Pendragon Lands of Tristram

July 20, 2017 | Author: ze_jerem | Category: Tristan, King Arthur, Cornwall, Sub Roman Britain, Welsh Mythology
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Lands of Tristram The Realms of the Dumnonians: Cornwall and Brittany in the Age of Arthur by Jeff Erwin

“Unfryd wyf yn y fro deg / A Thrystan uthr ar osteg” “Unamity have I, in the sweet country / with Trystan, terrible in silence” -Dafydd ap Gwilym

Thanks to Kat, Mom, Dad (for introducing me to Pendragon), Jeremy, Michael, Chris, Gen

Contents Introduction Chapter 1 – Cornwall Overview of Regions History Cultural Details Lords and Officers Round Table Knights of Cornwall Chapter 2 – Gazetteer of Cornwall The Isles of Scilly The Channel Isles Chapter 3 – Brittany Overview of Regions History Cultural Details Lords and Officers Round Table Knights of Brittany Chapter 4 – Gazetteer of Brittany Chapter 5 – Character Creation Family History and Timeline Chapter 6 – Encounters Strangers, Friends and Foes Tristram’s Stables, Kennels and Swords Standard Encounters Appendices Travelling the Narrow Sea Chronology of Sir Tristram Chronology of Cornwall and Brittany after 531 List of the Rulers of Cornwall and Brittany Fief data for Cornwall and Brittany Author’s Notes and Bibliography

Introduction What is this book? This work concerns Cornwall, Brittany and source material for the adventures of Sir Tristram, three core aspects of Arthurian romance for King Arthur Pendragon. What other books do I need? The main rules to King Arthur Pendragon are required to use this supplement fully. The following other books are useful, in rough order of importance: The Boy King, Lordly Domains, Pagan Shore and Savage Mountains. Tales of Magic and Miracles contains an adventure set in Cornwall. What is the Tristan Cycle? The Tristan Cycle was one of two major character driven traditions that contributed to the final form of the Arthurian legend as found in Malory (the other was the stories about Lancelot, which were in fact fewer). Both the Tristan (or, as Malory and the English call him, Tristram) and Lancelot cycles were first developed by continental authors with various connections to the Breton traditional lais and Northern French courtly society in the twelfth century. The Tristan cycle defines the legendary geography and Arthurian dimensions of Cornwall and Brittany through Tristram’s wanderings. The earliest known versions of the story of Tristan were written down in the second half of the twelfth century. The story was only tangentally related to the Arthurian legends; in some versions Arthur is still alive and in others he seems to be a figure of the recent past. In either case the story was initially set in the era called in Pendragon, the Downfall. The basic story concerns one Tristan, the nephew of King Marc of Cornwall. Tristan volunteers to face the champion of the Irish, who have been demanding tribute from the Cornish for many years. This champion, called “Le Morholt,” is to his surprise, killed by the young hero, but not before wounding Tristan with his poisoned spear. Tristan’s sword chips as he inflicts the fatal head wound that fells the Irishman, leaving a sliver of steel in the dead man’s scalp. Tristan languishes from his wound, and finally it is decided to send him to Ireland, based on the theory that the makers of the poison must know its antidote. Tristan, calling himself “Tantris” is succored by the young daughter of the king of Ireland, named Isolde, and an innocent romance develops between the two. Isolde is Le Morholt’s neice through her mother. Finally, Isolde’s father, beset by a marauding dragon, offers his daughter’s hand to its slayer. Tristan, still incognito, kills the creature, but not before the monster’s evil breath lays him

low. The king’s steward pretends to have killed the beast, a claim which is ultimately refuted by Tristan, though not before it becomes known that he is the killer of Le Morholt. Thus Tristan is only permitted to leave Ireland alive, and is not wed to Isolde. A while later, Marc, counseled by his barons to take a wife, resolves to marry the woman whose golden hair is in the beak of a passing bird. Tristan, however is able to identify the woman, so Marc’s jest becomes his duty—to fetch Isolde to Cornwall to wed his uncle. Again Tristan is confronted by the king of Ireland. This time, Tristan defends the king in a trial by combat. Thus he is permitted to take the king’s daughter to his liege, though Isolde’s father openly prefers the valiant young man to the middle-aged Marc. As the two sail back to Cornwall, Tristan and Isolde mistakenly drink a love philtre meant for the princess’s wedding night, and are overwhelmed by passion. Their hearts troubled, they recruit Isolde’s handmaiden Brangain, who it is proposed, will take her mistress’s place in Marc’s bed under cover of darkness, so as to keep Isolde’s lost virginity a secret. Isolde and Marc are married in great pomp and ceremony. Isolde secretly plans to have her servant killed, but changes her mind. She and Tristan also tryst under the nose of her husband, and are eventually discovered. After using trickery and legalism to preserve their affair, finally they must flee to the woods. In due time, Isolde leaves Tristan and goes back to Marc. Tristan, saddened, goes to Brittany as a knight errant. There he saves the kingdom of Hoel, and is engaged and wed to his daughter, also known as Isolde. Tristan’s songs of bittersweet love were mistaken by Hoel’s son Kaherdin as signs of affection for his sister. However, Tristan does not consummate the wedding. When Kaherdin is nearly caught by a jealous husband whose wife he had been lying with, Tristan is badly wounded saving his brother-in-law. He asks that a message be sent to Isolde of Cornwall. If she will come to see him and heal him, the ship she comes upon will bear white sails, otherwise, they will be black. In jealous pique, Isolde of Brittany lies and tells her husband that the sails are black. Filled with sorrow, Tristan dies. His paramour arrives, and seeing his dead form, kills herself. The two are buried together, and two vines grow from the grave and intermingle. This original tale was subsumed by a longer epic called the “Prose Tristan” composed between 1325-50. This version (and the interlocking “Post-Vulgate” which combines the saga with the Vulgate romance) was the basis of the sections of La Morte Darthur called “Sir Tristram of Lyonesse.” In it, the storyline diverges after the discovery of the affair. Tristram escapes from Cornwall without Isolde and goes to Brittany. Instead of dying there, he abandons his wife and returns to Britain, taking part in adventures and interacting frequently with Round Table knights. From time to time he uses various pretenses and disguises to continue his adulterous liaisons with Isolde.

Eventually discovered, and since the matter is beyond doubt, Mark is forced to condemn his wife and nephew to death. The two lovers escape to Lancelot’s castle of Joyeuse Garde. Tristram joins the Round Table at this time. Mark, determined to avenge his honor, secretly goes to Logres, but is unmasked by Tristram’s friends and forced to make peace. Tristram swears to end the relationship and Isolde rejoins her husband. However, Mark reneges, imprisoning his wife in Tintagel and later his nephew as well. Cornwall plunges into civil war. Perceval, still a young knight, rescues Tristram and Tristram takes Isolde with him into the forest. However, Tristram, as a Round Table knight, is obliged to pursue the Grail and put aside his sin. Consequently, Isolde returns to Cornwall and his badly treated by Mark. Tristram leaves the Grail Quest, comes to Cornwall and finds the castle where is love is held. Breaking in, he begins to play a song to her. When Mark hears him, he bursts in, and slays Tristram with a glaive. Isolde dies in the crushing rictus of her dead lover. Mark then rebels against Arthur and allies with Mordred. He destroys Camelot and burns the Round Table, and is eventually killed by a few surviving knights of Arthur. Sidebar: Who was Tristram? Tristram is one of a number of Arthurian knights (like Sir Ywaine) who seems to have arisen out of a historical individual. In Tristram’s case, there may have been more than one. The Welsh called him “Trystan ap Tallwch”—a name derived from the Pictish king Drustan, son of Talorcan, who reigned about 780. In fact both Drust and Drustan, and the father’s name Talorcan seem to be common Pictish names, so even this identification is unsure. However a real sixth century personage was also commemorated on a standing stone near Castle Dore in Cornwall named “Drustan son of Cunomorus”—and from the biography of St. Pol Aurelian we are told that Mark was also called Cunomorus and was therefore identical to the Breton historical figure “Comorre.” This Comorre ruled northwestern Brittany in the 550s and 560s. In any case, the Bretons, who seem to have created the Tristram story in its recognizable form, placed Tristram in Cornwall. Whether they were misattributing a story belonging at first to a northern hero is unclear; but certainly the evidence suggests a man by that name lived in Cornwall a generation or more after the historical Arthur. [Inset Box: The Welsh Triads The oldest, now mostly lost, Welsh stories about Tristram are alluded to in the medieval Welsh Triads, short epigraphic poems about legendary individuals. These translations come from Rachel Bromwich’s The Welsh Triads: TRIAD 19 Three Enemy-Subduers of the Island of Britain:

Greidiawl Enemy-Subduer son of Envael Adrann, and Gweir of Great Valour, and Drystan son of Tallwch. TRIAD 21 Three Battle-Diademed Men of the Island of Britain: Drystan son of Tallwch, and Hueil son of Caw, and Cai son of Cenyr of the Fine Beard. And one was diademed above the three of them: that was Bedwyr son of Bedrawc. TRIAD 26 Drystan son of Tallwch, who guarded the swine of March son of Meirchiawn, while the swineherd went to ask Essyllt to come to a meeting with him. And Arthur was seeking (to obtain) one pig from among them, either by deceit or by force, but he did not get it; And Pryderi son of Pwyll, Lord of Annwfn, who guarded the swine of Pendaran Dyfed in Glyn Cuch in Emlyn; And Coll son of Collfrewy, who guarded Henwen, the sow of Dallwyr Dallben… TRIAD 71 Three Lovers of the Island of Britain: Cynon son of Clydno (for Morfudd daughter of Urien); and Caswallawn son of Beli (for Fflur daughter of Ugnach(?) the Dwarf); and Drystan (son of Tallwch, for Essyllt, the wife of his uncle March). TRIAD 72 Three Stubborn Men: E(i)ddilig the Dwarf, and Gwair of Great Valour, and Drystan. TRIAD 73 Three Peers of Arthur's Court: R(a)hawd son of Morgant, and Dalldaf son of Cunyn Cof, and Drystan son of March. TRIAD 80 Three Faithless Wives of the Island of Britain. Three daughters of Culfanawyd of Britain:b Essyllt Fair-Hair (Trystan's mistress), and Penarwan (wife of Owain son of Urien),

and Bun, wife of Fflamddwyn. And one was more faithless than those three: Gwenhwyfar, Arthur's wife, since she shamed a better man than any (of the others).] The story of Cornwall and Brittany is supplemented by a few independent traditions; the Bretons, for instance, describe a semi-historical series of dukes and kings in their country who are associated with Arthur and his family. Independently, the Percival Continuations (additional stories tacked onto Chretien’s Percival) have episodes which take place in these regions. The Continuations (including Caradoc, in the First Continuation, and the tournament at Lancien in the Fourth Continuation) are only with difficulty fitted into the Malory-Vulgate chronology; the Boy King places them in the middle to late 540s. Caradoc, while interesting, requires revision to use as an adventure, since it combines episodes we might expect in Phase 2 with episodes of Phase 3 or even 4. Other Cornish or Breton venues exist in such romances as Guiron le Courtois, Palamede, Meliadus, Durmart le Galois, Meliador and the German Parzival. Many early romances from the era of the Perceval romances (c. 1200) place Arthur’s court at Nantes. By the time of Malory, the English tradition of Duke Cador of Cornwall (a major figure in Geoffrey of Monmouth and to a certain degree, Welsh works as well) exists somewhat inconveniently alongside Mark – though since he belongs to the Devon dynasty he is here interpreted as simply a ruler of a different region of Cornwall. Pseudo-historical materials, like genealogies, place Cador as Mark’s predecessor. Cador appears as a young knight of Cornwall in the Perceval Continuations, where Mark is a fairly minor character. In any case, the archaeological evidence makes it clear that several subkingdoms co-existed in Dark Age Dumnonia. Lancelot and his family are tangentally related to Brittany—it is theorized by some that Ganis or Gannes is a version of Vannes, in lower Brittany (Guened in Breton). The antecedents of Trebes and other places mentioned in the boyhood legend of Lancelot seem to be in the Loire region. However, the exact relationship of these places to the real geography of France became obscure at an early point. Malory’s placement of Ganis as Guienne was an innovation, but not an unhappy one, since the mythic history of Lancelot’s forebearers is hard to wedge into the known chronology of Brittany and the Val de Loire. Running a Campaign Unlike previous supplements for Pendragon centered on regions outside Logres, the environments of Brittany and Cornwall are quite similar to conventional campaigns; only some of the cultural and historical background differ. This means that a gamemaster choosing one or both of these places to set the game

will find the job easier and much more akin to a campaign primarily set in Logres. Although this book, like the core rules, assumes a present day of 531, a campaign can be set rather easily at any period in the Pendragon timeline. 531 is a year in which both countries are at peace and are prosperous, like Logres under Arthur. Cornwall and Brittany, however, devolve into a grimmer sort of milieu rather faster (Cornwall with the civil war in 550, Brittany with the war of 536-7, the death of Hoel in 544 and the first signs of the coming disaster). They also have a grittier feel between 491 and 514 as rivals and enemies of Arthur are in power. The gamemaster always has the option of relocating the PCs as exiles in these eras. The main question, particularly for Cornish based campaigns, is the nature of the PCs interactions with King Mark and Tristram. Any campaign set in the 530s particularly has to confront this; either figure is dangerous both as a friend and an enemy. King Mark is a wealthy, and while cynical and ruthless, intelligent and human figure; his rival and protégé is, on the other hand, good-hearted, but reckless. His passions rule him, and he is infamous for killing both friends and enemies through accidents in ambush. Brittany is later embroiled in a nasty civil war through the machinations of Mark and his ally Morgan le Fay. As with the campaign in Logres, siding with Arthur and chivalry is not always and ultimately profitable.

Glossary of Breton and Cornish These languages are substantially derived from the same base as Cymric or Welsh. There are many similarities between Cornish and Breton (indeed, Breton sailors had little difficulty being understood in medieval Cornwall). There are several main differences of orthography and pronunciation in these languages from Cymric. Where dd (pronounced roughly dh) is found in Cymric, Breton has z and Cornish th or dh. Breton also has z in place of th. The ending –og in Cymric is found as –ek. Ll (pronounced hl) becomes a simple L. F (pronounced v) becomes v. Ff (pronounced f) becomes f. Breton ranks are found in Chapter 3. Cornish terminology (properly transliterated) is similar to tribal Cambrian usage, found in Savage Mountains. Names in parathenses are not cognate. English Arthur Gawain Gorlois Guenevere Hoel, Howell Mark Merlin Mordred Tristram Ywaine

Breton Arzur Walchwyn Gorloes Guénofre Hoel Marc’h Merzin Medrod Tristan Ewen

Britain Brittany Cornwall “Land of” Logres

Breizh Veur Breizh Kernev Bro-

God The Virgin Mary

Doue Gwerc’hez Mari

King Lady Lord Queen Witch Wizard


Cornish Arthur Gawen Gorles Jennifer Howel Margh Merdhyn Medrod Trystan Ewen

Cymric Arthur Gwalchmai Gwrles Gwenhwyfar Hywel March Myrddin Medraut Trystan Owain

Breten Breten Vyghan Kernew Bro-

Prydain (Llydaw) Cornyw Lloegr

Aoutrou (Rouanez)

Duw Gwyryf Mair (Brenin) Arluthes Arluth Myternes Pestroyes Pystryor

Arglwydd (Brenhines)

French Gaul(s) Saxon(s)

Frañsez(ion) Gall(aou) Saoz(on)

Ffran(-cwr/geg) Gâl(eg) Saes(neg)

Boy Child Father Girl Man Mother Woman Youth

Bugel Tad Merc’h Den Mamm Maouez Yaouank

Bird Boar Cat Dog Horse Pig

Evn Hoc’h-gouez Kazh Ki Marc’h Pemoc’h

Edhen Bath Cath Ky Margh Hogh

Beach, Strand Coast Cove Ford Forest Hill Island Meadow Moor Mountain Pool, Water River Rock Sea (Ocean) Tree(s) Valley Water Wind

Traezh Aod


Boat Bridge Castle


Rodoez Koad Bre Enez (Lann) Menez Loc’h Aven Men Mor (Traoñ)

Tas (Mowes) Mam (Benan)

Poll Rys Bre Pras Ros Menydh Logh Avon Men Mor Gwedh Nans Dowr

Baedd Cath March

Rhyd Coet Bre

Rhos(tir) Mynydd Llwch Afon


Avel Bag Pont Kestell

Pons Castell



Iliz Lan Lez

Court Fair, Festival Fort Dwelling Hall Hillfort House Marsh Mine Muster, Levy Road

(Kreñv) Ti Palud (Min) Coufranc Hent

Autumn Day Night Spring Summer Sun Winter Year

Kozhamzer Deiz Noz Nevezamzer Hañv Heol Goañv Bloaz

Gold Silver Table Wine

Aour Arc’hant Daol Gwin

One Two Three Four Five Six Seven Eight Nine Ten Twenty Forty Hundred

Un Daou Tri Pevar Pemp C’hwec’h Seizh Eizh Nav Dek Ugent Daou-Ugent Kant




Eglos Lann Lys Goel Ker Bod Hel Dinas Chi (Goethel) Bal Kevran


Eglwys Llan Llys Caer

Din Ty (Mywnglawdd) Cyfranc



Un Deu Try Peswar Pymp Whegh Seyth Eth Naw Dek

Un Dau Tri Pedwar Pump Chwech Saith Wyth Naw Deg

Blue Gray Green Red White Yellow

Glas Gwer Ruz Gwenn Melen

Good Great New Old Over Small

Mad Meur Nevez Kozh GorBihan

Goodbye Welcome

Kenavo Digemer mad

Loes Ruth Melen



(Hen) GwrFychan

Chapter 1 Cornwall The Kingdom of Cornwall covers much of the southwest of Britain, from the river Parrett on the border with Somerset to Land’s End. The Kingdom is also called Dumnonia (in Latin) or Dyfnaint (in Cymric). Within the Kingdom is the fiefs held of and by King Mark, the King of Cornwall, and the semi-independent lands of Devon and Lyonesse. Cornwall is a rich region of Britain, but its wealth is not based on grain or wool as in Logres. Instead, Cornwall depends on trade in tin, a valuable metal, iron, slaves, fish and wine imported from the continent. Cornwall includes only one city: Exeter, an autonomous Roman settlement in Devon. It has many towns, however: Albine, in Lyonesse, Launceton, Padstow, Bodmin, Totnes, Bantham, Barnstaple, Taunton, Plympton and Truro are the principal ones. Cornwall is divided into eight regions: Artavia and the Moors or Artavia is the region between the Tamar, Exmoor and Dartmoor, a wild region, governed by small barons, many of whom are resistant to Mark or Cador’s authority and are essentially bandits. The region is dominated by the valleys of the Torric and the Taw. The largest landowners are Segwarides of Okehampton, who helps to keep the roads safe and protect travelers, Brun of Branlant, a notorious but honorable lord, Galaian of Hartland, a fearsome raider, and others. Mark has attempted to sway some of the lords to his side to bring the region under control. Artavia is a wooded, inhospitable country, though it is beautiful. It consists of 13 kevrans (a kevran is a Cornish word meaning “war-band”—each corresponds to a hundred in English or a cantref in Welsh). Cornubia is the politically fragmented and semi-Pagan territory between the Camel, the Tamar and Lyonesse. No-one rules Cornubia outright, although most of the landowners have sworn fealty to King Mark. There are five main holdings here: Wivelshire, held by King Mark himself, being between the Fowey and the Tamar; Vawse, a small fief held by a woman on the upper Fowey towards Bodmin Moor; Pydar, the coast between the Camel and Lyonesse, held by Fergus; Blanches Mores, around St. Austell, held by Lady Albe, the wife of Bleheri de Ganis; and Truro, on the border with Lyonesse. There are also many tiny holdings in the region: castles, villages and religious sites. It consists of 5 kevrans.

Devon is the region around Exeter, the old heartland of the Dumnonii tribe, ruled by Duke Cador, a loyal baron of King Arthur. Cador barely recognizes the suzerainry of Mark and grants him neither tribute or men. In the last century, the Kingdom of Cornwall belonged rulers more closely related to Cador’s family, a fact he has not forgotten. This is the most feudalized and civilized part of Cornwall. It has been both Romanized and fully incorporated into Arthur’s new chivalry. It consists of 10 kevrans. Cador is Arthur’s Duke of the Southwest, the military commander of the High King’s forces in the area. It is Cador, not Mark, who leads the Cornish into battle outside Britain. Cador is also governor of the High King’s lands in the region, including Launceton. Dunster is a wild area north of Devon also held by Cador, originally as a frontier against the Cambrians. Cador ruled this region as a young man (from 508-517) before the death of his father Geraint. Dunster was also the home of Queen Guenevere and other royalty of Britain during the turmoil of the rebellion and the Saxon wars, as it was a place of some safety. Lyonesse is a sub-Kingdom or Pennath holding covering the region west of Truro to Land’s End. It was granted by Duke Gorlois to Meliodas, a landless nobleman from Brittany between 490 to 492. Meliodas was betrothed to Elizabeth, whom he later married and by whom was the father of Sir Tristram. Since Sir Tristram’s return from the continent, his father has granted him much of his holdings. Lyonesse is a very traditional country, the center of Cornish Paganism and one of the richest parts of Cornwall. The town of Albine, or Ictis, is one of the main trading ports with France, Gaul and Spain. Lyonesse is made up of 2 large kevrans. Lys, also called the Adventurous Marshes, is the western portion of the Somerset Levels within the borders of Cornwall. It is ruled by Guenloie, an independent sovereign. She is the widow of Sir Yder and a kinswoman of the royal house of Somerset as well as the sister of the old Lady of Avalon, Bagdemagus of Gorre’s wife. Lys is an enchanted wilderness. Tintagel is a Duchy on the northern coast, between the Camel and the Tamar. This was the main fief of Gorlois before his rebellion against Uther. Uther divided the Duchy in two, giving half to his new wife, Igraine, Gorlois’ widow, and the other half (including the castle itself) he entrusted for life to Eliduc, a knight from Brittany. Eliduc was the step-father of Yder. Eliduc was eventually swayed to the rebel side when Arthur took the throne, but submitted after the battle of Terrabel. He surrendered lands that had belonged to Igraine to the High King, who now holds them independent of King Mark: Kelliwic and Launceton.

Eliduc was killed in France in the recent war. His widow Guilladun , an infamous witch, surrendered the castle to King Mark, who confirmed the stewardship of the elderly Sir Jordans. Since then the King of Cornwall has held court here, drawing attention to the fact that he is the nephew of Gorlois. It isn’t clear what the High King’s Justice would demand in this matter. Some believe that one of Gorlois’ daughters deserves to be Duchess. Tintagel consists of 3 kevrans. Totnes is King Mark’s fief which he received from old King Yder. It is a trading, fishing and mining region, with most of the people living on the coast. Totnes was seized by Saxon raiders in 517, who devastated the region, which is still recovering. Mark has since moved his court to Castle Dore in Cornubia and Tintagel castle. Totnes includes 9 kevrans. Legendary Dumnonia It is asserted that the first ruler of Dumnonia was Corineus, a Trojan companion of Brutus who had escaped the destruction of Ilium and settled in southern Italy. Corineus was possessed of great strength and valor, and personally wrestled and defeated the giant chieftain Gogmagog near Mount Batten in Wivelshire. Brutus gave Corineus the whole southwestern peninsula of Britain, which became known as “Cornovia.” Corineus had a daughter named Gwendolen, who wed Brutus’ son Locrine. The High Kingship thus became linked to Cornwall and often was held by the Cornish king. The most sacred part of Cornwall was called Lyonesse, and became the seat of priest-kings. Gwendolen was a strong queen and when she was set aside by her husband, she led her people in war against the High King. She defeated Locrine and he drowned in the battle; thereafter she was High Queen. Her son Maddan succeeded to both Logres and Cornwall. Eventually the countries became divided again. Centuries later, after the death of Queen Cordelia (the daughter of King Lear), the Dukes of Cornwall returned to the high kingship. Their dynasty was troubled by family quarrels and civil war. Eventually one Dunwallo Mulmutius became ruler of Cornwall, conquered Logres and established the law under which the Cornish still live (the Mulmutian Code).

Celtic Dumnonia At the time of the advent of the Romans, the Dumnonii were one of a number of tribes who worshipped a diety known as the “Dark One:” Dumna or Dumnos, sometimes connected to the sea. The Irish equivalent would seem to be Crom Dubh. Dumnonii tribes existed in the lowlands of North Britain (Strangore), in

Ireland (Laigin) and perhaps in Armorica; these are all regions that have special significance in Cornish and Breton history. Trade existed as early as the fourth century BC with the Greeks. Prior to the destruction of the Armorican Veneti by Julius Caesar in 56 BC, the area now known as Cornwall was economically and socially linked to northwestern Gaul. The Dumnonii, as allies of the Veneti, were thrown into both economic and political turmoil by Caesar’s triumph, and apparently did not recover their unity until 30 AD. The center of power of the old Dumnonii appears to be in the west, in the areas close to the tin industry and the old fort of Durocornovium (now known as Tintagel). At least two kingdoms existed: Cornwall itself, based out of Tintagel, and Lyonesse, around Land’s End and the Scillies. Lyonesse may well have been a cross-channel confederacy, and had strong links to the High Kingship of Britain.

Roman Dumnonia The Dumnonii were ruled at the time of the Roman invasion of Britain (AD 4358) by King Cichoriades; their relatives, the Durotriges of Somerset, Jagent and Dorset, were ruled by Arviragus. Arviragus was an opponent of Rome and his kingdom fell bloodily in the reign of the emperor Vespasian, in AD 60-61. However his cousin Cichoriades offered no resistance; his people had been engaged in lucrative trade with the Mediterranean since the Phoenicians, and had seen first hand the results of resistance in the Veneti. Cichoriades also had to contend with the expensive and demoralizing tribute to the King of Laigin (Leinster) in Ireland, instituted in the reign of his father Canor. With Roman help, the Cornish could refuse this. The Romans, with Dumnonian assistance, built military outposts at Isca (Exeter) and at Topsham (a small naval base) as well as small fortlets along the main routes to Cirencester and Dorchester, but Roman influence and power did not extend much beyond the Exe. Exeter was the fortress of the Roman Legio II Augustus, a famed unit. Their presence encouraged the development of a town, the first major one in Dumnonia. In the 80s the Legion was moved to Caerlion, but the settlement persisted and became the capital of the Dumnonian tribe. Cichoriades’ successor was Apollo (in Cymric, Afallach), a relative of Arviragus, whose family had regained some of their former authority, this time under Roman auspices. The Roman presence was scaled back to units of the auxiliary cavalry. Dumnonia receded into static unimportance within the Empire. The last king directly traceable to Apollo was Metilamdes, who lived in the first half of the 3rd century. A Roman of the Praetorian Guard and admiral named Aesclepiodotus became chieftain of the Dumnonii between 296 to 306, when he was killed by

Constantius, the emperor. After Aesclepiodotus (who gained his position by marriage with a princess), members of a Silurian dynasty (from what is later Escavalon) became the most prominent nobles in Cornwall. The later Kings of Cornwall are all descended from these “kings.”

Duke Gorlois and the House of Cleges Sir Cleges of Cardiff, a baron of Escavalon, was the father of Gorlois and the paternal grandfather of King Mark. (His story is told in the Middle English poem “Sir Cleges.”) To the Cymry he is known as Glywys. Sir Cleges lived in the reigns of Aurelius and Uther, and although of royal blood, was a poor knight. His wife Clarys (or Gwawl) was the granddaughter of Cunedda. Cleges’ poverty was a result of his great generosity. When Prince Uther went to Cardiff at Christmastide in 467, the expense ruined Cleges. A miracle restored his fortunes, for his cherry tree gave fruit in the midwinter; the remarkable gift to the Prince caused Uther to give him lands and titles. Ironically, it was at this feast that Cleges’ son Gorlois met Igraine, the Duchess of Tintagel. Cleges’ eldest son was Guinloit (Gwynllw), the present Lord of Cardiff and father of St. Cadog. Another of his sons was St. Petroc, now the abbot of Bodmin and Padstow. His son Sir Cleges the Younger became a Round Table knight and the godfather of the famous Sir Cligés, born in 524. This Sir Cleges was one of the lovers of Guenloie of Lys, and served as Arthur’s standard bearer in several early battles. Another kin of this family was Corneus, the Duke of Lindsey, father of Sir Bedivere. The Arms of the men of the house of Cleges are Green, for growth and life, and they set charges upon it; Cleges adopted a cherry-tree proper. Many of Cleges’ descendants live in Cornwall; most of the others live in Escavalon. Duke Gorlois, until the rise of King Mark, was the most famous member of the family. Gorlois was originally named Hoel, but acquired his new name “Gorlois” or “Gwrles” “Great-purity” because of his Roman sense of morality. Gorlois was an early companion of the sons of Ambrosius and profited from their triumph. He was loved in Cornwall for his effective defense against the Irish and wild Cymry of Cambria. Although he inherited (by marriage) or was given large parts of the former royal demense of Cornwall, he never claimed the throne, perhaps in deference to the senior claim of Prince Erbin of Devon. Gorlois bore a combination of his paternal arms with the old arms of Dumnonia: Vert, three lions’ heads between a chevron or. Old partisans of the Duke often bear green or lions in their arms. Sir Ulfius was wed to Gorlois’ sister. Ulfius (born at Ridcaradoch, in Wivelshire) was one of the kinsmen of Gorlois who betrayed him, helping Uther’s army to conquer Cornwall. After Gorlois was killed, the lands he had gained along the

Thames valley from the Saxons were granted to Ulfius, who became Duke of Silchester.

The House of Eliduc Sir Eliduc was a knight of Brittany, a banneret knight to King Meliau (about 470). His wife Guildeleuc, was of higher birth, a kinswoman to the King, and she had lands in Léon, the origin of his title. About 480 Riwal, Meliau’s brother-in-law, began consolidating control of Brittany, at first as an ally of the King. Riwal’s men spread lies about Eliduc’s conduct and deeds so he feared for his life. Meliau believed the stories, so Eliduc decided to become a mercenary in Britain, with ten of his men, and arrived in Totnes. After the murder of Ambrosius that year Britain had been troubled and ambitious rivals and rebels had united to seize control of Cornwall from Gorlois and Erbin, the prince of Devon. Eliduc came to the aid of Erbin and defeated the marauders. He was granted lands in Devon which was taken from the rebels; he also attracted the attentions of Erbin’s true-born daughter Guilliadun, who was a pagan priestess. (Erbin’s daughter was put aside in favor of his Christian son, Geraint, even though he was illegitimate.) Eliduc’s adulterous relationship with Guilliadun eventually caused much trouble, but for now no-one knew that he was already married. Guilliadun had a son named Idres or Edern by another lover before she ‘wed’ Eliduc. By Eliduc she had a daughter, who married the middle-aged knight Sir Jordans, the chief steward of Tintagel. When Gorlois was killed in 492, Uther appointed Eliduc to be Lord of Tintagel and governor of Igraine’s lands. He was guardian of Gorlois’ daughters, who may have learned the first lineaments of sorcery from Guilliadun. Thus Eliduc did not return to visit his wife until 502, by which time his son by her, Elîadus, was a young man. His first wife, long accustomed to solititude consented to become a nun and abbess, and took her lands (near Morlaix) and founded a religious house. Eliduc finally married Guilliadun. Elîadus came to Britain; he married a sister of the King of Norgales and had two sons, Sir Alyduke and Sir Polydamas, both later companions of the Round Table. Idres, who became known as Yder, became King of Cornwall. (His curious fate is detailed below.) Sir Jordans had two sons by Yder’s sister: Sir Patricius and Sir Davit, who succeeded him in turn as Castellan and steward of Tintagel. Eliduc died in France after the Roman ambush at Autun (527). His widow Guilliadun gave the castle of Tintagel into the care of King Mark, though some say by rights it belongs to the children of Queen Igraine.

King Idres, Sir Yder and Edern ap Nudd The story of King Idres began in 480, when he was born to Guilliadun, the daughter of Prince Erbin of Devon. She raised him in secrecy, and to those intimates she entrusted his care she did name his father. When Eliduc wed her, she finally confided her secret to her husband. Idres had already became a well-known knight and enemy of the Irish. By dint of heroism and his magical skills he took command of the remnants of the Cornish host (in 500). Within a few years, Idres was called “King” by the people, though he was never crowned. Idres chose to side with the Rebel Kings in 510. He, as a pagan, and as a chieftain of the highland regions of Britain, was as much an enemy of Logres as of the Saxons. His alignment with the elder religion gave him both strengths and strange weaknesses. Idres also conceived a hopeless amor for Princess Guenevere of Cameliard. In 514, following the defeat of the rebels (partly through the treachery of the future King Mark), Idres was presumed dead; and for most people, he was as dead as the body buried with the Twelve Kings. In the aftermath of the war, an unknown Cornish knight named Sir Yder delivered himself as a captive to Guenevere and swore allegiance to her, becoming one of her Queen’s Knights. Sir Yder, unlike Idres, was a courtly, eeriely faerie-like and chivalrous knight. Sir Yder, however, aroused the jealousy of Arthur and was sent away. Yder found himself involved in several quests and romanced several women, the most notable being Guenloie of Lys. He slew a triad of giants at Brent Knoll in Somerset, helped Gawaine defeat the giant Gargoasain, and discovered his father: Nudd, the pagan god. By Guenloie he was the father of Sir Meliant de Lys, Sir Bran de Lys and a daughter Guiloret; by other women he was the father of Sir Torec and Sir Yvonet. Yvonet was Gawaine’s squire before becoming a household knight at Camelot; Guiloret was the mother of a son named Lionel to Gawaine. Yder’s fate is uncertain. He no longer lives at Barbigoel with Guenloie, who married another man, named Sir Gilbert. Some say he rules a Faerie court at Kaer Belli. He still is seen by night, or in the midst of battle, beside the knights of Arthur. Yder has powers of shapeshifting, illusion, immense strength and handsomeness; his appearance heralds adventure; his moods are quick and wild. It is said the Mark dreads him returning for his crown. His last ordinary appearance is shortly before the second war in France (536); though he is seen at court before the wedding of Erec (546) and at the knighting of Caradues the Younger (the same year). [Inset Box] Sir Yder (in 531)

Glory 10,500 SIZ: 16 DEX: 18 STR: 17 CON: 22 APP: 18

Move 4 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 38 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 48

Attacks: Sword 23, Lance 24, Battle 18, Horsemanship 22 Significant Traits: Energetic 18, Generous 17, Pious 17, Valorous 21 Significant Passions: Loyalty (Guenevere) 19, Love (Guenloie) 16, Hospitality 18, Honor 16. Significant Skills: Faerie Lore 18, Falconry 19, Hunting 18, Romance 17, Tourney 17. Horse: Elf Charger (Move 10, Damage 8d6) Other Equipment: Magic cup, Horn of Ys Prince Geraint “Before Geraint, the enemy's scourge, I saw white horses, tensed, red, After the war cry, bitter the grave. Before Geraint, the unflinching foe, I saw horses jaded and gory from battle, After the war cry, a great driving force. Before Geraint, the enemy of tyranny, I saw horses white with foam, After the war cry, a terrible torrent. In Llongborth I saw the rage of slaughter, And biers beyond all number, And red-stained men from the assault of Geraint. In Llongborth, I saw the clash of swords, Men in terror, bloody heads, Before Geraint the Great, his father's son. In Llongborth I saw spurs, And men who did not flinch from the dread of the spears, Who drank their wine from the bright glass.

In Llongborth I saw the weapons, Of men, and blood fast dropping, After the war cry, a fearful return. In Llongborth I saw Arthur's Heroes who cut with steel. The Emperor, ruler of our labour. In Llongborth Geraint was slain, A brave man from the region of Dyvnaint, And before they were overpowered, they committed slaughter. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, wheat their fodder, Ruddy ones, swooping like spotted eagles. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, grain was given them, Ruddy ones, swooping like black eagles. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, restless over their grain, Ruddy ones, swooping like red eagles. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, grain-scattering, Ruddy ones, swooping like white eagles. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, with the pace of the stag, With a nose like that of the consuming fire on a wild mountain. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, satiated with grain, Grey ones, with their manes tipped with silver. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, well deserving of grain, Ruddy ones, swooping like grey eagles. Under the thigh of Geraint swift chargers, Long their legs, having corn for food, Ruddy ones, swooping like brown eagles.

When Geraint was born, Heaven's gate stood open; Christ granted all our prayer; Lovely to behold, the glory of Prydain.” --Elegy for Geraint, trans. John Morris Geraint, Prince of Devon, was the father of Duke Cador. A younger contemporary of Uther Pendragon, Geraint was the exemplar of post-Roman nobility and courtliness. Although he was the kinsman (by marriage) of Gorlois, and an early campaigning lieutenant of the Duke, he cultivated his family’s pretensions to the throne of Dumnonia. Over the generations, the royal line had subdivided the country until he held only Devon, Exeter, and parts of Cornubia. Besides this tribal identity, he was a firm believer in Roman ways, resurrecting and maintaining a large number of cavalry equiped as were the old Imperial troops. Geraint’s first wife was Gwyar, a daughter of Duke Amlauth, but she died in a Saxon raid during the Interregnum. During this period, Geraint conquered Dunster and the lawless hinterland of Devon, creating an oasis of peace and order in the dark years. In 511, he courted and wed Enid, the daughter of Yniol, a nobleman of Escavalon. Geraint saw Arthur as having immense potential and was loyal from the outset. He distrusted and refused to submit to King Idres, the inheritor of a pagan highland allegiance. Despite this, Idres and he were cousins and more alike than not, both being handsome, aggressive and vaguely anachronistic. In 514, Geraint and his son marched with King Arthur to rout the Danish mercenaries occupying Lyonesse and Cornubia. In the same year, Hoel married Cador’s sister Elen. As Idres’ kingdom disintegrated, Geraint’s kin consilidated control over the valley of the Torric and the Exmoors. But an upstart youth from Idres’ court, named Mark, managed to gain the crown of Dumnonia, frustrating Geraint’s long-held ambition. Forced to recognize the decision of the tribe, Geraint took to buttressing the autonomy of Devon. By the time of his death and the succession of Cador, Devon was for practical purposes a Pennath holding. In 517 Geraint was killed during the Saxon invasion, valiantly attempting to defend Longport, in Somerset. Cador, who was leading a smaller force, trapped the Saxon host near Totnes with the help of Boudin of Gloucester, King Mark’s brother. Although many saw Geraint surrounded and killed in the marsh, and his body carried to St. Gerrans in Cornubia for burial, rumors of his survival have been impossible to quell. Another folk tale says he was buried in a boat laden with gold. No one has attempted to dig at his grave mound, since it is well guarded. Geraint’s young wife Enid succeeded to one third of his lands as her widow’s portion at her husband’s death. She resigned all but Roseland to her stepson

Cador, preferring to dwell near her husband’s grave. Despite her beauty and courters, she has refused to remarry. [Inset box Prince Geraint (in 512) SIZ: 14 DEX: 15 STR: 18 CON: 17 APP: 16

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 31 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 43

Attacks: Sword 18, Lance 19, Battle 19, Horsemanship 19. Significant Traits: Energetic 17, Generous 17, Just 16, Proud 16, Valorous 19. Significant Passions: Loyalty (King Arthur) 18, Love (Enid) 17, Hospitality 17, Honor 18. Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Courtesy 16, Hunting 17, Recognize 17, Stewardship 16. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Princess Enid, Lady of Roseland (in 531) SIZ: 10 DEX: 16 STR: 11 CON: 17 APP: 21

Move 3 Damage 3d6 Hit Points 27 Armor none Age 37

Attacks: Dagger 09, Horsemanship 13. Significant Traits: Chaste 18, Energetic 15, Generous 18, Merciful 16, Proud 14, Pious 14, Valorous 16. Passions: Love (family) 16, Hospitality 16, Honor 15, Love (Geraint) 18. Significant Skills: Awareness 15, Courtesy 17, First Aid 18, Hunting 17, Intrigue 14, Orate 16, Singing 14, Tourney 14. Horse: Palfrey]

The Common People of Cornwall The people of Cornwall are divisible into the Romanized and civilized people of Devon and Totnes, their rougher country cousins of the coasts, and the tribal folk of the interior. All are Dumnonii, descendants of a tribe which worshipped the dark goddess Dumna.

Cornwall was historically the most independent part of southern Britain outside Cambria, and its people are reluctant to acknowledge authority from Camelot or London. They are seen as barbarians by the Romanized urban folk, and as crafty and untrustworthy by the tribes of Cambria. They seem to have an innate understanding and fascination with the sea; Cornish traders and sailors are found in ports throughout Logres, Cambria and Atlantic Gaul. This mercantile relationship is how they prefer it, with assimilation of culture and other influences on their own terms. However, they are cosmopolitan enough to enjoy many odd Mediterranean delicacies and luxuries that they traffic in. Cornwall was undergoing a transformation into a feudal structure at the time of Uther’s death. While Cornubia and Artavia were mainly tribal then, by the ascension of King Mark in 515 they had been subdued and enfoeffed, making the whole kingdom as advanced as Logres to the east. Cornish agriculture is barely sufficient to produce enough corn for the peninsula; their diet is centered on fish and dairy products, mostly from sheep; meat is mostly pork. Alcohol is produced from cider and beer; wine is mostly imported from Ganis, though some southern manors grow grapes for their own use. Most farming is done on communal fields, and the villages are surrounded by pasture or forest. Cornwall is warm enough to grow vegetables and fruits generally only found on the Continent, particularly on the southern coast, Lyonesse and the Scillies. The average size of a single (peasant) family farm is 18 to 20 acres. Larger holdings are the mark of poor knights and squires. There are markets at Launceton, Stratton, St. German’s, Lostwithiel, St. Ives and Camelford; because of the poor road network, much trade is brought in by sea or along the coasts in small boats.

The Jews There is a large Jewish population in Cornwall, perhaps dating to the time of the Roman conquest or before, mostly of the tribe of Asher. They are especially numerous in Exeter and in certain of the Cornish tin-trading ports: Langarrow, Albine, Bantham and Totnes. Jewish people are held to be semi-free dependents of the King (in this case, Mark), or the Duke, in the case of Exeter. Besides being merchants and money-lenders, there are many Jewish miners and tinners. The Jews of Cornwall are reasonably safe and well-treated, in part because of the Pagan population, which is uninterested in Christian theological issues. One of their number held important civil offices under Gorlois and Yder and was the father of the wealthy Phenice, Lady of Thornbush, the wife of Sir Segwarides.

The Tin-miners

Tin-mining has an ancient history in Cornwall, trade being established during the era of Carthage. The legal structure of the trade is vested in the Stannary Parliament, which handles the taxation of the smelted ore for the King. The King’s representative is the Lord Warden of the Stannaries. Tinning districts, mainly around Dartmoor, Blanches Mores and in Lyonesse are rough, poor lands, but tinners are at least partly free men. Serfs who become tinners are made free, and they are independent of all tax, except from their livelihood. The life of a tinner is a hard one, however. There are several hundred full-time tinners in Cornwall. Independent tinners operate with three main tools: an adz or shovel, a cart or barrow and a sieve for separating the tin from the earth. They mainly tin from streams. This method has been used since the very earliest days. These tinners have the indisputable right to gather tin anywhere, even on someone else’s lands. The lord only has the right to ask for a small toll if tin is actually found. The Romans introduced pit mining, a method which produces more, but means the tin must be smelted out before it is sold. The smelting business is often owned by Jewish families in the towns. Tinners are governed by their own courts, and cannot (much like members of the church) be charged or convicted under any other law. King Mark’s profits from the tax on tin vary from year to year, but between 20100 £ is typical; the Lord Warden’s primary duty is to obtain this. Official tin markets exist at Totnes and Tavistock. Tin is used in the making of pewter, bells and bronze and brass. Cornwall is the main source of tin in all Europe, so many foreign ships visit its ports expressly to buy the metal.

King Mark’s Saxons and Danes One of the mainstays of Mark’s rule is the mercenaries and foederati he acquired from Yder’s warhost, or impressed into service in the aftermath of the Saxon wars. (All call them Saxons, though they also have Frisian and Jutish members). These barbarian troops are hosted in camps near Dore, Tintagel and Totnes and serve as his sea-going troops. They are not numerous, but are striking figures around Mark’s court. The conditions of their service are unusual. Mark spared some of the Saxons he captured in order to obtain their allegiance for his new fleet and as an army distinct from the feudal levies, and forced them to swear oaths of service. He placed men of mixed or Cymric ancestry as officers amongst them and restricted their movements. As long as the king feeds and pays them, they are loyal to himand not to Cornwall. Some of Mark’s highest ranking and dangerous Germans are his bodyguard, led by the Saxon prince Elesa (called Elias by the Cornish), a cousin of the exiled house of Wessex.

These white-armored troops have seen service at sea and against Mark’s Breton enemies, but they were not trusted with defending Cornwall in the pirate raid of 530. The Cornish view them with mixtures of contempt, fear and admiration. To the common people, Tristram seems a much worthier defender of the realm.

The Irish The Irish presence in Cornwall dates to the late fourth century (367-408), as a number of sea-faring Irish tribes took advantage of the decline of Roman Britain. By the time of the restoration of order under the British High King Constantine in 415, they formed a nation of their own. At this point, they occupied large portions of Cornubia, Artavia and Dunster. The settlers were led by the Uí Liathain, a Eoghanacta tribe of southern Munster (see Pagan Shore, p.49) allied to the Déisi, who founded Estregales. Their king was one Crimthan Mór, son of Fidach. The invasion was in great part the cause of the colonization of Cornouailles at the same time. In the next generation, however (c.455), Vortigern successfully displaced many of the migrants, forcing the submission of the Irish in Artavia and Dunster and containing the Irish in Pydar. By the time of Gorlois (467-92), the Irish were simply amongst several subject peoples to the Duke. They were mainly Christianized at the same time. They did not escape the renewed Irish raids led by the Leinstermen from 493-529; their joining the native Cornish in resistance has meant that most of the hatred of the Irish found amongst the Cornish does not extend to their neighbors. Like his Saxons, Mark uses Irish troops to keep order in his dominions. The Lords and Officers of Cornwall (530-534) King Mark. “Before the main tower's portal stood King Mark, Crowned: and his face was as the face of one Long time athirst and hungering for the sun In barren thrall of bitter bonds, who now Thinks here to feel its blessing on his brow. A swart lean man, but kinglike, still of guise, With black streaked beard and cold unquiet eyes, Close-mouthed, gaunt-cheeked, wan as a morning moon, Though hardly time on his worn hair had strewn The thin first ashes from a sparing hand: Yet little fire there burnt upon the brand, And way-worn seemed he with life's wayfaring.”

--Tristram of Lyonesse (A. C. Swinburne, 1882) TRIAD 14 Three Seafarers of the Island of Britain: Geraint son of Erbin, and Gwenwynwyn son of Naf, and March son of Meirchiawn. --from the Welsh Triads The King was born in 496, the year of his father’s death in battle, and is now approaching middle-age. His hair is black, with white starting to show; he always wears a beard trimmed into two points. His father was the younger brother of Gorlois of Cornwall and a lord of southern Cambria, named Merchiawn, and his mother was Constantia, the sister of Uther. Despite Merchiawn’s loyalty to his brother, his family ties to the Pendragon meant he kept some of his lands, and his life, following the Cornish war. Merchiawn had three daughters, all rather older than Mark, the mothers of Sir Tristram and Sir Andred being the elder two. Mark had a younger twin brother, named Boudin. The birth of Mark and Boudin was a product of sorcery, for Constantia was aged. She died in childbirth, for all her spellcraft, leaving Boudin with a twisted leg, and both orphans. Mark thus was for a short while a potential heir of Britain, until the appearance of Arthur in 510, when he was fourteen. His brother grew up handsome, even with his deformity; Mark became dark and sly. Mark was made prince of Totnes by King Idres, his cousin in 512. Later in that year, he went in secret to Logres and built the monument to Lanceor and Colombe. His intentions in meeting Arthur were revealed when he betrayed the Idres in 513, garnering the High King’s debt. Over the next two years he gained control over much of Cornwall and engineered his election as King of the Dumnonians; an enthronement he ratified by calling upon his cousin Arthur’s promise. King Mark, while not a pious man, has sponsored the growth of the Celtic Christian church in Cornwall. Religious support has buttressed his power. King Mark’s first wife Tryphaine was the half-sister of Hoel of Brittany and the widow of the Count of Dumnonee. Tryphaine’s life was troubled. In 522, she was accused of adultery with the dwarf Melot (reputed to be her half-brother!). Sir Marhaus exonerated her and the conspirators who framed her were executed. She died tragically two years later in 524. Through her and her daughter by him, Elaine, as well as his step-son Judikael, a minor, Mark has gained control over about half of Brittany. King Mark has been even-handed in his dealings with all levels of society. He has favoured merchants, peasants and clergy as well as nobility.

Mark’s best qualities are his intelligence, his generosity and his finesse at diplomacy, which has disarmed the early opposition he faced. Mark is often underestimated as a warrior, though his cunning has proven the end of many. The King has proven surprisingly lucky on many occasions. Some wonder if he has the aid of a sorceror. In 522, King Mark ended the slave tribute to Ireland, although he had mixed success in resisting the men of Leinster until his nephew Sir Tristram, now the heir of Cornwall, slew the Irish champion, Marhaus, in 529. Last year, in 530, Prince Boudwin, his brother and heir, was killed by a prisoner after defeating a large force of pirates in Lyonesse. Boudwin’s young bride and infant son were killed in the invasion. In 534, King Mark will marry Queen Isolt, the daughter of Anguish of Ireland. The marriage marks the high tide of his realized ambition. Glory: 25,000. Heraldry: 1. Gules three lion’s heads or. (Dumnonia) These were the arms of old king Yder. 2. Vert a lion rampant or (Cornwall, once borne by Gorlois) Mark has given this coat of arms to his nephew and heir, Tristram. 3. Or three lioncels azure [Vienna Ms. 2537] 4. Or three leopards in pale azure [Vienna Ms. 2537] 5. (carried in disguise) Azure diapered or. [Vienna Ms. 2537] SIZ: 14 DEX: 15 STR: 17 CON: 14 APP: 15

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 28 Armor 14 + shield Age 38

Attacks: Sword 18, Lance 15, Spear 13, Battle 17, Horsemanship 18 Traits: Lustful 12, Energetic 14, Forgiving 14, Generous 16, Deceitful 15, Arbitrary 16, Merciful 10, Proud 14, Pious 13, Prudent 17, Indulgent 11, Suspicious 16, Cowardly 16. Directed Trait: Trust (Tristram & Isolt) +12 Passions: Love (family) 16, Hospitality 16, Honor 12, Love (Isolt) 19 Significant Skills: Compose 15, Courtesy 16, Gaming 15, Hunting 17, Intrigue 25, Orate 16, Stewardship 21, Tourney 15 Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Queen Isolt. “To whom can I compare the lovely girl, so blessed by fortune, if not to the Sirens, who with their lodestone draw the ships toward them? Thus, I imagine,

did Isolde attract many thoughts and hearts that deemed themselves safe from love’s disquietude…” “Her chin, her mouth, her colour, her skin were so exquisite, lovely and enticing that Mark was captivated and filled with desire to kiss her. Love threw on her flames, she set the man on fire with the charm of the woman’s form…” --Tristran (Gottfried von Strassburg, c.1210) “And Arthur spoke with the two of them [March and Trystan] in turn, but neither of them was willing to be without Esyllt; and then Arthur awarded her to the one of them while the leaves should be on the trees and to the other while the leaves should not be on the trees, the married man to choose. And he [March] chose when the leaves should not be on the trees, because the nights would be longest at that time, and Arthur told that to Esyllt. And she said, ‘Blessed be the judgement and he who gave it;’ and Essylt sang this englyn: ‘There are three trees that are good, holly and ivy and yew they put forth leaves while they last And Trystan shall have me as long as he lives.’ And so March ap Meirchion lost Esyllt for good.” --Welsh story (15th-16th c.) Mark and Isolt marry in July 534, on the Feast of the Magdalene, when the new Queen is eighteen. She is the most beautiful woman in Ireland, and much sought after, even if she is not her father’s heir. Some say that only Guenevere is more fair. Isolt is herself no simpleton, and perhaps only marred by her Irish pride. Isolt, like Guenevere, is so lovely that men act in foolish ways to gain her glance, and she sometimes seems to encourage this. Most Cornishmen are familiar with her attendance at the Tournament of the Launds in 531, when she made a decided impression on the British knights. From this fame Mark determined to wed her (although he made some show of refusal, then said he would wed the woman whose golden hair was in the beak of a passing bird). The hair turned out to be from a favor she had given to Sir Tristram, who told his uncle about the princess. Isolt is also famous in her own right as a herbalist and nurse. This knowledge was imparted to her by her mother. It is she who healed Tristram of his wounds in 529. When Mark weds Isolt he gives her a portion of his lands directly, and bestows upon her co-suzerainry over all Cornwall, and many servants. Thus Isolt is not just Mark’s wife but also his heir and regent when he is absent or incapacitated. She has a small guard of knights, though she usually dismisses them in favor of

Sir Tristram, her nephew-in-law. The commander of the Queen’s guards is Sir Perynins, the brother of her chief handmaiden, the Lady Brangain. Brangain and Isolt are seldom parted. Brangain is assisted by the maidens Lamide and Gymele. Some of the people of Cornwall are quite prejudiced against the new Queen because of her Irish origin. This distrust has faded a little since her courtly and evenhanded ways have become known. [Inset Box: Understanding Isolt Even more than Tristram Isolt is practical in her intelligence. She is strong and sometimes ruthless, but fair and just. It is a cruel irony that her moderation made Mark the better king, or at least appear so. It is she who consoles Tristram and treats her other suitors with charming kindness, and provoked the goodness in King Mark, and his evil, the one with her sharpness, care and regal nature, the other with her terrible beauty. She is also solitary, talking only freely to Bragwaine, her maid and only true friend. Unlike Tristram she has an Irish sense of doom, and is less tempted to avoid it. Isolt is alive in her love. It, like Tristram’s, makes her feel joy. There is no joy outside of it, and so she pities all true lovers; she is even capable of some pity for Mark, devoted and wronged.] Glory: 10,000. Heraldry: 1. Vert a harp or. (Leinster) SIZ: 11 DEX: 18 STR: 10 CON: 15 APP: 30

Move 3 Damage 3d6 Hit Points 26 Armor none Age 18

Attacks: Dagger 10, Horsemanship 11 Traits: Chaste 18, Energetic 12, Forgiving 16, Generous 18, Deceitful 12, Just 16, Merciful 14, Modest 13, Pious 12, Prudent 15, Temperate 13, Suspicious 14, Valorous 16. Directed Trait: Deceitful (regarding Tristram) +10, Honest (to Tristram and Brangain) +10 Passions: Love (family) 17, Hospitality 18, Honor 17, Love (Tristram) 25 Significant Skills: Chirurgery 25, Compose 18, Courtesy 19, First Aid 25, Gaming 16, Hunting 16, Intrigue 18, Orate 17, Play (Harp) 18, Romance 23, Singing 18, Tourney 18. Horse: Palfrey

Sir Tristram “Over the sick man's feet is spread A dark green forest-dress; A gold harp leans against the bed, Ruddy in the fire's light. I know him by his harp of gold, Famous in Arthur's court of old; I know him by his forest-dress-The peerless hunter, harper, knight, Tristram of Lyoness.” --Tristram and Iseult (Matthew Arnold, 1852) “The Cornish people were very happy and joyful to have their lady back, and they said amongst themselves that Tristan had proved himself in so many adventures that they had just cause to consider him the best knight they had ever seen in Cornwall. They all spoke a lot about him and sang his praises, even those who were very envious of him. But whoever might be pleased at his prowess, King Mark was most unhappy about it, for on account of the valour he saw in Tristan and the natural grace he had, the King was very frightened of him, and terrified that he would dispossess him of Cornwall in the end; and that is why he would have liked to find a pretext for killing him or for banishing him from his land.” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c.1230-40) “…Then they bound the queen, and Tristan became very angry. If he had known that he was not going to be allowed to defend himself, he would have risked being torn to pieces rather than let himself and Yseut be captured. But so great was his trust in God that he firmly believed that, if he were allowed to defend himself, nobody would dare take up arms against him…” --Romance of Tristan (Béroul) Chamberlain of Cornwall. The heir of Cornwall, and the heir of Lyonesse, Sir Tristram is handsome, tall and skilled in the courtly arts of poetry and music, and one of the best knights of Britain. He is always clean-shaven, wearing his brown hair to his shoulders. He was born in 512 and is almost the same age as Isolt, a situation which has led to some good-natured humor. Tristram was fostered in Paris and in Brittany and is thus an exemplar of courtesy. He breaks hearts when he leaves rooms, is as strong as a giant, and is constant in his loyalty to his uncle and his adopted people. Tristram is physically similar to Lancelot, at least in general build, though he has darker hair. Sometimes this leads to confusion, particularly as Tristram is only a little less skilled than Lancelot in combat, and both knights sometimes travel incognito.

Tristram was involved in a brief scandal in Paris involving the King’s daughter, although it seems he was not at fault (in 527). He later has an ongoing affair with the wife of Sir Segwarides, which everyone pretends not to be aware of. In 529, Tristram killed Sir Marhaus, a knight of the Round Table and the champion of Anguish of Leinster. Wounded with Marhaus’ poisoned lance, Tristram disappeared after the best surgeons and witches in Cornwall were unable to cure him. He reappears in disguise in 531, at the tourney of the Launds in Ireland. Tristram had defeated such famous knights as Gaheris of Orkney and Ywaine of Gorre. The tourney consisted of two contests, the first which was won by Palomides, a dark-skinned knight from the Orient. Tristram joined in the second contest cohosted by the King with a Hundred Knights. After Tristram won the tourney under the name of Tramtrist of Albine, he was unmasked by the Queen of Leinster. He then returned to Cornwall and the affections of Segwarides’ wife. In 534, Mark sends Tristram to bring Isolt to Cornwall. After a difficult voyage, the two come to Tintagel, where the princess marries the King. Tristram is a Christian, unlike his father (for he was baptised). Tristram venerates most of all St. Mary, the mother of Christ. Nonetheless, he is reputed to have magical powers, most notably the strange tendency for those who draw his blood in battle to die, and for him to be invincible in battle—indeed his foes fought even for love tend to die from the crushing strength of his sword-arm. For this reason pious pagans and superstitious Christians sometimes feel fear in facing him. Sir Tristram’s loyal squire is Gouvernail, a Frenchman exiled to Cornwall in 512 when he was 15. Gouvernail became Tristram’s tutor and guardian, a duty he was entrusted with by none other than Merlin. [Inset Box: Understanding Tristram Tristram is one of the few Arthurian knights that really requires some psychological discussion for an effective portrayal. Tristram is at one time a troubadour, a poet, a doughty knight, a sensitive, melancholy lover, a master huntsman, jouster, a military tactician and even (in Welsh tradition) a magician. The expanse of Tristram’s knowledge suggests an equally broad intelligence. He is fluent in several languages, writes poetry adeptly and is a musician. He is also extremely strong. Tristram is characteristically humble, refusing to give out his name or boast. He is at the same time very jealous of Isolt’s affections. Tristram, unlike Lancelot, has numerous friends, who are uniformly loyal and forgiving of him. He is intensely private, in a way unfamiliar to the average knight, and his habits and skills are generally solitary.

Unlike Gawaine, Tristram does not bask in attention and cheerfully embrace new friends. He proves his worthiness through simple kindness, generosity and complete fearlessness. Tristram’s love for Isolt is powerful, but is chaotic, shifting from joy to deep sadness. He knows it will destroy him, and tries to escape it, not only for himself, but for his lover. He is a friend of all true lovers, but at the same time, he keeps a companion, Dinadan, to tell him the truth, or a sort of truth: that Romance and Chivalry are mere facades on a brutal world. Tristram mixes well with common people, indeed sometimes poses as one. He is intimately familiar with poverty, suffering, hunger and cold. His strength and size (he stands well over six feet tall) give him a careful gentleness, masked by hardness when he is in exile; with Isolt he becomes courtlier, and even smiles. The most coherent depiction of Tristram from a Malorian perspective was that by E. A. Robinson in his poem “Tristram” (1927), I think. Non-Malorian versions of interest, based more on the verse tradition, were written by Thomas Arnold and Algernon Charles Swinburne. The latter is perhaps the best post-medieval poem about Tristram yet written.] Glory: 12,500. Heraldry: 1. Vert, a lion rampant or. 2. (after 534) Vert, three crowns or. [Vienna Ms. 2537] 3. (as a knight errant and incognito) Argent plain (with a red surcoat). 4. (the Shield of Rebuke) Vert, a depiction of a queen dexter and king sinister with a knight in chief, feet resting on their crowns, all proper. [Vienna Ms. 2537] SIZ: 19 DEX: 15 STR: 21 CON: 18 APP: 19

Move 4 Damage 7d6 Hit Points 37 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 22

Attacks: Sword (Vistamara) 28, Lance 28, Spear 20, Battle 20, Horsemanship 22 Traits: Chaste 14, Energetic 18, Forgiving 15, Generous 19, Honest 10, Just 18, Merciful 17, Modest 18, Pious 16, Prudent 10, Temperate 16, Trusting 14, Valorous 20. Directed Traits: Deceitful and Suspicious (regarding Isolt) +10 Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 19, Love (family) 16, Hospitality 18, Honor 20, Love (Isolt) 25 Significant Skills: Compose 18, Courtesy 18, First Aid 16, Flirting 17, Hunting 22, Intrigue 15, Orate 15, Play (Harp) 19, Romance 25, Singing 19, Tourney 18. Horse: Passabruel, Andalusian Charger (Move 10, Damage 7d6)

Duke Cador “As soon as the noble king had spoken these words Cador sprang to horse as a spark does from the fire; A full seven thousand accompanied the earl. Cador the courageous and many of his kindred Went across the wolds and over the wild places, Over dales and downlands, over deep waters;…” --Le Brut (Lawman, ll. 10718-10723) (c. 1200) “Fine counsel, Sir Cador! the King replied, ‘You marvellous man with your merry words! You don’t assess circumstance or consider deeply, But hurl out of your head what your heart thinks…” --Alliterative Morte Arthure ll.259-262 (Anonymous, c. 1415) TRIAD 75 Three Men of the Island of Britain who were most courteous to Guests and Strangers: Gwalchmai son of Gwyar, and Cadwy son of Gereint, and Cadrieith (Fine Speech) (son of) Saidi. --from the Welsh Triads Prince of Devon, Earl of the Cornish March, Dux of Britannia Prima: Born in 490 to Geraint, Prince of Devon and his wife Gwyar, sister of Igraine, Cador was destined to be Mark’s most redoubtable adversary and his cousin Arthur’s stalwart ally. Cador is the representative of an old Romano-British family of considerable standing, claiming descent from the Emperor Magnus Maximus and from Conan Meriadoc, the colonizer of Brittany. The Princes of Devon were renowned for their faithfulness and trustworthiness, so much that Geraint and later Cador served as foster family to many noble children, including Guenevere of Cameliard, Gosengos of Lamballe and others. At age 19 he married Ydain, kinswoman of the Breton King, and daughter of Cadret of Ecosse & Nohaut and sister of Kehedin and Ayglin des Vawse. Ydain, called the “Lioness” or “la Belle Ydain” is a proud and intelligent woman, born in Brittany in 492. Her pagan faith led to an altercation with St. Gildas of Glastonbury. Cador was only a little older than Arthur when he swore fealty to him at London in 510. He had recently been enfeoffed with the lordship of Dunster by his father Prince Geraint, and was eager for glory and honor. He was also attracted to Arthur’s appeals for justice and chivalry.

Cador fought alongside Arthur throughout the dramatic battles with the Rebel Kings, the Saxons and the Romans. He became a friend of King Pellinore, who gave him his daughter Guignier to raise shortly before his murder in 524. The previous year Cador’s eldest son Constantine was knighted, and in 525 Cador himself became a Round Table Knight. Arthur entrusted his cousin with many of the High King’s possessions in the southwest of Britain, raising him to be Duke of Devon and the Cornish March and an admiral, second only to Theodoric. Cador’s sons are Constantine, Arthur’s Chancellor and Perdyr (his second son). A daughter, Ydain the Younger, is betrothed to Brochfael, a knight from Orquelenes in Cambria and descendant of Vortigern. Cador’s brothers are Selyf (a hermit-knight in Lyonesse), the now dead Sir Ermid and Sir Dywel of Morrois, and a half brother Garwy the Tall. Glory: 12,000 Heraldry: Argent, an eagle displayed gules (House of Maximus) 2. Argent, a lion rampant gules (Devon 1) 3. Or, a lion rampant azure (Devon 2) 4. Vert a bordure or (arms of peace) (in 531) SIZ: 15 DEX: 15 STR: 16 CON: 17 APP: 13

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 32 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 41

Attacks: Sword 18, Lance 18, Battle 22, Horsemanship 17 Traits: Chaste 14, Energetic 18, Forgiving 13, Generous 14, Honest 16, Just 15, Merciful 13, Proud 14, Pious 13, Reckless 14, Temperate 14, Trusting 10, Valorous 19. Passions: Loyalty (King Arthur) 18, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 15, Honor 17, Love (Ydain) 14 Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Courtesy 17, First Aid 16, Gaming 16, Hunting 17, Intrigue 16, Orate 19, Recognize 16, Stewardship 18. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) King Meliodas “In Brittany there lived a youth who was most handsome of body, unexcelled among mighty counselors, and powerful and wealthy in strongholds and castles. He was learned in many kinds of lore, undaunted in deeds of knighthood, trustworthy and high-minded, wise and prudent in his plans, foresighted and foreseeing, fully accomplished in all skills…”

--The Saga of Tristram and Isond The King of Lyonesse is an archetypical Pagan knight; lusty, handsome, proud, and fated to an unnatural death. He is charismatic and open-hearted; many of the famous knights of King Uther’s reign were his close friends, particularly Guiron the Courteous. His career was a mix of triumphs and defeats. Meliodas seems to have been named Rivalin of Canoël in his youth; the name Meliodas is a diminutive from his uncle Meliau. He was the son of the usurper Riwal of Dumnonée (d. 502) and the daughter of Meliau of Leon (k. c.475). His half-brother was Jonas, Count of Dumnonee (k.518). Rivalin arrived in Cornwall as an exile in 490, aged about 20, probably taking the name Meliodas to conceal his identity. His father’s descent into tyranny and the death of Meliodas’ mother embittered the prince against his own father and he repudiated his paternal heritage, fighting for his maternal kinsmen. Their defeat and exile saw him a penniless mercenary in Cornwall. Over the next two years he served as a commander in the army of the Duke of Cornwall, Gorlois. He was granted most of Penwith and western Cornwall and betrothed to Elizabeth, the eldest child of Merchiawn. After Gorlois’ death he retained control of those regions left unconquered by Uther and took the title of King. Only three years later Uther died and his subordinates made peace with Meliodas, who married Elizabeth in 501. In 502, Riwal died and Budic II, a kinsman both of Riwal and his enemies, took over Brittany. He returned Leonais to Meliodas. When Meliodas returned to Brittany, his father in law Merchiawn gave his second daughter to Anguisel, the King of Ecosse. Meliodas was not happy with this, for while Elizabeth was beautiful, she was less so than her sister, whom he had made his mistress. Meliodas and the Pictish King developed a considerable feud. After the appearance of Arthur, Meliodas naturally favored the Rebel Kings. Thus he found himself in an alliance of convenience with Idres (his rival for control of Cornwall) and Anguisel. In 512, Elizabeth became pregnant, which was something of a surprise to Meliodas, who loved his wife, although he was rarely at home. Meliodas rode out to meet with Idres and plan the campaign as she was in her last months and disappeared. After a few weeks, it was surmised that he had died, and the Barons revolted, forcing the Queen from the palace. She went looking for her husband and died giving birth in the forest of Jaiant. Meliodas in fact encountered a Cornish witch (Brangemeur) and had been spending an enjoyable captivity. He returned, mourned for his wife and killed or exiled his traitorous vassals. Meliodas naturally took advantage of the meetings of the kings to revisit his old lover and assuage his grief, and she happily received him into her arms (conceiving a bastard, Meliodas the Younger). The damage to the pride of her husband meant that Meliodas was forced out of the coalition, coincidently

rescuing him from the massacre of the battle of Terrabel. Meliodas made peace with Arthur shortly thereafter and fought with him at the battle of Zennor in 514 and in Brittany later the same year. By this time he was 44 years old. He was renowned as a formidable jouster, a skilled hunter, a handsome and practiced lover and a reckless fool. This was further confirmed when, after the suspicious arrival of a son to Felice, the Queen of Escoce (her husband had died at Terrabel), he found himself at the center of a feud with her sons and kinsmen. In this he chose unwisely, as King Arthur was his foe’s blood kin. He was defeated and imprisoned. Arthur, however, was more merciful than Uther, and ended the feud. Meliodas next fought with Arthur against the Saxons at Badon. In 519 he married Astre, the young daughter of Hoel of Brittany. While beautiful, she was ambitious and cruel. She determined to murder Meliodas’ young heir (in 522), Tristram, after she gave birth to a son of her own. Her plot backfired, for Merlin the sorcerer had encountered and warned the King on his way to visit Nimue. In the end her own son was dead, and she was exiled to Brittany. Tristram was sent to France with a young squire by the name of Gouvernail to be tutored. (Meliodas and Astre had another child, a daughter). When Tristram returned to Cornwall in 528, Meliodas was 58 years old; and he had suffered injuries in the Roman War. Meliodas had allowed his estranged wife Astre to return to him a few years before, so they together welcomed his heir to Cornwall. Meliodas now resides at Castle Lyonesse, and has given much of his authority and desmense to Tristram. Glory: 22,000. Heraldry: Vert plain. Green is the livery color of the house of Cleges, to which Gorlois, Mark and Meliodas’ wife belonged. 2. Vert three crowns or 2, 1. (Said to symbolize his realms of Lyonesse, Léon and the Scillies, or his queenly loves, Elizabeth, Brangemeur and Felice.) (in 534) SIZ: 18 DEX: 14 STR: 21 CON: 17 APP: 17

Move 4 Damage 7d6 Hit Points 35 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 64

Attacks: Sword 22, Lance 24, Battle 19, Horsemanship 21 Traits: Lustful 18, Energetic 16, Forgiving 14, Generous 19, Honest 16, Just 17, Merciful 17, Proud 18, Worldly 13, Reckless 17, Indulgent 12, Trusting 15, Valorous 20. Passions: Love (family) 18, Hospitality 18, Honor 18, Love (Astre) 16

Significant Skills: Compose 17, Courtesy 17, Dancing 16, Flirting 19, Hunting 18, Play (Harp) 16, Romance 18, Tourney 17. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Boudwin “Now turn we to another matter that fell between King Mark and his brother, that was called the good Prince Boudwin, that all of the people of the country loved passing well…” Malory, X.32 Prince of Cornwall, Earl of the Moors and of Magouns. Twin brother of Mark, younger by a few minutes, but born with a twisted leg. He was originally named Pernehan and was rechristened by his godfather, Bishop Baudwin. Though ungainly, his face was more handsome than his brother’s. Nonetheless, he was his equal in intelligence and thoroughly good-natured. Boudwin was successful by his merit, rising swiftly where Mark had to scheme and fight. Mark therefore began to fear Boudwin. He served admirably as his brother’s lieutenant and was instrumental in their defeat at Totnes in 517. In 530, following Tristram’s defeat of Marhaus, a group of raiders attempted to plunder Lyonesse and western Cornubia. Despite Boudin’s protestations, the nobility of Cornwall talked openly of deposing Mark and making him king. But only a few days after the battle, Boudwin was killed. Mark claimed that a Saxon survivor had assassinated his brother. Boudwin’s son Alisandre and wife Angledis were shown to have been murdered by raiders during the attack. Angledis was the heiress of Earl Ranner of Arundel, who had gained the fief of western Sussex from King Aurelius. With her death, the High King took over her lands. Boudwin was one of the largest landowners of Cornwall after the King; to him were assigned the castles of Okehampton (later given to Sir Segwarides), Appledore in Artavia and Ilfracombe, and many manors in Wivelshire and Cornubia. Glory (at death): 7,000 Arms: Vert, a lion rampant argent. (in 530) SIZ: 11 DEX: 13 STR: 18 CON: 15 APP: 16

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 26 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 34

Attacks: Sword 19, Lance 18, Battle 20, Horsemanship 18 Traits: Chaste 15, Energetic 16, Forgiving 15, Generous 16, Honest 17, Just 15, Merciful 18, Modest 14, Pious 11, Prudent 14, Temperate 15, Suspicious 13, Valorous 18. Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 18, Love (family) 18, Hospitality 16, Honor 15, Love (Angledis) 17 Significant Skills: Courtesy 17, Folk Lore 15, Intrigue 14, Orate 17, Stewardship 18. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Sir Andred Son of Anguisel of Ecosse and Felice, the second of the daughters of Merchiawn, nephew of Mark, Andred was born in 507, in Lincoln. Andred was actually the younger of two sons, the elder being named Archeman; he also had one sister, named Labaine. Anguisel’s first wife was a Pictish princess, and only his sons by that marriage had any hope of succeeding to their father’s throne. Anguisel’s elder sons were Keu d’Estraus and Cadret. When Anguisel was killed with the Rebel Kings in 514, his sons fled the north. Anguisel’s brother Karados became King. Keu and Cadret settled in Cambria with their half-brothers. After Arthur ended the feud between Meliodas and the house of Ecosse in 517, Archeman and Andret were sent to Cornwall. Archeman was initially the more ambitious and unpleasant of the two brothers. He actively pursued recognition as his uncle’s heir and hated Meliodas, who had seduced his mother. Andred, however, was a hostage in Ireland. He had been taken in 523 when he was 15 years old. While Andred is missing, his sister Labiane disappeared; he body was discovered in the forest of Morrois, stabbed to death; there were signs she had recently given birth. When Marhaus was killed, Andred was released. He returned to Cornwall with Tristram in 531. Shortly thereafter, Archeman decided he must murder his cousin to prevent Mark from naming him his heir. He followed Tristram when he was hunting to the Fountain of the Lion in the moors near Lyonesse and attempted to kill him, but was killed himself. Andred has subsequently became Tristram’s primary rival at court, though his physical prowess is hardly his cousin’s equal. Andred takes after his uncle, relying on his wits and persuasiveness. Sir Andred’s paramour is the damosel Bessille, who shares his opinions on Sir Tristram, and later of Queen Isolt. [Andred’s relations are rather complex; a brief summary is as follows: Father: Anguisel, King of Escoce and Estrangorre (k.513); Mother: Felice, sister of King Mark; Full siblings: Archeman, Labiane; Older half-siblings: Keu (Caw)

d’Estraus, Cadret of Nohaut. Nephews: Ayglin of Vawse, Kehedin, Ydaine, wife of Duke Cador (via Cadret); Hueil, St. Gildas and Cywyllog, wife of Mordred, amongst others. The identification of Andred’s family is based on scanty circumstantial detail, but provides a wealth of useful motivation and stories.] Glory: 3,000. Heraldry: Argent, a lion rampant vert. (in 534) SIZ: 12 DEX: 16 STR: 14 CON: 16 APP: 14

Move 3 Damage 4d6 Hit Points 28 Armor 14 + shield Age 27

Attacks: Sword 18, Lance 19, Battle 18, Horsemanship 17 Traits: Lustful 13, Lazy 12, Vengeful 14, Selfish 15, Deceitful 17, Arbitrary 17, Cruel 16, Proud 16, Worldly 17, Prudent 19, Temperate 13, Suspicious 18, Cowardly 13. Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 16, Love (family) 14, Hospitality 12, Honor 10 Significant Skills: Awareness 17, Courtesy 14, Intrigue 17, Orate 16, Recognize 16. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Sir Brun de Branlant Sir Brun, sometimes called “of the Moors” is the son of Ermid the brother of Geraint, and thus he is the cousin of Duke Cador; his older brother is Cariado, King Mark’s Steward. His mother was an aunt of Sir Griflet of Carduel, and was at one time the paramour of King Uther, so Queen Anna of Brittany is Sir Brun’s rather older half-sister; he also has kinfolk amongst the house of Castle Gai in Logres. Sir Brun’s lands are on the northern fringe of Cornwall between Tintagel and Exmoor, centered on Barnstaple. His castle of Branlant is just north of that small seaport. In 522, Sir Brun was badly hurt by Sir Durmart of Cambria after attempting to abduct Queen Guenevere. A dashing rogue, Sir Brun veers toward the edge of being a brigand—she charges tolls on those passing through his forested lands, and abducts ladies for their ransom. Perhaps his saving graces are his chivalrousness and his suppression of any other robber barons in the vicinity. He does not mistreat his captives, but he pays little heed to the authority of either Mark or the High King. Sir Brun’s neice, the beautiful Lady Lore, is his ward and heiress; she has vast lands in Cumbria and Logres in her own right; he is downright suspicious of any

who dare to pay court to her without proving themselves. Sir Brun’s neighbor and enemy is Galaian of Hartland, a much less admirable figure. Glory: 3,500. Arms: Gules, an eagle displayed or. (in 531) SIZ: 17 DEX: 15 STR: 18 CON: 16 APP: 14

Move 3 Damage 6d6 Hit Points 34 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 30

Attacks: Sword 23, Lance 21, Battle 17, Horsemanship 18 Significant Traits: Energetic 16, Honest 17, Merciful 16, Proud 15, Reckless 14, Valorous 18 Passions: Loyalty (Lady Lore) 19, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 18, Honor 16 Significant Skills: Courtesy 16, Hunting 18, Recognize 16, Stewardship 19. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6)

Sir Cariado the Red “Cariado was a very fine knight, courteous, proud, and haughty; but when it came to bearing arms he was not deserving of praise. He was handsome, and a good talker, gallant toward the ladies, and full of quips.” --Tristran (Thomas d’Angleterre, c.1160) Steward of Cornwall: One of the Barons of Cornwall as Lord of Tirian, he was appointed Steward in 515 when Mark became King. His father was Ermid of Devon, brother of Prince Geraint. Sir Cariado is Sir Brun’s older brother. He was generally a fair and scrupulous officer of the court, and an exemplar of courtliness, except for his botched love affairs. In 522 he was involved in a romantic rivalry with Durmart le Galois, who badly wounded him. When Isolt married King Mark he conceived a miserable passion for her, and left court in grief. Sir Dinas was promoted to be his successor, while Cariado became a knight-errant. Cariado has an illegitimate son, Guion, privateer-admiral of Mark’s navy. He also has a legitimate daughter, the chatelaine of Blanches Mores. Before Cariado fell in love with Isolt, he was the ami of the Irish damsel Idain de Landoc. Cariado’s only legitimate child is Albe of Blanchemores, who inherited her mother’s fiefs as her mother died in childbed. Albe recently married Bleheri de Ganis, the son of Blioberis and a knight of King Mark’s household.

(This is a composite character, appearing in Thomas’ Tristan. He also appears in Durmart le Galois and other romances as Karadoains, and as Mariadoc in other versions of the story. In Welsh legend he is called Cyndrwyn ab Ermid.) Glory: 3,250. Arms: Gules, an eagle displayed argent. (in 537) SIZ: 15 DEX: 14 STR: 14 CON: 16 APP: 17

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 31 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 38

Attacks: Sword 14, Lance 16, Battle 12, Horsemanship 13 Significant Traits: Lustful 16, Generous 16, Proud 18, Suspicious 15, Valorous 18. Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 16, Love (family) 18, Hospitality 15, Honor 16, Amor (Isolt) 15. Significant Skills: Compose 15, Courtesy 19, Hunting 16, Intrigue 18, Recognize 15, Romance 16, Stewardship 19. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Sir Constantine “Constantine, the tyrannical whelp of the unclean lioness of Damnonia…” --St. Gildas the Wise (c. 550) Prince of Britain: Constantine was the eldest son of Cador and Ydain, and was born in 510. He showed an early aptitude for stewardship and was considered for the church, receiving an extended education. In the end, however, when it became clear that Arthur and Guenevere would have no children, he was knighted and made Chancellor of Britain, one of the highest officials in the realm (526)—while still a young man. Arthur designated him his heir in the event of his and Gawaine’s death while fighting Rome. Constantine’s intelligence makes him notorious; he is both book-learned and an effective knight. As Chancellor he has made pragmatic and political decisions with the efficiency (and some say, ruthlessness) of a Roman magistrate. But it must be said that Arthur’s rule does not demand only mercy be dealt. Constantine prefers to employ clerks to oversee his responsibilities outside Camelot; some believe that his men also serve as spies for the High King. King Mark sees Constantine as a personal enemy. Constantine’s own family claims to Cornish lands and his throne, his undermining of the independence of Cornwall

on behalf of Arthur, and his equal cunning make him a danger to his rule. Constantine speaks of Mark with undisguised contempt. Constantine is thereafter mostly to be found in Camelot, only visiting Cornwall occasionally. Sir Constantine’s wife Almine is a daughter of King Hoel and the sister of Queen Astre of Lyonesse. Constantine kept a concubine before leaving the church and his alliance to Almine is not close, though they have children. Glory: 5,000. Arms: Ermine, an eagle displayed gules. His heraldry is a combination of his father and his father-in-law’s arms. (in 531) SIZ: 14 DEX: 15 STR: 15 CON: 16 APP: 16

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 30 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 21

Attacks: Sword 16, Lance 15, Battle 17, Horsemanship 16 Significant Traits: Just 18, Proud 16, Prudent 17, Suspicious 14, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (King Arthur) 19, Love (family) 15, Hospitality 15, Honor 16 Significant Skills: Courtesy 19, Intrigue 17, Read (Latin) 10, Stewardship 25. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Sir Dinas “The queen was led towards the fire, where the thorns were burning. Dinas, the lord of Dinan, who loved Tristan greatly, fell at his [Mark’s] feet. ‘Sire,’ he said, ‘listen to me. I have served you truly and loyally for a long time. There is not a man in this kingdom, not even a poor orphan or an old woman, who would give me a penny for the position of seneschal which I have held at your court for all of my life. Sire, mercy on the queen!… For myself, sire, I would not deny that if even a squire was burnt or killed for my sake by anyone, if he were king over seven lands he would give them all to me as compensation before I amply revenged…” --Romance of Tristan (Béroul) Viscount of Dinan: is the lord of Pendennis near Falmouth, and of Lidan near Dartmoor. He was born about 495 in Brittany. He is also King Mark’s Butler, overseeing both Dumnonia and Brittany, and holds lands in Cornubia and eastern Brittany (he later replaces Cariado as Steward in 534, whom he assisted

as Vice-Seneschal). Sir Dinan is a fair and intelligent lord. His wife, Annik, the heiress of Dinan in Brittany, is the daughter of old King Budic of Brittany and Anna, Uther’s illegitimate daughter. Dinas is the son of Dyonas and the brother of Vivianne, the Lady of the Lake in Gaul. He has a son by her named Liaz, currently a squire. His arms bear a castle, a canting reference to the meaning of his name in Cymric: “Fortress.” Dinas is not altogether faithful to his wife (he has had mistresses in Cornwall) but she loves him nonetheless. Where he is level-headed and intelligent in his public duties and friendships he seems to have rather poor judgement in his love affairs. His various lovers or mistresses that he pursues so diligently have proven faithless or cruel. Glory: 4,250. Arms: Argent, a castle gules. 2. Vert three eaglets … (in 531) SIZ: 13 DEX: 15 STR: 17 CON: 17 APP: 12

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 30 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 41

Attacks: Sword 17, Lance 15, Battle 17, Horsemanship 15 Significant Traits: Lustful 16, Energetic 17, Generous 18, Honest 12, Just 17, Merciful 16, Proud 16, Valorous 15 Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 15, Love (family) 16, Hospitality 18, Honor 19 Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Courtesy 17, Faerie Lore 13, Folk Lore 15, Heraldry 14, Intrigue 18, Stewardship 19. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Gautre “the Brown” of Jagent The illegitimate son of the Earl of Jagent. Sir Gautre is a Round Table knight and a former household knight of Duke Cador; he was originally a hostage to promote the peace between Devon and Jagent, but Cador admired his affability and courage and entrusted him with arms. Cador’s son Perdyr was likewise a hostage of Gautre’s father. His brother Sir Arnold is frequently encountered with him. Gautre won renown (and lands) for his exploits in the French war. Gautre is Lord of Chilham, in far-off Kent, and divides his time between his estates, Camelot, the tourney circuit and his father’s castle of Jagent.

Glory: 3,200 Arms: Or a lion-sagitarrius passant gules within a bordure azure. (in 531) SIZ: 17 DEX: 14 STR: 17 CON: 17 APP: 11

Move 3 Damage 6d6 Hit Points 34 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 25

Attacks: Sword 20, Lance 22, Battle 15, Horsemanship 20 Significant Traits: Energetic 16, Honest 17, Proud 16, Reckless 16, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (King Arthur) 18, Love (family) 18, Hospitality 17, Honor 17. Significant Skills: Heraldry 15, Recognize 14, Tourney 18. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Guenloie of Lys Lady of Lys, sometimes called Queen, daughter of Amangons of Lys. The widow of Yder and mother of Meliant de Lys, Bran de Lys and two daughters: Guiloret and Guenoret. Guenloie was once the lover of Sir Gawaine, but when he was untrue she became the amie of Yder, the errant ex-king of Cornwall. She wed him in 514, and he lived with her in her lands of Lys. Yder had a strange facility for returning from the dead, perhaps because, as people said, his father was the god Nudd. But when he came back from the Otherworld his eyes had a strange cast, and his demeanor was uncanny. Guenloie’s own talents in witchery lent her country a fey air. Her red hair and pale cast make her somehow nearly as unnerving as her old husband. One day he never came back, and was thereafter found only as a ghostly rider, in the depths of the forest or in the quiet hours of the night. Guenloie took a new lover, Sir Gilbert, one of her husband’s old household. Sir Gilbert is famous for his dislike of Gawaine. Guenloie’s son Meliant was fostered to the Steward of Tintagel, though his brother Bran de Lys remained in Lys. Guenoret wed Sir Belchis the Ugly of Templeton. Guenloie’s half siblings (on her mother’s side) are Escorducarla, the Lady of Vawse and (on her father’s) Tristran the Dwarf, called he “who never laughs.” She is related via her mother to Guenevere. Glory: 3,750. Arms: Gules, a fluer-de-lys argent. Her sons have devised their own arms. (in 531) Current Insight: 6,000

SIZ: 10 DEX: 17 STR: 08 CON: 17 APP: 25

Move 3 Damage 3d6 Hit Points 27 Armor none Age 30

Attacks: Dagger 5, Horsemanship 9 Significant Traits: Lustful 17, Energetic 16, Generous 17, Honest 16, Merciful 16, Proud 18, Reckless 15, Valorous 15 Passions: Love (family) 20, Hospitality 19, Honor 18. Significant Skills: Celestial Lore 15, Chirugery 18, Faerie Lore 21, Falconry 18, Gaming 16, Geomatric Lore 20, Religion (Pagan) 17, Romance 16, Sight 21. Magic Limit: 168 Personal Life Force: 4d20 Magic Protection: 84 Talents: Animal Friend 16, Bless 19, Control Faerie Creature 18, Emotion 17, Glamour 19, Healing 16, Protect 15, Summon Faerie Creature 17. Horse: Palfrey Sir Polidamas Constable of Cornwall. Polidamas is the son of Elîadus, the son of Eliduc of Tintagel and thus the step-nephew of Yder. His mother was the daughter of a king of Norgales, and he is a kinsman of Belinans of Powys. Polidamas is a valiant warrior and a good officer, but he is little interested in the intricacies of Cornish politics. He fought bravely at Badon, carrying the standard for the Cornish troops. King Idres appointed him as to his position shortly before his death, and he has continued under King Mark. As Constable he is responsible for the practical matters of Mark’s transient court. He is a companion of the Round Table, though seldom has time to attend court at Camelot. Glory: 3,300. Arms: Azure a hart argent. (Danas is deer in Cymric) (in 531) SIZ: 15 DEX: 14 STR: 17 CON: 17 APP: 15

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 32 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 35

Attacks: Sword 19, Lance 16, Battle 18, Horsemanship 18 Significant Traits: Energetic 17, Honest 16, Just 18, Modest 15, Valorous 18

Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 17, Love (family) 16, Hospitality 16, Honor 18. Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Courtesy 15, Heraldry 19, Intrigue 13, Orate 15, Recognize 16, Stewardship 20, Tourney 20. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Sir Sadok and Sir Edward These are the twin sons of Escorducarla, the Lady of Vawse, and her secret lover. Escorducarla’s father was Hector, King of Orkney; she was King Lot’s half-sister. They were born in 496. Sir Sadok and Sir Edward (nicknamed Hercules for his strength) enjoy tournaments and shaming knights of Logres, but their primary duties lie in assisting the Justiciar as Reeves of Cornwall. Escorducarla is the half-sister of Guenloie of Lys and the full sister of Bagdemagus of Gorre. It was her mother’s lands near Glastonbury which were usurped by her nephew Meliagrance. She and her sister are representatives of a matriarchal pagan priesthood. Besides the Vawse of Cornwall, she owns castles and properties in Cambria and the Perilous Forest. Her castle of Norholt she gave to her eldest son, Morvan. She was the original owner of the magical hound Husdent, who later became Tristram’s. Escorducarla’s first lover was Amant, the Prince of Lamballe in Brittany, and she had several children by him: Morvan, Sir Amant, and the sorceresses Elergia, Annowre and another son, Sir Lascanis. Her current paramour is Sir Ayglin of Nohaut, son of Cadret and half-nephew of Andred (albeit older than him). Sir Ayglin (styled de Vawse) is a companion of the Round Table. Escorducarla is middle-aged, but has retained her youth through magic. She has a major role in the “Adventure of the Gray Knight” published in Tales of Mystic Tournaments. Glory: 3,850 and 3,650. Arms: Undy argent and azure; Undy argent and sable. The arms of Annowre and Lascanis are on a field of gules. [Vienna Ms. 2537] Sir Sadok and Sir Edward (in 531) SIZ: 18 Move 3 DEX: 14 Damage 6d6 STR: 19 Hit Points 35 CON: 17 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield APP: 13 Age 35 Attacks: Sword 20, Lance 24, Battle 16, Horsemanship 21 Significant Traits: Energetic 18, Honest 16, Just 17, Merciful 18, Proud 15, Reckless 16, Valorous 18. Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 15, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 17, Honor 18.

Significant Skills: Courtesy 15, Hunting 18, Intrigue 15, Recognize 17, Tourney 18. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6)

Sir Segwarides Earl of the Southern Moor: Son of Esclabor the Saracen, Segwarides was born about 500 in Ireland, escaping to Cornwall as a young man. His noble birth and aptitude in battle made him a squire to King Yder and later he became of one the knights of King Mark. In 517 he was involved in the search for Merlin. He was awarded the heiress of the Southern Moors, a Jewish noblewoman named Phenice, the most beautiful in Cornwall. This was later a source of great unhappiness to him, as his wife preferred the love of Tristram, and was greatly desired by Mark himself. Later, Mark awarded the lady to Blioberis de Ganis to get revenge on Tristram. It is possible she was diverting herself, as Segwarides was in unrequited love with the Lady of Roestoc (531), who enlisted the help of Lancelot in driving him off. Phenice’s major-domo is a strange dwarf, named Magus. Segwarides swore to defeat his rivals and stormed out of the court. He was badly wounded by Blioberis, but seeing that Tristram had not first rushed to save her, she returned to her husband after Tristram defeated Blioberis. All of this occurs in 532. Glory: 3,500. Arms: Argent a montagne sable. (in 532) SIZ: 13 Move 3 DEX: 18 Damage 5d6 STR: 16 Hit Points 29 CON: 16 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield APP: 10* Age 42 *His APP would be about 15 to those unprejudiced to dark skin. Attacks: Sword 17, Lance 21, Battle 16, Horsemanship 19, Composite Bow 17. Significant Traits: Chaste 16, Energetic 18, Vengeful 13, Generous 17, Just 16, Merciful 17, Pious 16, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 15, Love (family) 15, Hospitality 19, Honor 17, Love (Phenice) 17. Significant Skills: Courtesy 18, Gaming 15, Hunting 16, Recognize 15, Stewardship 16. Horse: Andalusian Charger (Move 10, Damage 7d6)

Bleheri de Ganis. Son of Blioberis, the Earl of Essex. He recently wed Albe, the lady of Blanches Mores. His father Bleoberis was a rival with Tristram and Mark for the affections of Segwarides’ wife in 532, having encountered her during his son’s wedding. Bleheri’s father Bleoberis is a friend of King Mark and he placed his illegitimate son in Mark’s court to be trained as a knight. Albe, the Lady of Blanches Mores (or ‘the White Land’) in western Cornubia, is the heiress of Sir Cariado, and Bleheri’s son by her, recently born, is named Meridues. Previously she was the sweetheart of Sir Gaheris of Orkney. Glory: 2,000 Arms: Bendy Argent semy of crescents sable and Azure. (in 534) SIZ: 14 DEX: 16 STR: 15 CON: 14 APP: 18

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 28 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 22

Attacks: Sword 17, Lance 16, Battle 12, Horsemanship 15 Significant Traits: Generous 16, Honest 17, Trusting 15, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 12, Love (family) 18, Hospitality 17, Honor 17, Love (Albe) 16. Significant Skills: Courtesy 18, Dancing 16, Romance 15. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Le Lait Hardi (Acanor d’Amalfi, the “Ugly Brave”, or the “Black Knight”) “Before all the excellent knights, Gawain ought to be named the first, and second Erec the son of Lac, and third Lancelot of the Lake. Gornemant of Gohort was fourth, and the fifth was the Handsome Coward. The sixth was the Ugly Brave, the seventh Meliant of Liz, the eighth Mauduit the Wise, and the ninth Dodinel the Wild…” --Erec and Enide (Chretien de Troyes, c.1190) Lord of Bampton. A half-black half-Byzantine Italian knight errant who joined Cador during the Saxon Wars; he returned with some of the May Babies (522), who had washed up in a ship near Amalfi, his home town. Acanor is a Christian. His wife was the niece of Sir Kay. Cador eventually promotes him to Marshal of Devon.

Acanor is probably the most formidable knight in Devon; one of his most famous feats was a dragon-slaying. Glory: 5,000 Arms: Lozengy argent and sable. (in 531) SIZ: 16 Move 3 DEX: 16 Damage 6d6 STR: 18 Hit Points 34 CON: 17 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield APP: 08* Age 31 *His APP would be about 14 to those unprejudiced to dark skin. Attacks: Sword 22, Lance 23, Battle 21, Horsemanship 19. Significant Traits: Chaste 16, Energetic 16, Honest 18, Just 17, Merciful 18, Modest 17, Temperate 16, Valorous 21. Passions: Loyalty (Duke Cador) 18, Love (family) 11, Hospitality 16, Honor 19. Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Courtesy 16, Heraldry 15, Recognize 17, Stewardship 18. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Other Lords of Cornwall. The number of ‘barons’ or landowners substantial enough to sit on Mark’s council is numbered twenty. Besides those already mentioned, their names in 531-4 are: Guenelon the Irascible, Lord of Dimilioc & Steward of Kelliwic Gondoine, Lord of Plympton Denoalan the Frank, Lord of Bantham Rumon, the bishop of Cornwall Griffin, Lord of Malpas and Truro Bertelai, Lord of Berry Pomeroy Jordans, Steward of Tintagel Fergus mac Roch, Lord of Pydar Galaian, Lord of Clovelly Archeman (later Andred) of Castle Pine Morvan de Briec, Lord of Norholt Brangloie, the Lady of Roche Round Table Knights of Cornwall or associated with Cornwall Some of these knights may have become companions of the Round Table before the phase they are listed under, but they are first noted in that era. These knights

make good sponsors into the order for player knights, or can be found fighting on the same side in Tourneys when the contest is between knights of different nationalities. Phase 0 Geraint of Devon Gorlois of Tintagel Ulfius of Ridcaradoch Phase 2 Many of these knights are early household knights of Arthur. Sir Ayglin des Vawse (husband of Escorducarla, kinsman of Andred) Sir Brastias (retired 536) Sir Eliduc, Lord of Tintagel (k.526) Sir Garwy the Tall (an illegitimate son of Geraint) Sir Gautre (Walchere, illegitimate son of the Earl of Jagent) Sir Meliador (younger son of Geraint, called the “Knight of the Golden Sun”) Sir Yder Phase 3 Duke Cador (in 525) Sir Constantine (before 531, son of Cador) Sir Driant of the Isles* (alias Durnor, a son of Pellinore) (before 534) k.552 Sir Fergus*, son of Roch (before 534) (arms: paly counter-paly argent and gules) Gormant ap Ricca Sir Gwilym (Gwilenhin) of France, a knight of Duke Cador k.548 Sir Lambegus* (before 534) Le Lait Hardi (Sir Acanor, the “Ugly-Brave”) Sir Nicoraut the Poor* (before 534) Sir Polydamas (son of Eliduc the younger) Sir Segwarides (before 532) *These four knights became sworn friends of Sir Tristram in 534 when he was in Logres and several at least became essentially part of his household in Lyonesse; Fergus and Lambegus seem already to have had lands in Cornwall. Driant, of course, was an exile and probably lived part of the time with his Cornish friends. Phase 4 Artegall, Earl of Warwick (full brother of Cador) Sir Bran de Lys (not to be confused with Brandiles, son of King Lak) Sir Brun de Branlant (546) Sir Dinadan Sir Edward alias Hercules (son of Ryons?) Guenelon, Steward of Kelliwic

Sir Hebes the Renowned (knighted by Tristram) Medyr ap Medredydd, of Kelliwic Sir Meliant of Lys (son of Yder) Sir Meriadués, son of Bleheri and Albe Menw ap Teirgwaedd, the sorceror, resident at Kelliwic. Sir Sadok (brother of Sir Edward) Sir Sentraille Sir David of Tintagel (son of Sir Jordans) Sir Tristram (in 543) Phase 5 Sir Lovel (son of Gawaine and Guiloret of Lys) k.563. Sir Meliadus (illegitimate son of Meliodas) Religion in Cornwall. Celtic Christianity: Celtic Christianity is the dominant form of Christianity in Cornwall, having been introduced from Cambria and Ireland in the fifth century. It is governed by abbots rather than by an episcopal heirarchy like the Roman church. The Cornish, however, make no strong distinctions between themselves and either the Irish or the Roman church. Generally, the more westerly the establishment, the more influenced by Irish or Cambrian customs. Thus the bishop of Cornwall at St. Germans is really the most important abbot of king Mark’s domains (at this time St. Rumon of Tavistock). The Irish have their own tribal bishop, St. Kea. There is also a bishop at Exeter and an episcopal abbot at Glastonbury. The abbot of Glastonbury is generally resorted to as the paramount abbot of the whole Southwest, including Cornwall, and he reports directly to the Primate of All Britain. Baudwin of Britain, after taking holy orders in 517, is episcopal abbot of Glastonbury and primate of Camelot. St. Carannog (Cernach) A Cambrian holy man, he studied in Ireland. His father was Ceredig, a petty king of Cardigan. He founded a minster near Dunster at Carhampton. He drove out a draconic wyrm and engaged in a dispute with King Arthur in 513. St. Ia. An Irish nun and hermit, she lives near Lelant in Lyonesse. She is one of several Irish religious figures in Cornwall. Ia is still young, having come over recently. Her home and chapel was built for her by Sir Dinas, her friend.

St. Just (Iestyn) Son of Geraint and brother of Cador and St. Selyf. He lives near his father’s grave in Roseland. Although a pious priest, he is rather hard to get a long with and has something of a reputation for thievery. St. Kea (Cynon) Once the lord of Pydar’s Irish and one of King Mark’s commanders, Kea or Cynon has recently become a monk. He is now the bishop of his people in Cornubia and Lyonesse. Fergus is his nephew, son of his brother Roch. St. Madryn A former Cambrian noblewoman, she lives near Boscastle (near Tintagel) as a hermit. She is renowned as a healer and lives near a well with curative properties. In 529 she attempted to cure Tristram’s poisoned wounds, but advised him to seek a cure from the Irish, who might know of an antidote. St. Nechtan. An old Irish-Cymric monk, the son of King Brychan of Brecon, Nechtan evangalized the northern coast of Artavia. He was born about 468. As a young man he settled around Hartland and founded an abbey there. Nechtan’s mission was mostly to the poor and the common folk and it is they who hold him in highest regard. Nechtan was murdered on June 17th, 510 by cattle rustlers. St. Petroc, retired Bishop. St. Petroc is the brother of Gorlois and Merchiawn and thus the uncle of King Mark. He was born about 468 and is now quite old so he has resigned as Bishop of Cornwall. His predecessor in that office was one Wethenoc. He is, however, quite active and healthy. Petroc has founded two abbeys at Bodmin and Padstow, absorbing smaller religious communities in the process. In personality, St. Petroc is forceful and charismatic, perhaps arrogant. He took control of the Christian church here by virtue of his gifts, not out of a formal election. Petroc first came to Cornwall about 500 from Ireland, where he was ordained, and settled at Lanwethinoc, near Padstow. Between 510-518 he was on pilgrimage to Rome and the Middle East. He now lives in a small hermitage on Bodmin Moor. St. Pirran, ex-Bishop of Cornwall, now Archbishop of York. A monk educated in Ireland, perhaps the illegitimate son of Dywel (k. 525), the brother of Geraint of Devon. He founded the church at Peranzabuloe, in Cornubia. He is about a generation younger than Petroc, and much more easygoing. Pirran is a chaplain and friend to King Arthur and visits Kelliwic when

the High King is in residence. He also founded the chapel at Tintagel (of St. Julian) in 500. St. Pirran was bishop after the resignation of Petroc to 514, when he was translated to the see of York by King Arthur. St. Rumon, Bishop of Cornwall The son of Hoel of Brittany, trained in Ireland, and the young abbot-bishop at Tavistock, which he founded. St. Rumon is a married priest and has several children. He is sometimes seen in the company of wolves, and is rumored to have some special bond to them. Rumon became bishop after St. Pol (now of Leon) refused the mitre, in 515. He was selected by King Mark when just a young priest. In recent years he has distanced himself from his patron. St. Selyf (Solomon, Salom) The eldest son of Geraint and brother of Duke Cador, he lives at St. Lubin in Lyonesse. Selyf is a hermit-knight and a fisherman. Before retiring to a religious life, Selyf was one of Uther’s chief commanders.

Paganism and the Faerie in Cornwall Paganism in Cornwall is undergoing a decline. Fewer people are active believers in the old faith, though many still take part in the major festivals as well as taking part in Christian worship. Some pagan magicians have opposed this trend; notable among them are Guilladun, the dowager Duchess of Tintagel, Guenloie, the faerie Queen of Lys and the raven witches of Avalon. Paganism is politically associated with the old king, Yder, who was initiated into the pagan mysteries. Yder now rules only the Other Side of Cornwall, for his mortal half was slain for the last time in 528. In Lyonesse and western Cornubia most of the people are still pagans. King Meliodas, for instance, is not a Christian, though his son Tristram was baptised and sometimes attends Mass. Escorducarla, the Lady of Vawse Probably the most infamous enchantress living in Cornwall after the death of the Lady of Roche in 512. Escorducarla was the only legitimate child of Hector (alias Galidrust), the King of Orkney and the half-sister of King Lot, who took the throne on their father’s death. When Lot helped Uther to conquer Gorlois’ lands in 494-5, his share was the town of Norholt and the moors nearby, which he gave to his sister as recompense (though perhaps to exile her from his court, where she claimed sovereign rights as a half-Pictish princess).

Escorducarla studied first under the witch Guilliadun, wife of Eliduc, the new Lord of Tintagel. Escorducarla was never faithful to any man, but her favorites were Amant, the Prince of Lamballe, whom she met when visiting Broceliande, and Ryons, the terrifying King of Norgales. Some rumors connected her with King Mark as a young man, too. Her children are numerous and include the twins Sadok and Edward and Morvan, the cunning Viscount of La Faou. Her present lover is Sir Ayglin, a knight of the Round Table and the brother of Cador’s wife. Insight 7,500 Glory 5,320 (in 531) SIZ: 12 DEX: 13 STR: 09 CON: 18 APP: 18

Move 3 Damage 4d6 Hit Points 30 Armor none Age 56* (appears to be about 36)

Attacks: Dagger 15, Horsemanship 14. Traits: Lustful 20, Energetic 16, Vengeful 16, Generous 17, Honest 16, Just 15, Cruel 12, Proud 18, Pious 16, Reckless 16, Indulgent 16, Suspicious 17, Valorous 16. Passions: Love (family) 17, Hospitality 16, Honor 15. Significant Skills: Awareness 17, Celestial Lore 16, Courtesy 17, Dancing 16, Faerie Lore 19, Flirting 16, Folk Lore 16, Geomantic Lore 18, Intrigue 16, Orate 16, Recognize 16, Religion (pagan) 19, Sight 19, Stewardship 16. Magic Limit: 144 Magic Defense: 72 Personal Life Force: 4D20 Magical Talents: Curse 16, Divination 18, Emotion 16, Glamour 20, Healing 16, Travel 17. Horse: Ambler Appearance: Dark-haired, thin, imperious glance. The Faerie The dominant type of Faerie in Cornwall are the Piskies. The Piskies are very similar to Faerie elsewhere in Britain; they live in communities are ruled by nobles, although they seem more rustic, more homely and less socially stratified than the Seelie Courts of Logres. They claim to have driven the Faeries over the Parrett river and to be at war with them.

The Piskies are practical jokers and occasionally malicious. They have an affinity for horses, which they sometimes steal or borrow by night, when they are most active. The poorer classes of Piskies sometimes work and live secretly in the homes of Cornishpeople. The two main Faerie courts in Cornwall are located at Kaer Belli near Tintagel and at Cow Castle in Exmoor, ruled by King Edern and the Pisky Queen, respectively. Smaller halls exist in Dartmoor and western Cornwall. The warriors of the Pisky kingdoms are the Spriggans, said to be the ghosts of giants. Besides the Piskies and the Spriggans, the mines and tinning works are the homes of the flighty Knockers, who are friendly to their mortal counterparts, though they hate to be seen. Mermaids are common off the coast of Cornwall, particularly near Lyonesse. Giants, mostly loners, are increasingly uncommon in Cornwall. Formerly, they existed in large numbers and grew to enormous heights, but are now found in the wilds and moors only. Small (and good-natured) giants used to serve as the bodyguard of the Kings of Lyonesse. More vicious giants like Bolster or Cormorant ruled from ancient fortresses and preyed on the flocks of ordinary people. Some Giants: Blunderbus lives on Dinger Tor, in Dartmoor with his four wives. His favorite (the youngest), named Jennie, is afflicted by the jealousy of the other three. Bolster was an immense giant eventually defeated (according to legend) by St. Agnes. Bolster, they say, had a six mile stride. Cormoran was the giant of St. Michael’s Mount in Lyonesse where he lived with his wife Cormelian (whom he later killed by accident). He was tricked and slain by Ioneke (or Jack) a tinker and part-giant himself. Taulurd and Taulas are two smaller brother giants who terrorized Pydar and Cornubia, hiding in the hills. Taulurd was killed by Sir Marhaus, but his brother survived and now lives in the Forest of Morris. The Wrath (or Ralph) of Portreath lives in a seaside cave near Lelant and preys on ships as they sail by. The giant wades out and throws boulders which sink the vessels. He then loots them and eats the sailors.

Chapter 2 Gazetteer of Cornwall In general, Cornwall is closer to Cambria than Logres in its geography. The Cornwall of Arthur’s day is much more forested than it is today, and it is scattered with villages and towns which have flourished in relative safety from the Saxon invasions. There is only one city, Exeter. All in all, over 100,000 people live in Cornwall, but most live in villages or towns of a few hundred inhabitants. Castles are rather common, but they are frequently small: towers, small hill-forts and mottes and baileys. Even Tintagel, one of the larger castles, is really only medium in size. The countryside of Cornwall is distinguished by infertile moors (only shepherds and tinners live there) and dense forests of oak and thorn. The forested areas are found throughout the narrow valleys, though some are growing smaller as ships are built and new towns founded, such as at Truro. The highest hills are called Tors and are frequently barren. Some of them are the haunts of giants or ghosts and avoided by all right-thinking folk. Adventurous Ford [Gué Aventuros] (H21). The ford over the Par river, west of Castle Dore on the route to St. Austell. It is possible to wade across on horseback, or on foot if one is fairly tall (SIZ 13 or greater). Affeton (Affeton Barton nr. West Worlington) (I20). A fortified manor midway between Bampton and Crediton, near Tiverton. Lord: Lady Katherine Vassal of: Duke Cador Albine (G22). A town, the largest in Lyonesse. The Albion, it is said, founded this town, before the coming of Brutus, in ancient days. “Ictis” was the name which it was known by to the Romans and tin and other goods were traded here even before the coming of Caesar. Albine contains the main church of the (minority) Christians. A chapel here is dedicated the those who died in the feud between Meliodas and the King of Escose (512-517). Albine was also the name of the mother of the race of Giants in the deeps of antiquity. Some say she is buried here. Albine, the daughter of Diodicias, King of Syria and wife of Sardacia, King of Damascus, came to Britain with her 33 sisters and half-sisters who had rebelled against their husbands. They consorted with fallen angels and their children, the Giants, populated Britain until the

coming of Brutus. The rulers of Lyonesse are partly descended from these giants and amazons. Lord: Alain, Steward of Albine (brother of David of Tintagel) Vassal of: King Meliodas Altarnun (H20). A holy well and chapel dedicated to St. Non, the mother of St. David. The water in the well is considered a cure for madness. Altarnun is west of Launceton and south of Castle Pine. Anchone (Lannachebran) [St. Keverne] (G22). A town in Lyonesse east of Helston. Lord: Mores, Lord of Lizard Vassal of: King Meliodas Antriadin (Landreyne) (H20). A manor and tower belonging to Morvan of Norholt. It guards the road to Launceton. Lord: Morvan of Norholt Vassal of: King Mark Arbray (G22). A castle of Lyonesse, one of its largest and strongest, on the coast of Lethowstow. Lord: Castellan Vassal of: King Meliodas Artavia (H20). A headland at the western end of Barnstaple bay, also called Hartland or the Point of Hercules. The region is very rugged and steep, and is unpleasant in the winter. This is the home of St. Nectan and his followers. The town and castle at Clovelly is the home of Galaian, an illegitimate son of Briant of Rennes and a robber knight. Averon (Veryan) (H21). A settlement near the sea between Roseland and St. Austell. The village is named after St. Symphorion. Nearby is Caerhayes castle, a small stone keep. The houses of the village are round, as that is believed to ward off evil, a custom with some of the more isolated and tribal parts of Cornwall. Lady: Enid, the widow of Prince Geraint Vassal of: Duke Cador Axminster (Ascanmynster). A town and castle (converted Roman fort) on two roads (the Fosse and the main road to Dorchester and Camelot) beside the river Axe. Axminster also lies on the border between the fief of Moridunum (in Cornwall) and the county of Dorset. Southwest of Axminster is Seaton. Axminster is the home of a Benedictine minster, or monastery. Lord: Sir Reginald

Vassal of: King Mark, Lord of Moridunum Bampton (J20) a barony (and town) on the southern side of Exmoor, consisting of the upper Exe valley. The town is defended by a motte and bailey. The castle at belongs to Sir Acanor of Amalfi, an Italian knight of African descent, known as the “Le Lait Hardi” –The Ugly Brave. He is Cador’s Constable. Lord: Le Lait Hardi Vassal of: Duke Cador Bantham. A seaport town on the small Avon river, the seat of a barony belonging to Sir Denoalan, in Totnes. Lord: Sir Denoalan Vassal of: King Mark Barbigoel (Bridgwater). A town on the Parrett river, part of the land of Lys and its principal market. Lady: Guenloie; Lihetri (steward) Vassal of: No-one Barnstaple (I19) a barony and the largest town in the Morris, between the Taw and Yeo rivers. A tall round stone castle defends the town, converted from wood about 518. North of the river Taw is another wood-walled town called Pilton. The current lord of Barnstaple is the nephew of Dywel ab Erbin, the old lord, who was killed fighting Maelgwn of Gomeret in the Cambrian War. Lord: Sir Brun de Branlant Vassal of: (in theory) Duke Cador Beau-Repair (Barripper). A small castle near Camborne. Lady: Blanchefleur Vassal of: Lord of Cambourne Bel-Brullet (Holwell). A castle in Exmoor, a motte and bailey guarding the main road from Lynton to Barnstaple. Lord: Sir Uriel Vassal of: Sir Brun de Branlant Bel Roche.

cf. Tintagel.

Bere Ferrers. A castle north of Plympton and south of Tavistock on east bank of the Tamar. There is a lead mine owned by the banneret, who holds of Tavistock Abbey. Lord: Sir Aliaumes Vassal of: Abbot of Tavistock

Berry Pomeroy (I21) a barony of the Totnes-Devon border, built during the Anarchy; it was briefly captured by the Saxons in 517 and the original lord and his family were massacred. The baron of Berry Pomeroy is Sir Berluse, a good knight. The castle, however, has a reputation for being haunted. Sir Berluse is the son of Sir Brastias and the brother of Sir Borel, who was made Count of Maine in France by Arthur in 526, but died fighting the Romans the next year. Sir Borel’s son Bertelai is now Count of Maine. Their first cousin is Holdin, who Arthur made Count of Flanders. Other brothers hold land in King Anguish’s kingdom in Ireland. Lord: Sir Berluse Vassal of: King Mark Arms: Bickleigh. A fortified manor halfway between Tiverton and Exeter on the Exe river. Lord: Sir Butor Vassal of: Duke Cador Bideford. This settlement sits along the ford the river Taw, and is near Barnstaple. Bideford is a cloth manufacturing center, spinning wool from the Torric valley. The sheep of Artavia are small and produce poor ‘hair’—so the process is slow. Lord: Helior de l’Espine (previously Prince Boudwin) Vassal of: King Mark Bindon (Beandum). A village on the border of Moridunum and Dorset, south of Axminster. It belongs to the manor of Axminster. Lord: King Mark, Lord of Moridunum Black Cross, Abbey of the (H21). A small abbey near St. Columb Major in Pydar, which is held in fief from King Arthur himself. The monks are learned in Chirurgery. Lord: Abbot of the Black Cross Vassal of: King Arthur Blackdown Hills. A forested stretch of hills dividing Devon from Jagent. The hills are the source of high quality iron. Iron is plentiful enough that rent on lands in the hills is often paid in the form of iron nuggets and ingots. The main part of the hills belong to King Mark as part of his fief of Moridunum. The Earl of Jagent contests the Cornish holdings on the north side of the ridge (towards Ilminster); the western portion of these highlands belong to Duke Cador and his bannerets.

Black Rock. A castle just south of Cambourne, in Lyonesse. Lord: Sir Dinas Vassal of: King Meliodas Blanche Lande (Alba Landa) (G21). The woodlands south of Malpas. King Mark is fond of hunting here. The lands belong to the Lady of Blanches Mores, being an inheritance from her late mother, the wife of Sir Cariado. Lady: Lady Albe and her husband Sir Bleheri Vassal of: King Mark Blanches Mores (Whitemoor) (H21). A castle near St. Dennis and St. Austell. Its chatelaine Albe is the daughter of Cariado, neice of Brun of Morris and the granddaughter of Ermid. She is the wife of Sir Bleheri, a son of Sir Blioberis de Ganis, the Earl of Essex, and the mother of his son Meridues. Formerly she was the lover of Sir Matto le Breune and Gaheris of Orkney. After Sir Gaheris won her affections, Sir Matto went mad and now lives in the forest of Morris, naked and living as a beast. Blioberis is only part of the time in Cornwall, but the presence of his son here means he is de facto the primary representative of the Round Table in Cornubia. Lady: Lady Albe and her husband Sir Bleheri Vassal of: King Mark Bodmin (Bod-meneghi) (H21). A market town on the border of Tintagel and Wivelshire. Trade from Cambria and Ireland passes down the Camel and through Bodmin on the way to Fowey. The local evangelist and abbot is St. Petroc, brother of Gorlois and uncle of King Mark. St. Petroc has gained considerable land for his abbey here (the sister abbey to Padstow) from pious converts. Prior to Petroc, the abbot was St. Guron, who recently retired. Petroc is a very learned man, and a senior counselor to King Mark. [Bomme in the Prose Tristan] Abbot: St. Petroc Boscawen-Un (Place of the Elder Trees). This stone oval of nineteen outer stones and a leaning central stone. Boscawen-Un is the gorsedd of Cornwall, the gathering place of its druids and bards. Of all the public centers of the Pagan religion here, it is the most holy, though there are secret and ruined places more potent. Bradninch (J20). A barony named after its main town northeast of Exeter, along the Culm river. Cullompton is the seat of the baron. Lord: Sir Auvrai the Breton Vassal of: Duke Cador

Bradstone (I20). A town 8 miles north of Tavistock, on the east bank of the Tamar. Lord: Sir Landunas Vassal of: Sentraille, Steward of Launceton Branlant (Braunton) (I19). A castle belonging to Brun, nephew of the lord of Barnstaple. Brun is the guardian of the Lady Lore of the Narrow Wood, the sister of Sir Griflet, his cousin. The Lady Lore has many holdings in Britain and is much sought after as a wife. Brun is a gallant knight who loves to joust down travelling knights in the Exmoor and the Morris. Near Braunton is St. Brannoc’s Well, with healing properties. Lord: Brun de Branlant Vassal of: Lady Lore Brahaigne, Forest of (the Forest of Barrenness) (G21). (Ambient 4d20, Curse 2d20)--A forest in Lyonesse, part of the Jaiant forest. A fountain here, called the Fountain of Barrenness, or the Fountain of the Dragon, causes sterility in women. Beside the fountain is a stone bearing the inscription: “Ci vendront li troi bon chevalier. A ceste fontaine assembleront il, et i tendront lor parlement de la fiere beste. Galaaz, Lanceloz, Tristanz” –“Here will come the three best knights, and at this fountain assemble, and hold between themselves a discussion concerning whom was the best: Galahad, Lancelot, and Tristram.” It was evidently carved by Merlin in 512. [This adventure is not described in the Romances, however] Breage (G21). A village in Lyonesse south of Pengersick. The various Christian saints of Lyonesse once battled the local faerie here in a magical duel. Breage is named for one of them, an Irish hermitess. Lord: Sir Marangliez Vassal of: King Meliodas Brent Knoll (K19). (Ambient 2d20)--A large hill near the coast in Somerset, north of the Parrett estuary. Here lived several giants, a plague on the neighboring villages. In 528, Sir Yder killed them, but was himself mortally wounded. Lord: Abbot of Glastonbury Brent Tor (I20). A very tall hill, on the summit of which is a church dedicated to St. Michael. It seems in time past, the hill was dedicated to pagan gods, but the presence of the church curtails such rites. Buckfast Abbey (I21). Originally a small monastery founded by St. Petroc, Buckfast has profited from land grants by Mark as Lord of Totnes. It is under the rule of the White Monks. The abbey is actually a part of the merchant’s guild of

Totnes, engaging in the wool trade (Dartmoor wool is short and wirey, but the abbey is able to export it for making hose). Two miles into the forest in the north is the hillfort of Hembury castle, on the eve of the Dartmoor. Now deserted, Hembury was garrisoned by Danish mercenaries by King Idres. Abbot: Buckland Abbey (I21). A Cistercian abbey south of Tavistock, recently founded by King Mark. The King has recently had a monument put up for Prince Boudwin and his wife. The prince is buried here, though his wife’s body is said to lie in the sea. Abbot: Bury Barton (nr. Lapford) (I20). An old Roman fort northeast of Nemetostatio and north of Crediton, on the Taw, now abandoned. Cador, Castle (Cadbury) (I20). A castle built by Duke Cador north of Exeter, once the site of pagan festivals. It is now one of his main ducal residences. The locals say that the castle and its neighbor, the unrebuilt hillfort of Dolbury Hill are the sites of great treasure, buried in the ground, but a dragon lies sleeping to guard it. Lord: Duke Cador Caer Belli (Ashbury Camp) (H20). (Ambient 8d20, Glamour 4d20, Summon Faerie Creature 4d20)--A Faerie hillfort, also called “Fatale Castrum.” It lies south of Stratton near the Tamar river. This outpost of the otherworld is the abode of Yder, as Edern ap Nudd, the Lord of the Faerie in Cornwall. Lord: Edern ap Nudd Vassal of: No-one Callington (H21). A wool-market town in the middle of Wivelshire, subject to Mark. A small hillfort called Cadson Bury is nearby. A holy well, called Dupath Well (Ambient 4d20, Healing 3d20), is in the village. Lord: Sir Turpin Vassal of: King Mark Cambourne (G21). A town in Lyonesse, on the road to Pydar. Lord: Sir Vivian Vassal of: King Meliodas Camelford (Ford of the Crooked Stream) (H20). A village on the Camel river south of Tintagel. It belongs to the fief of Tintagel. West of the village lie the hillforts of Rogeudon (cf) (Castle Goff) and Newbury.

A legend relates that St. Joseph of Arimathea came near here to fetch fresh water from the source called “Jesus’ Well. Campadoine (Templeton) (J20). A castle west of Tiverton belonging to Sir Belchis the Ugly, whose wife the fair Guenoret is the daughter of Yder and Guenloie of Lys. Belchis’ son and heir is named Espinogres. Belchis covets the Lidoine of Lindesores (in Brittany) for his son, but she finds him coarse. Lord: Sir Belchis the Ugly Vassal of: Duke Cador Carn Brea (G21). (Ambient 7d20, Blessing 4d20) A hillfort near to Redruth, now only the site of sacrifices to the Goddess Venus or Arianrhod. It is one of the main pagan centers in Lyonesse, where the old priest-kings were buried. Nearby is a grove dedicated to Hercules (Lugh). Midsummer (June 23) is celebrated with large bonfires. Lord: Sir Vivian, Lord of Cambourne Vassal of: King Meliodas Carn Euny (G21). An ancient village east and inland from Lyonesse, containing a fogou. Carn Gluze (Grey Cairn) (F21). An old barrow near St. Just in Lyonesse, where faerie lights are seen by night. Carvain (Cannington) (J19). A hillfort-castle and town in Lys, site of a large pagan cemetery. Lord: Sir Morr Vassal of: Lady Guenloie Chagford (I20). A village in Dartmoor, southeast of Okehampton. Lord: Sir Mawren (brother of Maurel of Gidleigh) Vassal of: Sir Segwarides Chapel Point (H21). “In this way Tristan was led along until he came to an old church by the seashore built long ago on a rock had crumbled in many places; and huge breakers were beating against the foot of it… As soon as he saw the sea beneath him so deep that it was awesome to behold, he said to himself that now he no longer had anything to fear from the cowardly Cornish knights, for he would rather jump into the sea than be in their power; if he had to die, he preferred that the sea should cause his death rather than his enemies.” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c.1230-40)

A seaside chapel set on a cliff near Castle Gotha. In 535, Tristram leaps from the cliff here to escape execution; it is the known as “Tristram’s Leap.” Chastel Orguelleus (I or J19). An enchanted castle hidden in Exmoor. In 548 an adventure occurs here (described in the First Continuation to Perceval) and Sir Griflet, with other knights, is imprisoned, part of the events leading to the Grail Quest. The ruler of the castle is named the “Riche Soudoier” or the “Proud Knight,” he holds it on behalf his lover, a Faerie lady, who requires him (or anyone who kills him, thereby becoming her paramour) to seize and hold in captivity any knight he defeats. The Rich Soldier has an impossible 566 elf knights—though the castle is in the wastes and has no peasants, it is well stocked with provisions. See also the Castle Perilleus in the Breton gazetteer. Lord: The Rich Soldier Vassal of: a Faerie Queen Chudleigh Rock (J20). A home of fairies, beneath a waterfall. Chulmleigh (I20). A motte and bailey north of Nemetostatio. Lord: Vassal of: Cariado, Lord of Tirion Chûn (Moor Castle) (G21). A very old hillfort in Lyonesse. The walls of Chûn stand nine feet tall on the outer ring and twenty feet tall on the inner. The old lord of the castle was a man of giant blood (he stood 9 feet tall) named Rialobran ap Cunoval. He was slain in the civil war of 512, fighting for the loyalists. Lord: Vassal of: King Meliodas Chysauster (G21). A village beneath Castle-an-Dinas in Penwith belonging to Sir Dinas. It is a tin working center; the people here live (as in other highland regions of Cornwall) like their tribal counterparts in Cambria. Lord: Sir Dinas Vassal of: King Meliodas Clannacombe (I21). A town near Salcombe, founded in Roman times. Lord: Sir Denoalan, Lord of Bantham Vassal of: King Mark Cleeve Abbey (J19). An abbey north of the Brendon Hills between Carhampton and Watchet.

Clovelly (H20). A village near Hartland. Just south are the Clovelly Dikes, a hillfort recently renovated against Irish and Cambrian raids. The lord of Clovelly is an illegitimate son of Briant, the Count of Rennes. He wed the daughter of the old Irish chieftain descended from the original Uí Laithian settlers and has band of Irish brigands. He is a personal enemy of Sir Brun de Branlant. Lord: Sir Galaian Vassal of: No-one Colyton (J20). A large market village near Axminster, founded by the Romans circa 70 AD. The castle and estates are held directly by King Mark and administered by a castellan. A minster (small monastery) is nearby. Lord: Lord of Seaton Vassal of: King Mark Compton (I21). A fortified banneret’s manor inland from Torre and northeast of Totnes. Berry Pomeroy stands not far to the southwest. Lord: Sir Bridas Vassal of: King Mark Coombe Castle (H21). A small fort at the estuary of the Ornise (Fowey). Lord: Sir Falcone Vassal of: King Mark Corinde [Cornwood] (I21). A castle at the southern edge of Dartmoor, north-east of Plympton. Lord: Sir Pleherin Vassal of: Gondoine, Lord of Plympton Cornasin [Carnsew] (G21). A castle in Lyonesse, near Lelant. There is said to be a great wingless dragon living near here, in the forest. Lord: Sir Droas Vassal of: King Meliodas Cornworthy (I21). A nunnery south of Totnes, on the south side of the Dart channel. Cow Castle (I19). A hillfort and Piskie mound, the home of their Queen. It is also known as Ring Castle. The Queen is said to have enchanted it against evil spirits (the Faeries). May be equated with Chastel Orguelleus [qv]. Crediton (Cridiantun) (J20). A small town northwest of Exeter. The town is the site of a monastery, and is the main baronial holding of the Bishop of Exeter. A castle nearby at Bickleigh is the seat of the Bishop’s steward.

Lord: Bishop of Exeter Vassal of: Duke Cador Crowcombe (J19). A village on the west side of the Quantock Hills, on the Dunster side of the border with Lys. A two-headed dragon lives in the forest nearby. Cullompton (J20). A Roman fort between Exeter and the Blackdown hills. It has been converted into a keep by the Lord of Bradninch. A smaller fort and hill camp is nearby at Killerton, but is abandoned. Lord: Lord of Bradninch Vassal of: Duke Cador Dartington (I21). A fortified manor a few miles north of Totnes. Lord: Juhael, Steward of Totnes Vassal of: King Mark Dartmoor Chase (I20-21). A highland region lying in the midst of the great fief of Totnes. Dartmoor is a rugged and partially forested region, like Exmoor the haunt of robbers. Besides mundane threats, the local faeries (Piskies) are known to bespell travellers so they become lost in the wilderness. Black Dogs, known as Yeth Dogs or Wisht Hounds, are sometimes met in the night. The heights of Dartmoor are desolate, and often shrouded in mist; they are uninhabited. Lower Dartmoor is used either as forest land or is for grazing cattle or sheep, though the peaty bogs make as much as half the forest even unproductive for this purpose. Lord: Sir Segwarides, Earl of the Moor Vassal of: King Mark Dartmouth (I21). A seaport, the main port of trade for Totnes, inland some eight miles. King Mark plans to build a castle here. Dartmouth harbor holds the Cornish royal fleet, manned both by Cornishmen and Saxons. The reputation of Mark’s warships is enviable, but it has been mostly tested by pirates from Ireland, at least so far. Lord: Sir Guion, Admiral of Cornwall Vassal of: King Mark Dawlish (Black water) (J21). A village in the fief of Berry near a holy well on the coast of Devon, between the Teign and the Exe (Ambient 4d20, Healing 3d20). A local hermit living nearby was recently discovered to be robbing and murdering travellers, but he has escaped into the moors. The settlement was destroyed by the Saxons in 517 and has slowly recovered. Lord:

Vassal of: Sir Berluse of Berry Deux Portes, Castle of the. An ancient castle in Cornwall, now called Kelliwic (cf). Dewer Stone (I21). A rocky, forested steep hill in southern Dartmoor, near Bickleigh, haunt of the Wild Hunt. Dimilioc (Castle Denis, St. Dennis) (H21). A castle, once part of Gorlois’ domains on the Hensbarrow Downs and very near the castle of Blanches Mores [qv]; Gorlois used it as his headquarters in the war with Uther, and it was from here that he rode to his death at Castle Terrabel. The castle is the seat of a fief belonging to Sir Guenelon. The castle was built by King Donuat, Conan Meriadoc’s father in law in the 4th century, thus its other name, Caer Donuat or Caer Dunod. Sometimes also called Sandic; the chapel here is dedicated to St. Denis. Lord: Sir Guenelon, Steward of Kelliwic Vassal of: King Arthur Dingerein (H21). A small castle in Roseland, originally built by Prince Geraint. Lord: Sir Origge Vassal of: Princess Enid Dore, Castle (H21) A medium castle, originally of wood and stone buried in earth, later upgraded to stone after Mark’s ascension in 515. In spring and summer, gorse blossoms bloom yellow-gold on its banks. Lord: Underic, Steward of Dore Vassal of: King Mark Dozmary Pool or the Lake Adventurous (H21). (Ambient 6d20, Glamour 2d20, Travel 2d20). A lake in the midst of Bodmin Moor; said to be bottomless, and frequently shrouded in mist. Some have seen Nimue frequent this isolated spot; what means of travel she has here is unknown. Yder in his guise of Edern ap Nudd is sometimes found here, holding a golden cup brimming with wine which cannot be drained. Dumnonia. The Latin name for what now comprises the Kingdom of Cornwall, whence the names Devon (in English) and Dyfnaint (in Cymric) for the eastern portion of the Kingdom. Mark’s Latin title is Rex Dumnoniorum, “King of the Dumnonii.”The region was the main point of origin for the colonists of Dumnonée, in Brittany (cf).

Dunster [Dindraithof, Dun Tradoc] (J19). Three castles defend this town, Dunster proper, Bat’s Castle and Gallox. They belong to Duke Cador, who ruled the fief in person in the lifetime of Geraint (from 510-7). They were founded and held once by Irish settlers who have since mingled with the British. Lord: Claradus, Steward of Dunster Vassal of: Duke Cador Elm-trees, Castle of the (Castle Bury) (J20). A medium castle built near Branlant by King Arthur (in Phase 4) during his siege of Brun’s lands. Griflet puts it in the charge of a knight from Daoulas, in Brittany. Lord: Sir Griflet; Guingan de Daoulas (castellan) Vassal of: King Arthur Espine, Ford of. cf Thornford Espinoie, Forest of (Forest of Thorns) [Thornbury and environs] (H-I20). (Ambient 3d20)--A dense thicket-forest, part of the Morris, west of Okehampton, favored by King Mark for hunting deer. It is the location of Sir Garowin’s castle (see the “Adventure of the Rosebriar Knight” in Tales of Magic and Miracles, though there his castle is both said to be on the edge of the Morris forest and near Padstow). This forest should not be confused with the Espinoie forest north of Roestoc or the Sapine forest in Gorre. Lady: Phenice of Thornford (and her husband, Sir Segwarides) Vassal of: King Mark Exeter (Caer Uisc) (J20). Self-governing capital of the principality of Devon; former capital of Dumnonia (as Isca Dumnoniorum). The town is surrounded by a wall (built around 200 AD) and defended by the castle of Rougemont, belonging to Taulas, the castellan or praetor. Rougemont stands in the north east of the town. The forum basilica dates to the later half of the fourth century. A small Celtic monastery and church is situated here, one of the seats of the bishop of Dumnonia. The city is about 500 by 1000 meters square, or about 92 acres. The city is in a state of static disrepair; while the baths have ceased to operate and buildings are decaying, Roman culture has continued to survive. Local industry includes bronze-working and iron-working, as well as trade in fish and luxuries, though the Duchess Ydain installed a weir across the river, south of the town, blocking ship traffic. Instead sea-borne trade was diverted to Topsham [qv], owned by Cador. West of the Exe river is the Prince’s castle of Cowick; north of Exeter is the nunnery of Polsloe. In 466 Aurelius and Uther besieged and crushed Vortigern’s Saxon mercenaries here, taking control of Cornwall; they then governed from here until taking London the next year. The town was again devastated by the Saxons in 517 and has not fully recovered.

Sir Taulas sided with King Yder against his immediate liege and uncle Geraint in the civil war of 510-4. As a result, Geraint and Cador attempted to dispossess him. However, Yder, the exiled King, took up his cause to King Arthur and won for Taulas a pardon. In 517 the Saxon horde besieged the city and did considerable damage before they continued to Totnes. The citizens are contrary enough to support their magistrate against Cador. Taulas has an unwed sister named Guilladun, not to be confused with her aunt, the dowager Duchess of Tintagel. As her brother is unmarried, she is the heiress to his property in the city (though not his rank, which is appointed by the town magistrates). Magistrate: Sir Taulas Vassal of: Duke Cador Exmoor (Mor Coed, the great wood) (I-J19). A wilderness, sometimes considered part of the Forest of Morris, covering several hundred square miles in northeastern Cornwall along the Severn estuary. The highland region is semi-forested, mostly in the goyals (steep valleys). The heights are moor-grass covered; the region is frequented by large numbers of deer and other game. The district is the haunt of robbers, knaves and evil knights alike, and has a bad reputation; moreover there are winged dragons living in the heights. Lord: (in theory) Duke Cador Ford Abbey (J20). A rich abbey near the Cornish border in Dorset, between Axminster and Ilminster. Fowey (H21). A port of Cornubia near Castle Dore and south of Lostwithiel. Fowey has a bad reputation with the rest of Britain because of King Mark’s privateers (the Fowey “Gallants”), but the town also trades in imported corn, Ganis wine, timber and salt; tin, fish and cloth are sold or loaded for overseas. Fowey belongs partly to King Mark and partly to the Lady of Vawse. The Fowey pirates pursue mainly French shipping (particularly when their activities are legal in 526 and 536), but Mark is known to turn a blind eye to their depredations, so long as they victimize his enemies. Lords: King Mark and Lady Escorducarla Gannes, Abbey of [St. Gennys] (H20). Sir Anchises, a kinsman of Sir Bors de Ganis, was killed here by a giant. After he avenged his cousin, Bors founded a nunnery on the site of the giant’s lair, as a sister house to one in his homeland. The nunnery is north of Tintagel and Orduale Besco Gaulois, Castle [Galhampton] (I21) a castle belonging to the Lord of Bantham, a knight from the border of Gaul or France and Brittany (thus the name). Lord: Sir Denoalan of Fougeres Vassal of: King Mark

Giant’s Hedge (H21). A dyke and wall dividing southwestern Wivelshire from the rest of Cornubia. Some say giants, others the Devil built this. It was refurbished by Duke Gorlois against Uther, but never defended. Gidleigh (I20). A village and small stone castle belonging to the Earldom of the Moors, or of the Pass. It is southeast of Okehampton. Lord: Sir Maurel Vassal of: Sir Segwarides Golant (H21) cf. Lantian. Gotha, Castle (H21). A fortress south of St. Austell. The castellan is the old tutor of Sir Lionel and Sir Bors, and was granted the property by Blancet, Sir Blioberis’ mistress. Lord: Sir Lambegues Vassal of: Lady of Whitemoors Glevedin (Gluvian) (H21). A castle belonging to King Mark, between Dimilioc and Padstow, one of the old fortresses of Gorlois. Lord: Moades, castellan of Glevedin Vassal of: King Mark Gwavas Lake (G21). A tidal inlet on the western side of Lethowstow, dividing it from Penwith, reaching as far as St. Michael’s Mount. When the tide is up a bar of sand creates a salty lake. Halwell (I21). An inland wood-walled borough on a hill between Totnes and Salcombe. King Mark founded the town as a defensive measure after the sack of Totnes in 517. Lord: Elygos, castellan of Halwell Vassal of: King Mark Ham Hill (K20). A 200-acre Durotrigian hillfort (and later Roman fort) converted into a castle near the more modern castle of Montacute [qv]. The old villa is now the home of a banneret. Lord: Sir Clement Vassal of: the Earl of Jagent Harberton (I21). A town southwest of Totnes. Lord: Sir Fouchier Vassal of: King Mark

Hel Tor (I20). A rise in Dartmoor south of Crediton. A rock by the hill, called “Blackingstone” is the site of a legendary game of quoits between King Uther and the Devil. The Devil was defeated. Helston (G21). This town in the Lizard peninsula celebrates the Midsummer festival with a fair and public dances. Lord: Mores, Lord of Lizard Vassal of: King Meliodas Hemyock (J20). A castle on the border of Devon and Lys, deep in the Blackdown Hills. [1380] The lord is a bandit and a danger to trade passing up the Culm valley, but it is unclear on which side the castle stands. Lord: Sir Doon Vassal of: No-one Hilldown (I20). A small castle midway between Crediton, Nemetostatio and Bury Barton. Lord: Sir Cleremond Vassal of: Duke Cador Honiton (J20). A castle in Moridunum, in the Blackdown Hills. Lord: Sir Herygall Vassal of: King Mark Horn, Castle of the (J19 or 20). A medium castle hidden in the fens of Lys at the edge of the Otherworld. This is one of the homes of Sir Yder, in his guise as Lord of the Horn. A horn hangs from the gate; whoever blows it must face him in combat. The victor may proceed into the Faerie world. Lord: Sir Yder Vassal of: Guenloie Ictis. cf. Albine Jagent (J-K20). A territory also known (more formally) as the “South March” or March of Cornwall. Tegfan, the Earl, has no legitimate heir, after Gawaine killed his son; however he has many bastards, including Sir Arnold, Sir Walchere and others. Tegfan and his knights distrust the Cornish because they were raided during the Anarchy and during the war of the Rebel Kings. Jagent was created by Ambrosius out of the old Kingdom of Dumnonia and its people belong to the fragmented Durotriges tribe. Tegfan and his father allied with King Idres out of necessity before Arthur, but changed sides in Easter 510 at London. Tegfan feels that Lys and parts of Devon should belong to him, but he is reluctant to break the King’s Peace. His political and personal grudges against

Duke Cador make him an ally of King Mark, though he does not trust the Cornish king. Fiefs and settlements belonging to Jagent include Ham Hill, Ilchester, Jagent itself (Cadbury Castle), Montacute, Neroche and Yeovil. To the north of Jagent is Somerset (including Somerton and Glastonbury) and to the south is Dorset. Jaiant Forest (Goonhilly Downs) (G21-22). (Ambient 3d20)--A wilderness covering much of Kerrier in Lyonesse. The name means “Giant.” There is a spring here called the Fountain of the Giant where the giants once drank. Kelliwic (Celliwig, Killibury, “Place of the Grove”) (H21). “Arthur as Chief Prince in Celliwig in Cornwall, and Bishop Bytwini as Chief Bishop, and Caradawg Strong-Arm as Chief Elder;…” --from the Welsh Triads A small castle belonging to the High King, part of his maternal inheritance. The castle is enclosed in two dikes, and has two gates leading east and west, through which a road goes to Padstow and, in the other direction, Tintagel. Arthur visited the castle for the first time in 513 during the campaign against the Danes, curious about the country of his birth. He has since intermittently visited Cornwall, living here, and hunting. The ambiance is decidedly more rustic than Camelot, which is no doubt its appeal. The castellan of Kelliwic is Sir Guenelon, Arthur’s lord of Dimilioc. Kelliwic is sometimes called the Castle des Deux Portes. Lord: Guenelon, Steward of Kelliwic Vassal of: King Arthur Kerrier (G21). A region of Lyonesse including the Lizard and Forest of Jaiant. Langarrow (Langurroc, Langura) (H21). The “dwelling of the monks” in Pydar, north of Perranzanbuloe. This town is the center of the Cornish slave trade. Slaves are usually either criminals or the victims of war, and sent here to work the mines or be sold to nobles and merchants in southwestern Britain. The population is an interesting mixture of Irish, Cornish and Jewish peoples. Lantian [Lancien, “Wood enclosure”] (H21). A comfortable manor, also called ‘Villa Banhedos’ belonging to King Mark, from which he holds court in the winter. A village named Golant is on the river Fowey nearby, where is a church and small monastery founded by St. Samson. Lantian is one of the main sites for Mark’s regal tournaments in Cornwall. Outside the village is a community of lepers who subsist off the generosity of the court. They are led by a former knight named Ivain.

Lantian is surrounded by woodland, and is a favorite hunting spot for King Mark. Near the manor is Castle Dore [qv], a much more defensible site. The steward, Amant, is the son of Amant of Lamballe in Brittany and Escorducarla of Vawse. His older brother is Morvan of Norholt and La Faou, though Amant is altogether less ambitious, more chivalrous and just, his brother is more famous and more admired. Lord: Sir Amant, Steward of Wivelshire Vassal of: King Mark Launceton (H20). Fortress-town on the river Tamar. Four regions border on it: Tintagel, Cornubia, Totnes and Artavia. Castle Terrabel, known also as “Dunheved” overlooks it. This castle is a fief held directly of King Arthur, part of the dower lands of Queen Igraine. Sir Sentraille was recently appointed Castellan; he is a friend of Dinas and Tristram. A Celtic monastery is nearby at Lan-Stephen. The town itself is built on two hills around the castle. There was a castle named “Tarabel” or “Karabel” in the land of Sarras, playing a role in the History of the Grail; it may be no coincidence that the descendants of Brons and his wife, who was the daughter of Joseph of Arimathea, founded the first Christian dynasty of Cornwall. Lord: Sir Sentraille, Castellan of Terrabel Vassal of: King Arthur Lelant (“church”) (G21). A small town in Lyonesse, partly populated by Irish. The local lord is Sir Droas. An Irish hermitess named Iâ lives to the west on the coast, where Sir Dinas has built her a church. Most of the people are pagan, however. Lord: Sir Droas Vassal of: King Meliodas Lidan [Lydford] (I20). A manor and castle between Launceton and Okehampton belonging to Sir Dinas. The village is also walled with stout wooden beams. Lidan is growing, as it stands in the midst of the tin-mining district of western Dartmoor. Dinas operates a small mint and the village is the site of a tinner’s court. Lord: Sir Dinas Vassal of: King Mark Lion, Fountain of the (G21). Site (near the border of Lyonesse and Cornubia) of the death of Archeman and the exposure of Meraugis, not far from Men-A-Tol (cf). The corpse of Boudwin was found here after the battle with the Spanish pirates in 530. Later, Lancelot and Blioberis will fight here. A wild lion was often seen in the vicinity.

Lions, City of (Seven Stones) (off map G21). The ruins of the ancient capital of Lyonesse, sunken in the sea since before the Romans. Sailors sometimes see the rubble and hear the bells of Lions as they sail above. Liskeard (H21). A village in Wivelshire near the castle of Ridcaradoch [qv]. It is held by the Duke of Silchester, who owes homage only to the High King. Lord: Castellan of Ridcaradoch Vassal of: Duke Ulfius (later his sons) Lizard (G22). A town and peninsula south of the Helford river and the Jaiant forest. The Romans called this headland Dumnonium or Ocrinum. Lizard town is served by a church founded by St. Gwenole, the Breton, though the people are only superficially Christian. Many ships founder near Lizard point and the locals profit from the wrecks. Sea caves along the coast are the homes of giants and sea creatures. Lord: Sir Mores Vassal of: King Meliodas Loddiswell Rings (I21). A motte and bailey inland between Halwell and Bantham. Lord: castellan Vassal of: Sir Denoalan Looe (“pool”) (H21). A small seaport serving Lantian and Wivelshire. Lord: King Mark Lostwithiel (H21) A market town of Wivelshire and center of the tin industry. Restormel castle guards the forested approaches to the north. Lord: Sir Amant (see Lantian) Vassal of: King Mark Loxhore (I19). A motte and bailey northeast of Barnstaple. Lord: Sir Cleges Vassal of: Brun de Branlant Lundy (H19) [Ynys Weir or Ynys Brychan]. Lundy is small island lying off Hartland point. A considerable number of stories are told about this island, generally distinguished as Pagan or Christian. In Pagan stories, Lundy is called “Ynys Weir,” the island of Gweir, where the hero was imprisoned until rescued; it is equated with Caer Sidi, the fortress of the Sidhe, and is an entrance into the Otherworld of Annwfn.

The Christians say that Joseph of Arimathea built a chapel here in the first century AD; later, in the fifth century, the Irish prince Brychan (of Brycheniog, in Cambria) rebuilt the structure. His son St. Nechtan was buried here. Much like Avalon, the exact nature of the site reflects the religious belief of the visitor. Lord: Unknown Lushon. as in Sentraille de: Malory’s rendering of the French Laçoine: Launceton [qv]. Lyonesse Castle (F22). A castle lying at the tip of Land’s End near the village of Sennan. The castle is one of the favored dwellings of King Meliodas, who had it built and improved throughout his reign. The Roman name for this cape was Antivestium or Belerium. Lord: King Meliodas Lys. Also called the “Land of the Horn.”A small pennath-holding extending from the Parrett river to the Quantock hills, bordered on the north by the Severn Channel and on the south including the Vale of Taunton. It is a small pagan relic, imperfectly subjugated by the Romans, lying neither in nor outside Cornwall and by some uncertain and mystical aspect associated with Lyonesse. The eastern counterpart to Lys is the country of Avalon, a part of Somerset in Logres. Rising floodwaters and swamps made Lys practically unapproachable from the east, the main ford being at Athelney. The ruler of Lys is Guenloie; her husband was Sir Yder. Settlements in Lys include Cannington, Athelney and Taunton. Lady: Guenloie Vassal of: No-one Malpas (G21). A swampy region south of Truro, one of the fords over the Carrick Roads. It is the site of the favored manor of the Lord of Truro. Lord: Sir Griffon de Malpas, Lord of Truro Vassal of: King Mark Madern Well (Madorn) (G21). A Healing well near Chun Castle and Men-an-Tol in Lyonesse. (Ambient 5d20, Healing 4d20). Manaton (I20). A village on the eastern bounds of Dartmoor. The hills nearby are troubled by a wyvern. Marazion (“Little-market”) (G21). A small market town in Lyonesse, also known as “Market Jew.”It serves St. Michael’s Mount and the vicinity. Lord: Castellan of Albine

Vassal of: King Meliodas Marterol [Mountjoy] (H21). A small castle north of the Castle de la Roche, the home of Sir Fergus, the “Earl” of Pydar. Lord: Fergus of Pydar Vassal of: King Mark Matufer (Drake’s Island) (I21). A small island in the mouth of the Tamar. Its most prominent landmark is the Vermilion Rock. Anyone who touches the boulder is forced to speak the literal truth. Men-An-Tol (“stone with a hole”) (G21). A megalithic monument near Chun and Madren Well; nearby is Lanyon Quoit. Men-An-Tol is a large round wheel-like structure with a hole large enough to crawl through; doing so is a cure for the rickets (Ambient 3d20, Healing 2d20). Lanyon Quoit is a large capstone supported by three uprights, high enough for a man to ride through. Meripit Hill (I20). A hill in Dartmoor, haunted by the ghosts of a sow and her piglets. Merlin’s Stones. Six stones erected by Merlin in the realms of Arthur, one of which is in Lyonesse (near the Fountain in the Forest of Brahaigne [qv]), one in Cornwall. The others are in the forest of Darnantes, Broceliande, near Camelot and in the Caledonian wood. Milton Damerel (I20). A motte and bailey between Tirian and the Tamar river. Lord: Sir Jolies of Tintagel Vassal of: Cariado, Lord of Tirian Milverton (J20). A village on the road from Jagent to Dunster, in Lys. Lord: Sir Ermyngall Vassal of: Lady Guenloie Mohuns Ottery (J20). A castle between Moridunum and Exeter, near the town of Ottery [qv]. Lord: Sir Hardulf Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Moridunum Molton (I20). A monastery and town south of Exmoor. Molton actually consists of two communities separated by a few miles. The northern village has a number of smiths supplied by iron from Exmoor. Lord: Abbot Vassal of: Duke Cador

Montacute (Chastel Agu) (K20). A castle built in 505 by the then Earl of Jagent, a conversion from a motte to a small round castle. Montacute holds fairly pleasant apartments, used for holding prisoners for ransom and hosting important guests. Lord: Earl of Jagent Vassal of: King Arthur Moresk (H21). A small castle just north of the town of Truro. Lord: Sir Griffon, Lord of Truro Vassal of: King Mark Moridunum (Hembury) (J20). A castle (called “of the Blackberries”) in eastern Devon, seized by King Mark after the Saxon wars. The fief of Moridunum, consisting of the lands between the Blackdown hills and the Channel, is named and administered from the castle. After the death of the last baron in the Saxon wars, King Mark took the lands for himself. He has yet to appoint a new baron; the steward is an illegitimate son of the Earl of Jagent and the brother of Sir Walter. The castle is a hillfort converted into a small Roman fort and then into a stone keep. Lord: Sir Arnold, Steward of Moridunum Vassal of: King Mark Arms (of the old lord): Argent an eagle displayed purpure. Morris, Forest of & the Cave of Lovers (I20). “The three of them together made steadily for the wilds, journeying over forest and heath for well on two days. Tristan had long known of a cavern in a savage mountainside, on which he had chanced when his way had led him there out hunting. The cavern had been hewn into the wild mountain in heathen times, before Corynaeus’ day, when giants ruled there. They used to hide inside it when, desiring to make love, they needed privacy. Wherever such a cavern was found, it was barred with a door of bronze, and bore an inscription to Love – la fossiure a la gent amant, which is to say ‘The Cave of Lovers… …They were always at each other’s side. In the mornings they would stroll to the meadow through the dew --Tristan (Gottfried von Strassburg, c. 1210) The light to medium woodlands covering the central part of Cornwall. Cornwall’s forests are of oak and birch and seldom dense. Woodlands are also found in the heights of the various moors. Cornwall is slowly becoming deforested by farmers and miners; despite this, much of the wild moors are royal desmense, set aside for hunting. The law is only haphazardly enforced, however.

As Gottfried recounts, the forest was formerly the stronghold of the giants, and a few still dwell there. The location of the Cave of Lovers is uncertain. Note sometimes the name “Morris” or “Morrois” is used for all the forested and semi-forested highlands of Cornwall, including Bodmin Moor and Dartmoor. Mount Batten (I21). A village of great antiquity, near the mouth of the Tamar and part of King Mark’s holding of Wivelshire. It was formerly the site of the trade with the Gauls and the Romans but has now become small and insignificant. Lord: Traminore of Trematon Vassal of: King Mark Nanstallon (H21). An old Roman fort near Bodmin (built about AD 60). Lord: Sir Guenelon of Kelliwic Vassal of: King Mark Nine Maidens (Boskednan) (G21). A stone circle near Lelant. Nearby is the Castle of Ten Maidens, belonging to the lady Dyonise; her lover and knight is Sir Geogenant (a knight from Lamballe in Brittany). The nine maidens of the castle ruled by their lady seem to have some mystical connection to the stones. Each of her maidens also has a knight-lover. Lady: Dyonise Vassal of: King Meliodas Nemetostatio (Nymet Tracey) (I20). An old holy site (Ambient 2d20) and terminus of the old Roman road from Exeter. It is a part of Sir Segwarides’ lands around Okehampton, which lies to the west. The Roman fort which stood here has been altered by the construction of a motte and bailey. Lord: banneret Vassal of: Sir Segwarides Neroche (J20). A village and a motte and bailey near the Cornish-Jagent border, in the Blackdown hills. The motte was once a small hillfort, where buried treasure is reputed to be buried, although it has never been found. A sleeping dragon is said to guard the hoard. The holding includes the game-filled forest surrounding the castle. Lord: Banneret Vassal of: Earl of Jagent Norholt (“the North wood”) (Kelly Rounds) (H21). A castle of Cornwall in Bodmin Moor, belonging to Morvan of Briec (in Brittany), the son of Amant of Lamballe and the sorceress Escorducarla of Vawse. His eldest son is Almeriz de Norholt, who resides here. In recent years his immediate family has amassed considerable power in Léon, in Brittany, at the expense of King Meliodas.

Norholt was given to Morvan by his mother when he became a knight, in 510. There is a forest on the moor near Norholt where King Mark is fond of hunting. In the forest is a spring called the Giant’s Fountain, where the Queen and her household stay during the hunt. It is here that Sir Palomides abducted the Queen in the winter of 535. Near Norholt is a small manor belonging to Sir Adtherpe, a banneret of King Mark. He is a good and faithful knight, but his lands have been encroached by those of the house of Briec. Lord: Morvan of La Faou (Almeriz is banneret for his father) Vassal of: King Mark Okehampton, or the Castle of the Pass (I20). A castle and town on the slopes of the highest points in Cornwall, on the entrances to the Tamar vale, so that the barony seated here is called “the Mountain” or “the Pass.” South of Okehampton is Dartmoor; to the north is the valley of the Taw. Okehampton is the furthest point reached by good roads from Logres (the somewhat delapidated Roman road ends at Nemetostatio, somewhat west of the castle); the rest of Cornwall is accessible only by tracks and dirt roads. Okehampton was constructed as a motte and bailey in the Anarchy and was made stone around the time Arthur became High King. Lord: Sir Segwarides, Earl of the Moors (since the death of Prince Boudwin) Vassal of: King Mark Orduale Besco (Boscastle) (H20). A small castle three leagues from Roche. [from Tavola Ritonda] cf. Tintagel Ornise (Fowey) (H21). A stream flowing through the moors near Norholt, and thence to the sea. Ottery (J20). A market village in Moridunum, part of the manor of Honiton [qv]. Padstow (Petroc-stow, Langwethenok) (H21). A port town in northern Cornubia on the Camel estuary. A mermaid is said to dwell in the harbor. St. Petroc founded the present abbey-church. The present name of the settlement is a shortened form of Petroc-stow (Petroc’s church); formerly it was called Loderick. Besides St. Petroc the town has harbored St. Samson and St. Guron. In the era before the saints the region was plagued by giants, now banished to less civilized areas. It is briefly described in “The Adventure of the Rosebriar Knight.” Despite the presence of the monks, many of the people here are effectively pagan. The harbor is dangerous to navigation; if one is not careful, or offends the mermaid, one’s ship may founder on the shallows over “Doom Bar.” Lord: Abbot of Padstow

Vassal of: Bishop Rumon Seal: A ship at sea with a fish in base. Parrett (Pedride) (J-K19). The river dividing Cornwall or Dumnonia (and Lys) from Somerset, called in Latin “Uxela.” It is marshy and difficult to ford. A bridge has been built at Barbigoel [qv]. Pass, Castle of the. cf. Okehampton. Pencaire (G21). A small and ancient castle in Lyonesse, near Helston. Lord: Sir Mores, Lord of Lizard Vassal of: King Meliodas Pendeen (F21). The main center of tin mining in Lyonesse. There are many mysterious underground chambers near the village. Lord: Vassal of: King Meliodas Pengersick (G21). A small castle in Lyonesse. The lord of Pengersick is excommunicate for the murder of a priest, though he is pagan, as is his wife, a notorious sorceress. Lord: Hervi le Fort Vassal of: King Meliodas Penrhyn (Penrhyn –-) (G21). A monastic establishment and school north of Peny-cwm. A castle of the same name nearby is owned by Sir Griflet (he is the brother of the Lady Lore of Branlant (cf)). The sow Henwen and her keeper, Coll, entered the sea here before swimming to Cambria. Lord: Castellan for Sir Griflet Vassal of: King Arthur Pen-y-cwm (Falmouth) (G21). A castle (Pendennis) and village seaport of eastern Lyonesse belonging to Sir Dinas. The bay is said to be haunted by a sea-serpent called the “Morgawr.” Lord: (Castellan) Sir Huet Vassal of: Sir Dinas Penwith [Pennevoise] (G21). The northwestern division of Lyonesse, containing Lelant, Zennor, Lyonesse Castle and Penzance. Penzance (G22). Also known as Alwareton, Penzance is one of the larger villages of Lyonesse. Nearby is St. Madron’s Well. The lord is a cousin of Meliodas.

Lord: Sir Palante, Marshal of Lyonesse Vassal of: King Meliodas Perranzabuloe (G21). A village belonging to the abbey of St. Piran’s nearby. St. Piran is a kinsman of Cador and Mark and second only to St. Petroc as a leader of the Cornish church. St. Piran’s is protected by Earl Fergus of Pydar. Lord: Abbot Piran Vassal of: Sir Fergus Phillack (G21). A small Christian community (Celtic monastery) in Lyonesse, west of Lelant. Lord: Abbot Felek Vassal of: King Meliodas Pilton (I19). A fortified (wood-walled) village near Barnstaple. A priory of the Black Monks is here. Lord: Abbot of Pilton Vassal of: Brun de Branlant Pine, Castle of the (Tregeare) (H20). A castle belonging to Sir Andred. It is near the fountain of the Pine and Thornford. The castle has a strong keep with a dark, inescapable prison. Lord: Sir Andred Vassal of: King Mark Plessis, Wood of (Wood of Deceit) (H20-21). (Ambient 3d20, Glamour 2d20)-- A forest on Bodmin Moor, sometimes considered a part of the Forest of Morris, where Marhaus arrives on his adventure in the Triple Quest (523). Here he discovers a queen (Mark’s first wife) who has been sentenced to death by fire for adultery by a dwarf (Melot). He rescues her and proves her innocence. These woods have the magical property that those lost here may find themselves in forests elsewhere in Arthur’s realms. Plympton (I21). A barony, town and castle east of the Tamar estuary. The principal port for the tin industry of western Dartmoor. There is a large Breton quarter in the north part of the town. A Dominican priory is situated here (the “Adventure of the Warring Monks” in Tales of Magic and Miracles, p.62 was originally a legend about Plympton priory. The other monks were from Tavistock, to the north. The bridge crosses the Plym river which divides their lands). Eleasa and his Saxons land here in 547, before advancing down the Tamar toward Tintagel. The castle was built in 510 by Prince Boudwin, the current

lord’s predecessor. It is believed that in the vicinity Corineus, the first duke of Cornwall, killed the giant Gogmagog. Lord: Sir Gondoine (from 530) Vassal of: King Mark Polwhele Castle (H21). A small castle near Truro. Lord: Sir Griffon Vassal of: King Mark Porlock (J19). A coastal village in the fief of Dunster. Lord: Sir Heryll Vassal of: Duke Cador Powder (H21). A subdivision or cantref of Cornubia, consisting of the fiefs of Truro, Roseland, Roche and Whitemoors. Powderham (J20). A castle on the west side of the Exe estuary. Lord: Sir Roland Vassal of: Duke Cador Pydar (G21). A fief of Cornubia including St. Agnes, Perranzabuloe and the Irish colonies on the coast, governed by “Earl” Fergus, an Irish-Cornish knight. Sir Fergus’ lands were terrorized by the giant Taulurd, who was finally slain by Marhaus in 522. Lord: Sir Fergus Vassal of: King Mark Quantock Hills (Cantuc Wudu) (J19). A range of hills dividing Dunster from Lys. The ridges are steeper and nearly impassible on the south-western side; however they rise gently from the north-east. They are heavily forested. A Black Dog (locally called the “Gurt Dog”) is sometimes seen in the wilds here. Red Cross (H21). A stone cross, painted red, near Lostwithiel, often used as a landmark. Redruth (G21). A village near Camborne, on the border between Lyonesse and Cornubia. A small castle called “Rubisco”, built out of a Roman villa [Illogan] guards the frontier. Ridcaradoch [Rosecraddock, nr. Liskeard] (H21). A castle, the birthplace of Sir Ulfius, and still belonging to the Duke of Silchester. It is eighteen miles southwest of Tintagel. Lord: Castellan of the Duke of Silchester

Vassal of: Uncertain (claims High King) Roche, Castle of the (Roche) (H21). A small castle perched on the top of a granite outcropping; also known as the “Rock of the Cornishwomen” or “Castle of Enchantment.” A sorceress named Brangemeur imprisoned Meliodas here when Tristram was being born in the Jaiant Forest (in 512). After his son’s birth, Meliodas was released by Merlin, who killed the mistress of the castle. Now her daughter Brangloie is sovereign Lady of the castle and one of the barons of Cornwall. When Brangloie is away, having few knights, she leaves the castle untenanted, its gates locked. Needless to say, she hates Merlin. Lady: Brangloie Vassal of: King Mark Roguedon (Castel Goff) (H21). A castle belonging to Sir Griffin de Malpas. (cf Camelford) Roseland (G21) a peninsula near Truro and Malpas. Roseland is a sacred site to Bona Dea, the faerie in “The Rosebriar Knight” and it is here that her magical roses grow. (Ambient 4d20, Blessing 2d20). Roseland was the widow’s portion of Enid, the wife of Prince Geraint, killed in 517. Lord: Sir Cleremus, Steward of Roseland Vassal of: Princess Enid St. Agnes (Bryanik) (G21). An Irish-Cornish village in Pydar, near which is a large cliff-fort, said to have belonged to an immense giant, Bolster, who perished in the second century. Some of the boulders are said to be his bones. Lord: Banneret Vassal of: Fergus of Pydar St. Austell (H21). A market town west of Lantian, part of King Mark’s desmense. The main road to Lyonesse and Truro runs through the town. North of the town is the hillfort castle of Tregurthy [qv]. The town is called after the local priest, the nephew of St. Meen in Brittany and disciple of St. Samson. He lives in deliberate poverty and is famed for his gentleness. Lord: Steward Vassal of: King Mark St. Columb Major (H21). A village south of Padstow, held by the Black Cross abbey [qv]. The town plays a game of hurley every Shrove Tuesday and two following Saturdays later with a small silver ball. Like Padstow, the villagers are not very Christian, even though they are ruled by monks. Lord: Abbot of the Black Cross Vassal of: King Arthur

St. Gerrans (H21). A village in Roseland; Geraint of Devon was buried here in 517. His tomb was a gilded boat with silver oars buried in a mound. Lord: Steward of Roseland Vassal of: Princess Enid St. Germans (I21). Site of the Bishopric of Cornwall, which has authority over Lyonesse, Tintagel, Totnes, Cornubia and Artavia. It was founded by St. Germanus in 429 in his visit to Britain as the first episcopal seat in Dumnonia. As in Brittany, the bishopric is based in an episcopal Celtic abbey. Lord: Bishop Rumon Vassal of: King Mark St. Just (G21). A village near St. Lubin and Lyonesse castle. Lord: King Meliodas St. Keyne (H21). A chapel and well north of Looe, the waters giving dominion to the first of a wedded couple to drink of it. Naturally it is a local custom to race to the well after a wedding. St. Keyne was said to be a daughter of King Brychan of Brecon, in Cambria, in the last century. St. Lubin (St. Levan, St. Silvanus) (F22). A town near Lyonesse castle. The hermit knight St. Selyf lives here; he is an avid fisherman. Lord: Selyf (brother of Cador) Vassal of: King Meliodas St. Michael’s Mount (G21). A great rocky hill in Lyonesse, lying close to an inlet of the sea. It is also called “Din Sul,” the fort or hill of the sun, and Carrack Looes en Cooes, the “grey rock in the wood.” It 495, fishermen beheld an apparition here believed to be the angel St. Michael. A tower surmounts the hill; and nearby is an adventurous seat, a natural stone ledge. (Ambient 6d20, Glamour 2d20, Divine Miracle 2d20). In the reign of Uther the rock was the home of the giant Cormorant and his wife, who were eventually slain by Ioneke (Jack the Giant-slayer). Lord: Sir Ioneke the Tinker Vassal of: King Meliodas Salcombe (I21). A coastal village belonging to Sir Denoalan’s barony of Bantham. It has salt-pans (hence the name) which belong to the baron. The local fishermen and sailors are notorious for their evil-doings. Salcombe is warm much of the year; it engages, like Bantham itself in considerable trade with the Continent.

Lord: Sir Denoalan Vassal of: King Mark Sandic (St. Dennis). another name for Dimilioc (qv). Seaton (J20). A town in Mark’s holding of Moridunum along the Cornish-Dorset border. It is a small seaport and trading center for iron and other minerals from the Blackdown hills. Lord: Sir Giro le Bours Vassal of: King Mark, Lord of Moridunum Sheeps Tor (I21). A rise of Dartmoor east of Buckland; a cave there is the home of pixies. Sidbury (J20). A Dumnonian hillfort north of Sidmouth in Moridunum. Lord: Sir Lewin Vassal of: King Mark, Lord of Moridunum Sidmouth (J20). A village in Moridunum, near the border with Devon. Lord: Sir Lewin, castellan of Sidbury Vassal of: King Mark Somerset (K19). A kingdom of Logres, stretching from its boundary with Dumnonia on the river Parrett to the Avon and the boundary with the Duchies of Gloucester and Clarence; its eastern border lies in Morgaine’s Forest. It is composed of two main fiefs: the Earldom of Bath in the north, now belonging to King Cadwy Condyddan and the marshes of Avalon to the south, held by King Bagdemagus of Gorre in right of his wife Lyle. Bagdemagus has a daughter by her who is heiress of Avalon, although her half-brother Meliagrance covets her lands. Guenloie of Lys, sovereign of the lands immediately west, is Lyle’s sister. They are the daughters of Mariole of Escavalon, a daughter of Gwynn, and Briant of Avalon, who was killed a long time ago. King Cadwy is the husband of Celemon, the daughter of Sir Kay; his young heir and only son is Cynfelyn, who has vanished recently. Cadwy is a kinsman of Cador of Devon, for whom he was named, and they are staunch allies. King: Cadwy Vassal of: King Arthur Stoke Gabriel (I21). A town south of Totnes and north of Galhampton of Roman origin. Lord: Judhael, Steward of Totnes Vassal of: King Mark

Stratton (H20). An old settlement north of Tintagel. It is a market for salt, a valuable commodity. Lord: Sir Guinlains Vassal of: Sir Jordans, Steward of Tintagel Taunton (Tantun) (J20). A market town in Lys, on the river Tan. Lady: Guenloie Vassal of: No-one Tavistock (Tauvechan) (H21). An abbey is here, founded by Gorlois in 490. It was sacked by Uther’s men but re-established by Eliduc, Gorlois’ successor. The Abbey owns much of the land in the region. The village nearby was made a market in 512 by King Yder. The abbot of Tavistock, Rumon, is also bishop of Cornwall. Lord: Abbot-Bishop Rumon Vassal of: King Mark Arms: Gules a fleece or. Ten Maidens, Castle of the. [cf. Nine Maidens] Terrabel (H20) see Launceton Thornford (North Tamerton) (H20). A manor belonging to Phenice, the wife of Segwarides, on the river Tamar. She was the daughter of a rich Jewish merchant from Launceton, who purchased the lands from King Mark. Renowned as the most beautiful woman in Cornwall (until Queen Isolt arrived), she was married to Sir Segwarides after his successes in the wars against the Saxons, but had an affair with Sir Tristram, and was desired by King Mark. In 532 she is abducted by Sir Blioberis. Lady: Phenice Vassal of: King Mark Tintagel (H20). “Tintagel was a very fine, strong castle, impervious to attack or siege engine… It stood by the sea, in Cornwall, its tower large and strong: it was built by giants long ago. All of its stones were of marble, superbly laid and joined. The wall was chequered with red and blue blocks. There was a gate to the castle, handsome, large and strong; the entry and the exit were well guarded by two valiant men. There dwelt King Mark, with Britons and with Cornishmen, because of the castle, which he loved, and so did Queen Ysolt. Round about were many meadows, many woods for game, fresh water, fish-ponds and fine fields. Ships sailing by on the sea would arrive at the castle’s port. People from other lands,

both friends and strangers, looking for the king would there come to him from over the sea, and that is why he loved it so. The spot was lovely and delightful, the land good and fruitful, and thus once upon a time Tintagel was called the enchanted castle. It was rightly called so, because twice a year it would completely disappear. The peasants say that twice a year, once in winter and once in summer, truly no one can see it, neither a local man nor anyone else…” La Folie Tristan ll.95-142. A castle now belonging to King Mark, birthplace of King Arthur. King Mark’s court is resident for most of the summer (Lantian is used in the winter). Sir Jordans is the castellan. His wife is a cousin of King Meliodas; his sons are Sir Patricius, Sir Alain of Albine and Sir David, and his grandson Tibaut is one of Lancelot’s squires. In Roman times, Tintagel was called “Durocornovium.” The castle is the seat of the Duchy of Tintagel or Trigo, and the most important of the seats of sovereignty in Cornwall, the others being the Wood of Hercules in Lyonesse and a now lost site in Devon. (Ambient 6d20, Glamour 3d20, Divination 2d20). Twice a year (at the two solstices) the castle vanishes into the Otherworld; on one such occasion two giants came out of it and took over the castle. Sir Lancelot happened by and saved the people, luckily, this happened shortly after he came to Britain, in 524. In one of the towers is a silver bell given to Gorlois by St. Nectan; it tolls when a ship is in danger in the seas nearby. Beneath the castle is a cave, one of the spots where Merlin has been reported seen since his disappearance. Incorporated into the fortress is a chapel to ‘St. Juliot.’ East of the castle is a 40-foot waterfall in a place called St. Nectan’s Glen. The site is the home of numerous cloughs. Bel Roche (Bearosche in Parzival) meaning “Fair Rock” is another name for the village located nearby, usually called simply Tintagel town, Trewarvene or Bossiney. Bossiney castle, a small tower, belongs to Sir Garin, a vavasour. In the moors nearby is a spring called the Fountain of the Deer. Nearby is a tall tree. Queen Isolt frequents this spot sometimes. Lord: Sir Jordans, Steward of Tintagel Vassal of: King Mark Tiverton (J20). A village with a castle (Cranmore, a converted Roman fort inside a hillfort), the castle being rebuilt in 511, subject to the principality of Devon. The village sits at the ford near the joining of the Lowman and the Exe, and is a center of the wool trade. The lord lives at Campadoine [qv] to the west. Lord: Sir Belchis the Ugly Vassal of: Duke Cador Tirian [Torrington, Torrictun] (I20). A castle near the border of Cornwall and the forest of Morris, on a ridge overlooking the river Torric [Torridge]. The castle

and its territory belong to Sir Cariado, the Steward of Cornwall. The castle’s village is the main market for Artavia. Lord: Sir Cariado Vassal of: King Mark Tolan (Talland) (H21). A small castle near Looe guarding the coast. Lord: Castellan Vassal of: King Mark Topsham (J20). A seaport at the mouth of the Exe, held by the Prince of Devon. As a weir now blocks upstream traffic, much of the trade of Exeter is put ashore here and is taxed by the Prince. South of the town is the castle of Nutwell, seat of the Castellan. Lord: (Castellan) Sir Boyce Vassal of: Duke Cador Torre (J21). An wealthy abbey and village east of Totnes, on Tor Bay. It was founded in 524 by Premonstratensian Canons under the patronage of King Mark. The abbey profits from ships unloading for Totnes at the bay and village of Torre nearby. Lord: Abbot of Torre Vassal of: King Mark & the Bishop of Exeter Totnes (I21). A castle and town on the Dart river, the main market of the southern Moors and coastal villages and largest settlement outside Exeter in Cornwall. It has belonged to King Mark since 514, before he became king. In 517, a portion of Colgrin’s defeated forces, with reinforcements from Aelle, came ashore at Totnes, massacring the townsfolk and ravaging the region as far as Bath and Somerset, led by Childeric. Geraint is killed in Somerset, but his son Cador and Boudwin, Mark’s brother, trap the Saxons with the help of the surviving locals at Teignmouth, north of Totnes, killing most of them. Mark ordered the surviving Saxons captured there bound as thralls. He then resettled most of them in Dartmoor as miners and serfs. Some of their men he made into his slave-guard, putting one Eleasa (Helyas), a son of Cerdic, in charge, as he was half-Cymric. These men form the core of Mark’s marines. Totnes is also said to be where Brutus came ashore; and where both Constantine and Aurelius debarked when they took the imperium of Britain (in 415 and 466). Aurelius founded the present town in 470. The castle of Totnes was built in the Anarchy as a timber fortress and made into a round stone castle in 518, immediately after the Saxon invasion. Lord: Judhael, Steward of Totnes Vassal of: King Mark

Tregeare Rounds. cf. Pine, Castle of the Trematon (H21). A castle on the Tamar estruary, held by one of Mark’s lackeys. The castle was first built as a motte and bailey in Phase 0 and later upgraded with a stone curtain wall and gatehouse. Lord: Sir Traminore Vassal of: King Mark Trethurgy (H21). A small hillfort converted into a castle, a place of trade for southern-central Cornubia. It stands near St. Austell, in Wivelshire. Lord: Steward of St. Austell Vassal of: King Mark Trigo. See Tintagel Truro (Triueru) (G21). A new town near Malpas and the border with Lyonesse (founded in 514). Three roads meet at the settlement: one from St. Austell to Lyonesse, one north from Pen-y-cwm, and another towards Padstow. It has swiftly grown into an important settlement, one of the larger villages in the region and a market. A field outside the town is called “Gwel Cloghprenger”— the field of the gibbet, named for the many victims of its lord’s draconian sense of justice. The baron of Truro is Griffin de Malpas, a fearsome henchman of King Mark. North of the town is a cave said to be inhabited by Piskies, diminutive faerie of Cornwall. [Griffin or Griffon is mentioned in Matthew Arnold’s poem “Tristram and Iseult” and in several medieval romances.] Lord: Sir Griffon Vassal of: King Mark Tygan (Tregony) (G21). A small but strong castle belonging to Albe, the Lady of the Whitemoors, wife of Sir Bleheri. Lord: Castellan Vassal of: Lady Albe Vawse (Glynn Dallwyr, Glyn -- or les Vaux) (H21). The forested valley of the Fowey, known as the Glynn of Cornwall, or Glynn Dallwyr—vale of the blind men or seers. This fief belongs to the sorceress Escorducarla, the Lady of Vawse, a half-sister of Bagdemagus of Gorre and Guenloie of Lys. Her father was Hector, the King of Orkney and King Lot’s father. She was the paramour of Amant of Lamballe and is now the wife of Sir Ayglin, a knight of the Round Table. By Amant she had two sons, Morvan, now lord of Norholt (a fief she bestowed on him) and Sir Amant, one of Mark’s knights. She

has two other illegitimate sons: Sadoc and Edward of Orkney, now household knights of King Mark. They are reputed to be the sons of King Ryons. The main castle is Cardynham, on the edge of the moor. A tournament is held here from time to time. In 522, Sir Marhaus was the champion. Arthur’s nephew Eliwlod, the son of Madog, an illegitimate son of Uther, is said to have been slain here and his spirit flies here in the shape of an eagle. Madog and Eliwlod were killed in the Anarchy after Uther’s death. The druid Coll ap Collfrewi raised the faerie sow Henwen here, before she crossed Cornwall and entered the sea at Penrhyn. Some say Tristram learned some spells from this old man before he disappeared, and guarded the great sow. Despite the Pagan religion of most of the people, an Irish hermit and holy man lives nearby, named Meubred. He is critical of the licentiousness of Escorducarla, but respects her otherwise. Lord: Lady Escorducarla Vassal of: King Mark Vixen Tor (I21). A hill in Dartmoor, south of Lidan, said to be the home of a hag, who uses her power over the fogs to confuse and trap travellers in the moor. Wambarrows (J19). A burial mound south of Dunster, the haunt of a Black Dog. Warbstow (H20). A large deserted hillfort northeast of Tintagel. A mound in the middle is called the “Giant’s Grave.” Watchet (J19). A town on the coast of the Severn channel, east of Carhampton. Lord: Sir Aelfwine the Saxon Vassal of: Duke Cador. Wellington (J20). A village on the eastern edge of the Blackdown Hills on the border of Jagent and Lys. Lord: Banneret of Neroche Vassal of: Earl of Jagent Wivelscombe (J20). A village on the road from Dunster to Jagent in the midst of the Brendon Hills. Lord: Sir Meneduke Vassal of: Lady Guenloie Wivelshire (H-I21). The richest portion of Cornubia, part of the desmense of King Mark. The largest settlement and administrative center is Lostwithiel. Woodbarrow (I19). A large burial mound in Exmoor, south of Lynton. The barrow is supposed to be the site of a hoard, but anyone attempting to dig is

threatened by lightning and dizziness. To the east are the Chapman Barrows, the lair of a sleeping dragon. Zennor (St. Senar) (G21). A village between Lyonesse castle and Lelant, mostly known for the mermaid who visits the harbor. The old fort of Treryn Dinas lies just west. Zennor is in the fief of Nine Maidens (qv). Because this was one of the camps of the Danes before Arthur vanquished them in 514, and they intermarried with local women, many of the people of Zennor have red or fair hair.

The Isles of Scilly These islands form a small archipelago 28 miles off the coast of Lyonesse. There are a great number of names for them: the Fortunate Isles, the Black Isles, the Sorlinges, the Hesperides, “Beyond the Sea”, being only a few. In the very distant past, men say, the islands were connected to Lyonesse on the mainland, but the sea has been steadily wearing away the land, so now they are surrounded by open waters. Though a part of the Kingdom of Lyonesse, they pay little heed to Meliodas. They are now a little smaller than in Roman times, when there was shrine to the watery goddess Sulis on the main isle, and signal fires were lit to protect ships from the dangerous shoals and rocks. In the last century before the end of Roman rule they became a penal colony for dissidents, heretics and political prisoners. Magnus Maximus exiled several prominent followers of Priscillian, the heretic, here. After the end of Roman rule, many dangerous men settled here, far from law and civilization. Since then, the population has changed from peaceable to barbarous. The Scillies are warm and temperate, perhaps the most clement area of Britain, if not for occasional storms. The waters in the area are treacherous, as are the pirates who dwell here; for these reasons many mariners avoid them. The islands form a single fief, ruled from Giant’s Castle on the main island of En-Noer (a name sometimes mistakenly taken for Isle-Noir, the “Black Isle.”) The castle was built in the first century AD by a pagan giant who hated Christians, who was later slain. The priestesses of Sulis (the sacred sailor’s beacon fire— though also the wrecker’s goddess and the lady of healing waters) took over the fortress in pre-Roman times. The High Priestess of Sulis is the Queen of the Sorlinges. A ritual quest (of a variety of types) is necessary to “wed” the Queen and become Lord of the islands. Any children of the union are destined for a remarkable life. It is believed the Queen protects this portion of sinking Lyonesse from being submerged by enacting the traditional rituals. The previous Queen, named Marisque, was “wed” twice: first to the Cambrian wizard Mabon, an ally of Uther Pendragon, and second to the pirate Dane Broadés. The children of Mabon and Marisque were: Mador the Black, a fearsome opponent of Arthur in Phase 1, now dead; Adragain the Brown, one of Uther’s Round Table, now a monk living in Gaul, the father of Arthur’s knights Mador de la Porte and Gaheris de Karaheu; Mabonograin the Dwarf, a wizard-knight of Gomeret; and Agravadain of the Fens, the grandfather of Hector des Mares.

Broadés was the father of two knights named Belias of Estremores and Briadas, who joined Mador the Black in opposing Arthur. They were slain by knights of Camelot in 522-3. Of the descendants of Marisque, only Mador de la Porte expresses any fondness or interest in the islands, but he is now Arthur’s porter and his official duties would hardly carry him back. He is willing to share his recollections with curious friends. Marisque is now Queen Dowager and a young woman named * has been crowned and resides at Giant’s Castle. No one has yet achieved the tasks necessary to bed her. It is known that Duke Galeholt wants to add the islands to his sprawling domains. He might fund a conquest of the islands, or assist those wishing to follow the traditional path into the arms of the Queen. King Mark has no desire to see another competitor for his command of the western Channel, and openly desires the islanders cowed and subject to him. While the varied population of the islands (part Danish, part Breton, part Irish and Cornish, with even a few Spanish sailors) generally venerates the Queen, they are led by various piratical chieftains who descend on the rich shores of Ireland, Britain or Brittany and sometimes further to gather wealth and supplies. The islands, while temperate, are too rocky to provide much food, and what is not gathered from the sea must be bought or stolen. A portion of their pillage is sent to Giant’s Castle as an offering to Sulis and her representative.

The Channel Islands Alderney. This small island was the site of a Roman fort, recently renovated and reoccupied by some of King Mark’s men. Guernsey (Sarnia). This island was used by the Romans for trading and revictualing from around the conquest of Britain until the fourth century. The island’s small population and wealth declined until King Mark took it under Dumnonian control. St. Samson of Dol built a church here recently. Jersey (Gersut, Angia or Agna). The home of St. Hélier (Helibert), a Frankish monk. He founded a small community with his teacher Marculf. St. Samson also resided here prior to founding the abbey at Dol. On the route to raid Cornwall and after ravaging Leon, the Vandal and Visigothic pirates of 530531 visited and martyred Hélier. The saint rose from the dead and carried his decapitated head to the shore, where he perished. The body was taken to his home in northern France. Marculf still lives here. Mont Orgeuil, the hulking red castle overlooking the eastern coast, is held by the Lord of Jersey. Lord: Vassal of: King Mark Sark. This small island near Jersey is deserted.

Chapter 3 Brittany Brittany is divided into several regions: the Argoed, Cornouailles, Dinan, Domnonée, Léon, Nantes, Rennes & Vannetais. Cornouailles was the original British colony founded by order of the Emperor Maximus in the late fourth century. The pre-fourth century tribe was the Osismi, who also inhabited what is now Leon. The Osismii, never a numerous tribe, were submerged in the British migration. The rulers of Cornouailles were descendants of a Cambrian nobleman named Cynan or (to the Bretons) Conan Meriadoc, who had obtained the crown of Dumnonia circa 380. Most of the later purely British territories were founded by his descendants, and this, the senior line, were called Kings in the Celtic tongue though they preserved the Latin title of Dux or Duke as well. The name Cornouailles derived from the old pagus of Cornubia or Cornwall in Britain, from which one of the earliest migrations came. Duke Hoel is also Count of this fief. Dinan is a conquered region, that of eastern Domnonee that was seized by the Franks in 509. It was retaken by Hoel and King Arthur in 514 and granted to Sir Dinas. It is a frontier, of mixed Breton, Gaulish and Frankish population. Domnonee was the second of the British colonies, developing out of settlers under Riwal-Riothamus, a junior member of the royal house of Dumnonia in the mid fifth century (c.455-70). These people came mainly from Devon, Totnes and southwestern Logres, during a time of civil war in Britain. The native tribe was the Curiosolitae, who were already subject to and partly colonized by Cornouailles to the west. The acting count is King Mark, although his stepson Judikael Riwal is the actual heir. Leon appears to have developed in the reign of Salaun (c434-446) as a distinct region; its name refers to the cultural origin of its colonists in Lyonesse, western Cornwall and the Scillies. It generally belonged to a junior member of one of the branches of the royal family; in the 470s Meliau gave it as a dowry to his sister, the first wife of Riwal II—and mother of the present count, Meliodas of Lyonesse. In the absence of Meliodas, the fief is governed by several councilors: Morvan of le Faou, Rual the Steward, Guythure of Morlaix and Pol, the Bishop.

Nantes was the land of the Namnetes, and controls the mouth of the Loire. The Bretons have not ruled this area since the time of Meriadoc, but they accepted the submission of the local nobility in 526. Rigolin, a Franko-Roman aristocrat, is Count of Nantes. Rennes is the territory of the ancient Redones tribe, Romanized Gauls. It was conquered by Clovis of the Franks and seized by Duke Hoel in 526 after the war with the Romans. He has permitted the local aristocracy to hold the province, subject to Brittany; the Count of Rennes is Agrippe, who has recently broken with the Duke. Vannes is the land of the powerful, seafaring Veneti tribe. They retained their independence as a co-equal member of the Armorican confederacy (first formed c.300-400), though British troops were stationed there and were assimilated. They thus were allies of the Kings at Quimper. In 509 Clovis captured the region; it was only recovered in 514. The Count of Vannes (for life) is Caradues; however Conon, Hoel’s adoptive son, is to inherit the county.

Armorica before the Romans Armorica, also known as “Letavia,” was once the home of the richest and most advanced culture in Gaul. It is this vanished people, the ancestors of the Gaulish people of Vannes, that built the many megaliths and underground constructions scattered across the Breton landscape. These Armoricans, who by the time of the coming of the Greeks and the Phoenician traders were shipbuilders and dominated not only the Atlantic coast of Gaul but the south-western part of Britain, now Cornwall. By this time, the native people had assimilated the customs and language of the Celts based in eastern France, but had retained a certain degree of distinction from the Celts proper. They were particularly renowned, besides their ship-building, which grew particularly advanced after the advent of iron, for their bronze-work. The tribes produced their own coinage, built large towns, and had a large role in the druidical religion of Gaul. The dominion of the Veneti, the most important of the Armorican tribes, was finally and bloodily suppressed by Caesar in 57 BC.

Roman Armorica After Caesar’s conquest, Armorica became a backwater. In particular, the trading links with Britain faded, and the population seems to have declined. However,

the Romans did improve the road network and were responsible for the construction of Romanized towns at Corseul and at the tribal capitals. In the mid third century Saxon pirates invaded and settled parts of northern Gaul, including the estuary of the Loire. In the ensuing crisis, the centers of Roman and tribal governance moved to the seacoast and were fortified. A single military official, the Duke (Dux) of the Armorican Tract, took command of the naval and land forces for the region. The first British immigration took place during this time, as an effort to repopulate the western portions of Armorica devestated by the pirates. In eastern Armorica, local bandits and rebels called Bacaudae predominated. In 409-410 western Armorica joined Britain in independence from the Roman Empire; local rulers replaced the military and civil officials, but they continued to cooperate with the Dux in resisting the Barbarians.

Constantine III In 407 the Roman army in Britain, after a series of unsuccessful claimants to the Empire, selected the Breton prince Constantine to lead them. He took much of his forces to Gaul to support his bid for the imperial throne, leaving the British noble Vortigern as Vicarius in the British provinces. Constantine’s second in command was Gerontius, apparently a Dumnonian general. Constantine uneasily ruled Britain, Gaul and Spain until 409, when his control of Britain and Spain failed. It seems that Gerontius took control of Spain for himself and betrayed his commander in that year. He besieged him at Arles in 411 (he also ambushed and killed Constans, Constantine’s son). Gerontius had already named his son, Maximus, as Emperor in Spain, but his forces disintegrated after the Western Emperor Honorius arrived at the scene, forcing Gerontius to flee and take his own life after his own troops changed sides. Constantine and his son Julianus were taken and assassinated by Imperial troops. By the time Constantine’s rule had failed, Britain and Armorica were independent of the Empire. This process was accelerated by the Roman practice of appointing people from elsewhere in the Empire to British posts, so their desire to remain and rebuild was understandably limited. Constantine’s surviving daughter wed King Salaun of the Dumnonians (Cornwall and Brittany), and was the mother of Audren and Constantine, the first High King of Britain.

Independent Armorica The last of the Roman Armorican Dukes was St. Germanus (fl. 429, Bishop of Auxerre in 418). He led the resistance against barbarian incursions in both Britain and Gaul. In 446 he forced Goar, King of the Alans, a Roman mercenary, to

restrain his troops against the Armoricans, though in 450 the Alans reneged and drove the Armoricans out of central Gaul in a terrible slaughter. After Germanus’ retirement, the British foederati assumed the role that they had already taken a large part in: the protection and governance of Armorica. King Gradlon thereafter was described as Duke; he forcibly incorporated the autonomous Osismii of Carhaix into the Cornish colony around Quimper. The disintegration of Roman authority and the Frankish conquest (mostly completed in 470, and finished by 496) meant there were few rivals for the Breton claim. However, three tribes of Romanized Celts continue to speak a form of Latin and consider themselves heirs of Roman Gaul: the Redones, Namnetes and Veneti at Rennes, Nantes and Vannes.

Breton Immigration The first settlement of British auxiliaries in Armorica had already occurred by 383, during the reign of Magnus Maximus in the West. These troops were left in the Vannetais, the first camp being at the mouth of the Blavet, though other, smaller contingents were left at each of the coastal forts. These troops suppressed the bandits and restored civil order. The soldiers wed Gaulish wives and were substantially incorporated into the Veneti. Maximus also founded other British settlements in Gaul; the other surviving one being the Kingdom of Ganis, which was led by Jonaans, the great-grandfather of Lancelot du Lac. Jonaans married the daughter of a Gaulish nobleman named Maronex in the region of Aquitaine. Ganis and Brittany have been close allies ever since; the house of Ganis still holds the fiefs of Combourg and Trécesson in eastern Brittany, gained by intermarriage. The first large-scale colonization of Armorica, however, was apparently organized after Maximus’ defeat and death. This was a migration of western British peoples (led by the Dumnonians) in the early 400s, under Conan Meriadoc’s son Gradlon. These colonists were fleeing, in the main, the Irish. At this time was the repopulation of the ruins of Ys and Aquilo (now called Quimper). As the impact of the Saxons increased in eastern Britain, the development of the second of the Breton nations, Domnonée, occurred (450-70). The organizer of the migration was one Riwal Riotham, who was a descendant of the BretonDumnonian royal line, born in Ergyng, in southern Cambria. His settlers first set ashore at Bréhec, an island near Paimpol. The ruinous domain of the Curiosolitae was mostly overgrown and abandoned in this time, and the remnants of the people freely welcomed the settlers, who are said to number 12,000. Riotham rose to be Regent and Duke of Armorica and might have gone further if he did not perish in 470 fighting for the Romans in Burgundy, betrayed by his allies.

During the reign of Arthur, peacetime immigration is high; Duke Hoel sought younger sons and poor knights after the Roman War (527) and the French War (536), granting them lands on the march and from his own demense. In times of civil strife, like the reign of Riwal (490-502), many Breton exiles settled in Cornwall, southern Cambria and Logres. King Ambrosius organized earlier plantations of Armorican and Breton soldiers in 464-480, particularly in southern and eastern Logres, as a buffer against the Saxons; in the period of Saxon ascendancy from 480-518, these knights found themselves in the midst of the struggle. A further Breton colony was settled at Catterick, in Cumbria, as a bastion against Pictish and Pagan Northerners.

The Breton Nobility All of Brittany is feudal, even the Gallo pockets. The colonization has encouraged a nuanced heirarchy as practicality, local customs from both Britain and Armorica intermingle. Lower nobility (squires, vavasours and stewards) in Brittany are often only marginally better off than their social inferiors, though they remain proud of their lineage. They generally serve as informal administrators and magistrates for the village they live in, but seldom have serious military responsibilities. The knighthood are rarer than in Logres, often being composed of younger members and cousins of the upper nobility. They are generally dependent on the grants and gifts of their superiors. Rich household knights are rare. The upper nobility (Barons and above) are often considerably higher in wealth and station than the knights. The elaboration of heraldry and largesse they display is at the forefront of their Phase. Breton and Gallic nobles use titles not found in Britain, or with slightly different meanings. Viscounts (French, Vicomte(s), Latin Vicecomes) are greater bannerets entrusted with power on behalf of a Count; they are frequently autonomous, acting as Barons; their holdings and administrated fiefs can easily outstrip the independent barons in size and wealth. In the case of Léon, the Viscount of Morlaix is entrusted with ruling about half of Meliodas’ holdings. For most purposes the Viscount rank can be treated as equivalent to a Baron. Viscounts are found throughout Continent. Viscounts in Brittany are found at Morlaix, Porhoet (tributary to Cornouailles), Quimper and Dinan. Princes (Latin Princeps, -ipes) are how Pennaths are generally described on the Continent. Tiny fiefs held allodially are often described as Principalities and are fairly often held by nobles owing fealty for larger and richer territories. Lamballe is a principality, a relic of the Curiosolitae tribe, but the prince holds many of his other lands from the Count of Domnonée. Another prince, named Imain, is lord of Tulmein south of Vannes; the lord of Huelgoet, northwest of Carhaix, claims this status but holds nearby lands from King Mark, making his independence

limited. Tiny fiefs deep in the forests also sometimes claim independence from any overlord. Title (English) King Queen Prince, Pennath Princess Duke Duchess Count Countess Viscount Lord, Baron Knight Lady

(Breton)* Ri Rouizien Mael, Machtiern Priñsed Toud, Duk Dukez Tiern, Kont Kontez Beskont Aotroù Marc’heg Merc’hed

(French) (Latin) Roi Rex Reine Regina Prince Princeps Princesse Principessa Duc Dux Duchesse Ducissa Comte Comes Comtesse Comitissa Vicomte Vicecomes, Rector Seigneur Baro, Curialis Chevalier Miles Dame Domina

Bishop Abbot

Eskob Aotroù

Eveque Abbé

Episcopus Abbas

*Breton terms are often applied loosely, more or less as English terms are unofficially (or French terms are) employed in the romances. Hoël is sometimes described as a King, sometimes a Duke and sometimes as a Count; he is even sometimes called “Sir Howell.”

The Common People of Brittany Bretons are similar in many respects to the Cornish. They are seen as stubborn, proud and difficult to rule. Many villages of Brittany are self-governing, lacking a knightly order. The local clergy serve as leaders in time of crisis. The Breton commoners are often free, though there are slaves or serfs (about a quarter of the population). Breton agriculture is dominated by wheat, rye and oats. Vines are only grown in eastern Vannetais and the County of Nantes, so much wine is imported from Ganis and France. Sheep and pigs are raised throughout the country, but cattle tend to belong to the nobility. Milk and cheese are eaten by most free people. The mills are held by local and higher nobility, and are an important source of income from fiefs. Breton women are often the instigators of romances and marriages, and many matches are arranged by mothers and sisters of the bridegroom. Breton jokes frequent depict henpecked or even mistreated husbands. Women are not fully free, but can hold property and offices, making them more independent than in other nations, such as the Romans or the French.

The Bretons also have a distinct fascination with mortality, with ghosts and with the figure of Ankou, personified Death. Among the diversions of the Bretons is a form of rugby called “Soule” or “Gowffe.”It has a brutal reputation, because of the violence permitted to players. The Gallo Although the British settlements have now been continuing for what is now nearly 150 years, the original Armoricans still persist in the hinterlands, and in the ancient centers of their strength: the Rance valley, the forest of Broceliande, Vannetais and the towns of Tolente and Carhaix. Whatever their past glories, they are destined to be assimilated: either into the new French kingdom or their rivals the British. Most of the Gaulish identity they hold is diluted by centuries of Roman rule, surfacing in details like an affection for mustaches, trousers and the veneration of their old gods. They are generally darker and smaller than the British or the fair-haired Franks.

Rulers and Personages of Brittany Hoel, Duke of Brittany, Count of Cornouailles. “Hoel spoke after the king: ‘Sire,’ he said, ‘upon my word, you speak most reasonably; no one could better it. Command your people, summon your men and those who are here at your court… Why wait to seize what God wishes to grant you? Exalt yourself, exalt us, who desire it. Indeed we can say that we fear neither blow nor wound, neither death, hardship nor prison, as long as we seek your honour. And so that your affair be not neglected, I shall give you for companions ten thousand armed knights; and if you don’t have enough wealth, I shall pledge all my land and give you its silver and gold. You must never leave me a penny as long as you have need of it.” Le Brut (Wace, c. 1150) Born in 490, son of Budic II and Anna, Uther’s illegitimate daughter, he is thus Arthur’s nephew. His full name is Hoël-Budic, in Latin, Coelius Budicius, and in Cymric, Hywel ap Budig. Hoel was only 19 when his father was poisoned by a spy sent by Clovis, King of the Franks (in 509), and fought beside his mother against the subsequent invasion. When his brother-in-law Waroch of Broerec was killed in 511 he adopted Waroch’s children. The precarious situation of the house of Cornouailles only ended in 513 when Arthur intervened and routed the Franks and their Frisian allies at Dinan.

Over the next few years Hoel reunited the Breton regions of Armorica under his leadership, supported by the young Jonas, Count of Domnonée, whose sister Alma he had married. She died in childbirth after giving him several sons. In 520, disaster struck when Ganis, Brittany’s firm ally, fell before the Franks and Jonas was killed. To turn back the Franks, Hoel was forced to get the aid of Mark, King of Cornwall. In exchange, Mark married Jonas’ widow (Hoel’s eldest child Typhaine) and became Count of Dumnonée and Duke of Poher. King Mark’s rise to become King of the Dumnonians has made Brittany into a virtual Cornish colony. The Duke now finds himself caught between his indebtedness and tribal loyalties and those to King Arthur, his relative. Brittany was saved from the danger of conquest by the French for the second time through Mark’s help, and this danger was extinguished altogether with King Arthur’s defeat of the French in 526. Hoel became overlord of Vannes, Nantes and Rennes and thus returned the Bretons to a pre-eminent place in northern Gaul. However, the war coincided with the depredations of a giant who raped and killed Hoel’s second wife Elen, the sister of Cador of Devon. Hoel has recently remarried, to Karsie of Hantonne. Since the war, he has also claimed the title of King which formerly belonged to his father before the French forced his submission. Many of the Breton lords, while admitting his title as Duke and warlord, refuse to give fealty, so Hoel faces considerable opposition. Glory: 15,000. Heraldry: Ermine. (in 531) SIZ: 15 DEX: 14 STR: 17 CON: 18 APP: 16

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 33 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 41

Attacks: Sword 19, Lance 21, Battle 21, Horsemanship 18. Significant Traits: Chaste 17, Energetic 17, Forgiving 16, Generous 18, Honest 16, Just 18, Merciful 16, Valorous 19. Passions: Loyalty (King Arthur) 21, Loyalty (King Mark) 18, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 18, Honor 18. Significant Skills: Awareness 15, Courtesy 20, Dancing 15, Falconry 15, First Aid 15, Heraldry 19, Hunting 16, Intrigue 17, Orate 19, Recognize 15, Stewardship 18, Tourney 19. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) [The children of Hoel are (by his first wife, Alma of Domnonee, m.508 d.514): 1. Typhaine of Poher (first wife of King Mark) 2. Runalen 3 Astre, wife of Meliodas

and 4. Almine, wife of Sir Constantine, 5. Leonor and 6. Tudgual (twins); by his second wife, Elen of Devon m. 514 (k.526): 1. Keyhidius 2. Isolt Blanchemains; by his third wife, Karsie of Hantonne (m.530), 1. Theodoric (born 532)]. [Sidebar: Duke Hoel’s household. Hoel has an extensive household in the Prose Tristan, including Agar, his physician, Karsie, Duchess of Brittany As a Visigoth, Karsie is a member of an allied Germanic people. She brings to her new husband strong links to the peoples of Ganis and the Southports of Logres, as well as new ships in her dowery. Karsie was tutored in Camelot and was a handmaiden to Guenevere. Her father was Theodoric, the Earl of Hantonne. Karsie is a proud, willful woman, beautiful, but already dividing the court of Brittany between her friends and those whom she antagonizes. She is now expecting a child. Glory: 4,500. Heraldry: Ermine impaling argent a sea-lion rampant vert. (in 531) SIZ: 11 DEX: 14 STR: 08 CON: 14 APP: 18

Move 3 Damage 3d6 Hit Points 25 Armor none Age 24

Attacks: Dagger 08, Horsemanship 09. Significant Traits: Chaste 16, Energetic 15, Vengeful 12, Selfish 12, Honest 13, Arbitrary 12, Merciful 14, Proud 16, Worldly 14, Prudent 15, Temperate 15, Suspicious 13, Valorous 12. Passions: Love (family) 18, Hospitality 15, Honor 13, Love (Hoel) 13. Significant Skills: Awareness 12, Courtesy 17, Dancing 15, Heraldry 10, Intrigue 16, Recognize 13, Stewardship 12. Horse: Palfrey Anna, Queen Dowager of Brittany. The mother of Duke Hoel and the natural half-sister of Arthur, born of a highborn lady, of the house of Carduel (the mother also of Cariado and Brun in Cornwall). She was wed to the middle-aged Budic, King of Brittany in 490. With her husband’s death in 519, his heir was the boy Hoel, though Budic had left other sons by women of lesser birth.

By Anna, Budic was the mother also of Ysaive of Carhaix, Countess of Vannes and Annik, Lady of Dinan. She has recently taken the veil. Glory: 5,250. Heraldry: Ermine impaling or a dragon rampant vert. Runalen (Hoelin), Heir of Brittany. Born 509, the eldest son of Duke Hoel and his first wife, Alma, the daughter of the usurper King Riwal and sister of Jonas & Meliodas. Runalen, at 22, is still unmarried, and is still a youthful knight. Runalen is intelligent and somewhat scholarly in bent, though he is interested in tournaments and their pagentry. Runalen’s personal lands, granted after the conquest of eastern Brittany, are located near Rennes. Some courtiers believe Runalen has conceived a fine-amour for Gargeolain, the wife of Bedalis, Steward of Cornouailles. Glory: 4,200. Heraldry: Ermine, for difference a label gules in chief. (in 531) SIZ: 14 DEX: 15 STR: 14 CON: 16 APP: 17

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 30 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 22

Attacks: Sword 14, Lance 16, Battle 13, Horsemanship 15. Significant Traits: Energetic 15, Forgiving 16, Generous 16, Just 17, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (Duke Hoel) 18, Love (family) 18, Hospitality 17, Honor 15, Amor (Gargeolain) 15. Significant Skills: Courtesy 16, Heraldry 15, Hunting 16, Intrigue 16, Recognize 13, Stewardship 13, Tourney 18. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6)

Conon (Chanao), Prince of Guened or Broerec, Admiral of Brittany, “the Bold.” Hoel’s adopted son, the son of his brother-in-law Waroch. Conon was born in 507. Conon has been granted, with his knighthood, (in the care of stewards, most notably Caradues of Vannes) a fief in the Vannetais centering on the valley of the Vilaine. His subjects nickname him the king (“Rix” or Regulus), and he has become popular there, particularly after his valiant deeds (even as a youth) in the war with France. Conon believes he is a better candidate to succeed his adoptive father over the more withdrawn and less martial Runalen.

Conon visits Britain in 531, enlisting in the Irish War. He has taken command of the Breton navy, mainly based in Vannes and Nantes with the leave of his adoptive father. Glory: 4,375. Heraldry: Ermine, for difference a bend gules. (in 531) SIZ: 15 DEX: 13 STR: 15 CON: 16 APP: 16

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 31 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 22

Attacks: Sword 15, Lance 14, Battle 16, Horsemanship 14. Significant Traits: Energetic 16, Generous 15, Cruel 12, Proud 16, Worldly 15, Valorous 18. Passions: Loyalty (Duke Hoel) 15, Love (family) 19, Hospitality 12, Honor 15. Significant Skills: Awareness 15, Boating 10, Intrigue 14, Orate 15, Recognize 13, Stewardship 12. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Macliau A younger son of Waroch, and the adoptive son of Hoel, born in 509, he was supposed to join the church. His godfather was St. Malo of Aleth, of which his name is a variation. Macliau, however, eloped with a young Roman woman of Vannes, where he was studying, and left the church. Opinion varies over whether the young man is a romantic figure or an impious reprobate. Keyhidius, Viscount of Porhoet “To you does Kahedin complain Oh Love, about the deadly pain Caused by a lady for whose sake He cannot sleep, he cannot wake. All his actions have come to nought, In Death’s firm grip he has been caught…” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c.1230-40) The youngest son of Hoel, Conon’s main rival for his father’s affections and popularity, he is still a squire. His mother was Hoel’s second wife, Elen, the sister of Duke Cador, making him a close cousin of King Arthur. Keyhidius’s younger sister is Isolde Blanchemains, probably the most beautiful girl in Brittany.

Keyhidius is a sensitive courtier, the most refined of the sons of Hoel, but he also a skilled swordsman. His cheerful manner mitigates his pride. Glory: 3,250 Arms: 1. Ermine quartering gules three mascles pierced or 2, 1. 2. Argent, a wagon-wheel or between 3 bezants, all surrounded in a bordure engrailed gules. [Vienna Ms. 2537] (in 537) SIZ: 13 DEX: 17 STR: 16 CON: 15 APP: 15

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 28 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 24

Attacks: Sword 15, Lance 13, Battle 10, Horsemanship 14 Significant Traits: Forgiving 16, Generous 18, Just 16, Merciful 17, Proud 16, Trusting 16, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (Duke Hoel) 18, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 15, Honor 17. Significant Skills: Courtesy 14, Flirting 15, Orate 14, Romance 15, Tourney 13. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Isolt of the White Hands “The light in the bedroom was so bright that Tristan could see Iseut’s beauty very clearly. She had white and tender breasts, lovely bright and laughing eyes, fine slender eyebrows and a clear, pure face.” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c.1230-40) “What Lady is this, whose silk attire Gleams so rich in the light of the fire? The ringlets on her shoulders lying In their flitting lustre vying With the clasp of burnish'd gold Which her heavy robe doth hold. Her looks are mild, her fingers slight As the driven snow are white; But her cheeks are sunk and pale. Is it that the bleak sea-gale Beating from the Atlantic sea On this coast of Brittany, Nips too keenly the sweet flower?” --Tristram and Iseult (Matthew Arnold, 1852)

The daughter of Duke Hoel and only full sibling of Keyhidius. She is reputed to be the most beautiful mortal woman in Brittany, and she is much beloved by her father. She has some skill at healing and Chirurgery. Most of all, Isolt of Brittany wants to wed a knight of great chivalry and renown, and she watches the court of her father for such a handsome and mighty man. Glory: 3,000 (in 537) SIZ: 10 DEX: 16 STR: 08 CON: 16 APP: 25

Move 3 Damage 3d6 Hit Points 26 Armor none Age 20

Attacks: Dagger 06, Horsemanship 08 Traits: Chaste 19, Energetic 11, Forgiving 15, Generous 17, Honest 16, Just 14, Merciful 16, Modest 15, Pious 14, Prudent 13, Temperate 16, Trusting 17, Valorous 13. Passions: Love (family) 18, Hospitality 17, Honor 16, Amor (Tristram) 18. Significant Skills: Chirurgery 21, Courtesy 17, First Aid 21, Romance 15, Singing 16, Tourney 12. Horse: Palfrey Judikael Riwal, titular Count of Domnonee Son of Jonas and Typhaine, step-son of King Mark, Judikael lives in the isolated castle of Carnoet, in Cornouailles, far from his ancestral lands. His guards do not permit him to leave the area. Judikael was born in 518, the year of his father’s death at Trebes. He has one half-sister, named Elaine de Poher. Glory: 2,100 Arms: Ermine a bordure gules. Briant, Count of Rennes, Lord of Chateaubriant Also called Briant de Insula, the Count of Rennes is an unreliable vassal of Duke Hoel. Until 526 he was a loyal follower of King Claudas of France, but he surrendered in the face of the British armies. Briant is notorious for his political cunning and ambition; he was clearly aiming to become Claudas’ Duke of Brittany before the victory of Arthur. But Duke Hoel could not well afford to refuse the homage of this powerful noble and like Guiscard of Poitou, he was confirmed in his possessions.

Glory: 8,500 Arms: Gules pamplonny or. (in 531) SIZ: 16 DEX: 12 STR: 15 CON: 17 APP: 14

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 30 Armor 14 + shield Age 38

Attacks: Sword 15, Lance 17, Battle 18, Horsemanship 16. Significant Traits: Selfish 12, Proud 16, Worldly 17, Prudent 15, Suspicious 17, Valorous 15. Passions: Loyalty (Duke Hoel) 10, Love (family) 15, Hospitality 13, Honor 13. Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Gaming 15, Intrigue 19, Recognize 14, Stewardship 17. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Elaine of Poher The daughter of King Mark and Typhaine, the daughter of Hoel and widow of Count Jonas. She was born in 520; her godmother was the late Duchess Elen. Elaine mirrors her mother’s lost beauty; it is perhaps because of that that Mark keeps her secluded in his castle of Carnoet. No man can court her without his leave, and some think Mark means to wed her to his nephew Tristram, when she is of age. In 535 she is abducted while in the forest, and rumor is, after her return, that she is pregnant. [The archetype of this story is found in the Middle English lay “Sir Degaré”] Glory: 2,000 Arms: Quarterly Vert and Ermine. Laudine, alias Penarwen, the wife of Ywaine. “In the sight of all her nobles the lady gives herself to my lord Yvain. From the hand of one of her chaplains he has taken Laudine of Landuc, the lady who was the daughter of Duke Laudunet, of whom a lay is sung…” --Yvain (the Knight with the Lion) trans. D.D.R. Owen (Chretien de Troyes, c.1180) Daughter of Guythure de Landunez. She was groomed for the matrilineal position of Lady of the Fountain of Broceliande by her cousin Vivainne. The Lady of the Fountain was the priestess of the sacred spring, dedicated to the God Beli.

Whomever who can defeat his rivals or a previous husband becomes her consort by pagan custom. Several knights attempted the rite of combat; her most recent husband was Esclados the Red Esclados was killed and replaced by Sir Ywaine, the son of Morgan le Fay; no-one has been able to overcome him and take her hand. Laudine is fond of Ywaine and has permitted her duties to slip. When she is not visiting her husband in Camelot she lives at the castles of Comper, Le Juch or Lesneven. Glory: 2,800 Arms: Argent a lion rampant argent (for Ywaine) impaling Sable a lion rampant or. (in 531) SIZ: 09 DEX: 18 STR: 10 CON: 17 APP: 23

Move 3 Damage 3d6 Hit Points 26 Armor none Age 29

Attacks: Dagger 12, Horsemanship 13. Significant Traits: Lustful 12, Energetic 16, Generous 13, Proud 16, Pious 15, Reckless 17, Valorous 16. Passions: Love (family) 16, Hospitality 18, Honor 15, Love (Ywaine) 17. Significant Skills: Awareness 12, Chirurgery 19, Courtesy 16, Faerie Lore 13, First Aid 19, Folk Lore 14, Religion (Pagan) 13, Romance 16, Tourney 15. Horse: Palfrey Agrippe (Albrionus Agrippa, the Earl Grip) “He [Hoel] was fortifying one of his castles there against a neighbor who was waging war on him, a wealthy count and an exceedingly dauntless knight, whose name was Agrippa the Tall, for he was a remarkably tall man.” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c.1230-40) Marshal of Brittany, Lord of Landal, Dapifer (Steward) of Dol, Lord of Broons, called “the Tall”. Agrippe claims to be the descendant of the emperors; during the defeat of the Franks in 526 he rose from the lesser nobility to prominence in the conquered regions of Maine and Rennes after being appointed Hoel’s military lieutenant. Recently he married Hoel’s neice. Agrippe is a natural leader and a skilled strategist; he has attracted many followers among the Romano-Gallic aristocracy with his charisma and pretensions.

Agrippe has challenged the regency of Hoel over the empire in France and northern Gaul; he believes that the time has come to restore the kingdom of Syagrius, whom he claims as a relative. In 532 he rebels, aligning, for convenience, with Claudas of France. While Claudas himself was defeated by Arthur, Agrippe escaped and waged a savage war in northern France and Brittany. In 536 he defeated and wounded Runalen near Dol and trapped Hoel in Aleth; only the timely arrival of Tristram saved the Bretons. Agrippe’s heir is his nephew Alquin; Agrippe’s uncle Machabrun is his chief steward. Glory: 5,750 Arms: Or a bend vert. [described in La Tavola Ritonda] (in 536) SIZ: 17 DEX: 15 STR: 17 CON: 15 APP: 16

Move 3 Damage 6d6 Hit Points 32 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 35

Attacks: Sword 19, Lance 22, Battle 21, Horsemanship 17. Significant Traits: Energetic 18, Generous 16, Deceitful 12, Proud 16, Reckless 17, Valorous 18. Passions: Loyalty (Duke Hoel) 12, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 15, Honor 16. Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Heraldry 16, Hunting 15, Intrigue 16, Orate 18, Recognize 15, Stewardship 14. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Bisclavret (alias Melion) “In Brittany there lived a baron whom I have heard greatly praised. He was a good and handsome knight who conducted himself nobly… As his wedded wife he had a woman who was worthy and attractive in appearance. He loved her and she returned his love. But one thing caused her great worry: each week he was absent for three full days…” Lai of Bisclavret (Marie de France, c.1190) A noble knight of Cornouailles and a chamberlain to Duke Hoel, Melion is a descendant of the old Gallic chieftains. He has strange habits, and is reputed to be a pagan. Nonetheless, he is well-loved for his gentleness and wisdom. His wife is a beautiful Breton lady, from Quimper. Bisclavret competed at the tourney of Banborc.

Glory: 3,250 Arms: Argent a wolf’s head sable, langued gules. Brun de la Montaigne This knight should not be confused with Brun de Branlant in Cornwall. He is the son of Sir Butor, a knight who owned a castle near the forest of Broceliande. Three faeries gave to him the following qualities: beauty, valour, and unrequited love. He dwells in the forest, as a knight sworn both to fealty of King Arthur (whom he encountered in 514) and to a handmaiden of Morgan le Fay at Comper, who scorns his love. Brun is one of the most formidable of the knights of Brittany. Brun is nicknamed “the Breton Tristan” after the Cornish hero. Glory: 4,125 Arms: Butor carries a blank shield. (in 531) SIZ: 15 DEX: 17 STR: 15 CON: 17 APP: 19

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 32 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 23

Attacks: Sword 18, Lance 22, Battle 13, Horsemanship 19. Significant Traits: Chaste 18, Energetic 18, Forgiving 16, Generous 15, Honest 16, Just 15, Merciful 18, Modest 19, Pious 16, Trusting 17, Valorous 20. Passions: Loyalty (King Arthur) 18, Love (family) 15, Hospitality 16, Honor 19, Amor (Fairy maiden) 22. Significant Skills: Compose 16, Faerie Lore 15, Hunting 16, Recognize 14, Romance 19, Singing 17, Tourney 16. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Caradués [Caradoc, Guérok, Garadues] Count of Vannes. A knight, born poor but royal in Cambria, Caradués joined Budic’s army as a young man to fight the Franks, and later aided Hoel as he grew to be an adult and leader. Caradués later wed Ysaive, Hoel’s sister, the most beautiful of the many daughters of Budic. Caradués was rewarded with the lands in and around Vannes in 514 when Hoel overran the area. He is brave, loyal, and just. His only fault perhaps lies in his simplicity of character. Much of Caradués’ lands are held in trust for Hoel’s favorite son, Conon, who now is learning the craft of knighthood from the Count. Caradués’ son, also named Caradués, is a page in the ducal household.

Glory: 7,400 Arms: Or three lioncels rampant vert 2, 1. [described in Caradoc] (in 531) SIZ: 15 DEX: 14 STR: 17 CON: 16 APP: 15

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 31 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 39

Attacks: Sword 17, Lance 18, Battle 20, Horsemanship 18. Significant Traits: Energetic 17, Generous 16, Honest 16, Just 18, Proud 15, Trusting 17, Valorous 19. Passions: Loyalty (Duke Hoel) 18, Love (family) 18, Hospitality 17, Honor 17, Love (Ysaive) 17. Significant Skills: Folk Lore 13, Gaming 16, Hunting 17, Orate 18, Stewardship 19. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Guiomar of Aval (Guyomarc’h, Guigemar, Guingomar, Gringamore) “At that time Hoilas ruled the land… The king had a baron who was lord of Liun. His name was Oridial and he enjoyed the confidence of his lord. He was a brave and valiant knight and his wife bore him two children, a son and a beautiful daughter. The girl’s name was Noguent and the boy was called Guigemar. There was no more handsome young man in the kingdom…” Lai of Guigemar (Marie de France, c.1190) The son of Oridials (Aridolus), Viscount of Morlaix, younger half brother of Sir Guythure and older half brother of Sir Graelent and Sir Sadoine of Cameliard. Guiomar uses the pseudonym Gringamore after his dispute with Guenever, and changed his arms. Not everyone is aware that he is the same knight. Oridials was the brother of King Leodegrance, making his children first cousins of Guenever. Leodegrance, born at Morlaix, was himself one of the Breton knights who followed Aurelius and Uther to Britain in 466. Leodegrance was awarded the heiress of Letocetum, a small kingdom in western Logres, linked to the ancient High Kings. This kingdom became known as Cameliard, and Letocetum’s castle, built by Leodegrance and named for Carhaix in Brittany is now Carohaise. Guiomar first distinguished himself at the battle of Terrabel in 513. He fought alongside his father, who was killed; his brother remained in Brittany to guard the family estates. He was awarded one of the first positions as a Queen’s Knight.

His mother remarried to the Duke of Castle Danger in Cumbria, and was also the mother of the wives of Gareth and Agravain. In 523 Guiomar by misadventure came to Cornwall, discovered the exiled Queen Morgan of Gorre and became her lover. His youngest brother Sadoine is the Castellan of Daneblaise in Cameliard; his half-sisters (via his mother) are the Ladies Lynette and Lyonors. He served them as castellan of their lands in Cumbria, and organized the tournament in 532 where Tristram did well in celebration of their weddings. Guiomar was compelled by his cousin Guenevere to abandon his lover in 525; he then left Britain for his homeland of Brittany, fearing Morgan’s displeasure, and married a faerie woman, Brangepart, the lady of Aval, and had a son, Brangemeur. Glory: (as Gringamore) 3,200 (as Guiomar) 4,250 Arms: Sable. [The arms of Guythure is very similar to Leodegrance’s: Sable a lion rampant or. (Leodegrance bears Sable, a lion passant guardant or).] (in 531) SIZ: 15 DEX: 16 STR: 18 CON: 18 APP: 17

Move 3 Damage 6d6 Hit Points 33 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 36

Attacks: Sword 18, Lance 17, Battle 17, Horsemanship 18. Significant Traits: Lustful 16, Energetic 17, Generous 17, Honest 16, Proud 16, Worldly 15, Reckless 17, Valorous 18. Passions: Love (family) 16, Hospitality 16, Honor 16, Love (Brangepart of Aval) 18. Significant Skills: Boating 8, Courtesy 16, Faerie Lore 15, Flirting 15, Intrigue 14, Recognize 15, Romance 13. Horse: Faerie Charger (Move 10, Damage 6d6) Morvan of Norholt, Viscount of La Faou “The duke [Morgan] replied, ‘I have been reliably informed that you were in King Markis’ service and that he gave you good horses, armor, costly stuffs and silks. And I see you are a handsome knight. But you declare that you want to receive your land from me, that I wrongly hold your estates, and that I slew your father… If you wish to gain your realm, you will have to take it by force, for I do hold what you call your realm, whether rightly or wrongly. And as for accusing me of the death of your father, in that matter you will have to muster your full strength, for we will never deny or conceal his death from you.

‘Then Tristram said, “Whoever kills a man and admits his guilt is obligated to make redress to his friends. You now confess both that you wrongly hold my realm and that you have slain my father. I demand that you redress both, for you can deny neither.” Then the duke said, “Be silent, churl! You are full of arrogance. You are the son of a harlot and don’t even know who sired you. You are lying about your father.” --Saga of Tristram and Isond (13th c.) A major landholder in western Brittany, Morvan (or Morgan) owns the Crozon peninsula and lands both Cornouailles and Leon, as well as rich holdings in Cornwall. His father was Amant of Lamballe and his mother was the sorceress Escorducarla of Vaux. Morvan is a kinsman (through his father) of Sir Dinas of Dinan and Viviane. His late wife was the Viscountess of La Faou and he holds her lands for their children. Court intrigue links him with the exiled Queen Astre of Lyonesse. Morvan’s son Almeriz is his steward of his Cornish holdings, given to him by his mother. Glory: 4,800 Arms: Azure a lion passant guardant or. (in 536) SIZ: 13 DEX: 14 STR: 16 CON: 17 APP: 15

Move 3 Damage 5d6 Hit Points 30 Armor 14 + shield Age 36

Attacks: Sword 17, Lance 16, Battle 16, Horsemanship 17. Significant Traits: Selfish 15, Proud 18, Suspicious 17, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (King Mark) 15, Loyalty (Meliodas) 10, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 13, Honor 15, Love (Astre) 15. Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Intrigue 18, Orate 16, Recognize 16, Stewardship 18. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Rual the Faithful, Lord of Rohan and Steward of Léon “… he [Rivalin] summoned his marshal, in whom (knowing him to be loyal) he placed his greatest trust, and who administered the country for him. He was called Rual li Foitenant, a very mainstay of honour and loyalty, who never swerved from his fealty.”

Tristan (Gottfried von Strassburg, c. 1210) The governor of Leon for Meliodas, Rual is now getting grey. He is, perhaps, the most trustworthy noble in Brittany, but his administration has been beset by problems, from the interference of the exiled Queen Astre to ongoing disputes with Morvan of Norholt and King Mark about the ownership of various fiefs. Rual’s only surviving child and heiress is Galades de Canoel. His cousin is Guythure of Morlaix. [Referred to as Sir Rohand in the ballad Sir Tristrem] Glory: 4,500 Arms: Argent, a boar rampant sable. (in 531) SIZ: 13 DEX: 12 STR: 13 CON: 15 APP: 14

Move 3 Damage 4d6 Hit Points 28 Armor 13 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield Age 59

Attacks: Sword 16, Lance 15, Battle 16, Horsemanship 15. Significant Traits: Energetic 15, Generous 17, Honest 19, Just 18, Merciful 16, Modest 16, Pious 15, Prudent 17, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (Meliodas) 19, Love (family) 17, Hospitality 19, Honor 17. Significant Skills: Awareness 13, Courtesy 17, Folk Lore 15, Intrigue 13, Orate 14, Recognize 16, Stewardship 20. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6)

Breton Knights of the Round Table These knights are organized by Phase first noted; these knights make good sponsors and friends in Logres when visiting Britain. Round Table knights may only be created by Arthur in Britain, so the Bretons have always been a small and elite number in Camelot. Phase 0 (appointed by Uther) Sir Alier de Raguindel, father of Açes and Alon below. (He retires after the battle of the Humber.) Sir Brunor the Black, father of Dinadan and Brunor (La Cote Mal Taille), sometime King of Estrangorre, was born in Brittany (Arms: Argent) Sir Guivret de Lamballe, brother-in-law of Prince Amant (Arms: indented argent and gules) [Gwrfoddw in the Mabinogi] (son of Amlauth, brother of Igraine, who settled in Brittany (Léon) in the Anarchy) (k. 548)

Sir Renaus de Carhaix Phase 2 Sir Açes of Quimper, Constable of Clarence (brother of Sir Alon and a cousin of Sir Galeschin; he fought against the Saxons) Sir Alon of Raguindel, twin brother of Açes and Steward of Clarence. Sir Ayglin des Vawse (alias Aglant, a friend of Sir Tor, half-Breton, Cornish by marriage, son of Cadret) Sir Baudwin of ‘Britain’ (Brittany). He retires after Badon from the Round Table and becomes Bishop of Camelot and abbot of Glastonbury. He later still is a hermit, by the Downfall. Sir Cadret of Escoce (later King of Nohaut), whose wife was a Breton princess. Sir Kehedin, son of Cadret, godfather of Keyhidius Sir Lanval (arms: Or a bend engrailed gules) Sanam (Sevain), Earl of Bedegraine, whose wife was the chatelaine of Quimper. Phase 3 Sir Bisclaret Sir Brun de la Montaigne Sir Caradués of Vannes Sir Conon, Prince of Guened Sir Dinas Sir Esbarantin (Cabarentin or Ysberin, son of Fergant (alias Sperin)) Sir Guivret the Little (born in Lamballe, lives in Estregales, the son of Pelleas) Duke Hoel (525) Sir Ignaures the Lover (see the Lai of Ignaures) Sir Keyhidius (circa 539) Sir Lionel de Nantueil Sir Lecadruéz [Llygadrudd Emys] (k. 548) Sir Paysuéc [Peissawg] the Tall (or Long-coat) (k. 548) Phase 4 Sir Caradués the Younger (circa 547) Sir Erec (son of King Lak, Count of Vannes and Nantes) (circa 547) Sir Garis de Lamballe Sir Mador de la Porte Sir Maradins of La Bretesche Sir Meles (brother of Sir Dinas) Sir Miraudiel de Carhais (a reformed bad knight) Sir Persives de Langaulos Phase 5 Sir Degaré (grandson of King Mark, see Elaine of Poher)

Sir Gaheres of Carhaix (563) (kinsman of Sir Mador) Sir Meraugis (bastard son of King Mark, alias Morien Mynawg) (554+) The Order of the Ermine (-- An Ermin) Origin Duke Hoel has founded a local order (in Phase 2), dedicated to chivalry, justice and Brittany. The emblem of the order is an ermine; its motto is Kentoc'h Mervet Eget Am Zoatran: “Better to Die than be Soiled.” Courtiers and prominent knights are most often honored by the Order. Beliefs The Order encourages allegiance to the Duke and Arthur. They serve to support Breton unity and opposition to their enemies, the French. The Order encourages Chivalric behavior at all times. Requirements Members must be natives or landholders in Brittany. Members must a Loyalty (Duke Hoel) of 15. Benefits Supporters and allies of Duke Hoel respect members of the Order. Being admitted to the Order gives a one-time bonus of 100 Glory. The member also receives a gold collar with an enameled ermine worth 1 Librum.

Church Leaders and Breton Christianity The Church in Brittany is more influenced by Rome than that of Cornwall. It, does, however, preserve many Celtic practices, since the dioceses of the north were founded by British and Irish saints. The southern bishoprics of Vannes, Rennes and Nantes were descended from ancient Roman churches and the clergy of those regions resist the political power of the abbots and bishops of Leon, St. Brieuc, Aleth and Dol, whose incumbents are mostly kinsmen of the Duke. Quimper is an intermediate case, being a bishopric combining Celtic and Roman customs. The leading center of Breton monasticism is the abbey of Landévennec, in Léon. The abbey holds many British and Roman manuscripts and cultural treasures, far from Saxon and Frankish pillagers. Not only religious manuscripts and relics are here, but also secular and pagan documents. Many monks are trained in poetic and oratorical composition. The British settlements in much of Brittany are led by religious figures, and the chief noble is also an abbot or priest. Knights are thus defenders and servants not

only of a lord, but of the Christian church. Monks are celibate, but regular clergy are not expected to be. The famous St. Germanus was not only a bishop, but also the governor of Armorica. Breton saints are not mere religious figures, but the inheritors of a Celtic learned tradition, the summit of which was the ancient druids. They are usually of high birth and considerable education. Common to Breton Christians is a belief that the Devil himself walks the wild and lonely places of Brittany by night, looking for sinners. Particularly crafty saints and heroes sometimes outwit his plans, however. St. Aaron (Anarun, Anarawn). Brother of Uriens of Gorre and Bishop at Aleth. Despite his pagan roots, Aaron is a pious Christian of the Celtic church, combining druidical doctrine with the new faith. His chosen successor is St. Malo. Aaron lives ascetically on an island near the town. St. Alori (Alor, Allorus). The bishop of Quimper. He is the second most extensive land-owner in Cornouialles after Duke Hoel. He is an accomplished diplomat and Chancellor of the Duchy. St. Armel (Arzhel). A Cornish monk, dwelling at Plouarzel in Leon. He is famed for his miraculous powers over the weather. Evemar. The bishop of Nantes. Evemar is a fairly typical Gallo-Roman aristocrat making a career in the church. St. Gildas Sapiens The abbot of a monastery in the peninsula of Rhuys south of Vannes. He was the son of Keu d’Estraus (Caw) and thus the half-nephew of Andred in Cornwall. He was engaged in a dispute with King Arthur recently and left Glastonbury for Brittany. St. Guénolé. Guénolé was born early in the fifth century and is now in failing health; he may die soon, having reached a venerable age. Some say he knew King Gradlon. His brothers were Guethenoc, Jacut and he had a sister, Clervie, all saints. Gwenaël or Guenhael is to be his successor and now governs the abbey of Landévennec. The saint is famed for his healing and his quiet rectitude. St. Hervé (Houarnioule)

Born in Leon, this blind saint is renowned for his powers over predatory beasts (wolves) and healing powers over domestic animals, particularly horses. His lack of sight was an answer to his mother’s prayer that he never be exposed to the sight of earthly suffering. He is also a trained bard (his father’s profession). He lives at Lanrivoare. Leonor (Lunaire) Son of Hoel and brother of Tudgual. Malo (Maclou) A young monk in Aleth, originally of Llancarfan in Cambria. He is the chief assistant of Bishop Aaron. St. Méen (Meon, Mewan, Meven) The Cornish abbot of a small community in Broceliande, born in Ergyng and the nephew of St. Samson of Dol. A Cornishman, he arrived in Brittany with his uncle. His godson is St. Austell (who lives in Cornwall, near Castle Gotha). Méen is skilled in interceding with heaven for the cure of skin diseases and madness. St. Melaine The late Gallo-Roman Bishop of Rennes (d. 530). His successor is one Febediolus. Melaine was the most formidable of the Roman-rite opponents of the Celtic church in Brittany. He particularly disliked the participation of women deacons in the Mass. Melaine had a great influence on old King Clovis of the Franks after his conversion. St. Paterne (Pair) The bishop of Vannes, successor to St. Modeste. As a Roman bishop, he has civic authority in addition to his religious mandate. St. Pol Aurelian Born in 492 in Cambria, St. Pol is well educated (he trained alongside both Gildas and Samson under St. Illtud), and a determined evangelist. Recently he became Bishop of Leon (512) and resides near Morlaix. He has founded several abbeys, including one on Ouessant. St. Samson Samson was born to Amon, a son of Budic I, in Estregales, and was taught by St. Illtud; his mother Anna was later the first wife of Ector, foster-father of Arthur. In his youth he was forced out of the monastic community on Caldey there for his asceticism and piety, which embarrassed the other monks. About 502, after a stint in Cornwall (where he built a chapel by King Mark’s palace in Lantian) and in the Channel Isles, he went to Dumnonee and established a monastery-

bishopric at Dol. Though few question Samson’s faith, he has managed to offend a large number of other religious figures including St. Petroc in Cornwall. His prior at Dol is St. Magloire, a fellow student of St. Illtud. Tudgual (Tudwal) Son of Duke Hoel. He is presently in Aleth as a monk, after returning from Ireland and Cambria to study.

Deceased Saints and Euphermized Gods Ankou The personification of Death, this female spirit is often found both in a pagan and a Christian context. She is not evil, but is a natural aspect of the world. Ankou is an animate skeleton, often carrying a scythe; he head can swivel completely around: nothing escapes her. She drives a cart filled with the spirits of the dead. Some pray to Ankou to have her destroy their enemies. St. Briec (Brioch) Namesake of the town, St Briec was born to Irish pagan nobility. When in Britain, he was converted by St. Germanus. He is sometimes prayed to for relief of the suffering of the mad. His feast day is May 1st. St. Clair (Clarus) An early Roman bishop of Nantes who led one of the first attempts to convert the Armoricans. He helps people with eye diseases. St. Corentin (Cury) Founder of the bishopric of Quimper and renowned for both his kindness to animals (his daily meal of fish was magically restored to life afterwards) and his ascesticism. He predicted the fall of Ys. His feast day is December 12th. St. Cornely [Korneli] Patron of horned animals, venerated in Carnac. He is sometimes depicted with horns on his head. Some of his sacred places may have belonged to Cerunnos, the horned god. St. Donatien and St. Rogatien Brothers, sons of the Governor of Nantes, they were martyred there in 299 or 304. Their feast day is 24th May. St. Jacut

The son of St. Fracan and St. Gwenn and brother of St. Guthenoc and St. Guenole. Jacut founded a monastery near Dinan in the late fifth century. Jacut is helpful in curing rabies, insanity and for excorcisms. St. Mélar The saintly prince of Cornouailles, murdered by his uncle Riwal. He is venerated at Kerfeunten, on the border of Leon and Domnonee. St. Ronan An reclusive Irish monk from the reign of Gradlon. He is buried at Locronan. Ronan engaged in a famous dispute with Keban, the last druid-queen of Cornouailles. Rumon, the Cornish bishop, was named for him. St. Taran The saint venerated for his control of thunder and lightning. Called Taranis by the pagans.

Paganism and the Faerie in Brittany Paganism this region is less wide-spread and more secret than in Cornwall; however the deep forests and Gauls of the interior hold to the older faith. The most noteworthy of the pagan survivals are the druidesses of the Argoed (of which tradition Vivaine came), sometimes called the Korrigans (or Dames Blanches); they are barely distinguished from faerie by the Christians of the littorial. Before the Romans there was a pagan sanctuary on the Isle of Sein overseen by virgin druidesses; the stones at Carnac and the many other megaliths of Armorica were used by the priests of forgotten gods. White garbed women of the elves sometimes are found near the fountains and megaliths. While generally not dangerous, they could beguile mortals into dancing and losing track of mortal time. The most common of the Faerie folk are Corics or Polpiquets, dwarves. They are most often found dwelling under the hills or stones of eastern Brittany. They are guardians of hoards of treasure deposited in times of strife. The Corics or Korreds are friendly to those who come them honestly seeking help, though they are deformed in appearance and enjoy frightening humans. There is a persistent tale that Hoel’s eldest child was a dwarf and was cast out at birth; he is reputed to be a powerful magician, but no one knows his true name. Within the cities, sorcerers of the classical type dwell, summoning spirits and knowing a little of the lore of the Roman mysteries. Eliavres of Nantes is but one example of the Romanized aristocracy fascinated with such arts. The sorcerers of Fougeres were believed to cause illness, drive people mad, curse animals and make women barren.

The Roche aux Fees is the council-place of the various magical traditions; they meet there on the solstices and other days of importance. Another creature of the wilds is the Menoux, or werewolves, humans who transform into wolves and command packs of the beasts. St. Rumon of Cornwall is rumored to be a Menou, though this may be by confusion by his namesake St. Renon, who was accused of the same thing. They are believed to be most common in the forests of the far northeast, near Fougeres. In western Brittany, the Werewolf is called the Bisclavret, Bleiz-Garv or the Den-Bliez. They dwell there in the hills and forests of the Argoet. A Breton monster of the sea is the Yannig an Od. It comes ashore by night, hooting like an owl. Anyone it encounters it easily sneaks up upon and eats. The appearance of the Yannig is unknown. Giants are less common than in Cornwall. One of the more famous is Gargantua, a giant whose parents were created by Merlin. Gargantua (or Gargam), unlike most giants, is not bestial, and is a somewhat confused follower (albeit nocturnal) of Arthur’s chivalry. The giant of Mont St. Michel wandered from Spain and something of the inexperience of the Bretons with such creatures can be seen in their failure to defeat him. [Inset box The Gods of Armorica The Gauls of the Armorican peninsula worshipped different deities than their British cousins. While paganism is on the decline, it is common enough (and different enough from the insular variety) in the countryside to merit detailing the most popular gods. The magicians of Brittany are generally Gallo or trained by individuals from that older culture. It is partly the magical power of Gallo communities that prevents their utter extinction. Belenos (Roman: Apollo) The sun; Beli in Britain. He is associated with the horse and therefore with Epona, though also with the hound. The fountain of Barenton is sacred to him (Bele-nemet). His festival is Kala-Hañv (Beltaine). Brigantia (Roman: Minerva) Goddess of fire and wisdom. She is less important in Armorica than in Britain. Cernunnos The horned god. God of the bounty of nature, shown squatting on the floor in the old Gaulish manner. Now translated into a Christain saint as St. Cornely. Danu

(Roman: Diana)

The mother goddess, Dôn in Britain. She is the mother of the good gods, and the matriarch venerated by the Ladies of the Lake. In Brittany, she is associated with St. Anna, mother of the Virgin. Matrona is her personification as a mother in abstraction. Domna The dark goddess, the “Lady,” counterpart and rival/shadow of Danu, ancestress of the Dumnonians. Mainly an object of propitiation by the Bretons. The festival of Kala-Goañv (Allantide in Cornwall, or Samhain) is dedicated to her and to the sacrificial “St.” Arlan, the apple. Epona Goddess of the horse. She is shown as a woman-headed mare in Armorican iconography. One of the more important gods, she is sometimes seen as a representative of a more generalized woman’s goddess. Esus (Roman: Mercury or Mars) God of forests, sacrifice by hanging and egrets or cranes. His name is the root of the village of Essé in Brittany. Lugos (Roman: Mercury) Personified as a boar in Armorica, the god of commerce, magic and skill. One of the most important gods in Gaul. Christianized as St. Michael. Ogmios (Roman: Apollo, Hercules or Mercury) Psychopomp, god of eloquence, the Sun and wealth. An important god in Armorica, shown as a fiery male head. Sulis (Roman: Minerva) Goddess of waters, the feminine principle of fire and prophecy. The patron of Bath, in Logres, and of the Scillies. Taranis (Roman: Jupiter) God of thunder and sacrifice by fire. Also now known as the Christian “saint” Taran. Teutates (Roman: Mars or Dis) God of the tribe, war and sacrifice by water. Pagan Divine Patrons Table for Brittany Modifier: If male, -5 d20 Result -4 Domna +10 to Curse, festival: Kala-Goañv

-3 -2 to –1 00-01 02 03-04

Cernunnos Teutates Esus Taranis Belenos

05-06 07-08 09-10 11-12 13-15 16-19 20

Ogmios Lugos Epona Brigantia Sulis Danu Domna

+10 to Animal Friend +10 to Necromancy, festival: Kala-Goañv +10 to Divination +10 to Weather Control +5 to Weather Control, Healing, festival: Kala-Hañv +5 to Emotion, Travel +10 Shapeshift, festival: Michaelmas +10 Protect, must bear children +10 to Emotion, festival: Candlemas +5 Divination, Healing +10 Blessing, festival: Kala-Hañv see above]

Alardin du Lac A young knight, the son of one Guiniacalc. He has a sister, named the Maiden of the Pavilion. Aalardin is a pagan of the enchanted forest of Broceliande, and is learned in strange lore. Arms: Gules an eagle displayed ermine. [from Caradoc; he later weds Guigenor, the niece of Gawaine] Dahut The daughter of Gradlon and Malgven, Queen of the Osismii, she was herself a pagan priestess of sovereignity. When he beloved Ys was deluged (c.430) she dove into the waves and took the form of a morgen, or siren. In mortal form she commanded the ghostly Korrigans, the Corics and other spirits; she took many lovers, but had them ritually murdered. In the end, the Christians say, her license attracted the Devil, who deceived her into unleashing the flood upon glorious Ys. Dahut is still seen, crowned and finned, in the sea near the Isle of Sein and the Baie des Trepasses. Bosquienne The queen of the morgens (sirens) near Aleth, a vassal of Dahut. Eliavrès The sorceror-knight of Nantes. Eliavrès is a rumored student of the black arts. He resides at the tower of Boufois, or Bouffray, in that city. Besides his interest in forbidden knowledge, he is a sensualist and a ruthless cad, although very charming and handsome. He enjoys music and games of strategy. [from Caradoc] Insight 5,250

Glory 6,300 (in 531) SIZ: 12 DEX: 13 STR: 12 CON: 15 APP: 16

Move 3 Damage 4d6 Hit Points 27 Armor 13 + shield Age 34

Attacks: Sword 13, Lance 11, Battle 12, Horsemanship 15. Significant Traits: Lustful 18, Energetic 16, Vengeful 16, Selfish 17, Deceitful 18, Cruel 17, Suspicious 18, Worldly 17, Valorous 16. Passions: Hospitality 08, Honor 05, Love (Devil) 13. Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Celestial Lore 12, Courtesy 17, Dancing 16, Faerie Lore 14, Flirting 17, Folk Lore 15, Geomantic Lore 15, Intrigue 18, Orate 14, Recognize 16, Religion (Satanism) 18, Sight 17, Stewardship 15. Magic Limit: 172 Magic Defense: 86 Personal Life Force: 4D20 Magical Talents: Animal Friend 14, Curse 17, Glamour 16, Necromancy 16, Shapeshift 20. Horse: Demonic Charger (Move 10, Damage 8d6) Guinglaff A wild man of the Broceliande forest, a prophet and magician. He will predict anything, except the death of the questioner, or his own. [Breton story, c.1450] He is perhaps an alter-ego of Merlin. Lunette The chief handmaiden and chamberlain of Laudine, the wife of Ywaine. She is a cousin-germain of Vivainne and a native of Broceliande. Although her responsibilities are mainly mundane, she was trained in enchantment by her cousin and can be considered a minor Lady of the Lake. Her duty is to tend the Fountain of Baranton while her mistress mostly fulfills the role of being its mortal embodiment. Lunette is cheerful, generous and clever, fulfilling an archetypical role akin to Bragwaine. Insight 2,100 Glory 2,650 (in 531) SIZ: 09 DEX: 16

Move 3 Damage 3d6

STR: 09 CON: 16 APP: 18

Hit Points 25 Armor none Age 28

Attacks: Dagger 11, Horsemanship 12. Significant Traits: Energetic 17, Generous 18, Modest 15, Reckless 13, Valorous 17. Passions: Loyalty (Laudine) 18, Hospitality 19, Honor 16. Significant Skills: Awareness 14, Celestial Lore 13, Courtesy 15, Dancing 16, Faerie Lore 18, Flirting 15, Folk Lore 16, Geomantic Lore 16, Intrigue 16, Orate 16, Recognize 16, Religion (pagan) 16, Sight 16, Stewardship 17. Magic Limit: 65 Magic Defense: 65 Personal Life Force: 4D20 Magical Talents: Emotion (Love) 12, Glamour 15, Sacred Space 10, Weather Control 11. Horse: Ambler Appearance: Dark-haired, round-faced. Vivainne The daughter of Dyonis, a vavasour of Broceliande, and sister of Sir Dinas; she is a kinsman of Morvan of La Faou. Vivaine is the senior (in rank) of the Ladies of the Lake; her underwater dominion is magically linked to sites in Ganis, Britain and elsewhere. Vivainne’s ambitions are obscure. She has chosen the House of Ganis as a part of her care, and sometimes seems to be the enemy and sometimes the ally of Morgan le Fay. One of her lovers is Meliodas the Younger, the illegitimate son of Meliodas by Felice, the Queen of Escoce. Vivaine appears to be a beautiful woman in her thirties, never aging. Statistics for Vivainne are found on page 131 of The Boy King.

Treasures of Brittany [inset box] The Bell of Kolédok This small chime rings if danger approaches a loved one or friend. The Knife of St. Corentin This blade cancels pagan magic if held and flaunted at the magician. The Stick of St. Vouga This rod transports the wielder wherever they wish.

Chapter 4 Gazetteer of Brittany Brittany is a rugged country. It never attracted much interest from the Romans after Julius Caesar crushed the Veneti, and so its civitates remained small and poor. However, since the revival of Atlantic trade and the British colonization, it has seen a boom in both population and wealth. The map of Brittany is becoming more complicated by the year as new fiefs and settlements are appearing. Generally, the population is located at harbors and along the river valleys. The Vannetais and the county of Nantes are the most cultivated parts of Brittany (elsewhere herding still is a large part of the economy) and would be most recognizable to civilized folk from Logres, except, of course, for the curious accents and customs of the peasantry. Much of the Breton interior is wild and has always been so. The coastal regions and the areas in proximity to the Roman roads have scattered ruins now being rebuilt or scavenged for stone by the Bretons. What the Bretons call mountains other peoples might scoff at, but these heights are still cold and windy and no place for casual ascents. Aleth (Alet, St. Malo, Sant Malou). A town on the northern coast at the mouth of the Rance river. It was the Roman Aletum, on the site of an earlier seaport of the Curiosolitae. Forests cover the region from the Rance to the sea. About 340-350, the Roman fortified the site by building a small fort and wall. A bishop first took residence in the last quarter of the fourth century. The chief abbot (and lord) is Aaron, and his most famous monk is the famous St. Malo. His followers include St. Gudwal and St. Enogat (of Dinard). A visitor is St. Brendan the Voyager of Ireland. Aleth became the capital and bishopric of the Curiosolitae (replacing Corseul) in the third century. In 534 Mark had Meliodas buried here. Lord: Bishop Aaron and the town council Vassal of: King Mark, as Regent of Domnonee Ancenis. A castle and banneretcy of the County of Nantes, on the northern bank of the Loire, astride the border with Anjou. The fief was often disputed and sometimes held by the Count of Anjou, but since the Roman War has returned to Nantes. Lord: Sir Geoffroy Vassal of: Count of Nantes Anjou. A county of France, forming the border with Brittany along the Loire. The counts of Anjou have long coveted the counties of Nantes and Maine, and

sometimes have managed to gain control over them. Anjou became a part of France when it submitted to King Clovis in 507. The present count was overlord of Maine until the Roman War (526-7) when the fief was taken from him. Lord: Harinan (to 488), Geoffrey (c.531), Kay (overlord 526-554), Raymond (c.600) Arms: Azure five lioncels 3,2,1 or. Arree, Monts d’ [Menez Are]. These low mountains are the highest in Brittany, forming a natural boundary between Léon and Cornouailles. They are often plunged in fog, and the foliage is filled with nettles. The highest of the mountains is “Tuchenn-ar-Gador”, the mount of the throne (1,250 feet). The local people say the heights are haunted by the ghosts of the dead in the forms of black, feral dogs. The Yeun Ellez [qv], a murky swamp believed to be a gate into Hell, is south of the mountains. Argoet (Argoad, Argoed). The interior of Brittany, the forest and highlands. The Argoet is sometimes equated with the forest of Broceliande [qv]. The people of the Argoet are at least partly of Gallic descent. Arz (Arsone). A river separating the hinterlands of Vannes from the Breton fief of Broerec. Assérac. A banneretcy south of the Vilaine, held of the Count of Nantes. A chapter of the Templar order is here. Lord: Sir Eudes Vassal of: Riole, Count of Nantes Arms: Gyronny of eight Or and Azure. Audierne (Gwaien, Vindana Portus). A fishing village in Cornouailles, once a Roman port; particularly known for crustaceans and sardines. A banneret holds it of the Duke. Lord: Sir Thibaut Vassal of: Duke Hoel Auray. This village includes the abbey of Keranna, where the Queen-dowager Anna is abbess. The abbey is dedicated to her namesake, the mother of the Virgin Mary. A small castle is held by the Count of Vannes. Lady: Abbess Anna Vassal of: Count of Vannes Barac’h. A castle about 10 miles west of Treguier and just south of Tregastel. It is a banneretcy held of King Mark. Lady: Janedig

Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Treguier Baranton (Barenton). (Ambient 7d20, Glamour 3d20, Divination 2d20, Weather Control 4d20)--a fountain in the forest of Broceliande, derived from the Celtic Belenos-Nemeton, meaning a sacred grove dedicated to Belenos, or Beli, the sun and sky god. The fountain has the ability to summon storms or dispel them if properly propitiated. The spring is cold; if pebbles are thrown into it, they cause many bubbles. It is attended by Faerie women in white dress. In 523, Ywaine of Gorre encountered a lady guardian of the Fountain, named Laudine, and killed her husband, Esclados the Red. He married her shortly thereafter. The waters of the fountains are a curative for rickets and madness. The Lord of Baranton gains some of his income from those seeking cures. Near to the fountain is a chapel dedicated to St. Mathurin. Somewhat further is a medium castle, called Bellanton, where the vavasour lives and holds it for the Count of Domnonee. Another chapel is 3 miles away, called Tréhorentec, near an old pagan graveyard. The church combines Christian and pagan iconography regarding the Holy Grail, and seems to predict the events of the Quest. It was founded by Joseph of Arimathea. Batz (Enez Vaz: isle of the stick, Bassa Insula, Latin: low-lying island). An island north of St-Pol, site of the hermitage of the bishop. St. Pol drove out a local dragon (using only his powers of persuasion) to settle here. Baud, Le. A village in the fief of Carnoet, halfway between Hennebont and Vannes. The town contains a pagan shrine to the mother goddess, set in a grove. Lord: Sir Pierre Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Carnoet Arms: Azure ten billets 4,3,2,1 Or. Beaumanoir. A tower-banneretcy held of the Lord of Goello, west of Quintin. Lord: Sir Hervi Vassal of: Chunaire, Baron of Goello Arms: Azure, eleven billets argent 4,3,4. Beaumont. A castle 14 miles south of Dinan, home of a Breton Knight of the Round Table. Lord: Sir Açon de Beaumont Vassal of: Dinas, Viscount of Dinan Beauport, Abbeye de. An Premonstratensian abbey on the coast just south of Paimpol (founded in 525).

Bécherel. A castle built by Caradues, the Count of Vannes, north of Broceliande, a satellite holding in the county of Rennes. Lady: (Chatelain) Emme Vassal of: Count of Vannes Bégard, Abbeye de. A Cistercian monastery founded in 514 about 9 miles northwest of Guingamp [qv]. Belz. A village north of Auray. It is notable for the number of megaliths here. St. Cado, a British immigrant and friend of St. Gildas, lives here by his chapel. Cado tricked the devil into constructing it. Blain (“Summit”). A town and large castle dating from before the Romans, 22 miles north of Nantes, built on a steep rise. Three Roman roads intersect here. Lord: Sir Guegon Vassal of: Count of Nantes. Arms: Vair, overall a crescent (gules?) Bon-Repos, Abbeye de. A Cistercian monastery founded in 523, in Porhoet. A small castle “Les Salles” stands nearby. Boquen, Abbeye de (“White-thicket”). A Cistercian monastery in Lamballe, founded in 524. The Roman road to Vannes passes by the monastery and the village of Plénée-Jugon. The abbey is notoriously wealthy, mostly by gradual accumulation, not deliberate avarice. Brehec (Ile de Bréhat). A forested, flower-strewn island north of Paimpol, formerly the home of the Irish hermit St. Budoc. St. Budoc was skilled in the training of monks and is the teacher of St. Jacut and St. Guethenoc. His dwelling (now a hermitage) contains a wealth of manuscripts. In the mid fifth century Riotham’s settlers first stopped here, before abandoning the island for inland sites amongst the Curiosolitae. Brest (“Hill”, anciently Gesocribatae). One of several seaport towns in Leon, walled and guarded by Roman walls and a castle. The chief magistrate of Brest is Honorius, an old Roman officer. His grown heir and son is Guythure de Landudez, and his daughter Florence is the wife of Galon de Tremazan. The town apparently existed even before the Romans, as a stop on the tin routes to Cornwall. Lord: Honorius Vassal of: Meliodas, Count of Leon

Bretesche, La. A handsome castle in the middle of a lake 15 miles southwest of Redon. It was built more for comfort than defense. The lord of La Bretesche is a knight of the Round Table. Lord: Sir Maradins Vassal of: Briec. A castle and town on the Odet river, held by a Banneret of the Viscount of La Faou. Lord: Sir Jehan Vassal of: Morvan of Norholt Briere, La. A vast marshland dividing the valleys of the Vilaine and the estuary of the Loire. The swamp people survive without outside lords, burning peat and fishing for eels. The sole fortress is the medium castle of Ranrouët (built in Phase 3), in the north. Lord (of Ranrouët): Sir Clamador Vassal of: No-one Broerec’h. The portion of the kingdom or province of Vannetais occupied by Breton colonists (though containing a considerable Gaulish population). Broerec’h takes its name (“the land of Erec”) from the conquests of Waroch, Lord of Broerec, who was a younger brother of Deroch-Conothec of Domnonee, and the father of Prince Conon and Prince Macliau. Broerec’h includes the towns of Malestroit, Ploermel, Mauron, Kerneant and part of Broceliande. It has been granted to Waroch’s heir, Conon. Broceliande (Brécélien, Bréchéliant). (cf. Argoet) “Là, allai-je merveilles querre, Merveilles quès mais n’est trouvai. Fol m’en revins, fol y alai, Fol y alai, fol m'en revins, Folie qui par fol me tins” --Wace The forest standing between Domnonee, the county of Rennes and Broerec’h; or sometimes used as a synonym for the entire Argoet [qv]. The forest proper as a whole has an Ambient of 2d20. The name of this forest is given several etymologies: one is “Barc’h Hélan”, --empire of the Druids. The bewildering nature of the woods is not much diminished by the Roman road which stretches through it. The heartland of the forest was the territory of Sir Esclados the Red (until he is killed by Sir Ywain in 522), amongst others, notably the old Vavasour Sir

Dyonas, father of Vivaine and Sir Dinas. This forest region dividing Dumnonee from Vannetais contains innumerable enchanted locales. Barenton is the most famous spring in the wilds here (cf). Nearby, the Lady of the Lake Vivaine, they say, lives in a menhir with Merlin. Around the menhir, or perron, is a field of flowers, known as the Jardin de Joie, or d’Amour. Beside the stone is a handsome beech-tree (Ambient 5d20, Glamour 3d20). While the Bretons believe this is his refuge, others say he is imprisoned under a stone in Bodmin Moor, in Cornwall, in a forest in Cambria, or near the Wall in the north of Britain. A tomb near Merlin’s perron is said to belong to Faunus, the lover of the goddess Diana (Ambient 3d20, Curse 2d10, Necromancy 2d10). Another famous inhabitant of the forest is the ‘Hideous Herdsman’ – a giant, clothed in furs, and with black skin. The Herdsman, who is not dangerous, protects a herd of faerie cattle. Some have said that the Herdsman is Merlin in another guise. A marvel of the forest is a magical tournament, in which knights are assigned roles in the spiritual battle of Christ and Anti-Christ. This occurs at the field of Concoret (Ambient 5d20, Demonize 3d20, Divine Miracle 2d20), beside the ruins of Folle-Pensée, believed to be a former druidical college, whose course of study took twenty years to master (Ambient 5d20, Emotion 2d20, Healing 3d20). This site is the home of the solitary druid Dampnas, an associate of the local elves. At the Roche-Perdue (the Lost Rock), the knight Matiadas only grants hospitality to those who can overcome five of his knights. The Castle of Comper (also called the La Tour-Ferrée or Kon-Per) is the home in Brittany of Morgan le Fay (Ambient 4d20, Glamour 3d20); not far is her Val sans Retour, or at least one means of entering that Otherworldly location (Ambient 6d20, Curse 2d20, Emotion 2d20, Glamour 4d20). Mategrant’s Castle was here, on the same site, in the first century AD when he encountered Joseph of Arimathea. Sir Dyonas’ ancestor the goddess Diana was said to have laid the foundations; the reflection of the castle is not merely that; it is the mirror-castle magically created by Merlin for Vivainne. A truce exists here between the Enchantresses so they can study or live here undisturbed. A strange sort of parallelness exists so that Morgan’s castle above the water and Vivainne’s below blend together without any friction between the households and students. The apartments of the Lady Laudine are also here. It seems that any visitor encounters either whatever of the Enchantresses they wish to meet, or more likely, that the Enchantresses’ wish to have him meet. Morgan’s household is composed entirely of women, her steward and apprentice sorceress being the beautiful Madoine (a Faerie). Madoine’s lackey is a small giant, skilled in battle. Vivainne and Laudine’s servants or students may be distinguished from Morgan’s by their white dress.

Broons. A hilltop medium castle 15 miles southwest of Dinan. Lord: Agrippe the Tall Vassal of: Duke Hoel Callac. A Gallo castle and village about 16 miles northeast of Vannes. Lord: Sir Morice Vassal of: Count of Vannes Callot, L’Ile. The home of the Jutish pirate Korsolde until he is killed by Count Jonas and Meliodas in 513. It lies near to Carantec, a village east of St-Pol. Camaret (or Kameled). A sea-side village south of Brest on the Crozon peninsula. The main trade is in shellfish, the large numbers of which also attract seabirds. A large field of standing stones is near the settlement. Camors, forest of. A forest about 15 miles south of Pontivy, the site of a Roman ruin, a former fort. Canoël [Kernoues]. A castle in Leon, belonging to Rual, the Steward of Leon. His heir is a daughter, Galades de Canoel. Lord: Rual the Faithful Vassal of: Count Meliodas Carhaix (Carahès, Car-Oesm). Capital of the duchy of Poher. The city was the tribal capital of the Osismii, from which it derives its current name. Occasional residence of the Breton king, and of King Mark (the duke) who share overlordship. The people of Carhaix are of mixed Gaulish and Breton descent and retain more of a sense of Gallic identity than most other settlements of western Brittany. An aquaduct runs to the town from the hills, providing running water. Near to the city is the Tor de Cuevre, a magical tower guarded by terrifying automata. This city was the Roman Vorgium. It was also used as court city by the kings of Brittany; though they prefer Quimper over this semi-ruinous and Gaulic city. Carhaix is the center of the Breton road network and thus connects the various regions of western Brittany together in trade and news. Lord: Arguisiaus, Steward of Carhaix Vassal of: King Mark and Duke Hoel Arms: Or a bull passant sable, armed, collared and belled argent. Carnac. A region of many megaliths and stone structures. The locals say St. Cornely turned some invading Roman soldiers into the rocks, which are still standing as if in formation.

Two tumuli, called St. Michel and Kercado, are nearby. Carnoet. A fief and forest in eastern Cornouailles, held by King Mark. The seat is the castle of the same name. On the outskirts of the forest is a Cistercian abbey (founded in 522). Steward: Vassal of: King Mark Champtoceaux. A castle town on other side of the border with Anjou, on the south shore of the Loire. Ancenis lies on the other side of the river upstream. It is the most westerly of the Angevin count’s possessions and formerly was the origin of French raids and invasions. Vassal of: Count of Anjou. Châtellier, Le. A castle of the demense of the count of Domnonee. It was taken from the French in 514. Castellan: Vassal of: King Mark, Regent of Domnonee. Chateaubriant. A castle town on the border of the county of Rennes and the Anjou. The castle is large and held by its namesake, the Count of Rennes. Lord: Briant, Count of Rennes Vassal of: (in theory) Duke Hoel Arms: Gules papelonné or. Chateaugiron. A huge dark castle not far from Chateaubriand, built in Phase 1, also called “Le Bois Verdoyant.” It also guards the approaches from Anjou. The village nearby is involved in the cloth industry. Chateaugiron is the home of Guiron the Courteous, a Franco-Gaulish knight who distinguished himself as a knight of Uther’s Round Table in the last years of his reign, and went on to fight for his friend Meliodas in the North during the feud with the King of Escoce (514-7). In 532 Guiron leaves for Britain and vanishes. No-one knows who his heirs are. Count Briant seizes the castle and gives it to one of his knights. Lord: Guiron the Courteous (ruled by steward, Sir Kinados) Vassal of: Briant, Count of Rennes Arms: Or plain. Châteauneuf-du-Faou. A castle-town in the viscounty of Faou. A sacred oak (dedicated to the Virgin) is here. Lady: Renée Vassal of: Morvan of Norholt

Chausey (Caussie) Islands. A grim haunt of pirates, to which Bedalis flees in 537. The islands lie between Dol and Normandy, near Mont St. Michel. Clisson. A castle town 17 miles southeast of Nantes, on the borders of the counties of Nantes, Anjou and Poitou. The castle is huge and surrounded by a double moat. The fortress contains a great prison, gloomy and inescapable. Like Ancenis, the fief used to be claimed by the Count of Anjou. Lord: Sir Olivier Vassal of: Count of Nantes Arms: Gules, a lion rampant crowned argent. Coëtfrec. A castle in Treguier also called “Chastel Fer”, held by a banneret of King Mark. He is the disappointed rival (in love) of Tristran the Dwarf of Suscinio. Lord: Estult the Proud Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Treguier Coëtmalouen, Abbeye de. A Cistercian Abbey (f. 515) about 7 miles south of Guingamp. Coëtquen (“White-wood”). (Ambient 2d20, Curse 1d20) A castle about 6 miles northeast of Dinan. It has an evil reputation; its owners come to bad ends. Lord: Sir Jehan Vassal of: Lord of Combourg Combourg. (Ambient 3d20, Necromancy 2d20) A castle in the county of Rennes, built in 498, originally held by the last Romans. It is huge and brooding; there are rumors of ghosts. It is sometimes called the Castle of the Horn (not to be confused with the castle of that name in Cornwall). The lord of Combourg is Sir Pelleas, the lover of Nimue and a cousin of King Pellinore. He holds the castle from the exiled Ganis clan. Lord: Sir Pelleas Vassal of: Lionel de Ganis Arms: Quarterly Argent and Gules, ensurtout a shield blazoned Sable a swan argent. Concarneau [Konkernev, the stream of Cornouailles]. An island fishing port in Cornouailles, on the river Moros, surrounded by a high wall. A priory (part of Landevennec abbey) is here. Corlay. A medium castle belonging to Rual de Rohan, the Steward of Léon, 19 miles south of Guingamp. Lord: Rual the Faithful Vassal of: Sir Keyhidius

Cornouailles, Duchy of. [Kerneo, Gernew or Cornubia, formerly the territory of the Osismii] This county or duchy (the title is somewhat fluid) was the oldest of the British colonies in Armorica and the seat of its kings until the Apogee when the kingdom is divided. Cornouailles is mostly Breton-Cymric/Christian. Paganism only survives in the forests of Huelgoet and Quenecan. Lord: Duke Hoel Vassal of: (in theory) King Mark as King of the Dumnonii Arms: Azure, a Ram Passant Argent Corseul. [Fanum Martis, Civitas Coriosolitum] was the old capital of the Curiosolitae and lies near Dinan; it is now a crumbling ruin. A large, ruinous, temple to Mars and a roman villa, now re-inhabited, are the dominant features. In 406 it was burned, and many of the survivors went to Aleth [qv]. The Roman fort is now the site of a castle, called Montafilan. An altar to the Gallic goddess Sirona (Ambient 2d20) is in the castle, held by a pagan noble family, vassals of the Prince of Lamballe. The town has violently resisted Christian conversion. Cranou, forest of. A deep forest forming the boundary between the holdings of the viscount of Le Faou and the viscount of Morlaix. Crozon [Kraozon]. A peninsula forming the northwestern part of Cornouailles. The villages of Cameret and Landevennet, and the small castle of Dinan (belonging to Sir Dinas) are located here. The land is steep and rocky. Caves are said to be the homes of Korrigans. Dinan. A town and castle on the Rance river. It was founded c. 502 when Budic became king of Brittany and was given to his wife Anna (the name comes from Din-Anna), making her viscountess in her own right. Her daughter Annik was given the lands and eventually married Sir Dinas. The town is situated near the old roman town of Corseul (Fanum Martis or Civitas Curiosolitum) [qv]. Sir Dinas revolted against King Mark in 550 when Tristram was imprisoned. In Lancelot’s rebellion he was created Duke of Anjou. Dinas was succeeded by his son Liaz who was also Lord of Dol. Walls and a tower keep guard the town, which stands some 225 feet above the chasm of the Rance river. The tower (“of Duchess Anna” or Kastell Morvaouled) is 110 feet tall. Deep under the tower lie several dank cells. The Franciscan monastery of the Cordeliers is founded in 531. The town church is dedicated to St. Saviour. A mile south of town is another monastery, that of Lehon, overlooked by a small stone castle (held by a banneret of the viscountess). The monastery is said to

stand on a maze of underground tunnels hiding a considerable treasure. One of these tunnels goes to the castle. Lady: Annik, Viscountess of Dinan; (Steward: Sir Clamadas) Vassal of: Duke Hoel Arms: Gules a fess fusilly ermine. Dinard. A village and castle founded by King Arthur after defeating the Frisians, who were raiding the Armorican coast in 513. The local cleric is St. Enogat. This is a banneretcy directly held of the High King. Lord: Vassal of: King Arthur Arms: Argent a bear rampant sable. Dirinon. A village 4 miles southwest of Landerneau, the home of St. Non, the mother of St. David of Cambria. Dol (Zol). An episcopal abbey (in the Celtic tradition), presided over by St. Samson from about 525. A large apple-orchard near the abbey was planted under the supervision of Telio, Samson’s protégé; the monastery also has many beehives. The castle of Les Ormes, 3 miles to the south, is the bishop’s residence. The lord-warden is Frogerius [Freodhegar Privatus, or Rugier], a RomanoFrank, killed in 537 in the revolt against Hoel. About 600 the lord is Dinas’ son Liaz. Near Dol is a tall, round hill (Mont-Dol, or Dolorous, 210 feet high), said to be the site of a battle between St. Michael and the Devil. People have lived at Mont-Dol for a very long time, and it was once a pagan sanctuary. Marshes stretching from here to the coast allow ships to land at high tide, through the forest of Scissy. During the civil war of 544+, Runalen and Conon fight a terrible battle here, halted by the falling of an enormous stone from the heavens. Lord: Bishop-Abbot Samson Arms: Gules, fusily ermine. Douarnenez (Tutuarn-Enez or, perhaps, Douar-Nevez). A fortified town situated on an island in the bay by the same name. A ducal palace stands on the island, one of the residences of Tristram from 536-8. The town engages in fishing and salt production. Lord: (Steward) Sir Bedalis Vassal of: Duke Hoel Domnonee. [aka Dumnonia, formerly the Curiosolitae] The junior of the counties of Brittany, Dumnonee was only founded in the mid-fifth century by a branch of the royal family. In times of crisis, its counts tend to call themselves independent

kings. The coat of arms of Domnonee is Ermine, a bordure gules. The old symbol of the Curiosolitae was a horse with a human head; some old Gaulish families might use this symbol. Dumnonee is mostly Breton-Cymric/Christian. It does have pockets of paganism in the hill country and the forests, however. Erquy. [Reginea or Nazado] An old shellfishing town of the Curiosolitae, surrounded by an ancient ditch. A medium castle, called “Bien-Assis,” stands to the south. Lord: Vassal of: Gosengos of Lamballe Arms: Vert a siren or. Espinay. A castle 5 miles west of Vitré. Lord: Sir Guy Vassal of: Baroness of Laval. Faou, Le (“Beech”). A town and viscounty situated on the border of Leon and Cornouailles. The ambitious viscount is Morvan of Norholt and Briec, by his marriage with the heiress, a kinswoman of Meliodas, though she is now dead. To the north lie the Arree mountains (qv) and the Yeun Ellez (Gates of Hell). The Arree are desolate and uninhabitable. Lord: Morvan de Norholt Vassal of: Duke Hoel Arms: Azure a lion passant guardant or. Fougères (in French “bracken”). This barony was owned by Rugier of Dol, a Frankish knight (the brother of Sir Denoalan in Cornwall). He warred against Hoel in 534-5 and was defeated and killed by Sir Tristram. The town contains an immense castle, continually rebuilt and upgraded from its beginnings in Phase 1; it was sacked and rebuilt during the Roman War; the town is also fortified with strong walls and towers. The town is notorious for its sorcerers (faînoux), but also has thriving weaving and tanning industries. The town is surrounded by a forest of ferns and bracken, hence its name. Lord: Sir Rugier of Dol Vassal of: Briant, Count of Rennes Arms: Or a fern leaf vert. Gael (Guadel). A town and manor in the forest of Broceliande. A hunting lodge and small palace here belongs to the Count of Domnonee. Not far is the abbey of St. Méen or St-Jean-de-Gael at Paimpont. Lord: Dyonis, Steward of Gael Vassal of: King Mark, Regent of Domnonee

Gardone [St-Suliac]. A town a few miles south of Aleth, site of a medium castle. St. Suliac (one of St. Samson’s monks) drove a dragon into the Rance near here. Lord: Vassal of: Bishop of Aleth Gavrinis. A small island in the gulf of Morbihan near Vannes containing a large, decorated megalithic tomb. The tomb contains representations of serpent-like swirls and an axe. Goello. Ruled by Chunaire, a descendant of King Audren. His wife is Azenor (daughter of Sir Ywaine and Laudine). Chunaire’s mother convinces him on suspicion of adultery to throw her into the sea whilst pregnant with St. Budoc (537). The mother and child washed ashore in Ireland, alive. [St. Budoc later becomes Bishop of Dol and is said to bear the Holy Grail to Brittany from Britain.] Lord: Chunaire, Baron of Goello Vassal of: King Mark, Regent of Domnonee Arms: Argent a chief gules. Gourin. A banneretcy held from the Viscount of Porhoet, centered on the town and castle of the same name. Lord: Sir Tanguy Vassal of: Sir Keyhidius Arms: Argent five fusils conjoined in fess Gules. Grand-Fougeray, Le. A large castle near Chateaubriand, near the site of an ancient Gallo-Roman village. The keep has five storeys. Lord: Briant, Count of Rennes Vassal of: Duke Hoel Arms: ? Guedel (Belle-Isle-en-Mer). A large island south of Quiberon. Called in Latin, Vindilis. The main (monastic) settlement is called Bangor. The island is surrounded by steep and perilous cliffs. Cormorants flock to its rocks. A pair of menhirs here are said to be two lovers turned to stone by the witches; the man, a bard named Jean de Runello, offended his druidic superiors by falling love with Jeanne, a peasant women. Lord: Abbot of Bangor Vassal of: Duke Hoel Guémené (Gwenn Menez, “white mountain”). A medium castle is here, and a village. Formerly the home of Sir Escanor, the father of Sir Brunor, the Good

Knight without Fear (who was born here in 468). The castle was inherited by his brother in law (the husband of his sister Alienor) after Escanor was killed by Sir Gawaine in a feud; Brunor had by this time disappeared. Lord: Sir Brunz of Estrangorre Vassal of: Sir Keyhidius Guérande (Gwenn-rann, “uncultivated land”). The former Roman town of Grannona. Salt is produced here, and the town has large, strong walls and a moat. A shallow gulf separates the town from the settlements of Batz and La Baule to the south. In 526, Hoel took the town for himself from the Count of Nantes. Lord: Steward Vassal of: Duke Hoel Guerche, La (Werki, Frankish, meaning “outpost”). A fortified town south of Vitré. Near La Guerche is the Dolmen of La Roche-aux-Fées (qv). A commandery of the Templar Knights is here. Lord: Sir Menguen Vassal of: Lord of Vitre Arms: Gules three lions passant guardant Argent. Guillac. A banneretcy held of the Viscount of Broerec’h. Lady: Marc’harit Vassal of: Prince Conon Arms: ? Guingamp (Guincamp). Guingamp roughly means “White-field”or “Blessedfield” [Gwyn-champ]. The local townspeople fortified the town themselves to protect themselves from Saxons and other marauders. The three classes of society are unusually cooperative here, making the community wealthy, peaceful and happy. An important fair is here. King Arthur visited here in 526 after defeating the giant. Later, it was a residence of Tristram between 534-7. Near Guingamp to the west are the otherworldly forests of Coet an Hay (Forest of Day) and Coet an Noz (Forest of Night) (Ambient 3d20, Summon Faerie Creature 1d20). South of Guingamp is the great hill of Menez-Bre (qv) and the abbey of SaintCroix. Lord: (Steward) Vassal of: King Mark, Lord of Treguier Arms: Barry Argent and Azure. Halinges (Alinge) [Allineuc]. A castle belonging to Hoel, near Quintin. Lord: (Castellan) Vassal of: Duke Hoel

Haye, La. An old motte and bailey, now disused, 16 miles southeast of Pontivy. Corics dwell here now. Hédé. A medium castle (alias La Motte-Jouhan) 14 miles north of Rennes, constructed in Phase 1. The forest of Tanouarn nearby is said to be the site of the suicide of the giant Gargantua. Lord: Sir Jouhan Vassal of: Briant, Count of Rennes Arms: ? Hennebont (Henbont, “Old bridge”). A well-fortified town in the fief of Carnoet, lying on the Blavet river. By the town is the Abbeye de Joie, a Cistercian monastery. St. Gurthiern is said to have lived here before settling in Quimperle. Lady: Adelice Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Carnoet Arms: A tree eradicated, the trunk charged with an eagle of two heads. Herbauge (Lac Grand-Lieu). A pagan town about 13 miles southwest of Nantes. It has resisted evangalization from many saints. The town is rich and its people are famed for their luxuries. Lord: Vassal of: Count of Nantes Arms: Honsac (Hansac, Hanvec). A seaport town of Cornouailles. Lord: Vassal of: Duke Hoel Huelgoet. “High Forest” or “Haut-Bois”. The largest woodland in Cornouailles, overseen by a castle of the same name. The site of Dahut’s castle as well as the caves and a large hill-fort, the site of a tournament in 514, celebrating Arthur’s victory over the Frisians and the Franks; since then it has been called Arthur’s Camp. The abbey of Relec was predicted to be the site of a great slaughter by Vivaine. The lord of Huelgoet is Guergesin, a kinsman to the house of Eliduc, in Cornwall. The forest is reputed to be haunted by dangerous faerie and teems with wild game. Lord: Sir Guergesin Vassal of: Uncertain (maybe No-one) Arms: Gules, a stag passant or

Hunaudaye, La. A large castle in the forest northeast of Lamballe, built in 524, held by kin of the house of Lamballe. The castle has remarkable views of the region. Lady: Edie Vassal of: Gosengos of Lamballe Arms: Quarterly Or and Azure. Josselin (Thro). A town of the Oust valley, with a handsome large castle built in Phase 0, rebuilt extensively in 519-21, after the Breton reconquest of the area. Locals may show visitors a miraculous blackberry bush near the town that never loses its foliage. Lord: Sir Guethenoc Vassal of: Sir Keyhidius Arms: Gules a castle or, a canton ermine. Joyeuse Garde. A small castle near Landivisiau and Landerneau, in a forest. It was named for Lancelot’s great castle in Nohaut by its builder, a member of the Ganis clan. Lord: Sir Marganor de Ganis Vassal of: Count Meliodas Juch, Le. A town and medium castle near Douarnenez. Lady: Laudine, wife of Sir Ywaine. Vassal of: Duke Hoel. Arms: Azure a lion rampant argent. Jugon-les-Lacs. A medium castle about 13 miles west of Dinan, between Lamballe and Plelan. Lord: Sir Guyon Vassal of: Gosengos, Prince of Lamballe Arms: a lion rampant… Kastell-Finans. A castle, built on an ancient hill-fort, in the forest of Quénécan. Lord: (Castellan) Vassal of: King Mark Kastell-Paol. (St-Pol). A monastery and attendant town recently founded (510) by St. Pol, who is still the resident abbot-bishop. The monastery is on the site of an old Roman fort, which has been renovated. Lord (of the town): Sir Carenkinal Vassal of: Abbot Pol Aurelian

Kerfeunten (Lanmeur). A town about 8 miles northeast of Morlaix. Prince Mélar is buried here; the name of the town means “fort of the fountain” and the town has a Roman well. Mélar was murdered at the medium castle here. Lord: Sir Alain Vassal of: Guythure, Viscount of Morlaix Arms: Ermine a fess … Kerglas (“Grey Fortress”). (Ambient 4d20, Glamour 2d20) A castle of uncertain location in the Argoed, the home of an evil wizard named Bryak and his giant brother Rogear. Kergoz. A medium castle near Penmarc’h, the seat of King Mark’s steward for his lands in southwestern Cornouailles. Lord: (Steward) Vassal of: King Mark Kerilien. A declining town in Leon, the intersection of five old Roman roads. Kerloas. (Ambient 3d20, Blessing 2d10) A menhir about 13 miles northwest of Brest, the tallest in Brittany (32 feet). The menhir has fertility magic which young women may obtain by rubbing against it. Kerroc’h. (Ambient 3d20, Necromancy 2d10) A hill 16 miles southwest of Guingamp, a reputed site for druidic sacrifices. Koët-Bihan (“Little wood”). A small castle 16 miles east of Vannes. Lamballe. A principality and semi-fortified town between Dinard and St-Brieuc. The present name derives from Lan-Pol, church of St. Pol, who dedicated the house of worship. Lamballe’s trade is mainly in leatherworking, so the workshops area is quite noxious. The current ruler is Gosengos; his father Amant was killed fighting Bors of Ganis in 512. Amant left two daughters by his second wife, the aunt of Queen Guenevere; they inherited his British possessions (“King Amans’ Land” or Tharmadaise). The mother of Gosengos, his brother Hernars and several other sons was a sister of King Alain of Escavalon. By his paramour, Escorducarla of Vaux, in Cornwall, he is the father of Morvan, the powerful Viscount of La Faou. Amant was the eldest of several brothers, including Gimiret (the Elder), a knight of the Round Table, and he is a cousin of Dyonas, the vavasour of Broceliande. The Gallic house of Lamballe is numerous and famous for their (Hate) de Ganis passion. They are proud of their descent from the chieftains of the Curiosolitae, and look forward to the recovery of their patrimony from the Bretons.

The Prince of Lamballe is independent of the Count of Domnonée for this holding, though he owes fealty for Erquy. The chief steward of Lamballe is a knight named Nabunal de Tharmadaise, a veteran of the Saxon and Roman wars. Lord: Prince Gosengos (to c.550). Hernars (in Downfall) Vassal of: No-one Arms: Azure a horse passant with the head of a maiden or. Landal. A large castle 9 miles southeast of Dol. It is built (in Phase 1) on an ancient pagan holy site, and held by Agrippe as the Dapifer of Dol. Lord: Agrippe the Tall Vassal of: Samson, Abbot-Bishop of Dol Arms: de gueules à 4 fusées d'argent posées en face. Landemor (Landesmore, Landamère). A town on the border of Leon and western Domnonee. A handsome medium castle is located here. The chatelain of Landemor is both fair and young. She is very fond of tournaments, often sponsoring them with her friend, Lidoine of Lindesores. Lady: Biauté Vassal of: Sartuz of Tonquedec Landerneau (Landuc). A holding of Guythure de Landudez, Viscount of Morlaix and Admiral of Léon, father of Laudine, the wife of Ywaine. His younger daughter is the heiress of Morlaix. Landerneau is the civil capital of Léon and a market. Cloth and tanned leather are the major products. The population of Landerneau is mixed with people from much of southern Britain. Lord: Guythure Vassal of: Meliodas, Count of Leon Arms: Sable a lion rampant or. Landévennec. A pleasant village and Benedictine monastery founded by St. Guénolé (aka Winwallus or Guingallus), who also was active in Cornwall; he is very old and in retirement. Near here St. Ronan of Ireland defeated the druidessqueen Keben of Nemeton in the fifth century. Abbot: St. Guenhael Landudez (Landudec). A village in Cornouailles, the birthplace (and holding) of Guythure. Langon. A village 14 miles northeast of Redon. An old temple to Venus here has been converted into a Christian chapel, dedicated to “St. Venere.”Venere is said to help with prayers for milk from dry breasted women and other complaints of fertility.

Langonnet, Abbeye de. A Cistercian monastery (f. 515) 19 miles north of Quimperle. Lannion (Lanuon). A port town in Treguier. The Templar knights have a presence here, at the church of Brélévenez. The town was threatened by the Danes under Korsolde, and after that cloud has lifted, has prospered. A monastery dedicated to St. Anne is the largest landowner. Near Lannion is the old Roman settlement and fortress of Coz Yaudet, now mostly deserted. A few miles to the west is a spring called the “Fountain of the Five Wounds.” If a young man wishes to know if a girl loves him, he may throw a pin into the water. If it floats, she does. Lanprebois (Plancoët). [Lan-by-the-wood] A castle belonging to Sir Kahedin (brother of Aiglin des Vawse and Duchess Ydain of Devon) 10 miles northwest of Dinan. Lanrelas. The locals say the druids practiced human sacrifice on the menhirs here. None the less, or perhaps as a consequence, the country is very beautiful around here, abundant with flowers. The village is about 19 miles southwest of Dinan. Lanrivoare. A village 11 miles northwest of Brest, the home of St. Hervé. In the fifth century 7,847 Christians of the Osismii were murdered here by their pagan neighbors in a bloody raid. Lanténac, Abbeye de. A Benedictine monastery (f. 519) 6 miles southeast of Loudéac. Lanvaux, Landes de. (Ambient 1d10) A rocky and forested region dividing Vannetais from Broerec’h, extending about 52 miles from west to east. It is lightly populated; local robber barons make a living charging tolls (or worse) on travellers crossing the moors. A civilized exception is the Cistercian Abbey of Lanvaux in the western end of the wilderness, founded (f. 516). Many stone monoliths are found here. Largoët (towers of Elven). This beautiful large castle (the main keep is six stories tall ) guards the road from the Argoat and Rennes to Vannes. It has a reputation for being haunted. Lord: (Castellan) Sir Even Vassal of: Caradues of Vannes

Latte, La. A medium castle on the coast of the barony of Lamballe, built in Phase 2. It is held by the lords of Lamballe against pirates and the French. The castle is (much like Tintagel) approachable only by a narrow path, making it very difficult to beseige. A stone menhir nearby is called “Gargantua’s finger.” Lord: (Castellan) Vassal of: Gosengos of Lamballe Laval. A barony of the county of Maine, along the Breton border. The previous baron had sworn revenge against Sir Marhaus for killing his father in Uther’s wars (c. 488) but was himself killed by the Irish knight during the Triple Quest. His sister inherited the fief. She will only wed a knight who will vow to kill the kin of Marhaus. Lady: Vassal of: Count of Maine Arms: Gules a lion passant guardant or. Laz-Variel. (Ambient 4d20, Necromancy 2d10, Summon Faerie Creature 2d10) A menhir near Guidel (the village is the earliest British colony in Brittany, dating to 383) on the border of Carnoet and Vannetais). The stone is haunted by Korrigans, who dwell inside it. The locals dance around it as a gesture to the faeries. Since the word “Laz” means murder or sacrifice, darker pagan ceremonies may take place here. Léon. A county loosely subject to Cornouailles, inherited by Meliodas from his grandfather King Meliau, it is threatened throughout its existence by various ambitious nobles (Morvan of La Faou and Mark of Domnonee being the most significant). Meliodas rules this county until 534 and his murder, followed by Tristram for three years. Mark finally takes effective control of it when Tristram leaves Brittany in 537. Later, Meliodas’ steward Rivalin re-establishes its independence in about 560. Leon is universally Breton Cymry though not entirely Christianized. The arms of the viscounts of Leon: Sable a lion rampant Or. Meliodas uses (as Count): Ermine a bordure gules with seven roundels Argent. Lesneven. A walled town about 16 miles northeast of Brest, one of the most significant of the pre-British settlements of Léon. One of Sir Ywaine’s Breton holdings gained by marriage to Laudine, its present name means “Court of Ywaine.” It used to be called Kernouës. Ywaine’s manor house is an old villa called Keradennec about a mile out of town. Lord: (Steward) Sir Bran de Kerlouan Vassal of: Sir Ywaine

Letavia (Llydaw). A synonym for Armorica, or more properly, for northern Gaul, between the Seine and the Garonne, the ancient Celtic name for the region now divided into France and Brittany. When large regions of France were transferred to the administration of Hoel as Regent of Arthur’s continental conquests (Poitou, Normandy, Maine, Blois and Anjou), the administrative region became known as the province of Letavia. Lindesores (Landivisiau). A market town northwest of Landerneau, in Leon, part of the holdings of the Lord of Coatmeur (who lives at Tonquédec [qv]). In 511 the town was the site of a battle between forces of the Rebel Kings and Saxon marauders. The Steward of Lindesores hosts a sparrowhawk tourney each year. The teenaged lady of Lindesores is a daughter of King Alain of Escavalon. In 541 she becomes the lover of Sir Meraugis. Lady: Lidoine of Escavalon; Menandre de la Loge (steward) Vassal of: Sartuz, Lord of Coatmur Arms: Loc’h, Ile de. Location in the Glenan islands. Residence of a faerie-hag with great wealth. Locmariaquer. A small peninsula and town southwest of Vannes. The settlement dates from before the Romans, and has always been engaged in the oyster trade. The region abounds with megaliths and ancient monuments. The Great Menhir here is used by astrologers and druids for calculations. Locronan. A village northwest of Quimper. Site of St. Ronan (the elder)’s grave now (since 500) a Benedictine priory founded by the Count of Cornouailles. Loudéac. A town in Broceliande with a market and castle, from which its lords uncertainly claim large swathes of wolf-ridden forest. The town produces linen for export. Lord: Rual, Lord of Rohan Vassal of: Keyhidius, Viscount of Porhoet Machecoul. The main town in the barony of Retz. The barons have a large castle here. A Benedictine monastery (de la Chaume) dates from the second century. Lord: Lord of Retz Vassal of: Rigolin, Count of Nantes Arms: Argent three chevrons gules. Maine, Le. A county of France between Normandy and Anjou on the eastern border of Brittany. Control of Maine often changes, depending on the power of the French king and Arthur’s allies. The baroness of Laval (cf) is a vassal of the

count, and includes the borderlands with Brittany. Arthur gave the county to Borel, the son of Brastias and younger brother of Bertelai of Berry in 526, but he was killed fighting the Romans. Lord: Ernault le Roux (c.488-526), Borel (526-7), Bertelot, son of Borel (527-545), King Claudas (545-548), Bertelot (548-554), King Carras (554-) Arms: Gules a lion rampant argent. Malestroit (Malastreg, from Mala-strata, “Bad-passage”). A walled town on the Oust river, north of the Landes de Lanvaux, seat of the lordship of Broerec’h. The Lord or Prince resides at a town house inside the walls. This was the home of Jaufre of Malestroit, one of Aurelius’ men who received lands in Sussex. His son is reputed to be the infamous Brus sans Pitie. Lord: Conon, Prince of Broerec’h (Steward: Sir Juhael) Vassal of: Duke Hoel Arms: Gules nine bezants. Mauron. A town on the border of Broceliande. Lady: Vassal of: Conon, Prince of Broerec’h. Arms: Gules a lion passant guardant Argent. Maxent. An abbey in the southeastern part of Broceliande. Mazillac. A town and fief between Rhuys and the mouth of the Vilaine. Lord: Vassal of: Caradues, Count of Vannes Arms: ? Meilleraye, Abbeye de. A large Cistercian abbey [twelfth century] in the forest 12 miles south of Chateaubriant. A Perron (standing stone) nearby is the daytime home of the Beast of Béré, whose visage terrifies men to death. Vassal of: Briant, Count of Rennes Menez-Bre (meaning “Mountain-Hill”). (Ambient 4d20, Demonize 2d20, Summon Faerie Creature 2d20, Weather Control 3d20) A large, round hill 5 miles west from Guingamp, a place where the druids once gathered and many spirits may be encountered. The summit, at 981 feet, is exposed to the worst weather, and is very windy. A rite of thirty Masses can be said here by Christian priests to drive off demons and evil spirits; a pagan version also exists. The spirit of Death, Ankou, is sometimes encountered here. Menez-Hom (“Mount of the Valley,” in Latin called Duma Ochidient). (Ambient 4d20, Necromancy 3d20, Summon Faerie Creature 2d20) The largest mountain in

western Brittany, dividing Le Faou from Leon. From the summit, much of Cornouailles and Leon can be seen. After his death, King Mark will be buried here, and his spirit haunts the area. St. Corentin’s hermitage was located here before he became bishop of Quimper. Near the Menez-Hom is a place called Youdic, lying in the marsh of Yeun. This is an entrance to Hell. A demon in the form of a great black dog is heard in the vicinity, baying in the night. Sometimes lost souls sigh and howl in the darkness as well. Moines, Ile-aux-. The isle of the monks off the coast of Vannes, the largest of the many islands of the Morbihan. The very pleasant forests here are named the Wood of “Love”, of “Sighs” and of “Regrets.” The island belongs to the monastery at Redon. The women of the island (who live in the village next to the monastery) are renowned all over Brittany for their beauty. This may have something to do with the names for the woods. Moncontour. An ivy-walled and castled town on a 585 feet tall hill 14 miles south of St-Brieuc. It is exceedingly difficult to capture. The town profits from the manufacture of cloth. Lord: Steward of Moncontour Vassal of: King Mark, Regent of Domnonee Montagnes Noires, Les (Menezioù Du). The lawless hills south of the Aulne river, dividing Cornouailles proper from Poher. Forests cover the hills, and few people live there. The Thieves’ Cave (Roc’h Toul-Laeron) is the highest point at 1,060 feet, near Gourin. Montauban. A large, moated castle and village (called Sentelei) 19 miles west of Rennes. Sir Agrippe added it to his holdings in the Roman War (526-7). Lord: Sir Agrippe Vassal of: Briant, Count of Rennes Arms: Montbran. A strong polygonal tower keep about 16 miles west of Dinard. A fair is held here in September. Lord: Vassal of: Gosengos, Prince of Lamballe Montfort. A castle town [eleventh c] built by the Count of Domnonee 14 miles west of Rennes, marking the furthest border of his territory. An Augustinian monastery is here [1151]. A leper hospital is a mile away, with its own church. Lord: Sir Raoul Vassal of: Briant, Count of Rennes

Arms: d'argent à la croix givrée de gueules Montmuran. A medium castle near Tinteniac, begun in Phase 1. Lady: Theophane Vassal of: Mont-St-Michel. A rocky island at the mouth of the Couesnon river, on the border of Brittany and Neustria (Normandy). The island was the home of the Spanish giant Dinabuc, the terror of the Selune estruary from 519. In 526 he abducted Elen, the second wife of Duke Hoel. After the slaughter of many knights sent to stop him, he raped her, killing her in the process. King Arthur was in northern France at the time and, summoned by his kinsman, he left with a few choice companions and killed the giant in a long, bloody battle. Elen was buried on the isle, henceforth called Tombelaine (Tomb-Elen), and the Duke founded a magnificent Augustinian abbey dedicated to St. Michael, on the site of Dinabuc’s lair, in her memory. Unfortunately another giant, perhaps Dinabuc’s kinsman, named Moldagog, arrives and takes over the island during the war with Agrippe (535-7). He is killed by Tristram. When Tristram built a house here (536) he had a hall built below the great church, partly underground. Here he commissioned a sculptor to create images of his love, Isolt, his friends, and enemies, and in solitude composed poetry. The abbey undergoes continual growth and improvement over the years, and is a site of pilgrimage. A causeway links the island across the sandy flats of bay to the village of Beauvoir; crossing the sands is somewhat perilous, since quicksands and the sudden tide are the death of the foolhardy. Originally the forest of Scissy was closer to the island, but sandbanks mark where the sea has intruded. Lord: Abbot of Mont-St-Michel Vassal of: Bishop of Avranches, in Normandy Morbihan. The name of the gulf beside which Vannes and Auray stand. The Morbihan (“Little Sea”) is filled with tiny islands, and is rich with sealife. Morlaix (Montroulez). This town and fief is the dowry of Eleonore, daughter of Viscount Guythure, a vassal of King Meliodas, and a kinsman of his. [see Landerneau] The town is a major port of trade between Leon and Britain. Its citizens are formidable seamen and rather wealthy. There are said to be dwarves (Corics) living beneath the castle, guarding treasure. A dark beast of great size called the Tuerst haunts the country near the town. It appears to change shape. Lady: Eleonore de Morlaix

Vassal of: Meliodas, Count of Leon Motte-Glain, La. A castle about 13 miles southeast of Chateaubriant. It is handsome, but not too defensible. Lord: Sir Hamon Vassal of: Count of Nantes Moutiers, Les. A village with two priories, 27 miles southwest of Nantes. The two belong to male only and female only establishments. A huge tower, called the Lantern of the Deceased, has a bonfire lit on All Souls’ Day night. Nantes (Naoned, Condevincum). A Roman city at the mouth of the Loire, surrounded by a wall built in the third century. The city covers eighteen hectares. The Count of Nantes is the old Roman Rigolin cousin to Duke Hoel; his son, heir, and vice-Count is Urnoy. His steward is the fearless Frank Sir Corbel au CourtMenton. The city is also the home of the wizard knight Sir Eliavres. The Count rules from a large and palatial castle beside the city and the Loire. Rigolin’s predecessor was King Equitan, a vassal of the Kings of Ganis. He was forced to swear allegiance to King Clovis of France in 507. Saxon mercenaries and French knights treacherously conquered the countryside in 510, but they were unable to capture the city because of the help of King Idres of Cornwall. Equitan, however, was murdered by his seneschal Rigolin, who surrendered to the French. From 514 to his death in 524, Chlodomir, the Duke of Orléans, is overlord of Nantes. Although Chlodomir’s eldest son was technically heir, his rights were usurped by his uncle Claudas. Hoel became overlord in the wake of the Roman War. Although Count Rigolin swore fealty to Arthur in 526, he later makes war on Hoel (534), and is stripped of his possessions in 536. Caradoc of Vannes is made overlord of Nantes after this. In 544 Count Caradoc dies of the plague and the territory is ungoverned. Arthur himself holds court here in 546, giving it to Erec of Estregales, but the Irish knight is forced out during the rebellion of Lancelot. Rigolin’s son Urnoy is then able to return as a vassal of Childebert of Paris. Nantes is never subject to Brittany directly (after 526) but is a fief commanded by Hoel as Duke of the March and later as Regent of France. The famous Saints Euphronius and Felix are successively Bishops, answering to the Archbishop of Tours. Nantes proper is Roman/Christian; the rural portions and peasants are essentially Occitan/Christian and the ruling nobles are either Roman or French. Lord: Rigolin, Count of Nantes Vassal of: Duke Hoel (since 526) Neorrange. A castle near Briosque. cf. ‘Reonge’ –the fief of Rennes.

Noeve Ferte, La (La Noë-Verte). A castle in Broceliande. It is here, in 511, that the teenaged sons of Lot of Orkney and Nentres of Garloth form the fellowship of the “Young Squires”and promote Arthur’s new ideals of chivalry. Several of Lot’s sons were placed here for safety, though they soon made their own way back to Cornwall to fight the Saxons. Lord: Vassal of: Sir Conon Normandy. A duchy of France, also called Neustria, which lies on the northeast border of Brittany. The county of Mortain, which is held by Duke Cador after 526, and the county of Avranches, are subfiefs of the Duke on the Breton border. Sir Bedivere is the Viscount of Bayeux. Neither Kay, the duke, nor his fellows of the Round Table actually live in Normandy, so much of the duchy is administered by local stewards. Lord: Gaschier (to 494), Ernault le Roux (494-526), Sir Kay (526-558), King Carras [Clotaire] (558-) Oudon. A castle and village 15 miles northeast of Nantes. The main octagonal tower is 105 feet tall. Nearby is Chateauceaux, another castle. Lord: Sir Aumery Vassal of: Count of Nantes Ouessant (Ushant, Enez Eussa). An island and abbey, off the western coast of Leon. The sirens living near have a king, one of the vassals of Dahut. Ouessant’s waters are very treacherous and the island itself is flat and windswept. Besides fishing, the secular population herds goats. Women of Ouessant are always the proposers of marriage to men, something that occurs with less regularity on the mainland. Lord: Abbot of Ouessant Vassal of: Meliodas, Count of Leon Paimpol. A fishing village at the northern extreme of the barony of Goello-St. Brieuc. The men of Paimpol range into the deep Atlantic in their pursuit of the catch. The abbey of Beauport and the isle of Bréhec are nearby. Three miles away is the medium castle of Roche-Jagu. This castle stands on a height overlooking the river Trieux, and has very thick stone walls. Lord: Sir Rolland of Roche-Jagu Vassal of: Chunaire, Baron of Goello Penmarc’h. A shipping and fishing village in Cornouailles, it was founded by King Mark (in 518). The settlement gets much of its income from cod and ships stopping on the way to Britain from Ganis. The castle of Kergoz [qv] is nearby, as is an ‘alignment’ of two hundred smaller standing stones. The Corics of the

region are believed to dwell in a megalithic monument amongst them called Ty C’harriquet. Lord: Vassal of: King Mark Arms: Gules, the head of a horse argent. Perilleus, Le Chateau. A castle hidden in the forest of Broceliande, also called the Roche-Fée. The lord of the castle is an elf knight, with magical powers, haughty and formidable. He sometimes appears and challenges travelers at fords in the forest, or fights at tournaments. Lord: The Proud Fay Knight Vassal of: No-one Plélan. A town and motte castle east of Broceliande, desmense of the Count of Domnonee. Lady: Aliette, Chatelain of Plélan Vassal of: King Mark, Regent of Domnonee Ploermel (Plouarzel). A walled town at the fringes of the forest of Broceliande (qv). It belongs to the lordship of Broerec’h. A Cambrian priest named Armel ministers to the settlement, and has attracted [1273] a community of the White Friars. There are several mills near here, belonging to the Lord. A castle called Le Crévy lies 10 miles southwards, originally built by the Romans. Lord: Sir Conon Vassal of: Duke Hoel Plouaret. A village next to Vieux-Marche, this is the home of a strange pagan sculpture of a male monster astride a female figure. Lord: banneret Vassal of: Sartuz of Tonquedec Plouha. One of the earliest settlements founded by Riotham in the fifth century, south of Paimpol. A chapel nearby is dedicated to St. Mary Curer of Ills; the beautiful Danse Macabre inside depicts the usual triumph of Ankou, save over two lovers. Lord: banneret Vassal of: Chunaire of Goello Ploumanac’h. A village 9 miles north of Lannion in Treguier. A rock nearby on the coast is said to be home of the Devil (the rock is named Grand-Traouiéro). Lord: Lord of Tregastel Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Treguier

Poher, Duchy of (Pou-caer). the fief of Brittany centered on Carhaix (qv). This lordship belonged to the first wife of Mark of Cornwall. She died mysteriously in 531, like her husband Jonas, Count of Domnonee (in 520), leaving as her heirs her son Judicael (by Jonas) and daughter Elaine (by Mark). Castles belonging to this lordship include Kergoz, Carnoet and Carhaix [qv]. Mark retains this title until his death in 565. The people of Poher retain more of a sense of Gaulish origin than their Breton neighbors. Lord: King Mark, Duke of Poher Vassal of: (in theory) Duke Hoel Arms: Gules two lions passant in pale or. Poitou, County of. A large fief of France to the south of the County of Nantes. The Count’s vassal the Viscount of Thouars holds much of the border country. The Count of Poitou submitted to Hoel after a raid in forceduring the Roman War and swore allegiance to Arthur. He then joined the British in Burgundy and Italy. Lord: Guitard Pont-Aven. A village on the Aven river, on the border of Carnoet and the ducal demense of Cornouailles. There are many water mills here. About 2 miles to the north is Rustéphan castle. Lady: Alienor of Rustéphan Vassal of: Lord of Raguindel Pontivy (Pondi). A town of the viscounty of Porhoet. It was founded by a Cambrian missionary named St. Ivy. Pontivy is the site of a hireling’s fair, where young men and women are hired as servants and farmhands for the coming year. Despite the faith of the inhabitants, the local lord is stubbornly pagan. Lord: Sir Alvandus of Sulim Vassal of: Keyhidius, Viscount of Porhoet Pont-L’Abbé (Pont-‘n-Abad). This town contains a Carmelite abbey and a small castle. It is rather quiet. Lord: banneret Vassal of: King Mark Arms: Or a lion rampant gules. Porhoet (Poutrocoet, “Land beyond the wood”). A viscounty belonging to Keyhidius, second son of Hoel. It is centered around the communities of Pontivy (in Latin, Sulis) and Guemene, south of the forest of Quenecan. Keyhidius leaves Brittany in 538 to adventure in Britain with Tristram. Mark takes advantage of this to seize the fief.

Lord: Keyhidius Vassal of: Duke Hoel Arms: Gules, three mascles Or 2,1. Pornic (Porneizh). A castle-town and port west of Nantes and on the Atlantic coast. The castle itself is large and advanced. Near the town is an old barrow. Lord: Lord of Retz Vassal of: Count of Nantes Portlesguez—(cf. Goello) Quenecan, forest of. A part of the Argoat, mainly composed of pine, beech and spruce, and the home of much wild game. The abbey of Bon-Repos is here, founded in Phase 1. Also in the forest is one of King Mark’s castles, at the village of St-Aignan. The community is a center of iron-working. Quiberon. A village and hunting forest near Auray. There are numerous megaliths in the vicinity. Lord: Caradues, Count of Vannes Vassal of: Duke Hoel Quimerc’h. A small castle on a mound 20 miles east of Quimper. Lord: Sir Soudan, a cousin of Morvan de Norholt Vassal of: Bishop of Quimper Quimper (Quimper-Corentin, Kemper, Aquilo, Campacorentin). Capital of the duchy of Cornouailles, at the confluence of the Steir and Odet. Quimper dates to before the Romans; its Roman name meant “Eagle.”The old Roman town is now called Locmaria and the newer walled city to the northwest is larger. This city was founded by King Gradlon. Most of the city is governed by the bishop, but a Viscount or Count owns one quarter, where much of the business of administrating Cornouailles goes on. This town was home to the wife to the Breton Sanam (Saive), Earl of Bedegraine and Lord of Cardigan in Britain, who was one of the poor knights enriched by alliance with the Pendragons; his deceased wife was chatelaine of Quimper castle. He still retains family connections and property here. His daughter Lyzianor was born here in 493, she is presently heiress of all his lands, but never married; her illegitimate son Borre may or may not be her heir under law. Quimper is the seat of the bishop of Cornouailles (St. Harnicton or ?Alori). The cathedral, dedicated to St. Corentin, was begun in this year (531) and is presently mostly foundations. On the 26th of July each year a festival is held in honour of old King Gradlon.

Lords: Bishop of Quimper and Lyzianor, Chatelain of Quimper Vassal of: Duke Hoel Quimperlé (Kemper-Elle). A town in the lordship of Carnoet, site of the Benedictine abbey of Anaurut, founded by St. Guthiern in the last century. Lord: Abbot of Anaraut Vassal of: King Mark, Lord of Carnoet Quintin. A lordship in Goello. The town manufactures fine linen cloth. Not far away is the tower-castle of Beaumanoir. The lord of Quintin is a brother of the Lord of Goello. Lord: Sir Geoffroi “Boterel” Vassal of: King Mark, Regent of Domnonee Arms: Argent a chief Gules, a label dovetailed of three Or. Raguindel [Raguénès]. A castle in Cornouailles near Groix, belonging to the clan of the brothers Alon and Açon de Beaumont, kinsmen of the Orkney and Gorre clans. Alon and Açon’s mother was a niece of Uriens. Uther appointed the founder of this clan (their uncle), Alier de Raguindel, to his Round Table. Alier retired from the Table after the battle of the Humber and became a hermit in the Forest Perilous. Alier had 15 sons, 14 of whom were killed at the battle of the Humber; his son Marec survives. Lord: Sir Marec de Raguindel Vassal of: Duke Hoel Arms: Quarterly argent and sable. Redon. This market town and castle lies on the march of Vannetais and Nantes. The monastery of St-Sauveur dominates the town. Erec gave the vidameship (protector of the abbey) to his father-in-law Licorant after marrying Enide and becoming Count of Nantes in 546. About 4 miles north of the town is the priory of Ballon. Lord: Abbot of Redon/Jaguz, vidame of Redon Vassal of: Duke Hoel Rennes (Roazhon, Condate)—the county belonging to Briant de Insula. Rennes proper is a seat of a bishop, suffragan to the Archbishop of Tours. In this era, the bishop is St. Melaine or Melanius (511-30), who was involved in the conversion of the Franks in 492 earlier in his career. His cathedral is a former temple to Mars Mullo. The Romans called this town Condate Redonum. The city covers about 22 acres, surrounded by a red brick wall (hence it’s nickname, “Rouge-ville”). The senate of Rennes claims the privilege of ratifying the succession of the Dukes of the Armorican coast.

Rennes is under the dominion of Claudas of Berry until 526, when Hoel takes the city, accepting the homage of Count Briant for the fief. After Briant’s involvement in Agrippe’s rebellion (536-7), Hoel gives the county to his son Runalen, with a kinsman named Antalin as governor of the city. In 547 Conon, Hoel’s younger son, kills his brother and captures the town, using it as his capital, restoring the aged and dispossessed Briant to the rule of the surrounding county. It remains in Conon’s control until after the death of Arthur. The city of Rennes is Roman/Christian. Most of the countryside is Gaulish/Christian. The nobility is initially French and Roman, but Hoel replaces many of them with Bretons after 536. Lord: Bishop Melaine Vassal of: Briant, Count of Rennes Retz. A castle and rich barony holding most of the land south of the Loire within the county of Nantes. Lord: Sir Harscoët Vassal of: Riole, Count of Nantes Arms: Or a cross sable. Rhuys. A peninsula south of Vannes, where St. Gildas begun his monastery, also the site of the castle of Suscinio. Gildas had to slay a monstrous serpent to lay claim to the site, which was an old Roman fort on a cliff. The Romans called the peninsula Ouidana Limen. Rieux. A large castle at the intersection of the fiefs of Redon, Nantes and Rennes, standing on a precipice above the river Vilaine. Lord: Sir Rudalt Vassal of: Count of Nantes Arms: Azure, ten bezants, 4,3,2,1. Roche-aux-Fees, La. A megalithic chamber northwest of La Guerche (qv), said to be a place of meeting for the Faeries of eastern Brittany. It is said to be impossible to count the slabs used in its construction accurately. Anyone who attempts to move any of the stones dies before the end of the year. Roche-Bernard, La. A castle built on a hill overlooking the Vilaine river east of Vannes; around the hill is a village. The castle was originally built by Northman raiders as a headquarters for their activities. Lord: Sir Bernard Vassal of: Abbot of Redon Arms: Or a double-headed eagle displayed sable langued and membered Gules.

Roche-Camio, La. A dolmen 3 miles south of St-Brieuc, the haunt of faeries. Nearby is an old barrow and an old vitrified fort. Roche-Derrien, La. A castle and village in Treguier, slightly inland. Lord: Sir Derrien Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Treguier Roche-Maurice, La (Ar Roc’h-Morvan). A village with a castle 3 miles east of Landuc in the Leon uplands. As is indicated by its Breton name, the fortress belongs to Morvan of La Faou. Lord: Morvan, Viscount of La Faou Vassal of: Meliodas, Count of Leon Roche-Noire, La [Roche-Helgomarc’h]. A castle in Cornouailles near Chateauneuf-du-Faou, in the Black Mountains. Lord: Sir Troilus Vassal of: Duke Hoel Arms: Azure a right-arm argent, supporting a sparrow-hawk of the second, capped and belled or. Roche-Periou, La. A small castle on the border of Carnoet and Porhoet, held by a cousin of Duke Hoel. Lord: Sir Gueguant Vassal of: Sir Keyhidius Rochefort-en-Terre (Chastel de la Roche). A castle and town some 22 miles east of Vannes. The town abuts the gorges of the Arz and Gueuzon. Further up the hill is the massive castle. Argon, a pagan Gaul, was lord of Rochefort in the time of Joseph of Arimathea (the first century AD). Joseph encountered and baptised Argon as he lay died of an attack by a lion. Lord: Sir Bonabes Vassal of: Caradues, Count of Vannes Arms: Vairy of four Or and Argent. Rochers, Les. A medium castle some 9 miles southeast of Vitre. Lord: Vassal of: Baron of Vitre Rohan. A town about 13 miles northwest of Josselin. A forest nearby is filled with game. The castle is small and perched on a small stony hill. Lord: Rual the Faithful Vassal of: Keyhidius, Viscount of Porhoet

Rostrenen. A castle in the Argoet, about 29 miles east of Loudeac. Near it is a hawthorn bush which flowers throughout the year. Lord: Rivallon, Seneschal of Brittany Vassal of: Keyhidius, Viscount of Porhoet Arms: Barry ermine and gules. Rustefan. A castle near Quimperle and Pont-Aven, with a great round tower. Lady: Jenn Vassal of: Duke Hoel Scissy, Forest of. A marshy forest along the coast north of Dol, reaching as far west as Aleth. Will-o-wisps haunt the wetlands by night. More people lived in the forest area as recently as the fourth century, when the monk Paternus converted them, but the rising sea has driven them to Dol and other towns. St-Brieuc (Saint Brieg). A hilltop port town, one of the main centers for trade with Britain. Bridges built in Roman times ford the Gouet river. The castle of St. Brieuc near the town, seat of the lord of Goello, is also called Portlesguez (Port of the Fords). St. Brieuc is named after the evangalist St. Brioch, founder of a large episcopal abbey, who died in 510 at a great age. The cathedral is still under construction. Lord: Alain, Abbot-Bishop of St. Brieuc Vassal of: Chunaire, Lord of Goello Arms: Azure a griffin serjeant Argent armed and beaked Gules St-Efflam. A village near the coast, midway between Lannion and Morlaix. It was the home of Efflam, a younger brother of Sir Kay and a step-brother of Arthur. Efflam’s wife Enora, a local noblewoman, lived with him in celibacy as a nun. In 514 he encountered now-King Arthur and defeated a dragon after the king was unable to do so. He died a few years later and the growing settlement took his name as an homage. His feast day is November 6. Lady: St. Enora Vassal of: Sartuz of Tonquedec St-Jacut-de-la-Mer. A village and important Benedictine abbey, founded by St. Jacut (Jacob). It is 14 miles north of Dinan. Vassal of: Gosengos of Lamballe St-Just. This town, 12 miles northeast of Redon (and part of that monastic fief), is in the midst of a large number of ancient monuments and tombs; an ancient lakefort called the Vieux-Bourg is not far.

St-Mathieu, Pointe- (Penn-ar-Bed, “Land’s End”). A town in Leon with a Benedictine monastery, founded by St. Tanguy, which is said to a have the head of St. Matthew. The town lies on the “Roads”—the coastal seas by the coast of Leon through which most shipping from the Bay of Biscay and the Channel travels. Lord: Sir Boniface Vassal of: Meliodas, Count of Leon. St-Nazaire (Sant Nazer). A small fishing village, Romano-Gaulish in culture, near the Grande-Briere. It was once called Corbilo by the Romans. Lord: banneret Vassal of: Count of Nantes Sein (Enez Sun). Sein was a island inhabited solely by druidesses in the time before Julius Caesar. It is now known as the Isle of the Seven Sleepers. Sein is considered a land of the dead by the only partly Christianized people of southwestern Cornouailles (cf. Ys). Sein is so low, close to the sea and small that the ocean has been known to flood it entirely. There are no trees on the island. Sulim (Castennec). An old Gallic hill-fort and pagan village about 10 miles southwest of Pontivy. The patron goddess, Sulis, is also patroness of the Scillies and the city of Bath, in Somerset. The Gallo lord permitted Pontivy to be founded by Breton Christian missionaries on his land, but he has begun to regret it. For one thing, the ford at Sulim (where the Roman road meets the Blavet) has been displaced by the new bridge at Pontivy. Lord: Sir Alvandus Vassal of: Sir Keyhidius Suscinio. A medium castle in the peninsula of Rhuys, near the ocean. It is conveniently located near good woods for hunting. The castellan is the halfbrother of Guenloie of Lys. He is actually called “the Dwarf” as a joke, as he is rather tall, but he is overshadowed by his namesake Tristram of Lyonesse. His rivalry (over his lady-love) with Estult of Coatfrec is bitter and destined to end in his death in 547. Lord: Tristran the Dwarf Vassal of: Caradues, Count of Vannes. Arms: Or fretty vair. Tharmadaise (cf. Lamballe) Tinteniac. A castle held by a banneret a few miles northwest of Hédé. Lord: Sir Donoal Vassal of: Lord of Hédé

Tonquédec. A Large Phase 1 castle in Treguier, continuously upgraded to maximum defensibility, having a drawbridge, outer bailey and four story keep. The lordship of Tonquédec or Coëtmen is rich with mills, forests and fertile fields. Sir Sartuz, the lord, is from central Cambria and has coaxed many settlers from that part of Britain. Lord: Sartuz de la Loge Vassal of: King Mark, Regent of Domnonee and King Belinant of Powys Arms: Gules 6 anneaux argent. Trécesson. A castle near Broceliande and the seat of a fief held by a woman of the numerous de Ganis clan. Lord: Lady Blanche, Chatelain. Vassal of: Lionel de Ganis Arms: Gules, three chevrons Ermine. Treguier (Trégor, Tric’horn, Landreger). This lordship, part of the comital demense of Domnonee, is held directly by King Mark. It includes the towns of Lannion, Treguier, Guingamp, St-Efflam, and La Roche Derrien, and overlordship over the Lord of Tonquedec. Treguier (the town) was founded as a monastic establishment by St. Tugdual. It grew swiftly into a town. Outside Treguier is a chapel to “Our Lady of Hatred” where one can pray to Virgin to strike down one’s enemies. Lord: King Mark, Baron of Treguier (Sir Jacob is his Steward) Vassal of: (in theory) Duke Hoel Arms: Azure, a galley argent. Trémazan. A castle in Leon overlooking the sea, whose lord is Galon. His wife is Florence, the daughter of Honorius of Brest. He has two children: a daughter named Eudez and a son named Gurguid. Gurguid is a knight of the household of King Mark. Lord: Sir Galon Vassal of: Meliodas, Count of Leon Arms: Paly Or and Gules. Tronchet, La. A Benedictine abbey from Phase 2. Nearby is a small castle called Beaufort (held by a banneret of the Bishop) and a passage grave, home of faeries. Vassal of: Bishop of Dol Tolente (Plouguerneau, Tolenche). A rich town about 18 miles north of Brest, dating to Roman times. Something of an air of mystery surrounds the town, which was a major Osismii settlement. The people are pagans. The town was the capital of King Jugonus, father of the last Gallic king of Armorica, Jubaltus.

Lord: Meliodas, Count of Leon. Touche-à-la-Vache, La. A small castle between Dinan and Dol. The village of Crehen is nearby. Lord: Banneret of Dinard Vassal of: King Arthur Tulmein [Tumaic]. The castle of Sir Imain, a Gallo-Roman knight in the peninsula of Rhuys. The small castle stands on an ancient tumulus, from which Julius Caesar placed his headquarters for the destruction of the Veneti. Imain is a descendant of Ponthus and Sidoine of Vannes. His sister, Tarsenesyde is the wife of Licorant, a baron of Escavalon, and the mother of Enide, later wife of Erec. Lord: Sir Imain, “Prince” of Tulmein Vassal of: No-one Vandeliors [Bannalec]. A town and castle near Quimper, subjected to a lengthly and cruel siege by Saxon mercenaries and the French between 510-514. King Arthur relieved what was left of the town, which suffered terribly. Now it is barely more than a ruin. Lord: Duke Hoel Vannes (Guenet, Gwened, Darioritum, Locmariaquer). Vannes is a Roman city (Darioritum) governed by its bishop in association with a consul. In 531, these are the aging St. Modestus. The last King of Vannes was Eusebe, who was killed in the war with the Franks in 509. The military authority of Vannes since 514 has been held by Count Caradues as a representative of Hoel, Duke of Armorica; Prince Conon of Broerec (Caradues’ nephew) is positioned to succeed him. The city itself is Roman/Christian. Vannetais north of the Oust river has many Gaulish pagan villages, but the bulk of the population lives along the coast and the Vilaine and is Gaulish and Christian. The city was fortified by the Romans in 280; the city is 25 acres in size and roughly triangular in shape, sited on a spit of land on the Morbihan. Outside the walls is a large field used for tournaments, held yearly. After Hoel reconquers the area in 514 from the Franks he replaced the Frankish lords with Breton-Cymry and Romans. Lord: Bishop of Vannes Vassal of: Caradues, Count of Vannes Vieux-Marché, Le. “The Old Market” is about 20 miles west of Guingamp, the site of an old chapel dedicated to the Seven Sleepers of Ephesus. The village of Plouaret is adjacent. Lord: banneret of Plouaret Vassal of: Sartuz of Tonquedec

Vitré. A medium castle (built in Phase 1, made large in later Phases), walled town and lordship belonging to the Baroness of Laval (cf), in Maine. The town produces cloth which is exported throughout France and Britain. The Saint-Croix monastery stands in the west of the town. Lord: Baroness of Laval Vassal of: King Claudas of France Arms: Gules a lion rampant argent crowned or, armed sable. Yaudet, Le (Lexovie, Vetus Civitas, Coz Yaudet). A castle and village in Treguier, where St. Drennalus settled, a follower of Joseph of Arimathea; he is apparently the founder of the chapel to the Virgin. This was a Roman frontier fort. Lord: Sir Gounou Vassal of: King Mark, Baron of Treguier Yeun Ellez. “The gates of Hell” is what this means; a marsh south of the Monts d’Arree. Will o’ wisps and black dogs of hell are seen here, and somewhere is a gate into the land of the dead. The marsh is quite beautiful with flowers in the warmer months, but it is always treacherous with quicksand. Ys (Ker-Is). a lost city in the bay of Douarnenez (cf), near the Pointe de Raz. It was the first capital of Cornouailles, where King Gradlon lived (r.c400-434). The city was threatened by the sea, being built in a shallow area and was protected by great dykes. The story varies. One version has the king’s daughter Dahut’s drunken lover accidently open the dykes; another, longer one, describes the jeremiads of the Christian evangelist St. Guenole against the wealthy pagan city. The city is built around a protective oak tree, which is removed by a boy named Kristof, who Dahut had scorned. Eventually the devil is able to enter the city and mesmerizing Dahut, makes her unlock the dykes. Guenole warns the king and he attempts to escape with his daughter, but he is commanded by a heavenly voice to abandon her. She dives into the sea and becomes the first of the Morgens of the Pointe de Raz. Gradlon later founded a new city near the old Roman town of Aquilo, called Quimper [qv], selected with the aid of St. Corentin. The site is now covered by the Baie des Trépassés, or “Boe an Aon”, the bay of restless souls. The villages near the bay say that on some nights they are summoned by invisible spirits to carry the dead to Sein (qv), in boats heavy with invisible passengers.

Chapter 5 Character Generation and Family History 1. Region. If your gamemaster is using a specific region (Brittany or Cornwall) you should find that out first. 2. Homeland. To determine if you were born on one side of the Channel or another, roll d6. A roll of 5 or 6 indicates that you were born in the other region (Cornwall, if the campaign is taking place in Brittany, and vice versa). You may find it useful to roll on these tables to determine your mother’s origin’s as well (and therefore whether you have cousins in one of the two regions). To determine mother’s origin, roll a d6; on a 1-2 the mother is from the same place as you are. On a 3-4 she is from another locality in the same region; on a 5-6 roll on the other region table. Cornwall d20 Homeland 01-02 Devon (Cymric/Christian) 03 Dunster (Cymric/Christian) 04 Artavia (Cymric/Christian**) 05-06 City of Exeter (Roman/Christian) 07-09 Lyonesse (Cymric*/Pagan) 10 Scillies (Mixed, 1-2 Cymric/Pagan, 3-4 Irish/Pagan, 56 Lochlannach/Wotanic) 11-13 Tintagel (Cymric*/Christian**) 14-16 Cornubia (Cymric*/Christian**) 17-20 Totnes(Cymric/Christian) *On a roll of 19-20 on a d20 the character’s culture is (Feudal) Irish/Christian. **Pagan in Phase 1 or earlier. Cornwall develops Christianity later than other civilized parts of Britain. It is one of the few feudal regions with strong Pagan belief. However, evangalization from Southern Cambria, Feudal Ireland and Brittany convert much of the people in Arthur’s reign. The only areas to resist conversion are Lyonesse and the Scillies, though even in those homelands there are Christian hermits and saints. Brittany

This chart replaces that found on p.90 of the main rules. d20 Homeland 01-02 Leon [01 =Landuc or desmense (Breton/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan); 02= Le Faou (1-2 Gaulish, 3-6 Breton/1-4 Christian, 5-6 Pagan] 03 (1-2) Brest, (3-4) Morlaix or (5-6) St-Mathieu (Breton/Christian) 04 Cornouailles (Breton/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 05 (1-4) Quimper or (5-6) Douarnenez (Breton/Christian) 06 (1-4) Poher or (5-6) Carhaix (1-4 Breton, 5-6 Gaulish/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 07 (1-5) Carnoet or (6) Quimperlé (1-3 Breton, 4-6 Gaulish/1-4 Christian, 5-6 Pagan) 08 (1-4) Treguier, (5) Lannion (6) Guincamp (Breton/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan). 09 (1-4) Goello, (5) Paimpol, (6) St-Brieuc (Breton/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 10 Lamballe (Gaulish/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 11 Dinan (1-4 Breton, 5-6 Gaulish/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 12 Dol (1-3 Breton*, 4 French, 5-6 Gaulish/Christian) 13 Vannes (rural) (1-2 Breton*, 3-6 Gaulish/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 14 City of Vannes (Roman/Christian) 15 (1-3) Porhoet or (4-6) Broerec’h (1-3 Breton, 4-6 Gaulish/ 1-3 Christian, 4-6 Pagan) 16-17 (1-5) Rennes or (6) Redon (rural) (1 Breton*, 2 French, 3-6 Gaulish/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 18 City of Rennes (Roman/Christian) 19 Nantes (rural) (Gaulish*/1-5 Christian, 6 Pagan) 20 City of Nantes (Roman/Christian) Results 01-03 are parts of Leon; 04-07 are parts of Cornouailles; 08-12 are parts of Domnonee; 13-20 are areas called Vannetais in Pendragon (pp.90-91); result 15 is the Argoat (which sometimes includes 06 and parts of 11 as well). *In Phases 1-2 French lords rule these lands; in Phases 3-5, Breton lords sit at the top of the social heirarchy. At this point, roll for Father’s social class. All Lords, Officers and Banneret knights are of the ruling culture. Roll d20 for other knights and squires. On a 1-5, the character’s father is of the ruling culture. After Phase 2, there are still some French knights in these homelands; a roll of 6-10 indicates a French father. Merchants and Warriors as well as all Magician characters of Peasant or Magician origin are of Gaulish ancestry. 3. Culture. Culture is generally determined by homeland. Irish characters are treated as Feudal Irish as per the Pagan Shore rules. Gaulish characters use the Occitanian

culture detailed in the main rules with some variations (described below). Lochlannach characters are fully detailed in the Pagan Shore rules, or gamemasters may at their discretion use Jutish rules from Saxons! or Danish rules from Land of Giants. [Sidebar: Danes: King Yder settled Danish mercenaries in Cornwall between 510-513 to support his war with Arthur and defend against the Saxons and the Irish. They were given lands in Lyonesse near Sennan, in the march close to Jagent and Dorset and near Totnes. While the Danes of the Cornish march were loyal, the forces stationed westward revolted and had to be defeated by Arthur and his former enemies in 513. Yder’s Danes of the march, who were few in number, now live in Lys amongst his family as household knights. The other Danes, those who survived, fled to the Scilly Isles, Ireland (where they founded the Lochlannach settlements) and Brittany. Half-Danish folk persisted afterwards in Lyonesse, distinguished by their red hair. Danes are hereditary enemies of the Saxons, even if they are untrustworthy, so there is little danger of them betraying the British to the other Germans in Britain. Some Danes raid Cornwall in times of trouble from Ireland, others are now somewhat barbarous knights in the employ of Lys or Lyonesse. Treat Danes as Saxons if you don’t have Land of Giants (Half-Danes have +1 SIZ, -1 DEX, +1 STR, +2 CON)] Gaulish characters represent the semi-Romanized Gauls of the old Roman provinces now ruled by the Franks or the Cymry; they are the equivalent of the Cymry of Britain in this regard. However, unlike the Cymry they are generally a subject people. Within the interior of Brittany they sometimes retain land and social status, but are still rustic in manners and appearance. In areas formerly controlled by the French or Romans they are uniformly peasants or lowerranking knights. Though this section has no specific rules there are many Jewish merchants in Cornwall and in Brittany who may be generated using the rules provided in the main rules. 4. Choose Name Breton Names: Male: Adeon, Alan, Alain, Alar, Alured, Andrev, Arc’hantael, Armel, Arzel, Bernez, Bili, Blaez, Blegabred, Bleheri, Brevalaer, Briec, Brioc’h, Budik, Budoc, Canao, Clotwoion, Conan, Comorre, Courantgen, Deniel, Deroch, Derrien, Devi, Donan, Drogon, Edern, Eon, Erispoë, Ermor, Erwan, Ewel, Ewen, Gael, Girec, Govran, Guerec, Gradlon, Gralon, Goulwen, Gurheden, Gurwan, Guenole, Guihomar, Gwencalon, Gwenvael, Gweltas, Harscouët, Helocar, Helori, Hervé, Hinguethen, Hoël, Houardon, Iarnhitin, Iarnualt, Iawn, Jakez, Jaoua, Jos,

Judikaël, Junguené, Kado, Kadeg, Kaourintin, Karo, Kavan, Kétomeren, Korentin, Korneli, Loeiz, Maclou, Main, Malou, Marc’h, Marrec, Marzin, Mathuedoi, Mazhe, Melan, Meriadec, Meven, Mikael, Miliaw, Morvan, Nedeleg, Neven, Nikolaz, Nominoë, Padrig, Paol, Pasquetan, Per, Pol, Quiriac, Renan, Retwalatr, Riok, Rivalin, Riwal, Riwawd, Roald, Ronan, Roparz, Rualent, Salaün, Salocon, Salomon, Suhart, Tanet, Tanguy, Taran, Tenenan, Tigernomael, Treveur, Tudi, Turiau, Waroc’h, Wicohen, Wromonoc, Yann, Yvo Female: Ahès, Anna, Annick, Aouregan, Aourken, Argantlon, Argantlowen, Avenie, Azenor, Azilia, Brec’hed, Elen, Enora, Gladez, Gualadun, Guildeleuc, Gwencalon, Gwenn, Gwennolaik, Helori, Heodez, Jannet, Jezequel, Kanna, Katell, Klervi, Koulm, Kristen, Levenez, Madenn, Marc’harit, Marmohec, Melle, Morganez, Nedeleg, Nolwenn, Nonn, Norec, Oanez, Plézou, Rivanon, Roudu, Rozenn, Seva, Sterenn, Sulgwenn, Tiphaine, Tryphine, Wenlowin. Female names are also formed by adding –a to male names. Cornish Names: The Cornish use standard Cymric or Breton names but the following are some variant forms. Dimunitives are made by adding –ynn or -ik. This is a common way of naming a child after a parent or a godparent. Male: Aghevran, Antun, Arranz, Arthnou, Arthyen, Austell, Benesek, Bideven, Blyth, Brannoc, Branwalather, Brengy, Bryok, Buthek, Cadan, Carantoc, Carrow, Casvelyn, Caswyn, Cingur, Clesek, Colan, Conan, Conek, Corentyn, Costentyn, Cuilliok, Daveth, Dinawt, Doniert, Donyerth, Elowen, Entenin, Frioc, Gawen, Gerens, Glast, Glewas, Gorlas, Gorman, Gorneves, Goron, Gorthelyk, Gourgy, Gurcant, Guriant, Gwynek, Iago, Iliud, Iudicael, Kea, Keresyk, Kevern, Kynan, Loumarch, Margh, Marrek, Masek, Mawgan, Meryasek, Meryn, Milyan, Myghal, Nadelek, Neythan, Padern, Pasco, Peblig, Perdyr, Petrock, Piran, Rewan, Rialobran, Ryol, Selevan, Silyen, Sithny, Talan, Torin, Trevedic, Tethion, Withell, Yestin,Ythel. Female: Ailla, Andras, Arranz, Banallan, Berlewen, Beryan, Bryluen, Conwenna, Cordula, Cryda, Delen, Derowen, Derwa, Dywana, Elestren, Elowen, Endelyon, Guen, Guencenedl, Guenguiu, Gwenfrewi, Gwenifer, Gwennol, Illcum, Kayna, Kelyn, Kensa, Kerenza, Kerra, Lowenek, Mailli, Manacca, Marya, Medhuil, Melwyn, Melyonen, Melyor, Merewin, Morgelyn, Moruiw, Morvoren, Morwenna, Morwennol, Nessa, Newlyna, Nonna, Rozen, Rozenwyn, Rum, Senara, Sevi, Talwyn, Tamsyn, Teca, Tressa, Tanguistl, Wuencen, Wuenmon. Gaulish Names: Gauls use names like those given for Roman characters in KAP. 5. Father’s Class

Father’s Class Table Phase 1 d20 class 01 Lord/Officer 02 Banneret knight 03-08 Vassal knight 09-10 Bachelor knight 11-13 Mercenary knight 14-16 Squire 17-20 Warrior Phases 2-3 d20 01 02-05 06-12 13-15 16-18 19-20

class Banneret knight Vassal knight Bachelor knight Mercenary knight Squire Warrior

Phases 4+ d20 01 02-04 05-09 10-14 15-18 19 20

class Banneret knight Vassal knight Bachelor knight Mercenary knight Squire Merchant or Rich peasant Warrior

Son of a… Merchant or Rich peasant 15 points Folk lore, Industry (or Boating), Recognize, Stewardship +5 ea. Energetic, Modest +1d3 ea. Honor –3 6. Statistics Statistic are generated according to the standard rules. If a character has generated a mother from a different culture the gamemaster may permit the

player to develop a Mixed Culture individual (these rules are adapted from Saxons!). This is appropriate primarily because of the cosmopolitan nature of these regions. To generate a Mixed Culture individual you may use any combination of one’s parent’s statistic modifiers so long as your net gain does not exceed +3. They also receive Trait modifiers from each culture but reduce each gain by –1. 7. Starting Skills Starting skills are generated as normal with two exceptions. After Phase 2, Breton culture differentiates enough from Cymric that it requires a different set of starting skills. Gaulish culture also has some differences from the more southern Occitan emphasis. Mixed Culture characters should develop starting skills based on where and with whom they live (ordinarily their father). Breton Starting Skills (post Phase 2) skill male female Awareness 5 2 Boating 2 0 Chirurgery 0 10 Compose 4 4 Courtesy 4 7 Dancing 3 3 Faerie Lore 1 3 Falconry 3 2 First Aid 10 10 Flirting 4 7 Folk Lore 2 2 Gaming 3 3 Heraldry 5 2 Hunting 1 1 Industry 0 5 Intrigue 3 2 Orate 2 1 Play (…) 5 5 Read (…) 0 1 Recognize 2 2 Religion (…) 2 2 Romance 5 5 Singing 2 3 Stewardship 1 3 Swimming 2 1 Tourney 5 2

Gaulish Starting Skills male female 5 2 0 0 0 10 3 2 4 6 3 3 3 3 1 1 10 10 3 4 5 7 2 2 2 2 3 1 0 5 2 2 3 3 5 5 1 2 3 2 1 1 4 5 3 3 1 2 2 1 3 2

Battle Horsemanship Sword Lance Spear Dagger

2 5 (6) 2 2 2

1 2 0 0 0 2

2 3 (6) 4 4 3

1 2 0 0 0 3

Trait Modifiers [for Cymric, Gaulish and Irish knights] Bretons and Cornishmen are typically thought of as practical, fairly tolerant, but clannish. The British of Logres sometimes are critical or bigoted concerning the people of Cornwall in particular, who are seen as cowards. The truth of the matter, as the Cornish see it, is that they are smarter than their Logrian cousins, and scoff at imputations that they might fear battle. Indeed, the Cornish and the Bretons are formidable at sea, unlike their countrymen to the north and east. It is true, nonetheless, that the Cornish character was affected by their history, at least making them poor knights in the image of Arthur’s. The Bretons, likewise, see themselves as somewhat better than the regular lot of Arthur’s subjects; Breton pride contributes to their own internecine conflicts. Phase 1 [495-509]: Cornwall and Brittany suffer invasions, raids and fragment into petty kingdoms. Their peoples are similar in personality and culture, being close kin. Cornwall & Brittany: Energetic +1, Prudent +1, Valorous +1 Phase 2 [510-524]: Rebellion against Arthur in Cornwall, the wars with the Saxons, and the restoration of the Breton state. Cornwall: Arbitrary +1 (reflects lack of trust in law) Energetic +1, Suspicious +1, Prudent +1 Brittany: Energetic +1, Modest +1, Prudent +1, Valorous +1 Phase 3 [525-539]: King Mark consolidates his control over the two regions. Brittany reaches its height of splendor. Cornwall: Arbitrary +2, Suspicious +2, Cowardly +2* Brittany: Energetic +1, Modest +2, Prudent +2, Valorous +1 Phase 4 [540-554]: Civil order disintegrates in both regions (547 in Brittany, 550 in Cornwall). Evil lords seize power. Cornwall: Arbitrary +2, Cruel +1, Suspicious +2, Cowardly +2* Brittany: Prudent +2, Worldly +1 Phase 5 [555+]: The Grail Quest and the End of the Story. Cornwall: as Phase 4.* Brittany: Selfish +1, Prudent +1, Worldly +1 *Characters coming from Cador (Devon and Dunster) or Tristram’s lands (Lyonesse) should use the Phase 2 modifiers for Phases 3-5.

[Sidebar: The Rivalry between Logrian and Cornish knights: “Sir Sagramore looked upon Sir Tristram, and he had scorn of his words, and asked him again, ‘Fair knight, be ye a knight of Cornwall?’ ‘Whereby ask ye it?’ said Sir Tristram. ‘For it is seldom seen,’ said Sir Sagramore, ‘that ye Cornish knights be valiant men of arms; for which these two hours there met us one of you Cornish knights, and great words he spake, and anon with little might he was laid to the earth. And, as I trow,’ said Sir Sagramore, ‘ye shall have the same handsel that he had.” Malory, VIII.16 During Uther’s war with Duke Gorlois, the High King made a custom that any knight of his realm who was defeated by a knight of Cornwall in single combat would suffer the shame of giving up his armor and horse—surrendered to the victor. In effect, an encounter is treated as a challenge, with the winner taking these spoils. If the winner refuses the prizes, the loser must put aside their use. The generally accepted definition of a Cornish knight is any knight who has sworn fealty to King Mark in a direct manner. Since strictly Mark’s Breton lands are held in trust for his step-son Judikael, knights from those regions aren’t considered Cornish. A knight of Logres who suffers such a defeat loses 1 Honor, which he may regain by subsequently defeating the same opponent. The Honor is lost even if the knight is unaware of the origin of his opponent as long as it later made public. Because of the consequences of such a challenge, a Cornish knight who triumphs wins full glory (the combat is not considered “for love.”) There is no benefit to a Logres knight for winning, since that is only to be expected. The knight of Logres has the option of not issuing a challenge; if such a challenge is inappropriate (in court, during a war when fighting alongside the Cornish), though if there is any obvious question as to whether it is correct to fight the knight must lose 1 Honor for cowardice. There is no expectation that a Cornish knight will issue such a challenge, though that is an option. Most Cornish knights demur. This custom is suspended at various points by King Arthur. Although some knights still adhere to it then, there are no consequences for failing to do so. Between 514 and 519, between Bedegraine and Badon, he orders it explicitly suspended. After Mark refuses his feudal obligation in the Roman war in 526, Arthur re-instates it. It continues in practice until Mark submits in 544. During the Downfall, the rules of chivalry disintegrate and few care about such niceties.] Local Directed Trait Modifiers and Passions: Choose one to three of the following Passions and Directed Traits and record them on your character sheet. You must choose at least one from your

Homeland. If you pick two or three, one must be a Fear or Hate. If a Directed Trait is clearly incompatible for your knight, do not select it (for instance, if your Irish knight is from Cornubia, do not select Hate (Irish)). Cornish Directed Traits: Modest (reputations) +6, Cruel (slaves) +6, Suspicious (Logrians) +6 Breton Directed Traits: Pious (religious sites) +6, Proud (Nation) +6, Indulgent (Mediterranean goods) +6, Trust (musicians) +6 Breton Passions: Loyalty (Duke Hoel) 10 (may be taken in addition to any Loyalty (Lord) passions). Broerec’h Artavia Brest Carhaix Carnoet Cornouailles Cornubia

Suspicious (Franks) +6, Trust (Vivaine) +6 Hate (giants) 10; Suspicious (kings) +6, Indulgent (cider) +6 Prudent (at sea) +6 (as Poher) Fear (Deep forests) 10 Trust (Cornish) +6, Suspicious (Sea beings) +6 Hate (Irish) 10, Selfish (wrecked ships) +6, Suspicious (taxmen) +6, Indulgent (wine) +6 Devon Hate (Saxons) 10 Dinan Hate (Frisians) 10, Loyalty (Queen Anne) 10, Trust (Vivaine) +6 Dol Fear (giants) +6 Douarnenez Hate (pirates) 10 Dunster Trust (Clergy) +6 Exeter Hate (Saxons) 10; as Romans Guingamp Pious (forests) +6 Lamballe Suspicious (Vannetais people) +6, Hate (de Ganis) 10 Lannion Worldly (trade and wealth) +6 Leon Trust (Paying Customers) +6 Lyonesse Suspicious (Sea beings) +6, Selfish (wrecked ships) +6, Suspicious (Christian clergy) +6 Morlaix as Leon, Selfish (privateering) +6 Nantes (rural) Hate (Angevin Franks) 10 Paimpol Pious (the Sea) +6 Poher Suspicious (other Bretons) +6 Quimper Suspicious (Sea beings) +6, Trust (Clergy) +6 Quimperle Loyalty (house of Vortigern) 10 Redon Trust (monks) +6 Rennes as Romans Rennes (rural) Hate (Angevin Franks) 10

St-Brieuc St-Mathieu Scillies Tintagel Totnes Treguier Vannes Vannetais

Worldly (trade) +6 (as Leon), Pious (the Sea) +6 Worldly (strange customs) +6, Fear (Sea gods) +6, Cruel (raiding) +6 Trust (Morgan le Fay) +6 Hate (giants) 10, Selfish (coin) +6, Worldly (trade) +6, Hate (pirates) 10 Trust (Cornish) +6 as Romans Hate (Angevin Franks) 10

A Note on Breton Heraldry: Breton and Continental Heraldry in general is simpler than British. The number of charges and tinctures should be minimal. Popular charges include chevrons, lions, eagles and bends.

Timeline and Family History This section is designed to develop family history for player characters about to be knighted in 531, as in the main rulebook, and to be used for reference concerning the general timeline of the regions. With some modifications, it can be used to provide past histories for NPCs and players for earlier dates. Each entry has two sections: Cornwall and Brittany. Because there are multiple fiefs; one should already know the place of origin of the family (see Character Generation). The Cornwall history is directed at knights not from Geraint or Cador’s lands, which are very similar to Salisbury in the rules. Points at which families and knights emigrated to Cornwall or to Brittany are indicated. This section includes a large number of events from disparate sources including Breton chronicles, minor romances and probably most importantly, the lengthy events detailed in the Lancelot-Grail (Vulgate) between 510 to 518. This makes certain years rather active. It does not seem to stretch credibility (if that is the right term) that Arthur can engage in numerous small battles and cross the Channel in some years, but gamemasters should feel able to alter the dating if they wish. A Cornish or Breton-centered campaign probably ought to slightly exaggerate the activities of Arthur in those areas for dramatic effect. When Passions are duplicated as a result of rolls, add +1 to the former total.

Your Grandfather’s History YEAR 490

Brittany: In this year the usurper Riwal of Dumnonee seized the throne. Riwalin, his estraged son (who takes the byname Meliodas), and many other nobles flee to Britain. If the character’s family is Breton in origin and is now living in Cornwall, the character’s grandfather emigrated on a roll of 01-08. Roll on the Cornwall table for this year and all following years. Otherwise, roll on the following table: 01-10 Submitted to Riwal. 11-15 Fought against Riwal and fled to the hills. 25 Glory. 16-18 Went to Gaul in exile, serving the Romans. 19-20 Killed by Riwal’s men. 25 Glory. Cornwall: Saxon Raids. 01-05 Nothing significant. 06-14 Fought with Duke Gorlois and Prince Geraint at Windsor. 15-18 Garrison duty, and survived the raiding. 25 Glory. 19-20 Garrison duty, and killed by Saxons. 25 Glory. End history. Battle of Windsor (80) After the Battle (described in the Pendragon main rules) Gorlois was granted parts of the newly re-conquered Thames valley, which later forms the nucleus of Ulfius’ Duchy of Silchester. 01 Died with Great Glory. 1000 Glory. End history. 02 Died in battle. 03-20 Survived. d20 Passion Roll, 01-05 = success. 10 Hate (Saxons). YEAR 491 Brittany: Clovis captures much of Roman Gaul. Characters in Gaul in exile are killed on a roll of 01-05 (25 Glory). Cornwall: Uther invades Cornwall. Gorlois refuses to surrender his wife, Igraine, to the High King. Ulfius of Ridcaradoch, Gorlois’ brother-in-law, sides with Uther. 01-07 Skirmishing with Uther’s troops. 25 Glory. 08-09 Killed in a fight in the moors. 25 Glory. End history. 10-20 Garrison duty. 10 Glory. YEAR 492 Brittany: No events.

01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-20 Survived. Cornwall: The sieges of Terrabil and Tintagel; Uther “utterly lay[s] waste” to Gorlois’ lands [Story of Merlin, ch. 4]. Gorlois is killed at Terrabil and Igraine surrenders Tintagel. Eliduc is made Duke of Tintagel and Uther weds Igraine (30 days after her husband’s death, in mid-winter). 01-04 Defended Tintagel. 10 Glory. 05-10 Garrison duty elsewhere. 11-20 Fought at Terrabil. Battle of Castle Terrabil (100) 01-02 He died with Great Glory (1000) 03-06 Died in battle. End history. 07-20 Survived and ransomed. YEAR 493 Brittany: No events. 01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-20 Survived. Cornwall: Uther permits the slave tribute to the Irish to be revived. Each year the Cornish must surrender 100 young men and 100 young girls, of 15 (or thereabouts) years old and noble birth, as well as 100 horses. Uther attempts to compensate Gorlois’ vassals (through the intercession of Sir Ulfius), though he divides up the duchy itself; Gorlois’ lands in Silchester are assigned to Sir Ulfius. Meliodas of Lyonesse refuses to submit. 01-04 Resisted the Irish. 10 Glory. 05-08 Close kin are taken in slavery by the Irish. 09-12 Dispossessed by Eliduc or another of Uther’s men. 13-16 Dispossessed and join Meliodas. 10 Glory. 17-20 Killed by the Irish or Uther’s men. 25 Glory. End history. d20 Passion Roll, 01-10 = success 10 Hate (Irish) YEAR 494 No events. 01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-20 Survived. YEAR 495

Brittany: No events. 01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-20 Survived. Cornwall: Many of Uther’s new lords in Cornwall are killed at St. Alban’s with the king, affording the Cornish (including the character’s family) the opportunity to regain their lands. A major Irish raid occurs. Eliduc of Tintagel and Meliodas make peace to defend Cornwall. 01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-05 Resisted the Irish. 10 Glory. 06-07 Slain by the Irish. 25 Glory. End history. 08-15 Fought Uther’s surviving men. 10 Glory. 16-20 Joined forces with Eliduc and Meliodas. 10 Glory. YEARS 496-499 In 496 the last Roman towns and cities in Gaul (along the Loire) submitted to barbarian rule. The collapse of the Roman province meant that the Franks could now attempt to conquer Brittany. Irish raiding in Cornwall and Frankish raids in Brittany. 01 Died of a Miscellaneous Causes. 02-05 Killed in a raid. End history. 06-20 Survived. Brittany: d20 Passion roll: 01-10 success: 10 Hate (Franks) YEAR 500 Brittany: King Riwal murders the true heir, Prince Mélar of Cornouailles, a pious young man. Rebellion simmers and the martyred prince becomes a popular saint. Famine strikes Brittany for several years. 01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-06 Stayed out of politics. 07-11 Joined the rebellion. 10 Glory. 12-13 Killed in an encounter with the king’s men. 25 Glory. End history. 14-20 Son taken as hostage and forced to submit. Cornwall: Idres, step-son of Eliduc, takes command of the Cornish host. He defeats the Irish for the first time. 01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02 Killed by the Irish. 100 Glory. End history. 03-10 He became one of Idres’s companions. 10 Glory.

11-20 He chose to stay home and protect his family. YEARS 501-508/9 Cornwall: Meliodas marries Elizabeth, the niece of Gorlois (501) 01-20 Died. Roll on Miscellaneous Causes. To find date of death, roll d20/2 +500. Brittany: Riwal dies and Budic of Cornouailles returns to claim the empty throne. He restores the lands of the exiles and brings with him men from Cornwall and Escavalon (502). In France, Clovis establishes control over much of the remaining Roman lands and forces Ganis to give tribute (507-511). These are dangerous years, troubled by raids and disorder. Your grandfather supported either strong leaders or good men, according to his conscience. 01-04 Died. Roll on Miscellaneous Causes. 05-20 Survived. YEAR 509 (Brittany) Brittany: Budic is poisoned by agents of Clovis, King of the Franks. Frankish troops over-run Dumnonee and Vannes. Anna, his second wife, and the halfsister of Arthur through his father (though a concubine), becomes regent. If your family is indicated as coming from Brittany and emigrated to Cornwall, to find the date of its arrival, if not already established, roll d20. On a 1-10 they came to Cornwall at this time. You were born shortly before or after arrival in Britain. 01-03 Your grandfather died with great glory fighting the Franks. 1000 glory. 04-20 Your grandfather was killed in the war. 100 glory. d20 Passion roll 1-10 Success 10 Hate (French)

Your Father’s History YEAR 510 Brittany: The young Duke Hoel with his mother Anna resist the Franks. Your father was among Hoel’s knights or a knight of one of his allies. The Franks ally with the Saxons, who descend on Brittany, besieging Vandaliors and La NoeveFerte. The barbarians are led by chieftains named Maragond [Meregund, a Frank], Braolant [Beorlaf] and Pignoras [Peonric]. King Bors and Ban of Ganis led many Bretons (from the fiefs of Vannes and the Ganis lands near Broceliande in particular, which are overrun by the French and

Saxons) to fight at Bedegraine for King Arthur. Hoel (despite his official neutrality) refuses to stop any knight from fighting for Arthur. Roll: 01-13 Fight in Brittany; 04-20 Fight at Bedegraine Fight in Brittany: 01-02 Killed fighting the Saxons and the Franks. 100 Glory. End history. 03-20 Survived. d20 Passion roll 01-06 = success 10 Hate (French) d20 Passion roll 01-08 = success 10 Hate (Saxons) Fight at Bedegraine (see KAP rules, p.63) Cornwall: In this year Arthur claimed the throne of Britain. The first few to support him included Sir Cador, who was then merely Lord of Dunster and heir to Devon, a decision which led him into serious problems, since King Idres refused to give homage to the boy king. Cador’s father Geraint hesitated and finally supported Arthur at Carlion. The Cornish under Idres raid Jagent, burning several towns. Ever since the people of Jagent have hated your people. King Idres is forced to come to the aid of Duke Hoel in Brittany and fight Saxons raiding Cornwall. 01 Died from Miscellaneous Causes. 02-03 Killed fighting (01-10) Saxons or (11-20) Rebels or Loyalists. 04-20 Survived. YEAR 511 Brittany: The Frankish kingdom disintegrates after King Clovis’ death. His son Claudas raises Saxon mercenaries to ravage Brittany. Idres goes to Brittany and relieves Nantes with 3000 men, which was beleagered by the French and their Saxon allies. Many Bretons and Romans flock to Idres’ banner. In Brittany (at La Noeve Ferte, in Broceliande), Gawaine, his brothers, and Galeschin, who had been hidden there for safety, form the “Young Squires” and adopt chivalry. Though refusing to fight their fathers, they promise to aid Arthur and his ideals. They leave their protectors for Cornwall. Later in the year, in autumn, Nentres (who is in northern France) arrives in Brittany and fights the Saxons at La Noeve-Ferte in Broceliande. The result is inconclusive. 01-06 Served Garrison duty

07-12 Fought in small actions against the French 13-17 Joined Idres at Nantes (10 glory) 18-20 Fought at La Noeve-Ferte The Battle of La Noeve-Ferte (50) 01-02 Killed with Great Glory 1000 glory. End history. 03-05 Killed in battle. End history. 06-20 Survived. Cornwall: In Devon, Geraint remarries to Enid of Gwent, a member of the royal family of Escavalon, firmly aligning himself with Arthur [Geraint ac Enyd, a Welsh Romance] . He repudiates any fealty to King Idres. 01 Died from Miscellaneous Causes. 02-03 Killed fighting Saxons and French in Brittany. 04-20 Survived. YEAR 512 Brittany: In Spring, Tradelmant of Norgales and the King with a Hundred Knights lead expeditions against the Saxons raiding Léon and rout them near Lindesores. Hoel attempts to regain control of eastern Brittany from the Franks. He has limited success. After Igraine reveals that Arthur is her son by Uther, Hoel (Arthur’s nephew) swears allegiance by proxy to the new High King. Using his ties with the Rebel Kings, Hoel helps to patch together a truce with Arthur which culminates in a submission by the Rebels later in the year. 01 Go to Miscellaneous Cause Table. 02 Died in a small battle. 10 Glory. End history. 03-10 Survived. 11-15 Fought at Lindesores. 16-20 Fought at the Lake of Diana. The Battle of Lindesores (50) 01 Killed with Great Glory 1000 glory. End history. 02-04 Killed in battle. End history. 05-20 Survived (on a roll of 10-20, also fought at the Lake, below). Later in the year, Saxons, led by one Sorionde [Saeraed], again raid Cornouailles, destroying Vandeliors, near Quimper, then marching to join their compatriots near Broceliande. King Idres and his Danes corner the Saxons in Lys, but are

nearly defeated, save for the timely help of Ywaine, Gawaine and other northerners. Battle of the Lake of Diana (in Broceliande) (50) The Cornish and Bretons defeated the Saxons after a long, bloody battle with the help of the Young Squires: Ywaine and Gawaine. Sir Açes de Raguindel leads the Bretons. 01-02 Killed with Great Glory 1000 glory. End history. 03-05 Killed in battle. End history. 06-20 Survived. Cornwall: Meliodas disappears and civil war results in Lyonesse. Queen Elizabeth is forced into the wilderness, pregnant with the heir, and dies giving birth to Tristram. Later that year Meliodas returns and recovers his throne. The rebel lords are executed and loyal knights rewarded with their lands. Mark, now calling himself “Prince Mark” rides into Logres with a few members of his household and discovers the dead Lanceor and Colombe. He raises a monument to them (on the Roman road near Cirencester). Shortly thereafter he meets with Arthur and has a secret parley. 01-02 Go to Miscellaneous Cause Table. 03-05 Fought in the civil war in Lyonesse. 10 glory. 06-12 Fought against the Saxons at the Lake of Diana, with Idres (see above). 13-20 Served garrison duty. YEAR 513 Cornwall: King Meliodas quarrels with the Northern Kings, and is accused of adultery with the Queen of Ecosse (his late wife’s sister). He withdraws his forces from the Rebel army. Mark of Totnes betrays King Idres, adding his men to Arthur’s host. The Cornish are defeated, and King Idres is killed. Idres’s Danish mercenaries revolt and attempt to seize control of Cornubia and Lyonesse. Arthur and the lords of Cornwall ally against the mercenaries; it is said the King Idres returns from the grave to surrender his kingdom to Arthur. The Danes are defeated at Zennor, in Lyonesse. They flee to the Scillies and Ireland. 01-03 Go to Miscellaneous Cause Table. 04-08 Served in Garrison duty. 09-20 Fought at Terrabel. The Battle of Terrabel (600) The first numbers are if your father fought for King Idres, the second are if he fought for Mark or Cador, with Arthur. Idres ruled Cornubia, Tintagel and

Artavia; Mark and Cador controlled Totnes, Devon and Dunster. Lys and Lyonesse did not participate in the battle, although they did fight at Zennor. A large Breton contingent fought against Ryons under Oridials and Guiomar of Morlaix. 01-03 / 01 Killed with great glory. 1000 glory. End history. 04-07 / 02-04 Died in the battle. End history. 08-20 / 05-20 Survived, continue. The Battle of Zennor (100) All fought at Zennor that were able (on 01-03 your father was not present). 01 He died with considerable glory. 100 glory. End history. 02-03 He died in battle. End history. 04-20 He survived. d20 Passion roll 01-09 = success. 10 Fear (Danes) Roll to determine if your father went with Arthur to Brittany. On a roll of 01-08 he followed the High King. If your family is from Cornwall and settled in Brittany, they automatically go and settle there at this point. (If your father died, presume you were adopted and taken there by an uncle). Brittany: Knights from Leon and Morlaix should roll on the battle of Terrabel chart, later in the year Arthur leads his men and knights from Cornwall to Brittany where they defeat the French and their Frisian allies. All the remaining knights of Brittany fought at Dinan. On a roll of 01-10 (d20) survivors go on to fight the French at Trebes, in Ganis. The Battle of Dinan (100) 01 He died with Great Glory. 1000 Glory. End history. 02-04 He died in battle. End history. 05-20 Survived. The First Battle of Trebes (100) 01 He died with Great Glory. 1000 Glory. End history. 02-03 He died in battle. End history. 04-20 Survived. d20 Passion Roll 01-05=Success. 10 Hate (French) YEARS 514-516

Arthur married Guenevere at Pentecost in 514 and refounded the Round Table. In 515, the Lady of Vawse becomes embroiled in an attempt to shame Arthur for the May Babies in the “Adventure of the Grey Knight” (printed in Tales of Mystic Tournaments). Brittany: Hoel takes over Vannes, Sir Dinas becomes Viscount of Dinan, and Jonas recovers his family lands in Dumnonee. 01-02 Death from Miscellaneous Causes. 03-20 Survived. Cornwall: Mark takes the vacant throne after a council of the barons of Cornwall (515). As a boon from Arthur for his betrayal of Idres, the High King is compelled to recognize his election. King Meliodas and some of his friends go into the North and attempt to abduct (or rescue) Felice, the Queen of Ecosse. 01-03 Roll on Miscellaneous Causes Table. 04-18 Fought in local battles or against the Saxons. 50 Glory. 19-20 Killed by Saxon raiders. 100 Glory. End history. [if a knight of Lyonesse substitute “Pict” for Saxon in the events table.] YEAR 517 Brittany: No major events. 01 Died, Roll on the Miscellaneous Causes Table. 02-20 Survived. Cornwall: Saxons invaded at Totnes, overrunning Totnes and much of Devon; their raids reach as far as Somerset, where Geraint of Devon is killed. Boudin, Mark’s younger brother, dies, after the battle, of his wounds. Boudin was crucial in the victory, and his death removes a popular rival for Mark’s throne. Arthur intervenes in the feud between Meliodas and the King of Ecosse. The Queen of Ecosse is hidden in the wilds by her husband. Her children Andred and Archeman are sent to Cornwall to be fostered by King Mark. 01-02 Died with great glory. 1000 glory. End history. 03-06 Killed by Saxons. 100 glory. End history. 07-15 Fought with Cador at Totnes and in Devon. 100 glory. 16-20 Defended against Saxon raids. 10 glory. YEAR 518 This is the year of the battle of Badon. All the knights of Cornwall participate; however only part of the troops of Brittany are present.

Brittany: Because of the continuing threat from France, Hoel is able to send only a few knights. 01-07 Present at Badon with Cador or Arthur. Roll on the Badon chart, main rules, p.64. 08-09 Killed fighting the Franks in Brittany. 10 glory. 10-20 Served in the border wars. Cornwall: roll on the Badon chart, main rules, p.64. YEAR 519 Brittany: In this year came Dinabuc the giant to the Mont St. Michel, though his first depredations are limited to Coutances in Normandie and the Scissy marshes. 01 Died of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-09 Fought at Alclud with Hoel. 10-15 Fought at Trebes with Jonas. 16-20 Served Garrison Duty. Hoel and his troops are besieged in the North, while campaigning for Arthur, at Alclud. Many perish, surrounded by the Pictish horde. Arthur arrives and saves the garrison. The Battle of Alclud (500) 01-02 He died with Great Glory. 1000 glory. End history. 03-05 He was killed in the battle. 10 glory. End history. 06-20 He survived. d20 Passion Roll 01-10 = Success 10 Fear (Picts) The Second Battle of Trebes (500) Many of the Bretons not in Britain fought alongside Ban and Bors of Ganis and were defeated by the French. In this battle, Jonas, Count of Domnonee, is killed. 01-02 He died with Great Glory. 1000 glory. End history. 03-05 He was killed in the battle. End history. 06-09 He was captured and ransomed. 10-20 He escaped and survived. d20 Passion Roll 01-08 = Success. 10 Hate (Franks) Cornwall: In this year King Meliodas finally remarried, to Astre, the young daughter (and eldest child) of Duke Hoel. Though she was only a little over thirteen within a year rumors of scandal surface. Queen Astre is beautiful but fickle, fond of luxury and intrigue.

YEAR 520 Brittany & Cornwall: Jonas’s widow is wed to King Mark, who now establishes a foothold in Brittany, controlling both Dumnonee and Poher. He gives lands in Dumnonee to his loyal knights and rewarding Jonas’ vassals with lands in Cornwall left untenanted by the Saxon wars and the war with Arthur. St. Pol comes to Leon and becomes its first bishop. 01 Death of Miscellaneous Causes. 02-18 Your father visited Cornwall or Brittany. 19-20 Went Adventuring. Roll on the Father’s Adventure Results Table. (Main rules, p.66). This is the latest date for arrival in Cornwall or Brittany for immigrant families, so if a date has not been established it occurs at this point. YEARS 521-522 Cornwall: The Triple Quest takes Sir Marhaus to Cornwall, where he wins the tournament of Vawse. A few days later he slays the giant Taulurd. He remains with Fergus in Pydar for half the year; when he leaves he encounters Tryphaine about to be burned in the Wood of Plessis. He disproves the accusations of adultery against her before continuing back toward the Adventurous Fountain. Meliodas exiles his second wife to Brittany because she stands accused of attempting to poison his ten-year-old heir Tristram. Tristram himself begs for his step-mother’s life. King Mark decrees an end to the tribute to Ireland. 01 He dies of Miscellaneous Causes. End history. 02-10 Your father participates in the Vawse Tourney (see below). 11-16 Nothing significant occurs. 17-20 He sees the trial of Queen Astre in Lyonesse. The Tournament of Vawse (50) “Then Sir Marhaus departed, and within two days his damosel brought him whereas was a great tournament that the Lady de Vawse had cried. And who that did best should have a rich circlet of gold worth a thousand bezants. And there Sir Marhaus did so nobly that he was renowned, and had sometime down forty knights, and so the circlet of gold was rewarded him.” --Malory IV.25 The Tournament is well known for the exploits of Sir Marhaus and Sir Durmart, a knight from Cambria.

01-10 11-15 16-17 glory. 18-20

Your father makes no major impression. Your father does well. 10 glory. Your father wins one of the contests, though he loses to Marhaus. 100 Your father is accidently killed. End history.

YEAR 523 Brittany and Cornwall: Merlin is last seen in Cornwall and Brittany before disappearing forever. Many knights of the Round Table search for him, and Arthur posts a reward. Sir Ywaine has an adventure in the forest of Broceliande, and weds Laudine, the elder daughter of Sir Guythure of Morlaix. The marvels in Broceliande begin increasing in number and perilousness; the forest becomes increasingly impassible. Later in the year King Arthur has a court in Carhaix. 01 Your father dies searching for Merlin, somewhere in the Cornish moors or the forest of Broceliande. 10 glory. 02-18 Nothing of note. If in Brittany, your father briefly sees King Arthur at court. 19-20 Went Adventuring. Roll on the Father’s Adventure Results Table. (Main rules, p.66). YEAR 524 Brittany: Hoel and his troops return to Britain to suppress the rebellion of Angrés of Windsor, the son of Ulfius, Duke of Silchester. Mark and his men are absent from the muster, but since Angrés is his kinsman (the son of his aunt), this is not surprising. If the character’s father is from Domnonee or Carhaix he does not take part in this battle. 01-10 Fought at Windsor with Hoel. 11-20 Garrison duty. The Battle of Windsor (100) 01 Your father was killed. 10 glory. 02-20 Your father survived the battle. Cornwall: Lancelot comes to Cornwall on his way to Camelot. Tryphaine, the Queen of Cornwall, dies and Mark vows never to remarry. The Irish raid Cornwall in the fall, for the first time since Mark ended the tribute. Dywel, the Lord of Barnstaple, is killed fighting in Cambria against Maelgwyn. 01-05 Your father is jousted down by a strange knight whom no-one knows and no-one can defeat. 10 glory. 06-10 Your father gathers at Castle Dore to see the funeral of the Queen.

11-15 Your father fights the Irish. 16-17 Your father sees a baby girl given into the care of Duke Cador by a young woman from Cambria. 18-20 Your father vanishes into the north (he dies on the Adventure of the Castle of Joy). 10 glory. End history. YEAR 526 “Then came to him an husbandman of the country, and told him how there was in the country of Constantine, beside Brittany, a great giant which had slain, murdered and devoured much people of the country, and had been sustained seven year with the children of the commons of that land, ‘insomuch that all the children be all slain and destroyed; and now he hath taken the Duchess of Brittany as she rode with her meyne…” --Malory V.5 Brittany: Dinabuc, having devoured the people of the coast near his lair, moves inland and spreads his terror into the towns. Many knights were slain defending the country from his rampage. The giant seized the wife of Duke Hoel, raped, and killed her. Only King Arthur and some of his knights were able to kill the monster (in March). 01-05 Your father was killed by the giant. He acquited himself well and sacrificed himself to save the innocent. 1000 glory. End history. 06-20 Your father survived and joined Duke Hoel to fight with Arthur in France against the Franks and Romans. Passion 10 Fear (giants) 10 Loyalty (Arthur) Hoel’s Campaign in Poitou (150) Hoel conquered Poitou, but his magnamity convinced the Count, Guitard, to swear allegiance to Arthur. 01 He was killed in the campaign. End history. 02-20 He survived. 10 glory. Go onto the the Battle in Italy and later events (Main rules, p.66). Cornwall: Only those knights from Cador’s lands fight in France and Italy, because Mark retains his knights to guard against the Irish. Cador’s knights are ambushed after the Battle of Autun. They escaped total disaster only through the help of Lancelot and French knights from Poitou. The Ambush after the Battle of Autun. (250) 01-03 He died with great glory. 1000 glory. End history.

04-12 He died in battle. 10 glory. End history. 13-20 He survived. 10 glory. Go on to the Battle in Italy and later events (Main rules, p.66). d20 Passion roll. 01-10 Success +6 Suspicious (Romans) Tristram, still a squire, may be encountered at Paris at this time; he attends the feast held by Pharamond (the Count there) to welcome King Arthur after the surrender of the French. At this feast a fool predicts the death of Sir Marhaus, who is present, by Tristram’s hand. Sometime later in the year Pharamond’s daughter accuses Tristram of attacking her. When she is proved a liar, she commits suicide. It is said she did this for love of the young squire. YEAR 527 In this year King Meliodas released his wife Astre from her exile and she returned to Lyonesse. A peaceful year. 01 Death from Miscellaneous Causes. 02-18 Survived. 19-20 Went Adventuring. Roll on the Father’s Adventure Results Table. (Main rules, p.66). YEAR 528 Brittany: Arthur visits Brittany while returning from Rome. 01 Death from Miscellaneous Causes. 02-18 Survived, visited the court of the High King. 19-20 Went Adventuring. Roll on the Father’s Adventure Results Table. (Main rules, p.66). Cornwall: The Irish raid in retribution for the ending of the tribute six years previously. The Irish seize many noble hostages, including Andred, the King’s nephew. Yder is killed by giants in Somerset, on Brent Knoll. 01 Death from Miscellaneous Causes. 02 Killed by Irish raiders. 03-04 Heir seized by the Irish (the Player Character). See YEAR 530. 06-20 Garrison duty. YEAR 529 Brittany: 01 Death from Miscellaneous Causes.

02-18 Survived. 19-20 Went Adventuring. Roll on the Father’s Adventure Results Table. (Main rules, p.66). Cornwall: Tristram, Mark’s nephew, recently returned from the Continent, volunteers to challenge Sir Marhaus over the slave tribute. Tristram, who does not at first reveal his ancestry, had become famous at Mark’s court for his skill at hunting, his courtliness and his bravery. Marhaus and Tristram’s fight in the Scillies, on the Isle of St. Samson, on the summer solstice is witnessed by many knights from Ireland and Logres, including Sir Gaheris of Orkney. Tristram kills Marhaus. He is, however, badly wounded. Mark orders a yearly festival on the solstice to celebrate this triumph. 01 Death from Miscellaneous Causes. 02-10 Visited the court celebration at Tintagel and saw the wounded Tristram. 11-20 Served Garrison duty in case Tristram failed. YEAR 530 Brittany: Your father disappears one day, while in the forest, hunting. No-one knows what happened. Some say he was lost in the increasingly enchanted wilderness, others say his enemies waylaid him and left him in a shallow grave. Ysaive, the wife of Caradues, is often seen in the company of the sorceror Eliavres, though nothing more serious than rumor arises. Sir Agrippe, the Marshal of Brittany, quarrels publicly with his liege Duke Hoel. Cornwall: In the winter of the year a huge force of pirates (Saxons, Vandals and others) invades southern Cornwall and are defeated by the leadership of Prince Boudwin. He orders fireships to be sailed into the fleet and routs them. But Boudwin is killed after the battle, apparently by a treacherous prisoner. Your father died during the battle. Shortly afterwards, the Irish return the Cornish captives. The Cornish nobility take a large part in the Irish War. In Ireland, King Anguish announces a tournament to be held the next spring for the hand of the Lady of the Launds. [Inset: The Tournament of the Launds The Tourney was organized near Dublin and sponsored by three kings: Anguish of Leinster, Karados, the King of Escoce and the King with Hundred Knights. Some information is given in the main rules (p. 328, “The Adventure of the Irish Tournament” and in Pagan Shore, p.122 “The Wooing of the Lady of the Launds”). It makes an excellent introduction to Tristram and a Cornish

campaign, particularly one with ties to Ireland. Read Malory, VIII.9-12 or Curtis, pp.45-54. Sinc e this is one of the first places one might encounter Tristram, and the roll of famous participants is very long, a list of them is of some use. Agravain Antonio Bagdemagus of Gorre Barant of Malahaut Brandiles Dodinas le Savage Gaheris of Orkney Gawaine Griflet Guivret the Small Hebes the Renowned Karados of Escoce Kay Palomides Sagremore le Desirous Tamtrist Ywaine

(Italian, killed accidently by Tristram)

[alias Amadore] (knighted by Tristram before the tourney)

(a virtual unknown) [i.e. Tristram]

The tournament actually consisted of two tourneys; The first (morning) was the melee, which consisted of teams organized by Karados and Barant. Karados’ team consisted of the knights of Logres and Arthur’s allies in the recent war; Barant’s of Malahaut, Ireland and the old allies of Galehaut. Barant’s team triumphed. The afternoon saw the joust; Palomides won the day, defeating many Round Table Knights in the process. Palomides, however, did not accept the hand of the Lady of the Launds. Tristram did not particpate, because he was still in the last stages of recuperation. He may be encountered at the castle of King Anguish. After this tournament was a feast, in which Tristram saw and desired Isolt, after seeing her admiration for Palomides. PCs may find themselves developing an Amor Passion as well. Tristram decided to take part in the next tourney despite his injuries.

The second tournament was a tie-breaker and a joust, organized for Easter Day. In this tournament the refused prize would be bestowed: the hand of the Lady of the Launds. Barant defeated Karados; Palomides defeated Anguish (a member of Barant’s team). Tamtrist then appeared, as a part of Barant’s team. He defeated first Palomides, than Karados, and then the Round Table Knights. However, he did so incognito, and never accepted the prize, nor did Palomides, the winner by his default.]

Chapter 6 Encounters Strangers, Friends and Foes Alisandre le Orphelin The son of Prince Bodwyne and Angledis, and true heir, after Mark, of the throne of Cornwall. Alisandre’s father Bodwyne was the dwarfish younger twin of King Mark; but whereas Mark is handsome and ruthless, Bodwyne was misshapen and noble. Bodwyne was like his brother, blessed with much intelligence. After Bodwyne led the forces that defeated the Saxons (Saracens, in Malory) pirates in 530, his brother feared that Bodwyne’s superior leadership and popularity might create a formidable rival for control of Cornwall. But it seemed that Bodwyne was killed shortly after the battle by a prisoner. Bodwyne’s wife and young son disappeared, and it appeared that they had been killed by Saxon marauders. In fact, Sir Sadok, who had been entrusted with the duty of murdering Angledis and Alisandre, faked their deaths. King Mark himself had stabbed his brother to death under pretext of a private meeting. Angledis fled to the lands of her father (the late Earl Ranner) in Sussex, and her son was raised in secret by the Castellan of Magouns, Sir Bellangre. Alisandre was knighted in 545, when he was 17. His mother told him of his father’s death and made him promise to avenge him. One of the knights of Magouns, however, filled with jealousy and greed, revealed the survival of Alisandre in 546, and Mark sent evil men, who murdered Angledis and Bellangre and anyone else who resisted. Alisandre was meanwhile in errancy and was triumphant at a tourney held by King Carados. His success aroused the interest of Morgan le Fay, who enscrolled him, and carried him off to her castle of Beau-Regard in Norgales. He was finally delivered from captivity by a maiden there, but was forced by oath to remain at the site of the castle, which had been burned down. Alisandre married Alice of Benoic in 547, and she was swiftly delivered of a child. In 553, Mark discovered that Alisandre lived in Benoic, in the North, and came in secret, surprising and murdering him with the help of a false knight named Sir Helin. However, Alisandre’s young son Bellangere escaped with his mother Alice, and was knighted in 562 (aged 15), and charged with the duty of bringing justice to Mark. Bellangere was successful in 566, after the battle of Camlann.

Glory: 10,000 (in 547) SIZ 15 Move 3 DEX 16 Damage 5d6 STR 17 Hit Points 30 CON 15 Armorpartial plate (14) (Boudwin’s armor) APP 15 Age 21 Attacks: Sword 21, Lance 22, Horsemanship 19 Significant Traits: Chaste 19, Energetic 18, Modest 16, Valorous 19 Significant Passions: Love (family) 19, Honor 20 Significant Skills: Heraldry 17, Intrigue 16, Romance 16, Tourney 18 Horse: Charger Equipment: Father’s arms and armor Description: A young knight, dark haired and quiet. Ayglin des Vawse [Aglant] Husband of Escorducarla of Vawse. Aiglin is the older brother of Kahedins and of Duchess Ydain of Devon. He is a friend of Sir Tor; his time is divided between adventuring, Camelot, his wife’s lands in Cornwall and his kin’s land in Brittany. Ayglin was one of the earlier Round Table knights. Use the Extraordinary Knight statistics on p.329-330 of the KAP rules. Ayglin is a religious Pagan. Brangain


“Meanwhile, noble Brangane, the lovely Full Moon, came gliding in, leading Tristan, her companion, by the hand. The stately, well-bred girl went modestly at his side, in person and in carriage beyond all measure charming, in spirit proud and free.” --Tristan (Gottfried von Strassburg, c.1210) The daughter of Cosen, originally a Cymric prisoner now and steward to King Anguish’s father. Cosen married a Irishwoman of Anguish’s Uí Dunlaing clan. She was Isolt’s first and closest handmaiden, and was of the same age. Brangain is very beautiful, so much so that she is compared to the moon to Isolt’s sun. She has two younger brothers, Perynins and Mathael, who are pages attached to Isolt’s retinue. She is intelligent, practical and extremely loyal. Brangain is a skilled herbalist with minor magical abilities.

Glory: 5,000 (in 534) SIZ 09 Move DEX 17 Damage STR 10 Hit Points CON 16 Armornone APP 19 Age

3 3d6 25 17

Attacks: Dagger 7, Horsemanship 9 Significant Traits: Chaste 17, Energetic 18, Proud 14, Prudent 16, Valorous 15. Directed Trait: Deceitful (for Isolt) 19 Significant Passions: Loyalty (Isolt) 20, Honor 18 Significant Skills: Awareness 15, Chirurgery 18, Courtesy 19, Dancing 17, First Aid 19, Flirting 16, Intrigue 18, Industry 16, Romance 15 Woman’s Gift: Potions Horse: Palfrey Equipment: 2 L dress Description: A beautiful young woman, dark haired and pale. Dinadan Dinadan is the brother of La Cote Male Taille (whose real name is the same as their father, Sir Brunor). Sir Brunor the Elder (the son of Esclanor of Guemene, in Brittany) was known as the Good Knight without Fear and he was one of the most accomplished of King Uther’s old Round Table. After becoming High King in 480, Uther named Brunor to be King of Estrangorre. However, Uther’s death led to King Karados of Escoce conquering the kingdom. Brunor became an exile. Late in life, Brunor returned to fight with his old comrade Leodegrance and lead a part of the Round Table in Cameliard. He married there and eventually fathered Dinadan (circa 515) and Brunor the Younger (circa 518). Brunor the Elder lived in semi-retirement, going on to become one of Arthur’s Round Table knights and fight the Saxons. However, following the Enchantment of Britain, he was captured and became one of the prisoners of Isle of Servage. Tristram rescued him in 538. When Brunor returned to Cameliard, he was ambushed by two old enemies named Sir Ferrant and Sir Briadan; his battered body was left on the road. A few years later, in 542, Tristram encountered Sir Dinadan on the road out of Cornwall and they became fast friends. Dinadan’s philosophy of pragmatism (leavened with a good heart) and rejection of romance and the more fool-hardy aspects of chivalry was a welcome antidote for Tristram, who had seen his life

turn from joy to melancholy from his adherence to these principles. Tristram did not waver, but he appreciated his friend’s criticisms. Dinadan had come to take these views after his father’s disappearance and from living in genteel poverty on the outskirts of the court. He had seen firsthand the effects of the questing life and ambition, and the pernicious effect of courtly love. Dinadan remained with without stint Tristram until 544, when the Cornish knight went back to Tintagel, but he also travelled with Tristram from 551-554 frequently. Dinadan was murdered by Agravaine and Mordred about 555, during the Quest for the Holy Grail. Dinadan’s brother La Cote Male Taille pursued his father’s murderers in the 540s; his character seems to be altogether different than Dinadan’s, more earnest, conventional and simple. Arms: 1. Sable a lion rampant argent. [Sir Brunor’s arms, possibly based on Leodegrance’s] 2. Or a bend sable in sinister chief point a mullet of the second. [These arms borne to travel incognito, from Vienna Ms. 2537] Glory: 12,000 (in 542) SIZ 14 Move 3 DEX 16 Damage 5d6 STR 15 Hit Points 31 CON 17 Armorpartial plate (14) APP 13 Age 27 Attacks: Sword 19, Lance 17, Horsemanship 18 Significant Traits: Chaste 19, Energetic 18, Modest 16, Prudent 20, Worldly 14, Valorous 15 Significant Passions: Love (family) 16 Significant Skills: Awareness 16, Courtesy 15, Orate 15 Horse: Charger Equipment: Practical and not flashy Description: Sharp-glanced, with a wry smile. Golistant (alias Morholdin) The only son of Marhaus, born to his secret lover, a princess. He was initially a squire of the old knight Segurant the Brown, the mightiest member of Uther’s old Round Table, and a ruthless and skilled warrior. [Later he was knighted by Tristram. In due course he became the castellan of Joyeuse Garde, and was killed by King Mark in 554.]

Use the Famous Knight statistics on p. 329 of the KAP rules. His Traits are identical to his father (found on p. 128 of The Boy King). He has a Loyalty (Lancelot) of 19 after Phase 3. Gouvernail “Then Merlin called a youth who was staying there, a very intelligent and worthy young man;… He was such a handsome and worthy young man, and so noble in so many ways that he was loved by all who knew him except by those who were filled by envy; and he was called Governal.” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c. 1230-40) Tristram’s squire, born in Gaul. He was forced into exile after accidently killing his brother. Bereft of hopes or hopes of hopes, he became a laborer in Lyonesse; there Merlin found him and entrusted the young Tristram to his care. Gouvernail is very learned, filled with scholastic and folk knowledge, as perhaps only a poor nobleman with an unfinished clerical education can be. Gouvernail is also Tristram’s chamberlain. As the young knight becomes increasingly withdrawn and errant, he takes over much of the day to day management of the estates of Lyonesse. Gouvernail has a thus far unrequited love for Brangain, Isolt’s chief servant. Glory: 5,000 (in 534) SIZ 13 Move 3 DEX 16 Damage 5d6 STR 15 Hit Points 28 CON 15 ArmorCuirboilli (6) + 3 (Chivalry) APP 17 Age 37 Attacks: Sword 18, Lance 15, Dagger 14, Battle 12, Horsemanship 20 Significant Traits: Energetic 17, Just 16, Modest 16, Temperate 15, Valorous 17. Significant Passions: Loyalty (Tristram) 21, Amor (Brangain) 16, Hospitality 17, Honor 14. Significant Skills: Awareness 18, Compose 13, Courtesy 17, Falconry 16, First Aid 19, Folk Lore 15, Gaming 16, Heraldry 15, Hunting 17, Orate 15, Play (Harp) 15, Read (Latin) 10, Recognize 14, Singing 16, Stewardship 18, Tourney 15. Horse: Rouncy Equipment: Plain clothes and spare equipment for Tristram Description: Middle-aged, but handsome in a Gallic way. Exhudes competence. Kahedins de Lanprebois

[Cae Hir]

Brother-in-law to Duke Cador, and son of Cadret of Escoce and a Breton princess, the sister of Duke Hoel. His paternal grandmother was a Pictish Princess, by whose marriage his uncle Keu was a pretender to the thrones of Escoce and Strangor. Kahedins fought at Carohaise and against the Saxons as a knight errant; after his grandfather Angusel’s death in 514, he settled in Brittany. He was captured and imprisoned at Dolorous Garde in 525; later he is a victim of the Val sans Retour (in 532). Kahedins is the godfather of Sir Keyhidius, whose name is a variant. Use the Extraordinary Knight statistics found on pp.329-30 of the KAP rules. His traits are religious Pagan. Melot, alias Frocin, alias Acquitan “At that moment a dwarf passed in front of him who was a soothsayer; he had lived in Great Britain where Merlin had taught him a great deal about these things… King Mark, seeing that he was wise, resourceful and trustworthy had retained him in his service. This dwarf knew so much about the occult and about things to come that no one apart from Merlin understood more about it.” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c. 1230-40) Perhaps the son of Duke Hoel, though this rumor may be the dwarf’s own slander, Melot is a sorcerer, necromancer and astrologer. At some point he studied under Merlin. He is also an adviser to King Mark, playing the misleading role of court fool. Until 521, Melot was Mark’s chamberlain, but was forced from his post by false accusations of adultery with Queen Tryphaine (Post-Quest, chapter 48), from which he was rescued by Sir Marhaus. He then returned to Brittany. Melot did not come back to Cornwall until after the rise of Tristram to his old post, by this time thoroughly convinced of the deceptions and selfishness of taller folk. Melot fully enjoyed causing further turmoil in the court, spreading rumors concerning Tristram and Isolt and further feeding the paranoia of King Mark. Melot is ugly and unlikeable. He is a skilled deceiver and intriguer. [Melot is (apparently) executed in 535 after he reveals King Mark has horse’s ears at court. However, Melot seems to have cursed the king himself. Mark by some unknown means later rid himself of the embarrassing feature.] Sir Marhaus [Morholt, Mórallt] “Now when Tristram had finished saying this, Mórold sprang to his feet and remained standing. He appeared red of face, tall of stature, and stout of limb, and altogether powerful. He spoke in a loud voice from his thick throat.

‘I understand,’ he said, ‘what your foolishness prompted you to say. You do not want to pay the tribute and surrender it to me graciously, but rather to withhold it from me by force… let one of your men meet me in single combat to prove that you are not obligated to pay tribute to me. And if I fail in this, you will rightly and honorably be free.” --Saga of Tristram and Isond (13th c.) The champion of Ireland and Round Table knight slain by Tristram in 529. Marhaus was the brother-in-law of Anguish and the uncle of Isolt. He was born circa 481, the son of King Marhalt of Uí Cennsealaigh, a province of southern Leinster. Marhaus was a mercenary in Brittany and Ganis before becoming the royal champion and later adventured in Logres. He first acquired fame in Britain at the Pentecost tourney in 519. Before this he fought for his kinsmen of Ganis at Trebes in 518. It was the Lady Marche, a member of the Leinster dynasty that had married old King Lancelot of Ganis circa 480. Marhaus came to Logres burdened with a poor reputation for courtesy toward women. This may have arisen from his clan’s traffic in the Cymric slaves. Or it may have been, as Marhaus explained, a false rumor started by evil enchantresses. Marhaus’ skills were sufficient in the Triple Quest to unhorse both Gawaine and Ywain. His adventures on the Triple Quest (521) are somewhat confusingly recounted by Malory; this account includes the episodes described in the PostVulgate. After going with the second of the three maidens, Marhaus encountered King Pellinore a few days later. Since this episode takes place in Pellinore’s own lands, it may be that Marhaus found himself in the Isles, but is more likely that the kingdom is Galvoie, which is a subject realm to the Grail Kings. It is only a year later (in 522) that Gawaine, still on the quest, finds and kills Pellinore. Three days later, Marhaus came to the marches of Cornwall and encountered the “Duke of the South Marches” (the Earl of Jagent). Shortly after reconciling the Earl to King Arthur, Marhaus discovered the Queen of Cornwall, Tryphaine, in the wood of Norholt (or Plessis). Marhaus took up her cause, for she was to be burned for adultery (ironically with the dwarf Melot, who was Mark’s chamberlain). After rescuing Tryphaine, Marhaus found the Stone of the Stag, a strange adventure associated with the Grail Quest. Here his accompanying maiden perished. The next adventure was the tournament of Vawse, in which he triumphed. Finally he encountered the giant Taulurd in southwestern Cornubia, who was ravaging Pydar. He killed the giant, though becoming wounded in the process.

After a year or so of recuperation he turned back towards Logres and reencounted Sir Gawaine at the castle of Lady Ettard. This was somewhere around the border of northern Cambria and Logres, so Marhaus may have gone by ship. The two were eventually imprisoned in a magical fortress, the “Rock of Maidens”, from which they could not escape. They were rescued by Gawaine’s brother Gaheris. After Marhaus served Arthur for several years and became a Round Table knight (in 523) he returned to Ireland in Gaheris’ company, about a year before his death (528), but after the Roman War. Marhaus’ statistics given in The Boy King (p.128) do not reflect either his age in the Romance of Guiron, nor do they give any real evidence of prowess equal to the young Tristram. One solution might be to interpret it so Marhaus possesses variable SIZ, the main mechanism of his increasing damage. At his most powerful (8 PM) he possesses a SIZ of 33; his armor is enchanted to compensate. This is seen as evidence of Fomorian ancestry by his enemies. Sir Palomides [Palamedes], later Earl of Beal Valet “Then they drew back a little from each other, and the Queen turned to Palamedes, saying: ‘Palamedes, you’ve given me to understand that you love me?’ ‘My lady,’ he replied, ‘I truly love you more than any other woman; indeed, I love you more than myself and the whole world. You alone do I love, and you alone shall I love in such way that my heart will never experience joy and good fortune or sink into sadness and grief except through you.” --Romance of Tristan (Prose Tristan) (c.1230-40) The son of Sir Astlabor or Esclabor, of Babylon (a place in Egypt), this Berber or Moorish knight was Sir Tristram’s most serious rival for the love of Isolt. He was the youngest brother of Safere and Segwarides and eight other un-named knights. Sometime during the Saxon Wars he came to Logres and became a knight, though he was never christened. He had no liege and was a knight errant, though for a time he lived at Camelot. He appeared at the Tournament of the Launds in Ireland in 530, where he competed and won; it seems he was serving as a mercenary knight in that war. Tristram was recuperating from the poisoned wound under the care of Isolt at the time; and he saw that Palomides was competing for Isolt’s favor. Palomides was carrying a blank black shield and two swords, which meant he would challenge two men at the same time. Because Palomides was enamored of Isolt, he refused the hand of the Lady of the Launds. It was in large part Palomides’ example which spurred Tristram’s interest in Isolt; although surely the close company they kept in his recovery was partly to blame.

A second tournament was called shortly thereafter, sponsored by the King with a Hundred Knights to celebrate the peace, and Tristram won, fighting in white armor, shaming Palomides. Tristram compelled Palomides, as a bearer of two swords, to surrender his arms, armor and horse to him, a knight of Cornwall, and banished him from Isolt’s presence. In 534 he came to Cornwall after the marriage of Mark and Isolt and attempted to abduct the Queen. He did this by rescuing Bragwaine from being left in the forest by the serfs Isolt had sent to kill her, and thus begged a boon of Isolt that she ride off with him; King Mark allowed this but sent his knights after the Saracen. Tristram was away at the time, so Sir Lambegus was the first to find Palomides, who defeated him. At this point Isolt found the tower of Sir Adtherpe and hid there; it was at that site that Tristram caught up with Palomides. Tristram was about to cut down the abductor but Isolt begged him not to, on account of Palomides’ unbaptized state. Isolt ordered the knight to make his way to Camelot; where he eventually became a knight of the Round Table (circa 537). He did not, however, abandon his affections for the Queen. Arthur made Palomides Earl of Beale Valet in 544. Arms: 1. Chequy argent and sable 2. Chequy argent and sable, overall two swords in saltire points upward or. [Vienna Ms. 2537] (in 531) SIZ: 13 Move 3 DEX: 16 Damage 5d6 STR: 17 Hit Points 31 CON: 18 Armor 14 + 3 (Chivalry) + shield APP: 15* Age 26 *to those unprejudiced to dark skin, his APP is 19. Attacks: Sword 25, Lance 26, Battle 16, Horsemanship 22, Composite Bow 15. Traits: Chaste 17, Energetic 16, Forgiving 12, Generous 16, Honest 15, Just 16, Merciful 17, Modest 16, Pious 16, Reckless 14, Temperate 14, Trusting 12, Valorous 18. Passions: Love (family) 16, Hospitality 18, Honor 17, Amor (Isolt) 19. Skills: Awareness 14, Chirurgery 5, Compose 12, Courtesy 17, Dancing 10, Falconry 12, First Aid 16, Flirting 14, Gaming 17, Heraldry 10, Recognize 13, Religion (Oriental Paganism) 15, Romance 19, Singing 13, Stewardship 2, Swimming 11, Tourney 17. Horse: Andalusian Charger (Move 10, Damage 7d6) Tristram’s Stables, Kennels and Swords

His horses: Passbruel (Passebreuil), a dark Andulusian charger given to him by King Mark in 529. Passbruel was supposedly killed by Urgan the Hairy in 535. But Tristram somehow still was riding him later. In the Prose Tristan, he was last seen at the time of the Hard Rock tourney (542). Damage 7D6 Move 10 Armor5 HP: 54 SIZ: 36 CON: 18 DEX: 18 Other horses: Gulistardo, ‘a fine and noble bay’ given to him by Belide, the daughter of Pharamond, and his first horse. Piantagiorno, given to Tristram by the lord of the country oppressed by Urgan. Iron-gray in color. Brunfort, a black horse given to him by Morgan le Fay (542). Perhaps the horse he rode at Lonazep. Giuriando, ‘gold as grain’, and given by Sir Inamante of Val-Brun. Bel-Joeor, his courser, owned in the 530s. Auferrante, ridden in Phase 3. His swords: Curtana, a very heavy hand and a half sword. Tristram received the sword from King Mark’s treasury when he was knighted. When the emperor Charlemagne visited England, he recovered the swords of Tristram and Palomides; the sword of Tristram he gave to Ogier the Dane. Curtana is also known as Vistamara, and is reputed to be the best sword in the world. Curtana is so heavy that it does an additional 1D6 damage. It is a one-handed sword, so a strength of 18 is necessary to wield it. The sword is magically tempered so it never loses its sharpness or breaks. His dogs: Husdent

“You will hear me tell of a hunting dog so fine that no king or count had a dog to equal him. He was fast, always on alert, quick and lively, and his name was Husdant. He was in Mark’s castle on a leash fastened to a block of wood. He looked all round him and was very upset because he could not see his master. He would not eat bread or paste or anything that was given to him. He scowled and pawed the ground with tears in his eyes…” --Romance of Tristan (Béroul) (alias Hodant), a greyhound, originally bestowed on Tristram by Besille, the daughter of Pharamond of Paris (528-9). Husdent is still alive in 542, when he recognizes his master at Mark’s court. Sir Dinas gave 2 puppies, sons of Husdent, to his amie in the same year. For information on Greyhounds, see p.61 of Lordly Domains. Husdent has Hunting 21, Bite 17 (3D6 damage), 22 Hit Points and 1 Armor. He also has Awareness 18 and Recognize 22. Petitcreu “He gave her the dog and asked her to take it to the queen as a gift from Tristram. And she received it with great joy and many thanks, for there could never be a more beautiful creature… This dog could catch every kind of animal so that nothing ever escaped it, and was so clever at tracking that it discovered all paths and trails.” --Saga of Tristram and Isond (13th century) A small dog from the land of Faerie given to him after he killed Urgan the Giant in 535. He gave Petitcreu to Isolt before leaving Cornwall. Petitcreu’s magical power is that he prevents sadness and melancholy in those around him. But Isolt refused to keep him, preferring to pine for her lover. Petitcreu is a Brachet (see p.60 of Lordly Domains). As a dog of Faerie, his statistics are unusual. He is white with red ears. Petitcreu gives a +5 to Hunting rolls as a lead-hound, +5 to Search and has an instinctive Hunting of 23. He also has an Awareness of 19 and a Recognize of 20. His magical effect is the equivalent of an Emotion: Evoke Emotion (Happiness) of 60. Standard Encounters Ordinary Cornish Knight (during the Consolidation or Later) Cornish knights have an abysmal reputation in Arthur’s reign. They are mocked for their tendency to rely on mercenaries and their characteristic

cowardice (or prudence), at least compared to other knights. There is evidence, however, that they are indeed dangerous in close quarters, or in ambush. Current Glory 1400 SIZ: 13 Move 2 DEX: 12 Damage 4d6 STR: 10 Hit Points 27 CON: 14 Armor 10 + shield APP: 12 Knight value: .75 Attacks: Sword 13, Lance 12, Spear 5, Dagger 4, Battle 10, Horsemanship 10 Significant Traits: Valorous 12 Significant Passions: Loyalty (lord) 12 Significant Skills: Awareness 12, Courtesy 7, First Aid 10, Heraldry 7, Hunting 5, Intrigue 7, Tourney 7. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Other Equipment: 1 £. clothing Ordinary Breton Knight Most Breton Knights are accustomed to fighting in small units, conducting raids, or fighting one-on-one. In later Phases, they have a reputation for fighting well in tournaments. Current Glory 1600 SIZ: 13 Move 3 DEX: 13 Damage 4d6 STR: 14 Hit Points 27 CON: 14 Armor 10 + shield APP: 12 Knight Value: 1 Attacks: Sword 14, Lance 15, Spear 13, Dagger 4, Battle 15, Horsemanship 18 Significant Traits: Valorous 16 Significant Passions: Loyalty (lord) 15 Significant Skills: Awareness 12, Courtesy 11, First Aid 10, Heraldry 10, Hunting 7, Tourney 10. Horse: Charger (Move 8, Damage 6d6) Other Equipment: 1 £. clothing Breton Light Calvary The mainstay of the Breton forces, these men are lesser nobles (squires and free rich peasants)—anyone rich enough to own a horse. The Bretons, using horses for mobility, are very difficult to trap into pitched battle. The preferred tactic is to harry the enemy into exhaustion and confusion. Like the Huns, the

Bretons are skilled at mounted archery. Because of their Horsemanship, they are still deadly in melee. Hoel’s mobility with these troops enables him to serve Arthur ably in Phase 1. However the peace of later Phases causes the loss of much of their numbers and effectiveness; by Phase 4, most Breton troops are infantry, as in Britain. SIZ: 11 DEX: 12 STR: 13 CON: 13 APP: 12

Move 3 Damage 4d6 Hit Points 27 Armor Knight Value: 0.65

Attacks: Sword 12, Lance 12, Spear 13, Dagger 4, Battle 12, Bow 14, Horsemanship 15 Significant Traits: Valorous 13 Significant Passions: Loyalty (lord) 12 Significant Skills: Awareness 12, First Aid 10, Hunting 9. Horse: Courser (Move, Damage) Danish or Saxon Mercenary/Raider SIZ: 17 Move 2 DEX: 11 Damage 5d6 STR: 15 Hit Points 31 CON: 14 Armor 8 + shield APP: 12 Knight value: 1 Attacks: Axe 14, Sword 13, Javelin 14, Dagger 15, Battle 13, Horsemanship 7 Significant Traits: Valorous 15 Significant Passions: Loyalty (lord) 6 Significant Skills: Awareness 15, Boating 15, Swimming 10. Other Equipment: Saxon chain armor, axe, sword, shield, 2 spears, knife, palfrey. Clothing worth 60d. Saxon Sailor or Trader SIZ: 16 Move 2 DEX: 8 Damage 5d6 STR: 14 Hit Points 30 CON: 14 Armor 0 APP: 12 Knight value: .3 Attacks: Sword 13, Javelin 13, Dagger 13, Battle 10, Horsemanship 5 Significant Traits: Valorous 12

Significant Passions: Loyalty (lord) 5 Significant Skills: Awareness 15, Boating 12, Industry 10, Swimming 10. Other Equipment: Saex knife, Javelin, 10 d. clothing

Appendices Travelling the Narrow Sea These rules are based on those presented in Land of Giants, pp. 8-12, and are somewhat streamlined. [Inset: Simplified Travel It isn’t always necessary or useful to calculate detailed events for a voyage, particularly during the calmer weather of late spring and summer, or for NPCs making the journey. In this case, simply roll the dice indicated to find the number of days taken by the voyage. Aleth 2D6 1D3 1D6+2 -1D6 1D6+1 1D6+1 1D3 1D6 1D6+1

Exeter 1D6+1 1D3 2D6+1 1D6 -2D6 1D3 1D3-1 1D6 2D6

Nantes 2D6+4 2D6 2D6+2 1D6+1 2D6 -1D6+1 1D6+2 1D3 1D3-1

Tintagel 2D6 1D3+1 1D3+2 1D6+1 1D3 1D6+1 -1D3 1D6 1D6+1

Totnes 1D6+1 1D3 2D6 1D3 1D3-1 1D6+2 1D3 -1D6+1 1D6+1

Quimper 2D6+3 1D6+2 2D6 1D6 1D6 1D3 1D6 1D6+1 -1D3-1

Vannes 2D6+4 2D6 2D6+2 1D6+1 2D6 1D3-1 1D6+1 1D6+1 1D3-1 --

London Hantonne Dublin Aleth Exeter Nantes Tintagel Totnes Quimper Vannes]

Daily Travel To find the ship’s speed, the prevailing wind’s strength and direction and the success of the crew in utilizing it must be found. Wind Effect Table* D20 Result 01-02 Becalmed 03-06 Poor Wind 07-14 Average Wind 15-18 Good Wind 19-20 Storm +1 should be added to rolls for ships travelling in the North Atlantic (between Tintagel, Dublin, Exeter and Totnes and Quimper, Vannes or Nantes, or 40 miles

should be added to the distance of the voyage if the ship takes the Channel route.) Becalmed: The ship is stopped. If the ship is equiped with oars, the sailors may travel at Average Wind speed for one day without resting. Oars are found on warships in both Cornwall and Brittany but are uncommon on merchant vessels. Storm: The ship is caught in a storm. If the crew succeeds in an Awareness roll they may put ashore and lose 1 day of travel (of course, if on the open sea, this is not an option). In a storm, each character must roll DEX. Each failure indicates that some equipment is lost (roll D6: 1 = Primary weapon, 2-3 = Secondary weapon, 4 = Shield, 5-6 = Purse and money). Also a CON roll is necessary for each horse. Failure means death. The Raining heavily modifier is applied to the Boating roll during storms. Tack and Harness the Wind Roll for sailors and crew (default skill at Boating is 10). Apply as many of these modifiers are relevant. Boating Modifiers Situation Modifier Know route +10 Lost -10 In sight of coast +5 Cannot see land Raining -5 Rainging heavily -10 Fog / Night -15 The result is crossreferenced on the following table to find the progress made that day: Travel Distance (in miles per day) Critical Success Becalmed 10 0 Poor Wind 35 20 Average Wind 70 35 Good Wind 100 50 Storm 120 60

Failure 0 10 20 25 *

Fumble 0 * * * *

*No distance, and the ship is now Lost (see Boating Modifiers table). Travel Distances

Aleth 500 160 600 -180 300 320 200 200 260

Exeter 280 100 500 180 -460 180 30 340 380

Nantes 800 460 620 300 460 -320 500 140 80

Tintagel 460 280 320 320 180 320 -160 250 270

Totnes 300 120 440 140 30 400 160 -300 360

Quimper 700 360 460 200 270 140 250 300 -80

Vannes 780 London 440 Hantonne 600 Dublin 280 Aleth 440 Exeter 80 Nantes 270 Tintagel 320 Totnes 80 Quimper -Vannes

Sea-borne Encounter Table (This table differs from that presented in Land of Giants, p.11) D20 01-04 05-07 08 09 10-11 12-14 15 16 17-18 19-20

Result Mundane Sea Creatures Sea Monster Island Pirates or Smugglers Merchant Ghostly Bells A Saint on a coracle Underwater Castle Driftwood and Wreckage

Sea Monster Table Near Shore Open Water 1-2 1-2 3-5 3-5 6-7 6-7 8 8-9 9 10-11 10-11 12-13 14-15 12 16 13-15 17-18 16-17 19 20 18 19-20

Monster Ghost Ship Mermaid Merman Raz (Kraken) Sea-serpent Wading giant Yannig-an-Od Water Horse Intelligent Fish Will o’ the Whisp Wyvern Bird maiden Ship from the Land of Faerie

Island Perhaps a part of Lyonesse undevoured by the sea; or one of the strange islands encountered by Joseph of Arimathea’s companions and followers as they came to Britain. As Nasciens and Joseph came their separate ways to Britain, three magical islands were discovered: Ornagrine, the Turning Isle (Torneant) and PortAstriges. While these islands may be identical to the Scillies, they are also part of the otherworld, inhabited by giants, faeries and other wonders. Pirates or Smugglers Most pirates are from Ireland or are Saxon in Phases 0-1. Later Phases include a mixture of Cornish and Breton smugglers who may prey upon weaker vessels. Merchant Most merchants are from the region, but ships from as far as the Mediterranean also sail to Dumnonian ports. Ghostly Bells The sound of bells as from a church tower or from a Faerie court can be heard, though no sign of any origin can be found. Saint on a Coracle Almost all saints are friendly, although their vast courage in crossing the open sea in rickety boats is a bit startling for impious characters. Underwater Castle A castle under the waves can be seen. Sometimes the merpeople inhabit such structures, other times, they seem to contain ordinary people, and sometimes they are ancient ruins. Driftwood and Wreckage An island of weathered wood and the remains of ships halves travel for a day. Characters may discover some signs or remains of other ships lost. [Inset Box: Superstitions of the Sea Certain things are taboo to Cornish and Breton sailors and fishermen: the mention of wild beasts; references to churches or clergymen (all men are pagans on the ocean) and the presence of a woman on board.] Mermaid Mermaids are common (for fabulous beasts) in the waters of the Channel and along the coasts of Cornwall and Brittany. Mermaids are very beautiful and will sometimes pit their Lustfulness and Appearance against the Chastity of men.

What really happens to these hapless souls is uncertain. Less often, they are sympathetic or helpful. The Mermaid is nearly identical to the Marbendil in Land of Giants, p.77. SIZ DEX STR CON APP

10 20 10 15 20

Move 8 (swim) Damage 3D6 Hit Points 25 Armor 4 (lower body)

Modifier to Valorous: +5 Glory to Kill: 30 Attacks: Bite 5; can call up storms at will To Banish: 100, To Control: 50 Talents: Weather Control 12 Merman Unlike his female counterpart, the Merman is grotesquely ugly. They are just as unpredicable, however. SIZ DEX STR CON APP

10 20 10 15 5

Move 8 (swim) Damage 3D6 Hit Points 25 Armor 4 (lower body)

Modifier to Valorous: +5 Glory to Kill: 30 Attacks: Bite 5; can call up storms at will To Banish: 100, To Control: 50 Talents: Weather Control 12 Raz The Raz is a sort of giant octopus or squid, rarely encountered, but always very dangerous. These statistics are based on those found in Tales of Chivalry & Romance, p.55. SIZ DEX STR CON

30 11 20 20

Move 2 (swim) Damage * Hit Points 50 Armor 3

Modifier to Valorous: 0

Glory to Kill: 150 Attacks: The Raz has 1D8 attacks which it uses on opponents per round (subtracting those tentacles grappling individuals). Grapple 10 roll Dex versus Dex to escape. Those drawn underwater will begin to suffocate (KAP rules p.185). Pummel 12 (an attack causing 5D6 damage). Crush with Tentacle 20 (on any individual grappled, an attack causing 4D6 damage). To Banish: 150, To Control: 75 Sea-serpent These draconic creatures are most often found by the shore. They cannot fly or breathe fire, but they swim with ease in the water. Some are more reclusive than others, but all are dangerous when roused. SIZ DEX STR CON

35 30 35 25

Move 10 (swim) Damage 7D6 Hit Points 60 Armor 15

Modifier to Valorous: -5, +5 to Prudent Glory to Kill: 250 Attacks: Bite 15, Tail Lash 10 (must be used on different foes) To Banish: 200, To Control: 100 Talents: Weather Control 12 Yannig-an-Od This creature is only known for its hooting call. The Yannig-an-Od is apparently invisible. To notice the call requires an Awareness success. The Yannig has a Move of 4. Because it does not go far from its coastal lair, it is possible to outrun it, particularly on horseback. If it sneaks up on a character, it will attempt to Suffocate them (skill 20). Water horse This creature is also called the Nyku by the Northmen (see Land of Giants, p.78). The Water horse is a handsome looking horse with a malicious temperment, and delights in tricking mortals into riding it and then diving into a nearby body of water. At sea, they may be seen swimming in the waves. SIZ DEX STR CON

30 25 24 15

Move 9 Damage 5D6 Hit Points 45 Armor 5

Modifier to Valorous: 0

Glory to Kill: 100 Attacks: Hoof 12 (3D6); Bash 20 (opponent must roll DEX or fall for 1D6 damage) To Banish: 75, To Control: 40 Intelligent Fish Breton and Cornish fishermen tell tales of larger, speaking fish found in the sea, sometimes wearing small crowns. They rule over their mute kindred and know magic. Their statistics vary enormously, but most have powers of Animal Friend, Travel and Glamour. Will o’ the Whisp A floating ball of light, which attempts to distract and confuse travellers by night. While they cannot be attacked they may be Banished (at 50) or Controlled (30). Bird maiden One of the shapeshifting women who take the forms of birds, such as ravens, swans and cranes. Some are Faerie and others are mortal women. Use the statistics for an Enchantress or a Pagan Witch (KAP rules, p.332) with the addition of of Shapeshift 20.

The Adventures of Sir Tristram: a Chronology Malory’s version of the story is based on the Prose Tristan, which I attempt to cross-reference (with the Renée L. Curtis partial translation The Romance of Tristan, hereafter RT and the Loseth summary, by paragraph number (L); Malory = M); I also give references to the Penguin editions of Beroul and Strassburg (B, S) and the J.W. Thomas translation of Eilhart (E). The rough chronology I base this on was authored by Peter Corless, and is here revised and corrected. Only brief descriptions are made to keep this book accessible to players; there is, in a number of areas, considerable leeway for the Gamemaster. [Inset Box: Tristram abroad: Tristram ranges as far as Lancelot in his adventures and can be encountered unexpectedly; the following summary gives his area of activity for each year of the campaign. Encountering Sir Tristram is a good way to embroil foreign knights in the intrigues of Cornwall. Year Area Glory 512-522 Lyonesse 2,000 522-527 France (Paris) 4,000 528-529 Cornwall 7,000 529-531 Ireland 8,000 531-533 Cornwall 8,500 532 Castle Danger (in Cumbria) 9,000 533 Southwestern Logres (briefly) 9,500 533-534 Ireland 12,000 534-535 Cornwall 15,000 535-537 Brittany 17,000 538-540 Cambria 19,000 538 Brittany (briefly) 21,000 540-542 Cornwall (melancholic) believed dead 542 Logres, then Cumbria & North 24,000 543-544 Logres and Camelot 26,000 544-551 Cornwall 28,000 551-553 Logres, Camelot & Lonazep 30,000 553-554 Joyeuse Gard (in the North) 32,000 554 Grail Questing 35,000 554-559 Cornwall, death 40,000 512 Birth of Tristram to Meliodas and his wife Elizabeth, the sister of King Mark. Elizabeth dies shortly after giving birth. Two knights, cousins of Meliodas, conspire to kill the infant, but are foiled. Merlin encounters Gouvernail, a squire who killed his own brother, and entrusts Tristram’s education and protection to

him. [RT pp.4-10, L 20, M VIII,1-2, B p.39, E pp.49-50. This is a correction to The Boy King, pp.13 &17. Tristram is 16 or 18 at the time of his combat with Marhaus; a detail given by Malory in VIII,4 and in the RT on p.29; strongly divergent aspects of the birth story exist between the verse and prose versions; in the verse, Tristram’s father is named “Rivalin.”] 514-5 Meliodas has an affair with Felice, the Queen of Escoce [Meliadus]. 519 Meliodas remarries to Astre-Mathilde, daughter of Duke Hoel. [RT p.11, L 22, M VIII,2] 522 Tristram’s stepmother Astre attempts to poison her step-son, but her own son dies. Tristram begs his father a boon and grants her mercy; instead she is exiled. [RT pp.11-17, L 22, M VIII,2; in the RT, Meliodas’ murder occurs here* and Tristram’s stepmother succeeds as ruler of Lyonesse; Malory implies that she and Meliodas have a daughter as well.] Frocin predicts that Tristram will do a great injury to his master, King Mark, but Mark disbelieves him [RT pp.18-19, L 23]. Gouvernail takes Tristram, for his own safety, to France. [RT pp.19-20, L 24 M VIII,3] 526 Tristram becomes a squire (at age 14). 527 Tristram encounters Marhaus and other Round Table knights in Paris during the Roman War. Belide, the daughter of Pharamond, Count of Paris, falls in love with Tristram. After he rejects her advances she accuses him of rape. When this is disproven, she becomes despondent. Gouvernail counsels Tristram to return to Cornwall. [RT pp.20-27, L 24-26; Malory states he left France after 7 years.] 528 In Cornwall on the way to Mark’s castle he encounters Hebes, Belide’s page, who tells him that his mistress has killed herself, and presents him with a hunting dog (named Houdent) from his mistress. [RT p.28, L 27] Tristram first meets King Mark and becomes a squire of his uncle’s court, but he does not reveal his true identity. [RT pp.29-30, E pp.51-52]. Tristram is reunited with Meliodas and Agia [M VIII,3]. 529 Marhaus comes to Cornwall to demand the usual tribute; he is faced for the first time by a champion, Sir Tristram, who kills him on the Isle of St. Samson in the Scillies. Prior to the combat, Tristram explains who he is to his uncle and is knighted. Marhaus’ weapon, however, was poisoned, and Tristram, ailing, is forced to seek the makers of the poison for a cure. He sails to Ireland and is nursed back to health by Isolt and her mother. [RT pp.30-45, L 28-29, M VIII,4-8, B pp.40-42, E pp.52-59; Eilhart has Isolt come to fetch Marhaus (Morolt)’s body and that her father the king ordered any stranger from Cornwall killed if her came to Ireland; he also explains that Tristram went with his harp to Ireland; that he afterwards pretended to be a minstrel, a victim of pirates, and that he did not see the face of Isolt as he lay unconscious.] The children of Cornwall (including Andred) are returned to King Mark. 530 Mark murders his brother Boudwin following Boudwin’s success against the Saracens, pirates from Spain. [M X,32. This event is out of sequence; although

the text implies that it happened c. 547-552, it must have happened sufficiently early for Bellengerus, son of Alisander, son of Boudwin to be a knight in the Downfall; this makes no date later than this possible.] Tristram adventures incognito in Ireland. 531 The tournament of the Launds. Sir Palomides and Tristram vie for the favor of Isolt; other knights present are Gaheris, Brandiles, Ywaine, Kay, Bagdemagus, Dodinel the Savage, Sagremor, Guivret the Small, Griflet and the King with a Hundred Knights [RT pp.45-50, L 30-32, M VIII, 9-10]; Tristram is exposed as the killer of Marhaus and forced to leave [RT pp.50-54, L 33, M VIII, 11-12]. When Tristram is home in Cornwall, Archeman, another of Mark’s nephews, attempts to ambush him and is killed [L 15]. 532 Tristram and Mark have a violent rivalry over Phenice, the wife of Sir Segwarides [RT pp.55-67, L 34, M VIII, 13-14]. Bleoberis, not yet the Earl of Essex, comes to Mark’s court and attempts to make off with the same woman; Tristram fights with the knight errant and defeats him, but Segwarides’ wife returns to her husband, feeling slighted that Tristram and not her husband went off to rescue her at first opportunity. [RT pp.67-71, M VIII, 15-18. Malory has altered this episode slightly; originally she left with Bleoberis, not her husband.] The tournament of Castle Perilous or Dangerous; Tristram unhorses Bedivere and defeats Gawain in the melee, winning the prize on the second day [M VII,2629]. He defeats the King of Norgales, who raided Cornwall in revenge for Mark killing his son. 533 Tristram is sent to Ireland to fetch the princess Isolt as a wife for his uncle, he is, however, blown ashore in southern Logres and coincidently encounters Anguish, father of Isolt. [RT pp.72-75, L 36-37, M VIII,19, B pp.42-43] He gains his trust by defeating Sir Blamor de Ganis in judicial combat (on 25 September). Tristram goes with the king to Ireland. Tristram begs a boon of Anguish; consequently, the hand of Isolt is bestowed on Tristram, which he cedes to his liege [RT pp.76-85, M VIII,20-24]. In the verse originals, Tristan is discovered at this interval, and it takes place wholly in Ireland. Tristan gains her hand by the defeat of a dragon; he is, however, overcome by the creature’s breath and saved by Isolt. Isolt’s father’s steward claims he defeated the beast; but Tristan has its tongue. Isolt shortly discovers that Tristan killed her uncle, but she is forced to choose between killing Tristan and marrying the steward or accepting her enemy. She tells the truth, but Tristan then reveals that she is meant for his uncle. Eilhart (pp.63-74) further details the story by having Tristram come to Ireland in the guise of a grain merchant, and as the country is gripped by famine, the king relents his opposition to British visitors; Eilhart’s story is similar to the prose versions by describing a second voyage and the discovery of Tristram’s deed then.] 534 Tristram and Isolt drink the love-draught, given by Isolt’s mother and meant for the bride and groom in Cornwall, and consummate their feelings midvoyage (June 23, the summer solstice) [RT pp.86-89, L 39, M VIII,24. B pp.44-45, E pp.74-78]. They encounter the adventure at Castle Pleure after being blown

ashore [RT pp.89-91, L 40-41 (in the Scillies in the Prose Tristan), M VIII,24-27]. Mark weds Isolt (Feast of the Magdalene, July 22); Brangain her handmaiden takes her place in the darkened bed to preserve the secret of her mistress’s lost virginity [RT pp.92-96, L 42, M VIII,29, E pp.79-81]. There is a grand tournament; Meliodas is murdered [RT pp.17-18; Malory altered the chronology here to have him alive (cf. 522), but he must have been killed soon after]. In the tournament the King with a Hundred Knights defeats twelve Cornish challengers and King Mark. Mark, to revenge himself, has him seized secretly as he leaves. Tristram intervenes and has the king released, and fights him in single combat when the king accuses Mark of perfidy. Tristram triumphs. 535 In early winter, Isolt first plans, than changes her mind to have Brangain murdered for fear of her loyalty [RT pp.97-104, L 43, B pp.45-46, E pp.81-83]. Only a little later Sir Palomides attempts to abduct Isolt and is caught and defeated by Tristram; for the first time since the ship they lie together [RT pp.104-125, M VIII,30-32; in the verse romance this rival is a harper, sometimes called Gandin]. Various attempts are made to unmask the lovers [RT, pp.126-134, L 45]. On the Tuesday after St. John’s day (late June) Tristram argues with Lamorak and Driant, who are visiting. Shortly thereafter, on the Feast of the Magdalene (the anniversary of the marriage), a magical horn comes to King Mark’s court, one which spills if any unfaithful woman drinks of it. After 96 of 100 ladies are shamed, Tristram successfully argues that the whole horn thing was a trick [RT pp.135-141, M VIII,33-34]. Tristram goes to southern Cambria and kills a giant named Urgan the Hairy at the behest of the local ruler [episode described in Eilhart, Thomas and “Sir Tristrem”] A little while later, Tristram is caught in bed with Isolt [RT pp.142-148, M VIII,34, B pp.60-65; Eilhart’s version has Mark decide initially to have Tristan broken on the wheel and Isolt to be burned (as traitors)]. Tristram escapes but Isolt is imprisoned; Tristram attempts to reconcile with his uncle, but it is a pretense—he finds a way into Isolt’s prison, but is discovered again {RT pp.149156]. Mark orders Isolt given to the lepers; Tristram is to be thrown, bound, into the sea near a cliff-side chapel [RT pp.155-158, M VIII,34, B pp.66-67]. Tristram escapes, leaping from a rock into the ocean, rescues Isolt and they together go into the Forest of Morris [RT pp.159-170, M VIII,34-35, B pp.68-76]. At this time Mark is shamed when his curse of horse’s ears is revealed [B pp.77-78]. After many months, Mark discovers the Isolt in the forest [RT pp.170-172, M VIII,35, B pp.78114; the verse versions describe the lovers sleeping with a sword between them; as a result Mark convinces himself they have been chaste. Beroul’s version has the love-potion fail after three years (Eilhart has four years); thus the date for his version is closer to 537, and they spend much longer together. Following this she returns to court and wins a test of her faithfulness by trickery. King Arthur is present at the test as the judge (B pp.115143)].** Tristram, grief-stricken, hears of the consoling medicines of the daughter of Duke Hoel. Tristram leaves Cornwall close to the end of the year and enlists in Hoel’s war against some rebels, led by one Count Agrippe or Grip, defeating them. In gratitude, Hoel weds his daughter Isolde Blanchemains to Tristram. [RT

pp.172-181, M VIII,35-36, B pp.143-149, E pp.109-116; in Beroul, Tristan must flee after killing several Cornish lords who had been hunting him].*** In Thomas’ Tristan, Isolt learns of Tristram’s marriage via Sir Cariado. 536 Tristram revenges himself on his father’s murderers. Thomas descibes the construction of the Hall of Statues by Tristan. Brangain conveys a letter from Isolt to Guenevere; Tristram, in Brittany, explains to Sir Keyhidius his secret [RT pp.182187, M VIII 37; in Eilhart Kaherdin discovers his sister’s virginity by accident, as she reveals to him (after being splashed by some water on the thigh) that no man had been so bold to touch her there]. Lancelot tells Sir Supinabel, a knight of Brittany, about Guenevere’s opinions concerning Tristram [RT pp.187, M VIII,36]. 537 Tristram has a ship constucted; when Tristram, Isolde Blanchemains and Keyhidius are aboard, a storm blows them to sea [RT, pp.190-1, M VIII,38]. 538 Tristram’s ship, finally capsizes at the Isle Servage, near the Lleyn peninsula, a remnant of the Drowned Cantref, and Tristram liberates the island (which is filled with prisoners) from its giants. Tristram encounters Sir Segwarides there and Sir Lamorak; afterwards he gives the island to Segwarides, who returns to Cornwall, and tells Mark and Isolt of Tristram’s deeds and marriage. Among those freed by Tristram are Brunor, the father of Sir Dinadan, and Guiron the Courteous. At the same time Tristram leaves Cambria and goes back to Brittany with his wife and brother-in-law [RT, pp.191, M VIII,38-39]. When they return, Brangain is waiting for him with a message from Isolt imploring him to return to Cornwall [RT, pp.191-2, M IX,10]. Once again, Tristram (now with Keyhidius) sets sail; a storm again deposits them in northern Cambria [RT pp.192-4, M IX,10: “nigh the Castle Perilous.”]. 539 Tristram is lost in the Forest of Darnantes in central Cambria. He believes that somewhere in this forest is the tomb of Merlin; Keyhidius fights a Black Knight and is badly hurt; and Tristram learns from a hermit that Arthur is missing somewhere in the same region. [RT pp.194-5, M IX,10] 540 Tristram re-encounters Sir Lamorak and is reconciled to him (Lamorak was partly responsible for the incident with the horn in 535); they decide to search for Arthur together [RT p.195, M IX,11]. A little while later they encounter the Questing Beast, pursued by a strange knight, and they decide to split up and meet later [RT p.195, M IX,12]. Lamorak that night encounters Sir Gawain, who threatens him; Gawain is unhorsed and leaves [RT p.195]. Later Lamorak encounters Meliagrance and fights with him [RT p.196, M IX,13]. Tristram the next day meets Sir Kay, who mocks Cornish knights, not knowing Tristram’s identity, but realizing his nationality, but they travel together; later he meets Sir Tor and Sir Brandiles. Tristram unhorses all three after they challenge him [RT p.196, M IX,14]. Finally, Tristram encounters King Arthur in the hands of several knights and a maiden. They are about to kill him; Tristram rescues the king and slays the maiden, the sorceress Annowre [RT p.196, M IX,15]. Tristram returns to find Keyhidius fully recovered; they take sail for Cornwall; the two stay at the

castle of Sir Dinas [RT p.197, M IX,16]. Keyhidius openly joins Mark’s court as a knight errant, and Dinas informs Isolt that Tristram has finally returned [RT pp.198-9]. **** 541 Keyhidius develops an unrequited love for Isolt. Believing that Sir Keyhidius has stolen Isolt’s love from him, Tristram quarrels with his lover [RT pp.199-212, M IX,16]. Troubled with melancholy, Tristram argues with his friends and disappears into the forest of Morris [RT pp.212-226, M IX,17]. After much searching by various knights (including Sir Fergus, Sir Keyhidius, Sir Palomides and Sir Dinas), the hunt for Tristram is ended. Andred claims that Tristram is dead and attempts to seize the kingdom of Lyonesse [RT pp.226-252, M IX,18]. Believing him, Isolt decides to take her own life but is prevented by King Mark, who orders Sir Dinas to watch over her; later word comes from Glinglain, Sir Gawain’s son that Tristram is alive, but Tristram’s friends keep this a secret [RT pp.252-269, M IX,19]. 542 Keyhidius has many adventures in Logres, and he finally returns to Cornwall; when he does he is thrown into a deep gloom. Fasting, Keyhidius weakens and dies [RT pp.270-285]. Tristram is found, after killing a giant, and cured of his madness, but is exiled from Cornwall. Despite the urgings of Andred, King Mark refuses to kill his nephew [RT p.286-304, M IX 19-21]. Tristram encounters with many knights of Logres when he enters that country, he befriends Sir Dinadan [M IX,22-24]. Tristram refuses to join the Castle of Maidens tourney and rides to the castle of Morgan le Fay, where he encounters and kills Huneson, Morgan’s lover, who is jealous of her admiration of the Cornish knight. Morgan takes the spear that slew her lover and enchants it to be Tristram’s doom. Among the competitors at the Castle of Maidens is Duke Hoel [L 186-192, M IX,24-25]. He then goes to the tournament in disguise, where he encounters and defeats Palomides [M IX,26-34]. He is imprisoned by Sir Darras [M IX,36-39]. Later he encounters Morgan le Fay and she gives him the Shield of Rebuke, which he takes to the Castle of the Hard Rock tourney [M IX,40-43]. 543 Tristram rides south toward Camelot, unhorsing and defeating many knights [M X,1-4]. He battles Lancelot to a standstill at the tomb of Lanceor and Colombe [L 202, M X,5]. Tristram joins the Round Table [L 205-206, M X,6]. 544 King Mark attempts to secretly hunt down Tristram in Logres, after word of Tristram’s victories reaches him; but he is captured [L 208-251a, M X,7-15]. King Arthur makes peace between Tristram and King Mark. Tristram is able to return and visit his lover [RT p.304, M X 15, 20, 22]. Mark, however manages to maroon Tristram on an island in the Scillies and the knight only arrives back in Cornwall after some time [L 253, RT p.304]. 547 Tristram helps to defeat the Saxons, who have invaded Cornwall [L 270279, M X 28-29]. Eliot the harp sings a satire of King Mark at Tintagel [L 280-281, M X 31]. Mark discovers the Alisander le Orphelin, the son of Boudwin, is alive [L 282b, M X 36]. The events of the Lai de Chevrefoil (by Marie de France) take place. A great tournament is held at Lancien by Mark and the King with a

Hundred Knights [Gerbert de Montreiul’s Continuation to Perceval]. Tristram participates in disguise, with the help of Gawaine, Ywaine and Lancelot. 548 The episode of the Laurel tree: Mark spies on the two, but is misled into believing that they are not lovers; Mark rebukes Andred and makes Tristram his heir and chief adviser again [RT pp.305-312, L 282, B pp.47-59, E pp.85-91. The verse romances place this much earlier, after the episode with the harper-knight (535)]. 550 King Mark imprisons Tristram after discovering him asleep beside the Queen [RT pp.312-313, L 284-288; this seems to be placed earlier, simultaneous with Lancelot’s disappearance (547-549), than in Malory: X 50-51]. Lancelot attempts to rescue Tristram but is ambushed and nearly killed [L 291-295]. Civil war engulfs Cornwall. Mark besieges Dinas in the castle of Corinde, in Dartmoor [L316]. 551 In the winter, Perceval rescues Tristram, and he frees Isolt [L 313-324]. The lovers escape to Logres [RT pp.313-314, M X 51-52]. Tristram has some adventures [M X 52-66]: he sails to the Isle of the Fountain in Listeneise, where he defeats Arthur [L326-330]; fights a battle for the sorceror Mabon in Norgales [L333-336]; go to Camelot, where Tristram fights in a joust [L338-343]. That winter they stay with Lancelot at Joyeuse Garde [L 344]. 552 At Joyeuse Garde, Tristram encounters and is challenged for the hand of Isolt by Sir Dagarius, a Scottish knight of the Round Table. Tristram decapitates Dagarius [L 349]. Tristram fights Adoras de la Porte [L 350-1]. 553 Tristram wins a prize at the Lonazep tournament [RT p.313, M X 67-76]. Tristram and Isolt return to Joyeuse Garde [RT pp.313-314]. Gouvernail is given the crown of Lyonesse by his master [L 386]. Sir Palomides, seeking Tristram, enocunters him near the castle, but he is defeated, and finally is convinced to undergo baptism [M XII 11-14]. 554 Beginning of the Quest for the Holy Grail (Pentecost). Tristram (who is present) takes the Quest with the other Round Table knights; Isolt, having been returned to Cornwall, is imprisoned by her husband in Tintagel. Tristram quietly resides with Sir Dinas. [RT pp.314] In the Post-Vulgate and the Prose Tristan, King Mark invades Joyeuse Garde with the help of the Saxons and destroys the castle, carrying off his wife [L 516]. It might be presumed that Ida’s Saxons are involved, who had revived Nohaut in 547. He then turns toward Logres and attempts to destroy Camelot [L 517-534]. He is stopped by Galahad and other knights, but not before he seriously wounds Arthur. 555 Tristram, in the forest of Darnantes, hears of the destruction of Joyeuse Garde from Kay and Dodinel [L 535]. He is plunged into gloom and leaves the Quest for the Grail. He encounters the Bruns Sans Pitie, who is moved by his plight (!) [L 536-539]. Tristram kills the giant Lucanor the Grand in Norgales, who is holding 15 Round Table knights captive [L 541]. Tristram arrives in Cornwall and stays secretly with Sir Dinas [L 545]. He stays in Cornwall and spends much of his time attempting to see Isolt.

559 Mark murders Tristram (using the spear Morgan gave him (cf. 542)), who was secretly visiting Isolt at Tintagel. Isolt dies. [RT pp.315-324, L 546-548, M XIX 11] An elaborate tomb is constructed for them at Tintagel by the grieving Mark [L 550]. “They both died of love—there was no other comfort for them.” 560 Lyonesse is drowned by the sea. 566 or 573 Mark invades Logres and sacks Camelot. Shortly thereafter he is killed by either Sir Bellengerus, Sir Bors or Sir Paulars (a kinsman of Bors) or by his own ghostly son (Malory, the Post-Vulgate, the Vulgate and Breton legend). *A Spanish version of the Suite de Merlin describes the murder of Meliodas as being by the hand of Marhaus/Morholt (this murder is usually attributed to the Count of Norholt), after the end of the Triple Quest. **Eilhart inserts two long episodes: the first describes Tristan fighting for Ganoje, the King of Galvoie; the second brings the knight to King Arthur’s court where he becomes a friend of Gawaine (they are enemies or at least dislike one another in the later Prose Tristan). Gawaine and Tristan with other knights went to Cornwall, where they are supposedly on a hunting expedition, but in fact it is a ruse to see Isolt. Mark, however, has booby-trapped the bed, and Tristan is cut badly. To cover for his friend, Gawaine his companions volunteer to cut themselves as well. It is only after this that Tristan goes to Brittany. ***The verse Tristan (exemplified by Beroul, with variants found in La Folie Tristan and Eilhart) concludes differently from that of Malory. After marrying Isolde Blanchemains, Tristan returns to Cornwall after a while and carries on his surreptious affair, this time with the help of Kaherdin (Keyhidius). In Thomas, Kaherdin has an affair with Brangwein in Cornwall; after they are nearly discovered by Cariado, who believes they have fled, Cariado convinces Isolt and Brangwein them of that; as a result Brangwein, angry with her mistress for helping Kaherdin to seduce her, threatens to turn against Isolt. She instead warns Mark against Cariado, but prevents Tristan from seeing his lover as well. Eventually, Cariado is killed by Kaherdin. In Beroul, Tristan is again forced to leave for Brittany when the King’s men nearly discover him. Kaherdin, meanwhile, is carrying on an affair of his own in his own country. Tristan aids him, but is struck down with a poisoned lance held by her enraged husband. He languishes and finally asks Isolde Blanchemains to ask Isolt if she would attend to his wounds; if the Queen was coming, the ship she sailed on would bear white sails; otherwise, black. Stricken by jealousy, Isolde of Brittany lies to her husband; she tells him the sails are black. Believing his lover had scorned him, Tristan dies. Queen Isolt finds him dead and she herself dies of love. The two are buried at Tintagel, where Mark permits them a proper grave; from the ground two trees grow, their branches intertwined. These events occur circa 537-9. It is interesting to note that the earliest versions of Arthurian chronology place Camlann in 537 or 542 and traditional Breton

sources make Hoel die around 544-5; the end of one epic parallels the others. In Pendragon, this might be treated as a rumor of his death, or a GM, if so disposed, might use these sequence of events instead. The verse tradition was essentially unknown in Malory’s day and was submerged by the powerful influence of the Prose Tristan until the nineteenth century; Most modern adaptions and interpretations of the cycle have relied on the more poetic verse conclusion. ****In Eilhart, Isolt accuses Tristan of cowardice, from a false rumor and refuses to see him (this is a while after he and Kaherdin went to Cornwall). Consequently, Tristan returns to his wife in Brittany and consummates his marriage. After much repentence, the two are reconciled. After several ruses by which Tristan gains access to the queen by disguise, he helps his brother-in-law as in Beroul, and meets his fate. Chronology of Cornwall and Brittany after 531 532 Murder of Maragins (Hugo) de Ganis in Ireland; Anguish is accused of involvement in the death. Birth of Theuderic to Hoel and Karsie. Many Cornish knights fight at the tournament at Castle Dangerous, though only unmarried men are permitted to fight (on Ladyday, August 15).* 535 Rebellion flares in Brittany; Agrippe of Rennes attempts to seize the duchy. Mark weds La Belle Isolt (the feast of the Magdalene). 536 Arthur invades France, defeating Claudas, who is exiled to Rome. The Ganis clan takes over central France. Rumors of Tristram’s affair with Isolt first surface. 537 With the assistance of Tristram, Hoel defeats Agrippe of Rennes and annexes the Breton March (Rennes and Nantes) to the duchy. Palomides becomes a Round Table knight. *Although the Book of Gareth Beaumains (Bk. VIII in Malory) is ambigiously dated in KAP and The Boy King, this is the only viable date for a campaign where the activities of Tristram (a participant) are important. A Breton campaign might require less rigor. Phase 4: In this phase civil strife afflicts both Brittany and Cornwall. The ending of peace and plenty coincides with the overweening ambition of evil men: King Mark, King Conon and the French princes. The enchantment of Broceliande continues to build until the Quest for the Grail. The Chronicles of Jean Froissart describe the wars of Brittany in the corresponding century (Brittany was one of the main theatres of the Hundred Years War). His work can be used to provide some realistic detail to campaigns in this phase.

542 The Black Death begins to afflict France. Tristram is exiled from Cornwall. 543 Sir Ywaine challenges all the knights of Cornwall to individual combat. In the ensuing combats, the knights of Cornwall are shamed. Mark leaves for adventures, leaving his realm in the hands of Queen Isolt and Andred. Death of Tegfan, Earl of Jagent, of the plague; the plague fells many this year, and much of Cornwall is desolate. Duke Cador is appointed guardian of the heiress of Jagent, clandestine lover of his son Perdyr (much over her bastard half-brother Arnold’s wishes, who attempts to seize the county; Perdyr had met the young Countess while a hostage for the peace between Cornwall and Jagent). 544 Mark departs Cornwall, saying he is going on pilgrimage, and leaves the kingdom in the regency of Andred. Mark kills his own knights Sir Amant and Sir Bertolai, witnesses to his crimes. After being captured and taken to Arthur, King Mark renews his fealty for Cornwall. The Friendship Tournament between the knights of Logres and Cornwall is held at Camelot. Late in the year, Duke Hoel dies of the plague, along with Caradoc the Elder, Count of Vannes. Griflet is captured and imprisoned in Chastel Orgeulleus. Palomides becomes Earl of Beal Valet. 545 Perceval goes to Cornwall where he tourneys at Tintagel. Meliant de Lys succeeds to his mother’s holdings. The Queen Mother Anna of Brittany dies. Duchess-Regent Karsie makes her son Theodoric Count of Cornouailles. The sons and adoptive sons of Hoel begin to arm themselves for civil war. About this time, Claudas, after returning from exile, recovers parts of his lands. 545-7 Gawaine, Perceval and other Round Table knights travel in Cornwall, and the first Grail adventures occur. 546 Brun of Branlant is beseiged by King Arthur, and finally capitulates; he becomes a Round Table knight. A tournament is held at Carlion (sponsored by Cadoalant, an Irish king, and Ris of Broceliande), where Caradoc the Younger wins the prize. Caradoc then goes to Nantes and faces his true father, the sorceror Eliavres, but is cursed horribly. Meanwhile, Conon takes over Vannetais. King Arthur goes to Brittany to select a new Duke. Erec, the son of Lak, marries Enid, the daughter of Licorant de Laluth, a nobleman of Vannetais. Arthur appoints Erec Count of Nantes and his representative there, but leaves for Britain prematurely when Lancelot disappears; and is further distracted by the early Grail adventures (545-9). Arthur holds court at Tintagel in the autumn, hosted by Mark, his new vassal. The body of Brangemeur, the son of Guiomar and Brangepart, is drawn ashore there in a small boat by tethered swans. Perceval encounters Yder in his guise as “Lord of the Horn.” 547 (Spring): Griflet is released from the Proud Castle by Gawaine. Arthur hosts a tournament at the Proud Castle. Perceval would be the winner, but he slips away before the end of the melee.

Gawaine discovers the existence of his son by Guilorete of Lys, and has a contretemps with Brandiles. Caradoc the Younger gains the hand of Guignier of Devon and is made Lord of Cirencester. At the Pentecost feast, the Horn of Shame is brought to Arthur’s court. (Summer): Saxon invasion of Cornwall, led by Mark’s former bodyguard Elias. Tristram defeats the Saxons as they beseige Tintagel. Some time later, Eliot sings his famous lampoon of King Mark. Mark discovers that Sir Alisander is alive. In Brittany, Conon kills his adoptive brother Runalen and declares himself King of Vannes. Later in the year, a tournament is held in the land of Blanchemores, in Cornubia. Gawaine is the winner. Mark gives his protection to the young Theuderic and invests the youth as Count of Cornouailles, with the supervision of Macliau; he obtains the rank of Prefect of Armorica from King Claudas. Arthur invades France and battles Claudas and his brother Carras. The Ile de France is devastated, and Claudas withdraws to Berry. Carras makes peace with Arthur and retains control of Austrasia. (Autumn): Mark holds a great tourney with the King of a Hundred Knights at Lancien. Arthur is present. Tristram, in disguise as a minstrel, participates with several Round Table knights: Kay, Sagremor, Lancelot, Gawaine and Ywaine, also disguised, but they are defeated by Perceval, who is travelling undisguised. Tristram composes the Lai de Chevrefoil for Isolt. (Winter): In Nohaut, the Angles throw off the rule of Lancelot. 548 The Hunt for the Troit Boar. The Boar is chased from Cambria to Cornwall. In the process, many famous knights are killed. After the hunt, Arthur and his companions repair to Kelliwic. In Brittany, Macliau is captured by Conon, but his execution is forestalled by St. Félix, the Bishop of Nantes, and Macliau makes his way to Poher. This winter is one of the harshest of the century; many perish. 549 Cador (now 59 years old) abdicates as Duke and Prince of Devon; his eldest son Constantine is invested with his territories. Constantine appoints his brother Perdyr regent of Devon. Cador retires to a monastery. Arthur selects Caradués of Cirencester to be Dux of Britannia Prima. Arthur returns to Brittany; he invests Erec with the crown of Estregales at Nantes. Conon is driven from Vannes. 550 Tristram is imprisoned by Mark at Castle Pine. Sir Dinas, Sir Sadok and other good knights of Cornwall rebel. Dinas is offered the throne, but he demurs. Mark goes in exile to Brittany, pretending he palns to take a pilgrimage to Rome. Only a few of Mark’s henchmen remain (Andred), though they are impossible to dislodge from their citadels. Constantine, the son of Cador, claims the crown of Dumnonia. [Gildas writes De Excidio Britanniae]

551 After being freed by Perceval, Tristram gives the crown of Lyonesse to Gouvernail and Brangain. 552 Macliau reappears in Vannes and manages to be consecrated Bishop (and ruler); the city resists the power of Conon in Rennes. Cerdic of Wessex sacks Salisbury. 553 Tristram and Isolt go incognito to Joyeus Garde where they are given sanctuary by Lancelot. 554 The Quest of the Holy Grail begins. Gawain kills Erec of Nantes, who has returned to Britain to search for the Grail. [Post-Quest chapter 121] Nantes is invaded and conquered by the French; Macliau of Vannes conquers much of Cornouailles. Theuderic flees to Cornwall. Phase 5: This phase (the Downfall) resembles the 15th century, the era of the most glittering ducal court in Brittany, the war of independence with France and the conquest of the duchy by the Valois kings (1488-91). In contemporary Cornwall, repeated risings against the tyranny of the English and involvement in the Wars of the Roses culminates in the slaughter of the Cornish rebels at Blackheath by the army of the new Tudor king. 554-5 Hearing that Arthur’s best knights are slain or absent, Mark (in exile in Brittany) allies with the Saxons, recaptures much of Cornwall, and taking ship to the north, destroys Joyeus Garde, carrying off Isolt. About a month later he encounters Arthur, and the High King is nearly slain. Mark attempts to seize Camelot, which is under the command of Caradoc Shortarm, but is defeated by the fortuitous arrival of several Round Table knights: Galahad, Arthur the Less, Palomides and Esclabor, his father. Mark escapes the slaughter of his troops (Breton, Cornish and Saxon) and attempted to poison Galahad and another knight, named Faram the Black. Faram dies, but Galahad does not. [Post-Quest, chapters 135-8] Palomides is christened at Camelot. Shortly afterwards, Tristram hears of Isolt’s plight and leaves the Quest. 555 St. Hélier of Jersey is martyred by Saxon pirates. They ravage the coasts of Normandy and Domnonee. The Saxons rebel against Clotaire (Carras) in Austrasia (whose last king Theudebert, the son of Thierry, had recently died). Hrafn (Chramn), his son, becomes Count of Tours and Poitou. A strange portent is seen: a ring of stars seems to orbit the moon. 557 Judikael of Domnonee, with the help of the French, conquers his patrimony from King Mark, who had stripped his garrisons in the attempt to seize Logres. Judikael’s men triumph in the battle of Le Relecq near Morlaix. Mark flees into the forest and because one of his decoys is slain, is believed dead for some time. Cornouailles’ estates select Esbarantin, the son of Bishop Alain

and grandson of Budic II, as Count for life. Only Poher and Carnoet remain in Mark’s hands. 558 Clotaire (Carras) succeeds Childebert (Claudas), Count of Paris & Duke of Berry, his brother, and becomes King of all France. Claudas had died of a fever. 559 Discovering Tristram in Isolt’s prison at Tintagel, Mark stabs him with a trenchant glaive (given to him by Morgan le Fay, the same spear by which Tristram had slain her lover Hemison (alias Heneson)), mortally wounding the knight. Isolt, rushing to embrace her lover, is crushed by the death-rictus of Tristram. 560 Much of Lyonesse is submerged by a great tidal wave. The remaining portion of the kingdom is seized by Theuderic of Cornouailles, now Mark’s protégé. After Tristram’s death becomes known, Mark is marooned by Dinas and other Cornish lords on an island in the Scillies. Escaping from there, Mark goes to his castle of Carnoet, in Brittany. He begins his terrible practice of wedding a virgin each feast of the Magdalene, then murdering her. Conon of the Vannetais dies and his brother Macliau abandons his ecclesiastical post to claim the crown of Vannes. He is excommunicated. Hrafn (Chramn), a prince of France, flees into Brittany and accepts the protection of Mark (in December). Mark’s troops, including many Saxon mercenaries, are crushed by King Clotaire (Carras) and Hrafn is murdered in Treguier. Constantine becomes King of Cornwall, though not all the country submits to him. 561 St. Samson, the bishop of Dol, dies. Carras or Clotaire dies and the Kingdom of France is divided amongst his sons, although his youngest surviving tries to claim sole kingship. Consequently Charibert becomes Count of Paris; Guntram becomes Duke of Orleans; Chilperic becomes Count of Soissons and Sigibert becomes Count of Champagne. 562 Christmas tournament at Winchester (the Last Tournament). A knight claiming to be Hoel participates, with 100 Breton followers. 563 Lancelot is caught in adultery with Guenevere. Some famous knights of or associated with Brittany and Cornwall side with Lancelot in the ensuing civil war: Sir Bellengerus, Sir Bleoberis (of course), Sir Clegis, Sir Dinas, Sir Palomides and Sir Sadok. (Though Sir Segwarides sided with the King.)The supporters of Lancelot are besieged for fifteen weeks at Joyeuse Garde. Late in the year, the Roman Emperor and his allies invade Gaul, ravaging Burgundy, fighting the British at the border of Champagne (in some versions, Brittany) where they are routed by Arthur. [The Death of Arthur, chapter 20] A comet is seen in the heavens. 565 The battle of Camlann. Cador is killed, having come out of retirement, along with Caradués, his successor as Dux. At Camlann, the Bretons are commanded by Esbarantin (Cabarentin), the Count of Cornouailles. [The Death of Arthur, chapter 23]. Of all the Bretons, only Derfel Gadarn survives. Those

Cornish still loyal to Arthur are led by Cador and Guenelon (although he turns traitor). Cador’s son Constantine is in Cornwall subduing Mordred’s supporters there Mark, in Brittany, however, withholds his troops from either side, hoping to perhaps crush the weakened victor. Constantine becomes High King. He vows to restore the Round Table, but is unable to recall the surviving knights to service. 566 Mark sacks Camelot, destroying the Round Table, in revenge for Arthur and Lancelot’s harboring Tristram and Isolt. He attempts to murder several surviving members of the de Ganis clan but is struck down. [Post-Quest, chapter 311]. (According to Breton myth, his downfall is beheld by the resurrected St. Trémeur, his son by Tryphine. Trémeur, murdered by his father in the belief that any son of his would be his end, walks the earth holding his head. For this reason he is the patron saint of football.) Judikael seizes Treguier and Leon and declares himself King of Brittany. Macliau annexes Cornouailles and Carnoet. Constantine has Mordred’s sons killed. Brochfael of Powys, brother-in-law of Constantine and descendant of Vortigern, conquers Cameliard. 567 Death of Charibert, Count of Paris. Chilperic his brother takes over the Ile de France. 570 Death of St. Pol, ex-bishop of Léon. Death of St. Gildas at Rhuys, south of Vannes. 571 The upper Thames around Oxford becomes Saxon-controlled. The Forest Sauvage is divided from southern Logres. 576 Constantine is killed by his nephew Aurelius Conanus (Cynan the Cruel), son of Brochfael of Powys. His son Bledric succeeds him as King of Cornwall, but Aurelius seizes the High Kingship. 577 Battle of Deorham divides Cornwall and south-western Logres from Cambria. Bledric is killed and his uncle Perdyr becomes King of Cornwall. Theuderic of Penwith invades Brittany and kills Macliau and his son Jacob. Macliau’s younger son Waroc’h retains control of the Vannetais and defeats a French incursion. Theuderic dies later in that year hunting in Cornwall; his cousin Alain, son of Runalen, becomes Count of Cornouailles.

Rulers of Cornwall and Brittany Pre-Roman Kings and “Dukes” (-43) Corineus c. 1120 BC Guendolen, his daughter d. 1100 BC Maddan, her son by Locrine d. 1060 BC At this point the Duchy is united to the High Kingship.


Henven, Duke of Cornwall and Cambria in the reign of Leir, husband of Ragan, Leir’s daughter. (c.845 BC) Cunedag, later High King d.805 BC M Aedh the Great, Duke c.500 BC Pritain, Duke, son of Aedh c.470 BC Conmarch, Duke, son of Pritain c.440 BC Cloten, King in the reign of Gorbodoc c.410 BC M Dunvallo Mulmutius, later High King c.380 BC M many generatons to: [Capoir] c.132 BC M [Manogan/Diguellus, son of Capoir] c.102 BC M Pelias (Beli/Heli) (in Lyonesse), d. 72 BC? R Luce (Lludd), son of Pelias, High King d. 62 BC? R The daughter of Luce married Peter, one of the followers of Joseph of Arimathea, who founded the dynasty of Lothian. Tenuantius (Tasciovanus), son of Lud c. 10 or d.26 BC He succeeded Cassivelaunus as High King.


Chieftains of the Dumnonii (43-410) Canor (Thanor), kinsman of Pelias c.30 R In Canor’s reign the slave-tribute to Leinster was first instituted. Cichoriades, son of Canor c.60 R Arviragus (in Somerset) d.72 M ancestor of Conan Meriadoc and Arthur. Apollo (son of Sador, son of Brons) c.90 R Candaces, son of Apollo c.120 R Candaces had 12 sons, the founders of the nobility of the Dumnonii. Crissides, son of Candaces c.140 R Baralis, brother of Crissides c.170 T Felix, son of Baralis* c.200 R Metilamdes, son of Felix** c.235 ? Tegfan, of Cornwall, a descendant of Avallach


Asclepiodotus, “Duke of Cornwall” ? Coel Godhebog, son of Tegfan [Eudaf or Octavius of Siluria] Cynan, son of Eudaf Hen (Octavius) Caradoc, son of Cynan Meurig, son of Caradoc Donaut, brother of Caradoc Conan Meriadoc, son-in-law of Donaut Cadeon (Gratian), son of Conan [Gormor (Gorfawr), son of Cadeon]


M M, H

c.320 c.350 c.370 -k. 389 d c.400 c.400-410

H M, H M, H M, H H H, M

The Kings of Cornwall (410-) Tudwal (Tudual), son of Gormor r. c.410-k.440 in Irish raid Cynfawr (Conomor), son of Tudwal r.440-k.463 in Long Knives massacre Interregnum and dissolution of the Kingdom. In 466 Aurelius invades Cornwall and appoints new rulers from the nobility of the region, creating the fiefs of Tintagel, Devon and Jagent. Aurelius, a descendant of Conan Meriadoc, claims overlordship of Dumnonia for himself. [Aurelius r.466-480] [Uther Pendragon r.480-495] Between 495 and 500, the recognized chieftain of the Dumnonii was Riwal II of Brittany (d. 502), the most powerful of the descendants of Conan. Yder (Idres) r. 500-514 (abdicated) Following the death of Budic II of Brittany in 509, Yder became the generally recognized senior king of the Dumnonii. Mark (alias Conomor II) r.515-present. *identified as King Mark’s father in the Romance of Tristan though there are obvious chronological difficulties in that. **identified as Mark’s father in the Portugeuse Josep ab Aramatia. Sources: (H= Historical or Welsh pedigrees; M= Monmouth; R= Romance of Tristan; T=Tavola Ritonda) The Princes of Devon Erbin, son of Conomor r.466-497 (d.515) Geraint, son of Erbin r.497-k.517 Cador, son of Geraint r.517Cador is also Duke of Britannia Prima (military commander of Cornwall, Jagent, Somerset & Dorset) from 511). The Dukes of Tintagel

Conual (Cynwal), son of Frodor, son of Gormur k.457 (Lord) Amlauth (Amlawdd), son of Conual k.467 (Duke) Amlauth was Duke of Britannia Prima (or Gwledig). Gorlois, son of Cleges (son-in-law) r.467-k.492 Eliduc of Brittany r.492-k.526 Jordans Steward 526Kings of Brittany (and Counts of Cornouailles) Bristocus, King c. 315 Jogonus, King c. 345 Jubaltus, King, son c. 375, killed by Conan c.385 Jubaltus or Jubault was also High King of Armorica, so he may have been the father of Sidoine, Queen of Vannes. Conan Meriadoc d.421 (abdicated before his death, ruler of Vannes) Gradlon the Great c.400-434 Gradlon conquered the Osismii and took as his second wife the widow of their king, named Malgven. Salaun was his son by his first wife; his second wife was the mother of Dahut, now queen of the morgens. In his reign the city of Ys was deluged. Salaun or Soloman c.434-446 Audren c.446-461 Budic I c.461-468 (Riotham Regent & Duke 467-70) Meliau c.468-k.490 Meliau was killed in a dispute with his brother-in-law and cousin, Riwal of Dumnonee, who seized the throne (r.490-502). Riwal’s death allowed his cousin Budic II to become overlord of Brittany, restoring the house of Cornouailles: Budic II r.502-k.509 (son of Kebedan, Viscount of Quimper, son of Iuan the Just. Kebedan’s wife was the daughter of Budic I) Hoel r.509King Arthur is a descendant of this family, for his grandfather Constantine was the son of Salaun. Counts or Princes of Domnonee Riwal or Regalis (in Latin) is used as a primary or secondary name by most members of this dynasty. Riwal ‘Riotham’ -c.470 Conothec ‘Deroch’ -c.490

(great-grandson of Gradlon) ‘the Arrogant’

Conothec engaged in a number of violent disputes with Gorlois of Cornwall which disrupted trade and ties with Britain. Riwal II ‘Murmaczon’r.490-502 (also King of Brittany, alias Pabo) Riwal was the greatest king in the Dumnonian lands (Brittany and Cornwall) before Mark—having seized the throne of Brittany and established his overlordship over the Dumnonii (in a vague sense) in Cornwall as well. He paid fealty to Clovis of the Franks, taking the title of ‘Comes Britonerum.’ Jonas r.502-k.518 Half-brother of Meliodas. He was Count of Dumnonee only; and was killed at the siege of Trebes. Judikael ‘Riwal’ 518Judikael was but an infant when his father died and the government of the realm was entrusted to Jonas’ widow’s next husband, Mark of Cornwall. Mark had a daughter, Elaine, by the dowager Countess Typhaine before her death in 524. Mark (Cinmaroc) Regent 520By Mark’s marriage, he gained control of Treguier, Poher and Carnoet and overlordship of Goello, Lamballe and Dol, and the castle of Gael in Dinan. Kings and Counts of Vannes The kingdom of the Veneti is very ancient, existing from before the Romans. Their kings, however, are poorly known. They seem to have gained their sovereignity by marriage with the priestess (daughter of a previous king or his kin) of Barenton until the Christianization of Vannes in the late fourth century. There is a mention of a Caesair, daughter of an Armorican king, who married Ugaine Mór, the king of the people of Leinster in the late 7th century BC. In the generation prior to Conan Meriadoc (circa 350), an unknown king (perhaps Jubaltus of Léon) of Armorica was the father of: Sidoine, Queen c. 370 (wife of Ponthus, a noble from Galicia in Spain) Sidoine was the last sovereignity priestess to fulfill the pagan traditions; her female kin carried on the position in association with the ladies of the Lake. (a daughter) Erbin (Urbaine) Lidinin of St. Guthiern)

c. 390 (wed Conan Meriadoc as his third wife) c. 410 (son of Conan, half-brother of Gradlon) c. 440 (son of Urbanus?; his daughter Dinoi was the mother

Eusèbe c. 470 (his daughter was named Apsasie) Aurèlie, Queen c. 475 (married Meliau, King of Brittany k.490) The kingdom was annexed by the Franks after Meliau’s death. Caradués, Count


(named Count for life)

The true heirs of Vannes are unknown. The existence of the ritual marriage of the priestess-princess of Barenton, heiress of Vannes, in the family of Laudine, wife of Sir Ywaine, suggests that the female succession was preserved in her line. Another such heiress is the girl Enid, the daughter of the Lady Tarsenesyde and Sir Liconaus of Redon. Viscounts of Broerec Waroch, the younger son of Riwal Riathem (born c 468), was the founder of this rival dynasty to the Kings of Vannes. Broerec (the Land of Waroch) is the region of the Vannetais colonized and conquered by the Bretons, north of the Launds of Lanvaux. Waroch c.490-k.511 (killed by the Franks His wife was the daughter of Budic II and Anna). Conon (reached his majority in 526) Counts of Léon Before the arrival of Conan Meriadoc, this was ruled by the Osismii kings. The original fief was a lordship around St. Pol, ruled by a branch of the royal house. The county was created by King Meliau for his sister and the children of his sister by Riwal II of Dumnonee, this fief descended to Rivalin alias Meliodas with his mother’s death. Rivalin sided with his mother’s family against his father, and did not recover the fief until 502. Guidol, Lord c. 450 (son of Gradlon, brother of Salaun) His descendants include Guythure of Landudez. Rivalin alias Meliodas


The fiefs of Cornwall Hydes and Hyrds (or total Food income) are listed by town / rural and / wasteland (forests, moors and undeveloped land). Only the first two are used for calculating income; the last is potential income (but often covers a considerable area of poor quality). Many Cornish fiefs have scope for supporting more knights, the saved income being invested or hoarded by the lord. In times of trouble, these lords promote more squires to household knights. Name POP Artavia 46 Bideford 10 Branlant 10 Clovelly 11 Thornford 6 Tirion 9 Branlant has 1 warship.

Income 84 79 98 42 64

Hydes & Hyrds 200+1000=1200 35/175/40 50/250/60 30/150/35 45/225/50 40/200/48

Soldiers/Knights 90 /40 12/9 15/9 30/10 13/5 20/7

Cornubia 89 280+1147=1427 120/60 Dimilioc 6 40 14/56/20 8/5 Padstow 7 54 15/60/15 5/2 Pydar 12 108 33/132/45 25/10 Roche 6 41 11/44/30 10/5 Roseland 4 26 8/24/15 6/3 Truro 12 120 38/156/55 15/10 Vawse7 58 17/75/20 5/5 Whitemoors 11 114 44/176/50 13/9 Wivelshire 24 440 108/424/120 35/20 Wivelshire provides 2 warships and Pydar 1 for King Mark’s navy. Devon

91 500 110/75 Bampton 9 71 110/495/500 15/9 Bradninch 9 74 125/565/200 10/8 Crediton 10 86 125/565/100 15/12 Devon 24 430 235/1058/650 25/20 Exeter 25 475 90/405/30/14 Moridunum 14 139 70/315/250 15/12 Exeter provides 4 warships for Duke Cador and Moridunum 1 for King Mark. Dunster





Lyonesse 86 Albine 18 230 Cambourne 11 99 Lelant 5 34 Lizard 8 62 Lyonesse 19 241 Maidens 7 54 Pengersick 7 49 Pennycwm 11 102 1 royal warship is supplied by Albine.

200+800=1000 30/120/22/88/20 19/76/23/92/20 32/124/25 15/60/15 17/68/18 41/164/30

50/75 20/15 2/9 2/4 2/9 15/18 2/5 2/5 5/10

Lys 37 1015 Guenloie has 3 warships at Barbigoel.



Tintagel Bodmin Launceton Kelliwic Norholt Pine Tintagel

180 25/100/100 28/96/75 12/48/60 22/88/40 16/64/20 77/231/120

125/60 5/4 25/12 20/8 15/10 10/8 50/18


87 13 16 10 16 9 23

128 185 90 182 74 407

97 400 100/65 Berry 8 62 31/124/20 7/6 Bantham 12 115 33/132/35 8/8 Buckfast 6 43 31/124/50 2/2 Buckland 7 51 36/144/40 2/2 Lidan 10 91 34/136/90 18/10 Plympton 11 102 45/170/50 8/5 Okehptn 13 134 40/160/200 18/10 Tavistock 7 52 31/124/60 4/2 Totnes 24 462 105/420/50 32/20 Berry provides 1 warship for King Mark’s navy, Plympton provides 2 and Totnes 12.

The fiefs of Brittany City statistics are for the immediate urban area and surrounding fields/suburbs alone. Some large towns (Quimper, Redon, Dol, etc., are reflected in the large POP stats of the fief they belong to. This data, for reasons of space, is less broken down than the preceding information on Cornwall. Hydes and Hyrds are listed by desmense and then by rented land (or unavailable land—fallow, church, etc.); wasteland –potentially valuable hydes in overgrown, forested land is practically unlimited in Brittany so it is not given. Name



Hydes & Hyrds


Cornouailles (114) Carhaix city 10 62 21/63 2/30 Carnoet 10 62 21/63 10 Corn. ppr. 22 340 80/240 22* Hennebont 16 171 43/126 16 Huelgoet 10 62 21/63 10 Poher 19 223 56/180 19 Raguindel 11 95 24/72 11* Quimper 16 171 43/126 16* [Note that Hoel can depend on knights from only asterisked fiefs—49 in all. The other 57 are men of King Mark.] Domnonée (249) Aleth 27 565 (27) Beaumanoir 10 83 10* Caradeuc 8 59 8 Coetmen 16 171 16* Corseul 10 83 10* Dinan 20 250 20 Dinard 6 39 6 Dol 30 700 (30) Erquy 9 71 9* Gael 10 83 10* Goëllo 21 295 21* Guingamp 18 203 18* Lamballe 16 171 16 Moncontour 15 155 15* Quintin 12 107 12* Treguier 21 295 21* [King Mark’s vassals and their knights are marked by an asterisk. 142 knights can be commanded by Mark as Count of Dumnonee.]


(91) Brest 24 Kastell-Pol 9 Le Faou 10 Landuc 12 Leon (desm) 16 Morlaix 12 St-Mathieu 8

Nantes Asserac Clisson Guerande Nantes (de.) Nantes city Retz St-Nazaire

(117) 11 15 14 26 22 16 14

Rennes Chat’briand Chat’giron Combourg Fougeray Fougeres Guerche, La Hede Montauban Montfort Rennes city Rennes (de.) Vitre

(176) 12 16 14 12 16 12 10 10 13 14 29 18

Vannetais (170) Broerec (de.) 19 Gourin 10 Guillac 10 Mauron 11 Muzillac 10 Porhoet (de.) 16 Redon 26 Roche-Bern. 10 Rochefort 10

Rohan 12 Vannes (de.) 24 Vann. ppr. 12

Author’s Notes Little attention has been paid to the subject of Tristram in Pendragon; he doesn’t even have statistics in the main rules. It probably isn’t a coincidence that Greg Stafford, writing in the Pendragon Campaign (1985) said “I am inclined to agree with T.H. White’s analysis of Tristram’s character: that he was tough, and mouthed the platitudes of chivalry, but never quite understood what it was really about” and Phyllis Ann Karr in the King Arthur Companion wrote “I, personally, have a great deal of difficulty trying to generate an interest in Tristram and his cycle…”. These comments prefigure the absence and lack of importance of Tristram in earlier books. For this reason I included some analysis of Tristram’s character in this book; I believe he has been misunderstood. This is not altogether surprising. Tristram, unlike Arthur, or even Lancelot, is hard to get a fix on, a straightforward motivation is absent. Some of this is because of the curiously philosophical bent, however muted, questioning and indicting Chivalry, in the Prose Tristan, Malory’s source. Some of this is because of Malory’s preference for Lancelot and inability to depict a Mark with more than a cartoonish personality, and Tristram’s loss of his tragedy. Tristram’s failure in the Grail Quest and murder by Mark is hardly alluded to by Malory. This doesn’t match my idea of Medieval Cornwall or Brittany, what’s going on? Cornwall is a rich, well-populated kingdom (though it includes large wilderness areas as well) in the Prose Tristan tradition. Counts and Barons overflow Mark’s court. Hundreds of married ladies are mentioned in the Horn of Shame incident, as if his court habitually includes even more courtiers and knights. Even the earlier poetic works convey a rich, advanced feel. But the real medieval Cornwall was a definite backwater of England. Nonetheless, I represent it this way because the actual Dark Age Dumnonia seems to have been one of the more prosperous and important of the Cymric kingdoms. For this reason, Cornwall is at least as civilized as southern Logres. To represent a grittier, wilder Cornwall, use Savage Mountains. If you want that feel, I recommend halving all the population and knight totals I give in the appendices. Brittany, on the other hand, is a less populated and developed nation in this book than it was in the Middle Ages. This also represents the situation in the 6th century. Much of Brittany is still forest, and the declining and thin GalloRoman population has yet to merge and grow with the Breton settlers. Brittany is mainly a place of adventure and opportunity in the romances, not a settled land, though a fair number of heroes come from there. It’s difficult to make Brittany akin to its Medieval self without disturbing this sense. One thing to keep in

mind, however, is that Brittany was not on the ‘fringe’ of Europe as it is today; medieval (and to a lesser extent, post-Roman) Brittany was in the midst of a vibrant Atlantic trade and had both manufacturing power and political importance. To a certain extent, however, Breton self-image was a mix of nostalgia for their independent Celtic identity and elaborate, fashionable, pagentry, neither of which presented a sense of realism. This imagined country is the nation of Lands of Tristram. Where do all these details come from? A great deal of places. I have attempted to synthesize what is reported in the romances, except where it is clearly contradictory. I have relied on the looser medieval definition of son, brother, even father to include relations by marriage for some of the extended families. Cornwall is the setting of quite a few romances outside of Tristram’s, as is Brittany. Chretien’s Perceval is partly set near Tintagel, the main reason why Meliant de Lis and Lys itself are placed near Cornwall. The origins of Yder and Mark are a mix of Welsh and Continental traditions. Yder is identified with “Norrois” the father of one of Gawaine’s paramours. I feel this is evident from their interchangeability in the manuscripts, and the Welsh description of Edern ap Nudd as “King of the Danes, or Northmen,” the literal rendering of Norrois. Mark is given one of his Welsh genealogies for plausability, as his genealogy in Romance is chronologically absurd. I have given Gorlois a somewhat different origin than the late Welsh genealogies (he is a part of the same family, more or less, however) to explain his links with Mark. A corrupt name of a similar sound is found, in any rate, in a list of Glywys’ sons. It took a lot of thought to finally decide on the origins of the Duchy of Tintagel and the relationship of Eliduc to it. I believe that linking to Igraine helps to explain why Arthur owns castles and manors in Cornwall. I found a wealth of detail in fragmented form in references such as the Arthurian Name Dictionary, an invaluable, but not flawless, source, and the fascinating Index of Proper Names in Arthurian Prose Romances. In the case where possible I have referenced the sources themselves to check the data. Very little is invented, aside from the consolidation of some characters of the same or similar name into a single individual. While it might have been possible to create anew the details, it was more satisfying to use the same methods as the medieval authors, and elaborate on pre-existing names and places. I have tried to avoid errors that might distort other Pendragon materials, but, admittedly, there are minor identifications in Pendragon which have caused problems, such as the location of the Darnantes forest (in the Prose Tristan, near the border of Logres and Norgales, or roughly the northern Arroy), the origins of Brandiles, the ‘death’ of King Idres, the misunderstanding of Campacorentin (a medieval spelling of Quimper-Corentin, in Brittany).

Certain details in this work have been changed from information presented in Pendragon, most notably the description of the Breton kings and their realms. The kings attributed to that region in the rulebook were gleaned from John Morris’ The Age of Arthur. However, several of these individuals seem to be anachronistic to 531 or their placement is at variance with the constraints of a detailed timeline for the region. Morris’ work is somewhat scanty as a reference for Brittany and thus other sources, particularly Chadwick’s Early Brittany, have been more useful. I have taken the liberty to alter incompatible details as subtly as possible. Meliau of Leon’s son was a victim of Riwal the usurper, and thus died before 490; Riwal of Dumnonee was the grandfather of Judicael, Cunomorus’ successor in that country, who gained his throne between 550-60. He must therefore be assumed dead by 520 in the internal chronology of this work. Probably by reference to Cado of Dunster or the Cad- of Cadbury a king is also assumed for Somerset named Cadwy who appears several times in Pendragon. However this may be a duplication of Cador of Cornwall, which we must consider a different individual herein. The lord of Devon, Geraint, in Pendragon, is known to have been killed in the Saxon wars, so he must be considered somewhat anachronistic as well. Lands of Tristram Bibliography I have indicated particularly important and useful sources with an asterix*. Primary Sources Beroul. The Romance of Tristan. translated by Alan S. Fedrick. Penguin, 1970.* The Birth of Romance: An Anthology: Four twelfth-century Anglo-Norman Romances. trans. by Judith Weiss. Everyman, 1992. A Celtic Miscellany. translated by Kenneth Hurlstone Jackson. Penguin, 1971. Chretien de Troyes. Arthurian Romances. translated by D.D.R. Owen. Everyman, 1987. Perceval: the Story of the Grail. translated by Nigel Bryant. Arthurian Studies V. D.S. Brewer, 1982. [includes summary of the Continuations] Geoffrey of Monmouth. History of the Kings of Britain. translated by Sebastian Evans, Everyman, 1912. Gottfried von Strassburg. Tristan with the ‘Tristan’ of Thomas. translated by Arthur Thomas Hatto. Penguin, 1960.* Gregory of Tours. The History of the Franks. translated by Louis Thorpe. Penguin, 1974. Illuminated Manuscripts: Tristan and Isolde. text by Gabriel Bise, Miller Graphics, Geneve, 1978.

Lancelot-Grail. The Old French Arthurian Vulgate and Post-Vulgate in Translation. gen. ed. Norris J. Lacy. Garland 1995-1996.* [v.4-5 are the most useful for Cornish and Breton campaigns] The Lancelot-Grail Reader. ed. Norris J. Lacy. Garland Publishing, 2000. The Mabinogi and Other Medieval Welsh Tales. translated by Patrick K. Ford. University of California, 1977. Malory, Sir Thomas. Le Morte D’Arthur. v.1-2. Penguin, 1969.* Marie de France. The Lais of Marie de France. translated by Robert Hanning and Joan Ferrante. Labyrinth, 1978.* The Romance of Tristan. translated by Renée L. Curtis. Oxford University Press, 1994.* [very hard to find, oddly] Three Arthurian Romances: Poems from Medieval France. trans. by Ross G. Arthur. Everyman, 1996. [contains the romance of Caradoc]* Tristan and the Round Table: a translation of La Tavola Ritonda. trans. by Anne Shaver, Center for Medieval and Early Renaissance Studies, SUNY at Binghamton, 1983. Trioedd Ynys Prydein: The Welsh Triads. trans. and ed. by Rachel Bromwich. University of Wales Press, 1978 Wace and Lawman. The Life of King Arthur. Translated by Judith Weiss and Rosamund Allen. Everyman, 1997. Wolfram von Eschenbach. Parzival. translated by A.T. Hatto. Penguin, 1980. Secondary Sources Ashe, Geoffrey. A Guidebook to Arthurian Britain. Aquarian, 1983. The Quest for Arthur’s Britain. Academy, 1987. Bogdanow, Fanni. The Romance of the Grail. Manchester University Press, New York, 1966. Bowen, E. G. Britain and the Western Seaways: a History of Cultural Interchange Through Atlantic Coastal Waters. Praeger, New York, 1972. Braudel, Fernand. The Identity of France. Volume Two: People and Production. trans. by Siân Reynolds, Harper Collins, 1990. Bromwich, Rachel, et al. ed. The Arthur of the Welsh: the Arthurian Legend in Medieval Welsh Literature. Cardiff, 1991. Bruce, Christopher. The Arthurian Name Dictionary. Garland, 1999.* Burgess, Glyn S. The Lais of Marie de France: Text and Context. University of Georgia, 1987. Burl, Aubrey. A Guide to the Stone Circles of Britain, Ireland and Brittany. Yale University, 1995. Castleden, Rodney. King Arthur: the Truth behind the Legend. Routledge, 2000.* Chadwick, Nora K. Early Brittany. University of Wales, 1969. * Clark, Eleanor. The Oysters of Locmariaquer. University of Chicago, 1978. Coghlan, Ronan. The Illustrated Encyclopedia of Arthurian Legends. Element, 1993.

Darrah, John. Paganism in Arthurian Romance. Boydell, 1994.* Ditmas, E.M.R., Tristan and Iseult in Cornwall. Forrester Roberts, 1969. Duby, Georges. A History of the Private Life: (v. II) Revelations of the Medieval World. Belknap Press, 1988. Evans, H. Meurig. Hippocrene Standard Dictionary: Welsh-English English-Welsh Dictionary. Hippocrene, 1993. Fenster, Thelma S. ed. Arthurian Women. Routledge, 2000. Galliou, Patrick and Michael Jones. The Bretons. Blackwell, 1996. Guyot, Charles. The Legend of the City of Ys. translated by Deirdre Cavanagh, University of Massachusetts, 1979. Hill, David. An Atlas of Anglo-Saxon England. University of Toronto, 1981. Howe, G. Melvyn. Man, Environment and Disease in Britain: a Medical Geography through the Ages. Penguin, 1972. Johnson, Stephen. The Roman Forts of the Saxon Shore. St. Martin’s, New York, 1976. Karr, Phyllis Ann. The Arthurian Companion, Second Edition. Green Knight, 2001.* Kelly, Douglas. Medieval French Romance. TWAS 838. Twayne, 1993. Lacy, Norris J. (ed.). The New Arthurian Encyclopedia. Garland, 1996.* Loomis, Roger Sherman. Celtic Myth and Arthurian Romance. Academy Chicago, 1997 (reprint, original edition 1927). Studies in Medieval Literature. A Memorial Collection of Essays. Burt Franklin, 1970. Loseth, E. Le Roman en Prose de Tristan, Le Roman de Palamede et la Compiliation de Rusticien de Pise: Analyse Critique d’après les Manuscripts de Paris. Burt Franklin, 1970 (reprint of 1891 edition). Mackillop, James. Oxford Dictionary of Celtic Mythology. Oxford, 1998. Markale, Jean. The Celts: Uncovering the Mythic and Historic Origins of Western Culture. Inner Traditions 1993 (reprint). King Arthur: King of Kings. Gordon & Cremonesi, 1977. Metlitzki, Dorothee. The Matter of Araby in Medieval England. Yale University Press, 1977. Morris, John. The Age of Arthur: a History of the British Isles from 350 to 650. Scribner’s, 1973.* Ordnance Survey. Britain in the Dark Ages. Ordnance Survey, 2nd edition, 1974.* Roman Britain: Historical map and guide. Ordnance Survey. 5th edition, 1994. Padel, O.J. A Popular Dictionary of Cornish Place-names. Alison Hodge, 1988. Pearce, Susan. The Kingdom of Dumnonia. Studies in History and Tradition in SouthWestern Britain A.D. 350-1150. Lodenek, 1978. [out-of-date] Rahtz, Philip. Glastonbury. B.T. Batsford/English Heritage, 1993. Renouard, Michel. A New Guide to Brittany. trans. by Angela Morton. OuestFrance, 1984. Rodger, N.A.M. The Safeguard of the Sea: A Naval History of Britain 660-1649. W.W. Norton, 1997.

Rose, Carol. Giants, Monsters & Dragons: an encyclopedia of Folklore, Legend, and Myth. W.W. Norton, 2000. Salway, Peter. The Oxford History of England: Roman Britain. Clarendon, 1981. Snyder, Christopher. An Age of Tyrants: Britain and the Britons, A.D. 400-600. Sutton Publishing, 1998.* The World of King Arthur. Thames & Hudson, 2000. Stanes, Robin. A History of Devon. Phillimore, 1986. Thomas, Charles. Celtic Britain. Thames and Hudson, 1986.* English Heritage Book of Tintagel: Arthur and Archaeology. B.T. Batsford, 1993.* Exploration of the Drowned Landscape: Archaeology and History of the Isles of Scilly. B.T. Batsford, 1985.* Wacher, John. The Towns of Roman Britain. B. T. Batsford, 1974. West, G.D. An Index of Proper Names in French Arthurian Prose Romances. University of Toronto, 1978.* West, G.D. An Index of Proper Names in French Arthurian Verse Romances 11501300. University of Toronto, 1969.* Whitaker, Muriel. Arthur’s Kingdom of Adventure: The World of Malory’s Morte Darthur. D.S. Brewer, 1984. Modern Literature and Poetry Bradley, Marion Zimmer. The Mists of Avalon. Del Ray, 1982. Cornwell, Bernard. The Winter King. St. Martin’s, 1995. Hardy, Thomas. The Dynasts Part III and the Queen of Cornwall. Macmillian and Co., 1924. Paxson, Diana L. The White Raven. William Morrow, 1988. Swinburne, Algernon Charles. Tristram of Lyonesse and Other Poems. Chatto & Windus, 1892. Tennyson, Alfred [Lord]. Idylls of the King. Signet, 1961. Online Resources is a French-language site containing a great deal of useful information on the nobility of (real) medieval Brittany. contains a large French-Breton dictionary. “The Ruin and Conquest of Britain 400 A.D. – 600 A.D. As told by the Primary Sources” by H. Wiseman is a useful summary of real historical facts. The main site includes resources on British folklore and Welsh legend. is a useful site associated with the SCA which lists authentic 10th century Cornish names. is a useful site for information on the historical Dark Age Dumnonia and Brittany.

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