s are in m2, p’s are in kPa, and E is in 30X lo6 psi.

References 1.

2.

3.

4.

5. 6. 7.

8. 9.

Patton,L.D. and Abbott, W.A.: Well Conzpletions and Workovrw The Sysfem Approach, second edition, Energy Publications, Dallas (1985) 57-67. Eichmeier, J.R., Ersoy, D., and Ramey. H.J. Jr.: “Wellbore Temperatures and Heat Losses During Production Operations,” paper CIM 7016 presented at the 1976 CIM Sot. Meeting, Calgary, Ah. (May 6-7). Arnold, R.B., Sandmeyer, D.J., and Elchmeier, J.R.: “Production Problems of a High-Pressure, High-Temperature Reservoir,” paper CIM 7232. Lubinski, A., Althouse, W.H., and Logan. J.L.: “Helical Buckling of Tubing Sealed in Packers,” f. Pet. Tec2. (June 1962) 655-70: Trans., AIME, 225. Packer Calculations Handbook, Baker Oil Tool Div. (1971). Moseley, Neal F.: “Graphic Solutions to Tubing Movement in Deep Wells,” Pet. Eng. Intl. (March 1973) 59-66. Hammerlindl, D.J.: “Movement, Forces, and Stresses Associated With Combination Tubing Strings Sealed in Packers,” J. Per. Tech. (Feb. 1977) 195-208. Hammerlindl, D.J.: “Packer-to-Tubing Forces for Intermediate Packers,” J. Pet. Tech. (March 1980) 515-27. Hammerlindl, D.J.: “Basic Fluid and Pressure Forces on Oilwell Tubulars,” J. Pet. Tech. (Jan. 1980) 153-59.

Chapter 5

Gas Lift Herald

W. Winkler,

consultant *

Introduction Description

of Gas Lift Operations

Gas lift is the method nal source

of artificial

of high-pressure

well to lift the fluids

lift that uses an cxter-

gas for supplementing

for-

tnation gas to lift the well fluids. The primary consideration in the selection of a gas-lift system to lift a well. a group of wells. or an entire compression cost of gas. Continuous-ilow cial lift that fully production. which

field

is the availability

and

gas lift is the only method of artifiutilizes the energy in the formation gas

Most wells are gas lifted by continuous

can be considered

an extension

of natural

flow, flow

by

supplementing the formation gas with additional highpressure gas from an outside source. Gas is injected continuously

into the production

conduit

on the basis of the available injection

gas mixes

with

at a maximum

injection

depth

gas pressure.

the produced

well

fluids

The and

decreases the flowing pressure gradient of the mixture from the point of gas injection to the surface. The lower bowing pressure attaining

pressure gradient

reduces the flowing

(BHFP) to establish a design production

bottomhole

the drawdown required for rate from the well. If suffi-

cient drawdown in the bottomhole pressure (BHP) is not possible by continuous flow, intermittent gas lift opcration may be used. Intermittent gas lift requires high instantaneous gas volumes to displace liquid slugs to the surface. The disadvantage of intermittent

lift is an “on-off”

need for high-

pressure gas. which presents a gas handling problem at the surface and surging in the BHFP that cannot be tolcratcd in many wells producing Most hiph-pressure gas lift

sand. systems

illustrated

to

recirculate the lift gas. The low-pressure gas from the production separator is compressed and rcinjected into the

This closed loop.

as

5 1 ,, is referred to as a closed rotative gas-lift system. Contmuous-flow gas lift operations arc preferable with a closed rotative system. Intermittent gas lift operations

are particularly

difficult

to regulate

and to

operate efficiently in smaller closed rotative systems with limited gas storage capacities in the low- and high-pressure lines.

Applications Gas lift is particularly applicable for lifting wells where high-pressure gas is available. Gas compressors may have been installed

for gas injection,

may be nearby.

or high-pressure

Since the cost of compression

the cost of downhole should be considered

gas wells far exceeds

gas lift equipment, gas lift always when an adequate volume of high-

pressure gas is available

for wells requiring

artificial

lift.

Most wells can be depleted by gas lift. which is particularly true since the implementation of reservoir pressure maintenance programs in most major oil fields.

Advantages

and Limitations

The flexibility of gas lift in terms of production rates and depth of lift cannot be matched by other methods of artificial lift if adequate injection-gas pressure and volume are available.

Gas lift is one of the most forgivrng

forms

of artificial lift, since a poorly designed installation will normally gas lift some fluid. Many efficient gas lift installations

with wireline-retrievable

are designed are designed

from the well.

in Fi?.

with

minimal

well

gas liti valve mandrels information

for locating

the mandrel depths on initial well completion. Highly deviated wells that produce sand and have a high formation gas/liquid ratio arc excellent candidates for gas lift when artificial

lift

tions are designed

to increase

is needed.

Many

the daily

gas lift production

installafrom

5-2

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

VALVE MOUNTED OUTSIDE THE MANDREL (TUBING MUST BE PULLED TO HAVE ACCESS TO THE VALVE)

(4

CONVENTIONAL

GAS LIFT VALVE

REVERSE FLOW CHECK

Fig. 5.1-Simplified system.

THREAD FOR INSTALLING “ALYE AND CHECK TO MANDREL

flow diagram of a closed rotative gas lift

lb) flowing

wells.

No other

through-flowline

(TFL)

method

is as ideally

ocean floor

VALVE MOUNTED ,NSiDETHE MANDREL (WIRELINE RETRIEVABLE,

I

suited for

completions

as a gas

LATCH

lift system. Maximum production is possible by gas lift from a well with small casing and high deliverability. Wireline-retrievable gas lift valves can bc replaced without killing a well or pulling the tubing. The gas lift

LATCH RETAlNlNG SHOULDER

valve is a simple device with few moving

PORTS TO ANNULUS

PACKlNG (VALVE TO POCKET SEAL)

parts. and sand-

laden well fluids do not have to pass through the valve to bc lifted. The individual well in-hole equipment is relatively

inexpensive.

gas control

The surface

is simple

equipment

and requires

little

“ALYE

for injection

maintenance

PACKlNG (“ALYE TO POCKET SEplLi

and

practically no space for installation. The reported overall reliability and operating costs for a gas lift system are lower

than for other

methods

single-well

Generally,

installations

gas lift

and widely

is not applicable

to

RECEIVER)

PORT TO TUBING

of lift.

The primary limitations for gas lift operations are the lack of formation gas or of an outside source of gas, wide well spacing. and available space for compressors on offshore platforms.

SlOEPOCKET VALVE

Fig. 5.2-Conventional and wireline-retrievable gas lift valves and mandrels. (a) Conventional gas lift valve and mandrel. (b) WirelIne-retrievable gas lift valve and mandrel.

spaced wells that are

not suited for a centrally located power system. Gas lift can intensify the problems associated with production of a viscous

crude.

a super-saturated

brine.

or an emulsion.

application

of gas lift for inaccessible

generation

of retrievable

wells.

The newer

Old casing. sour gas. and long. small-ID flowlines can rule out pas lift operations. Wet gas without dehydration will reduce the reliability of gas lift operations.

devices to assure successful deviated wells.

wireline

Conventional

The operating principles tional and wireline-retrievable

for a given type of convengas lift valves arc the same.

and Wireline-Retrievable

Equipment

retrievable

necessary to pull the tubing

lined in this chapter

gas

lift valve. The first selectively retrievable gas lift valve and mandrel wcrc introduced around 1950. The retrievable

valve

receiver,

mandrel within

was

designed

the mandrel.

with

a pocket.

A gas lift valve

could

mandrels

valve,

the installation

have orienting

operation

Although the performance characteristics tween the same type of conventional

The early gas liti valves were the conventional type whcreby the tubing mandrel that held the gas lift valve and reverse check valve was part of the tubing string. It was to replace a conventional

valve

in highly

may vary beand wireline-

design calculations

do not change.

The choice

out-

between

conventional and wireline-retrievable equipment depends primarily on the costs associated with pulling the tubing

or

and on whether

bc

ability

a workover

fluid may damage the deliver-

of a well.

removed or installed by simple wirclinc operations without pulling the tubing. The wirelinc primary device for locat-

Wireline-retrievable equipment is used in most offshore wells and in wells located inaccessibly where workover

ing the mandrel

operations

stalling

pocket

a gas lift valve

and selectively is a kickover

removing tool.

or in-

The mandrel

are extremely

wireline-retrievable

valves

is called a sidepockct mandrel because the pocket is offset from the centerline of the tubing. Most sidepocket-

lustrated

type retrievable valve mandrels have a full-bore ID equal to the tubing ID. These mandrels permit normal wireline

Open and Closed Installations

operations. retrievable

to stabilize

such as pressure surveys. This wirelinesystem for gas lift valves revolutlonizcd the

in Fig.

expensive.

gas lift

Most tubing-flow

Conventional and mandrels

and are il-

5.2.’

gas lift installations

will include a packer

the fluid level in the casing annulus and to pre-

vent injection

gas from

blowing

around the lower

end of

GAS

LIFT

5-3

the tubing

in wells

installation

implies

and a standing

with

a low BHFP.

A closed gas lift

that the installation

valve.

includes

An installation

valve may be referred

without

to as semiclosed,

a packer a standing

which

is widely

erly without valve.

understanding

This seating nipple should of the tubing. Applications

unless the well has a BHFP that significantly exceeds the injection gas pressure and unless normal packer removal may be difficult or impossible because of sand, scale. etc.

for intermittent

A packer

is required

for gas lifting

low-BHP

wells to

a packer

and possibly

a standing

valve.

Although

most

installation

of a standing

be installed at the lower end for a seating nipple include valve

if the tubing

will be blanked

the nipple to prevent blown up the hole.

the wireline

Only the gas fundamentals

The advantages of a packer are particularly important for gas lift installations in an area where the in.jection gasline pressure

varies

or the injection

gas supply

is intcr-

rupted periodically. If the installation does not include a packer, the well must he unloaded after each shutdown. More damage to gas lift valves occurs during unloading operations

than during

liti installation.

any other tirnc in the life 01-a gas

If the injection

gas-line

pressure

varies,

the working fluid level changes. The result is a liquid washing action through all valves below the working fluid level.

and this continuing

tluid-cut

fluid

the scat assemblies

transfer

can eventually

of these gas lift

valves.

A

packer stabilizes the working the need for unloading after

fluid Icvel and eliminates a shutdown and the tluid

washing action from a varying

injection

gas-lint

prcssurc.

ysis of gas lift

If a well can be gas litied of gas liti should

by continuous

surges

flow.

be used to ensure a constant

in the BHFP,

tlowline.

surt’acc facilities

and the low-

and highwith

inter-

mittent gas lift operations. Overdesign rather than undcrdesign of a gas lift installation always is recommended when the well data arc questionable.

The gas liti equipportion

of a closed

rotative gas lift system. The larger-OD gas lift valve should be selected for lifting high-rate wells. The superior injection-gas volumetric throughput performance for the 1 ‘/2-in.-OD

gas lift valve

OD valve is an important lations requiring a high The gas lift installation include

as compared

to the I-in.-

consideration for gas lift instalinjection gas requirement. designs outlined

in this chapter

several safety factors to compensate

valves.

If an installation

is properly

dcsigncd.

these topics: effect

lift

valve

operation

is discussed

in detail

(I)

gas pressure

on the confined

at depth,

bellows-charged

(2) temperature dome

pressure,

(3) volumetric gas throughput of a choke or gas lift valve port, and (4) gas volume stored within a conduit. All gas equations are based on pressure in pounds per square inch absolute (psia), tempcraturc in dcgrces Rankine (“R), and volume or capacity in cubic feet (cu ft). An exception is pressure difference in pounds per square

inch (psi),

or absolute

which

may bc a difference

units since the calculated

would he the same. Generally, field measurements therefore,

pressure

in gauge difference

of pressure are in gauge

the volumetric-gas-throughput

and

charts are in units of paig. The gas

Gas Pressure Accurate essential

at Depth

prediction of injection gas pressure at depth is for proper gas lift installation design and for

analyzing

or trouble-shooting

gas lift

operations.

Most

gas-pressure-at-depth calculations are based on a static gas column. Pressure loss because of friction from the flow of injection gas through a typical casing/tubing annulus is negligible. The gas velocity ly nil since the cross-sectional

in the annulus is practicalarea of the annulus is so

much larger than the port area of a gas lift valve. The maximum gas flow rate is limited by the valve port size.

Calculating

Static Injection

Static injection usmg Eq. 1.

gas pressure

Gas Pressure

at Depth.

at depth can bc calculated

P ml) = P 10(.(?.,D)i(ji

MT;).

(I)

all gas lift

gas lift valve should be closed

and all valves below will be open. The installation methods presented in this chapter are based on this premise. Gas difficult

be dis-

for errors in

well information and to allow an increase in the injection gas pressure to open the unloading and operating gas lift valves above an operating

will

this form injection-

gas lift sysof pressure

that are associated

ment in the wells is the least expensive

and operations

lift valve equations and calculations for bellows-charge and operating pressures in this chapter use gauge pressure.

gas circulation rate within the closed rotativc tem. Continuous flow reduces the possibility pressure

from

from being

essential to the design and anal-

installations

gas-pressure-at-depth

the Proper

tool string

cussed in this section. The more important gas calculations related to gas lift wells and systems can hc divided into

readings:

Considerations for Selecting Installation and Equipment

or

across the

before the lock is disengaged

Introduction

of the well is very low. the is questionable.

off. The pressure

lock can be equalized

this valve.

valve

the tubing

a means to secure and

to pack off a BHP gauge for conducting pressure transient tests, etc. The lock should have an equalizing valve

Gas Fundamentals as Applied to Gas Lift

If the permeability

for testing

gas lift operation,

illustrations of an intermittent gas lift installation will show a standing valve, many actual installations do not include need for a standing

of a gas lift

A large-bore seating nipple, which is designed to receive a lock, is recommended for many gas lift installations.

used for continuous flow operations. An installation without a packer or standing valve is called an open installation. An open installation seldom is recommended

isolate the injection gas in the casing annulus and to allow surface control of the injection-gas volumetric rate to the well. Intermittent gas lift installations will include

the mechanics

because

to design or to analyze a gas lift installation

it is prop-

where P,(,~

= operating

injection

gas pressure

at depth D.

injection

gas pressure

at surface,

psia, P ,I) = operating psia,

PETROLEUM

ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

Gas Pressure, 100 psig Fig. 5.3--Simplified compressibility factorchartfornaturalgases

CJ =

Napierian logarithm

= gas specific

h

base=2.718

gravity

(air=

,

4. True

T = average :

depth,

ft,

gas temperature,

= compressibility pressure

factor

“R,

and T,

1. T=

of the average pressure and temperature,

to this equation

is trial-and-error.

the

hole values. This assumption is reasonable because the increase in well temperature with depth tends to result in a constant gas density with depth. A straight-line

most gas lift

Example

an actual static-injection-gasand is used for the design of

yp =0.70

(air=

psia.

=p

= 140”F+460=600”R.

=O. 175 (constant).

3. First

assumption:

p,&=1,000+2.5X

8,000

p;,,D =pio

+2.5X

10~5(1,000)8,000=

10-5(p;,,)D. 1,200

pSig

at

ft.

Note: Gauge pressure culations.

p’

P 111 +P i/ID

can be used for approximate

zz

1,000 + 1,200 = 1, IO0 psig,

2

I .O).

2. Atmospheric pressure= 14.7 psia. 3. In.jection gas pressure at surface. p,,) = I.000 ps~g= I .014.7

at the depth of 8,000 ft.

53.34(600)

2 from

140”F, gravity.

at 8.000

0.70(8,000)

z = 0.865

1.

Given: I. Gas specific

T,l,=200”F

2

hD 2. -= 53.343

installations.

Problem

ft.

A simplified

compressibility chart” is illustrated in Fig. 5.3. Generally, the average pressure and temperature are assumed to be the arithmetic mean of the wellhead and bottom-

traverse will approximate pressure-at-depth traverse

D=E,OOO

T,,+ =80”F.

SO+200

Ttt.17 + Th’~

2

The depth used in the equation is the true vertical depth of the gas column. Since the gas compressibility factor solution

at wellhead,

based on average

p and temperature

dimensionless.

is a function

depth of gas column,

6. Gas temperature at depth, ft. Calculate the static gas pressure

dimensionless, D = true vertical

vertical

5. Gas temperature

1 .O).

,DioD = 1,014.7e = I .227.5

Fig.

5.3 for

1,100 psig and

and

(0.175K) 86.5)=1,242,2

psig at 8,000

ft.

psia

cal-

GAS LIFT

Chart

5-5

Basis:

1. 2.

Gas specific gravity Gas temperature at Gas temperature at

3.

2

3

4

5

(air = 1.0) = 0.65 surface = 100°F depth = 7O’F + 1.6’F/lOO

ft

6

11

7

8

9

Injection

Gas Pressure

Fig. 5.4-Static

4. Repeat Step 3 using the previously

p’

10

calculated

pli,~.

Fig.

5.3 for

15

16

17

psig,

Injection-Gas-Pressure-at-Depth

1,114 psig and

Curves.

= 1,227.S

installation

psig at 8,000

Since the calculated

ploo

design

Static injection

ft. equal to the

assumed pio~, let pioo = 1,228 psig at 8,000 ft. The first assumption in Step 3, using a coefficient 2.5 x 10 -5 to estimate the initial gas pressure is based on a hydrocarbon gas that is primarily After tinued

the initial as outlined

assumption,

and analysis

for all wells.

calculated P,(,~ until the assumed are approximately equal.

Gas pres-

on the basis of the ac-

gas-pressure-at-depth

are con-

curves are illustrated

in Fig. 5.4. 4 These curves are based on a geothermal gradient of 1.6”F/IOO ft of depth and a gas gravity of 0.65. The basis for the injection

of

at depth, methane.

the computations

in Step 4 by assuming

Since the in-

tual field data, and should be plotted with an expanded scale for the anticipated range of kick-off and operating injection gas pressures and the well depths for the field.

psia

is approximately

20

in the well. There is no one set curves that are suited for gas lift

sures at depth should be calculated = 1,242.5

19

gas and the actual average temper-

ature of the gas column of gas-pressure-at-depth

and

ProD = 1,014.7p’0.‘75/0.8~)

ill

100 psig

erties of the injection

from

140°F.

Depth,

14

jection gas pressure at depth is based on the injection gas gravity and the geothermal temperature at depth gradient. gas-pressure-at-depth curves should be based on the prop-

2 ? = 0.864

at

13

injection-gas pressure at depth curve

1,000+1,227.5 =1,113.8

12

must represent

gas-pressure-at-depth

actual field conditions.

curves

Indiscriminate

use

of just any gas-pressure-at-depth chart may result in an installation design that will not unload or in an erroneous analysis of the operation

of an existing

gas lift installation.

the previously

and calculated

values

Factor for Approximating convenient

and accurate

Gas Pressure

method

at Depth.

for estimating

A static in-

5-6

PETROLEUM ENGINEERING

HANDBOOK

jection gas pressure at depth is to develop a factor for pas pressure at depth on the basis of the available surface opcr-

Temperature Effect on the Confined Bellows-Charged Dome Pressure

ating injection gas pressure, average well depth. the injection gas gravity, and the actual geothermal temperature

There are more bellows-charged than sprlngloaded gas lift valves in service. Most of these valves have nitrogen

gradient. The equation for calculating depth with the proper factor is

gas in the dome. Since it is impractical to set each gas lift valve at its operating well tcmpcraturc. the test rack

gas pressure

at

opening PI*,o=p,,,+F,~xlO~‘(p,,,)D. where

F,

I..

.

is the gas-pressure-at-depth

psi/l ,000 ft. A factor for gas pressure

(2)

factor,

psi/l00

or closing

pressure

is set at a standard

at 60°F.

Nitrogen

was selected as the charge gas for these

reasons: (1) the compressibility at depth should be calculated

base tcm

perature. Most manufacturers set their bellows-charged gas lift valves with the nitrogen gas charge in the dome factors for nitrogen

at var-

the

ious pressures and temperatures are known. (2) nitrogen is noncorrosive and safe to handle, and (3) nitrogen is readily available throughout the world and is inexpensive.

Injection gas gravity, and the geothermal temperature in the wells. Static gas pressure at true vertical depth can be calculated for the design operating surface injection

on 60°F are given in Table 5. I. These factors are used to calculate the nitrogen-charged dome pressure at 60°F

for a particular jn,jection

gas pressure factor

field on the basis of the actual operating

gas pressure

using

at the wellsite,

Eq.

can be calculated

the well depth,

1. Then a gas-pressure-at-depth with

The temperature

correction

factors

for nitrogen

based

for a given valve operating temperature (T,n) or unloading temperature (T,,,[)) at valve depth in a well.

Eq. 3:

p,, =FT(p/,,.D),

(4)

where Eq. 3 will

ensure reasonably

depth calculations

accurate

gas-pressure-at-

over the range of surface injection

pressure associated

with gas lift operations

FT = temperature from

gas

I))> = bellows-charged psig. ph,,o

should.

factor

for nitrogen

dimensionless.

in most wells.

The slope of the injection gas-pressure-at-depth curve based on Eq. 2 will increase with surface pressure, as it

correction

T,.o or T ,,,,u to 60°F. dome

pressure

at 60°F.

dome

pressure

at T,o

and

= bellows-charged

or

T,,,,L), psig.

Example Given

Problem

(data from

2. previous

Example

Problem

I):

Although

I. p;(, = 1.000 psig at surface. 2. piou = 1,228 psig at 8.000 ft.

3. 0=8,000

perature

ft.

pressure can bc calculated

base, or the temperature

for another tem-

correction

factors

can

be used to calculate the test rack opening pressure at a temperature other than 60°F when a valve has been set

Calculate: I. Static

Table 5.1 is based on 60” F, a test rack open-

ing or closing

gas-pressure-at-depth

factor

from

Eq. 3:

at 60°F.

p,.fDi = flowing

ential,

of

psi

depth,

= wellhead

p,,,,,d = static BHP at depth D,.

at valve

psi

the operating

pp.fT) = flowing

pMlfl/ = BHFP at depth D,, PSI pM.h = wellhead pressure, psi p,,.hf = flowing wellhead pressure, P whu

injection-gas

depth,

(PpiZ))mn

transfer

psi

pressure

psi

poDc,,. = initial

production

pressure

for

psi

= initial

base, psi

closing

psi

pAor/ = kick-off

psi

pressure

depth,

PXO = surface

production

depth,

closing

psi depth,

transfer

= valve

injection-gas

injection-gas

= operating

production

psi

at the depth of

chamber

pi0 = surface-operating p,c,cl = operating

produc-

p,,(~ = valve

p,,(.d

valve

line at DC,,, psi

the chamber-operating

pot

= tubing

prr. = valve

for variable-gradient

for variable-gradient

P iDot= injection-gas

transfer

psi

at valve

transfer pressure

produc-

based on p ,,,h, psi dome

= surface

flowing

transfer

chamber

at T,,I,

psi

= bellows-charged

PO = initial

= standard

pro-

psi

psi

at D,,,

= valve-spacing

depth, P rDoi>

dome

at

design

psi

valve-spacing

p,~ = flowing at

psi

= bellows-charged

spacing

p,,,D

= surface

pressure

psi

psi pd/

downstream

pressure

pressure,

or Tu,,o,

= test-rack

p,,,d = valve-spacing

Ibm/mol

pressure where

rate can be lifted,

tion pressure,

pressure,

60”F,

pi,?,

PP

ft

HANDBOOK

psi

depth

tion pressure,

pd., = assumed pressure, psi ph = bellows-charged dome pressure pb,.~

p,,f,

ft

psi

p t = upstream

depth,

production

duction

dimensionless

of pound-moles.

p = pressure,

= flowing

minimum

psiift

Lb\, = distance between gas lift L,. = chamber length, ft

L \s = static fluid

at valve

based on liquid

psi/ft

fluid

ENGINEERING

production while

valve,

flowing

lifting

pressure

psi production

Ap,,,

pressure

= difference

in

p,,ln

exerted

over A,,,

psi

from Ap,

= valve

spread,

psi

AP,~,

= valve

spacing

pressure

differential

at

in

5-57

GAS LIFT

valve

depth,

q&J.\
View more...

Comments

Copyright ©2017 KUPDF Inc.
SUPPORT KUPDF