Peter Huhn Et Al Handbook of Narratology 2009

April 27, 2018 | Author: Luis Graillet | Category: Author, Narrative, Knowledge, Concept, Literary Criticism
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Introducción a la teoría de la narratolía, estudios literarios...

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Handbook of Narratology

Narratologia Contributions to Narrative Theory

Edited by Fotis Jannidis, Matı´as Martı´nez, John Pier Wolf Schmid (executive editor) Editorial Board Catherine Emmott, Monika Fludernik Jose´ A ´ ngel Garcı´a Landa, Peter Hühn, Manfred Jahn Andreas Kablitz, Uri Margolin, Jan Christoph Meister Ansgar Nünning, Marie-Laure Ryan Jean-Marie Schaeffer, Michael Scheffel Sabine Schlickers, Jörg Schönert

19



Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York

Handbook of Narratology Edited by Peter Hühn, John Pier Wolf Schmid, Jörg Schönert



Walter de Gruyter · Berlin · New York

 Printed on acid-free paper which falls within the guidelines  of the ANSI to ensure permanence and durability.

Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data Handbook of narratology / edited by Peter Hüh n … [et al.]. p. cm.  (Narratologia) Includes bibliographical references and index. ISBN 978-3-11-018947-6 (alk. paper) 1. Discourse analysis, Narrative. 2. Narration (Rhetoric) I. Hühn, Peter, 1939  P302.7H34 2009 808dc22 2009026536

ISBN 978-3-11-018947-6 ISSN 1612-8427 Bibliographic information published by the Deutsche Nationalbibliothek The Deutsche Nationalbibliothek lists this publication in the Deutsche Nationalbibliografie; detailed bibliographic data are available in the Internet at http://dnb.d-nb.de.

 Copyright 2009 by Walter de Gruyter GmbH & Co. KG, 10785 Berlin All rights reserved, including those of translation into foreign languages. No part of this book may be reproduced in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopy, recording, or any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Printed in Germany Cover design: Christopher Schneider, Laufen Printing and binding: Hubert & Co. GmbH & Co. KG, Göttingen

Contents

Preface ......................................................................................

IX

Author ....................................................................................... Jörg Schönert

1

Character .................................................................................. Fotis Jannidis

14

Cognitive Narratology .............................................................. David Herman

30

Coherence ................................................................................. Michael Toolan

44

Conversational Narration/Oral Narration ................................. Monika Fludernik

63

ialogis! ................................................................................. David Shepherd

"4

#vent an$ #ventfulness ............................................................. Peter Hühn

%0

&ictional vs. &actual Narration ................................................. Jean-Marie Schaeffer

'%

&ocali(ation .............................................................................. urkhard !iederhoff

11)

*eteroglossia ............................................................................ "aleri# T#upa

1+4

I

Contents

I$entity an$ Narration ............................................................... Michael am$erg

13+

Illusion ,Aesthetic- ................................................................... %erner %olf

144

I!lie$ Author ......................................................................... %olf Schmid

161

e$iacy an$ Narrative e$iation ............................................ Jan &l$er ' Monika Fludernik

1"4

etalesis ................................................................................. John Pier

1'0

etanarration an$ etafiction ................................................. irgit !eumann ' &nsgar !ünning

+04

Narration in &il! ...................................................................... Johann !( Schmidt

+1+

Narration in Poetry an$ ra!a ................................................. Peter Hühn ' )o* Sommer

++%

Narration in arious iscilines .............................................. !or$ert Meuter

+4+

Narration in arious e$ia ...................................................... Marie-+aure )*an

+63

Narrative Constitution .............................................................. Michael Scheffel

+%+

Narrative evels ....................................................................... Didier ,oste ' John Pier

+')

Narrativity ................................................................................ H( Porter &$$ottt

30'

Narratology ............................................................................... Jan ,hristoph Meister

3+'

Contents

II

Narrator .................................................................................... ri Margolin

3)1

Perfor!ativity ........................................................................... te erns

3"0

Persective/Point of ie2 ........................................................ urkhard !iederhoff

3%4

ea$er ....................................................................................... .erald Prince

3'%

che!ata .................................................................................. ,atherine /mmott ' Marc &le0ander

411

ace ........................................................................................ Marie-+aure )*an

4+0

eech eresentation .............................................................. rian McHale

434

5ellaility ................................................................................. )apha1l aroni

44"

In$e78 5er!s an$ Concets ......................................................

4))

In$e78 Na!es ............................................................................

4)'

Preface Over the last few decades, the field of narrative studies has been vastly expanded by a wide spectrum of srcinal studies in the philologies and other disciplines including linguisti cs, history, theology, art history or psychology, and it has also seen a growing number of attempts to survey, order, and summarize the results of such studies in the form of collections of essays, encyclopedias, companions, dictionaries, etc. Against this background, the present Handbook of Narratology offers a new type of systematic indepth overview of recent and older research, taking into account different disciplinary and national traditions in narrative study. !he "# entries present international research regarding the key terms, categories, and concepts of narratology in the form of fulllength srcinal articles structured in a parallel manner$ each entry starts with a concise definition followed by a more detailed explication of the term in %uestion and then proceeds, in its main part, to provide a differentiated description and critical discussion of the various approaches, positions, and controversies in their historical development, concluding with topics for further research and a select bibliography. All entries are crossreferenced. !hey vary in length in accordance with the complexity of the respective concepts. !he Handbook will subse%uently be made available as an open access Living Handbook on the &nternet by 'amburg (niversity Press. !he articles willinbe availa ble at regular intervals, both theupdated printed and and new in thearticles online made versions. !his handbook grew out of the work of the )arratology *esearch +roup at 'amburg (niversity #/#01 and the &nterdisciplinary 2enter for )arratology founded in #01. 3e thank 3ilhelm 4chernus for his expert subediting of the individual articles and 4tephanie )eu for her helpful organizational support. 'amburgandParis 6une #7

Peter'5hn 6ohn Pier 3olf 4chmid 68rg 4ch8nert

Author Jörg Schönert 1 Definition The author (real or empirical) can be defined in a narrow sense as the intellectual creator of a text written for communicative purposes. In written texts in particular, the real author is distinguished from the me diating instances internal to the text (cf. !.1) (" mediac# and narrative mediation). $e#ond linguisticall# created wor%s, the term author is also used for wor%s in other media such as music and the visual arts as well as for comics, photograph#, film, radio and television programs, and computer games. A broader understanding of the term author is used in the following contexts, among others& as conve#or of action in a socio'cultural con text (cf. !.) in the sense of specific cultural'historicall# relevant con ceptions of authorship as a unif#ing instance in the interrelation of wor%s (œuvre) as a reference for classification in terms of epoch and canon and as an important point of reference for the meanings ascribed to wor%s through which the recipient can determine the author*s inten tion and+or author'related contexts relevant to understanding a wor% (cf. !.!). ! xplication During the !- th centur#, a broad spectrum of how the author is under stood was developed in scholarl# circles& for framing concrete contexts (e.g. producer of cultural goods/) for abstract author functions (e.g. causa efficiens ) for concepts of the author relevant for understanding such as the " implied author. 0nli%e the dominant tendencies in the intensive discussions conducted since 1- on the status and under standing of the author, this anal#sis will focus on the author*s narra tological relevance.

!

Author

!.1 2ommunicative Instances in 3arrative 4epresentations As in other domains, it holds for narratological anal#sis that the real author is held responsible for the communicative intention and form of a narrativel# organi5ed wor% (on the roles of the author in literar# com munication, see 6%opie7'89awi7s%a 1:1 ;ieguth 1:ilton during the 4omantic period). These t#pes of construction can refer to the totali t# of an author *s wor% (cf. œuvre author or career author? $ooth 1::& 11) or to representative individual wor%s. 8ince the [email protected] centur#, there has been a culturall# significant need to fall bac% on the author for interpretative processes and value udgments of an artistic wor% based on the creative act, authenticit#, individualit#, srcinalit#, unit# of the wor% and its depth of meaning. ;rom this per spective, the definition of authoralism/ in $enedetti*s sense (1& @B 1!) is based on the experience that in the modern era it is impossible for a wor% of art to exist except as a product of an author/ (1-)?as being authored/ (:[email protected]). A culturall# (and legall#) important result of this is that the authenticit# of a wor% is attested with reference to the real author as its srcinator, which is significant, for instance, in the editing of texts (cf. $ohnen%amp !--!). An author'related reception focuses on the intention, attributed to the author, to conve# a particular understanding of his wor%. In this sense, the wor% can also be seen as an expression of the author*s per sonalit# (including his feelings, opinions, %nowledge and values). In particular, differing conceptions of author and authorship determine,

Author



alongside concerns historiographic, editorial(cf. practices, the ascription of ofmeaning to literar#classificator# texts withinand scholarl# 8poerhase !--:) and non'scholarl# circles as a result of biographical reference to the author, e.g., or with reference to the author*s intention, reconstructed in a largel# hermeneutic manner. In practical criticism, inclusion of the author as a categor# for textual interpretation is accept' ed (cf. annidis et al. eds. 1& !!BC), this approach often being adopt' ed in the author'critical/ problematics of literar# theor# and method' olog# (annidis !---& @ =in%o !--!). An alternative concept is mar%ed b# the term author function/& the author as an individual person is held to be external to his wor%?as is maintained b# ;oucault, for example?so that in the reception of the wor%, he can be ignored as a reference point for the ascription of mean ing. In a wa# that varies historicall# and culturall#, the author is inte' grated into (discursivel# ordered) functional contexts, such as proprie' tar# or legal concerns, or into classifications of cultural communica tion. The resulting author functions are thus not to be related to con crete individuals, but rather assigned, for example, to discourses or to intertextual constellations. !. Author as a 8ocial 4ole 2reatorship gives rise to certain conseEuences in a social context such as legal implications regarding a claim to intellectual propert# (cop# right) or the author*s legal responsibilit# for the effects of his wor%. These and other aspects (e.g. srcin, education , patronage, mar%et and media dependenc#, author'publisher relationships, ro#alties and hon ors, author groups and interest groups) are the concerns of the social histor# of the author, bro%en down into subsections such as the histor# of producers and distributors (cf. Fger 1! Ga#nes !--odern Heriod =ith the invention of the printing press, a public sphere based on writ ten language was established for which, both in the dominant scholarl# literature and in the diversified sphere of belles lettres , the individual it# of the author as well as the authenticit# of the single wor% and reli able copies (guaranteed b# printing) gained progressivel# in impor' tance. In literature, the author model of the poeta eruditus and the poeta doctus dominated starting from the time of Gumanism. ;or these texts, interpretation/ was not the appropriate form of anal#sis, but commentar#,/ relating the text to previous sources bac%ed up with authorit#/ (cf. 8chol5 1& C:Bid'!-th 2entur# As a result of var#ing national cultural developments in urope, the au thor developed into a legal instance in the course of the [email protected] th centur#, acEuiring material entitlements vis'N'vis publishers, reEuiring protec tion against unauthori5ed reprints and plagiarism, and bearing personal responsibilit# for the content of his publications (e.g. $osse 1@1 Gesse 11 as5i O =oodmansee eds. 1C). =ith the development of the obective conditions lin%ed to creating factual and fictional texts for mar%et'led public communication, the term author became a value'free collective name to which professional designations such as writer (Skribent , Schriftsteller , écrivain, etc.) as well as evaluative classi fica tions such as poet+Dichter could be assigned. A broad spectrum of pat terns of individual and collective authorship developed (cf. Ga#nes !--ust reference to the author*s intention represe nt an alternative to the implied author , or can author*s intention and implied author complement one another in the ascription of meaning (cf. Kindt O >Qller !--J)S 8hould refer ence to the real and+or implied author in an# wa# constrain the random ness of meaning+significances ascribed through reader activit#S In the ascription of meaning to texts, which characteristic relations can be identified for the reader*s construction of the real author, the implied author and the narrative instance (cf. narrator)S Is the implied author a meaningful anal#tical categor# onl# for literar# texts, or also for our' nalistic and historiographical textsS (Translated b# Alexander 8tarritt) < $ibliograph# innis, (1@C). Medieval $heor& of Authorship3 Scholastic Attitudes in the =aterAlastair Middle .Ages . ondon& 8cholar Hress. 6%opie7'89awi7s%a, Alexandra (1:1U 1:inneapolis& 0 of >innesota H. 8chaff, $arbara (!--!). Der Autor als 8imulant authentischer rfahrung. Mier ;allbei spiele fingierter Autorschaft./ G. Detering (ed). Autorschaft3 Positionen und 4evisionen. 8tuttgart& >et5ler, C!JBC. 8chmidt, 8iegfried . (1@!). 5oundations for the %mpirical Stud& of =iterature3 $he 'omponents of a
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