PDP Project Report

May 5, 2019 | Author: bharatpurasharma | Category: Sampling (Statistics), Marketing, Marketing Research, Survey Methodology, Consumer Behaviour
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A Comparative analysis Milk and milk products with respect to its competitors With special reference to SUDHA DAIRY PRODUCTS


Submitted to Birla institute of technology, Mesra, Extension centre- Noida In partial fulfillment of the requirement For Award of  MASTERS OF BUSINESS ADMINISTRATION (M.B.A.)

Under the guidance of:Mrs. Suparna Dutta

Submitted by:Rohit Gunjan Roll No.- 4525/09 Course- M.B.A. Session- 2009-2011

CONTENTS CHAPTER  1. INTRODUCTION …………………………………………… 05 2. HISTORY OF PATNA DAIRY PROJECT............…………. 12 3. MANAGEMENT STRUCTURE …………………….…….. 25 4. PRODUCT PROFILE …………………………..………….. 28 5. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY ………..…………………




7. FINDINGS …………………………………………………


8. LIMITAT LIMITATION IONS S ………………… …………………………… ………………… ……………… ………


9. CONCLUSION………………………..……………………





INTRODUCTION India with a population of more than 100 crores is potentially one of  the largest Consumer market in the world. With urbanization and development of economy, tastes and interests of the people changes according to the advance Nation. Marketing is about winning this new environment. It is about Understanding what consumer’s wants a supplying it’s more efficiently and more conveniently. The consumer market may be identified as the market for   product and Service that are purchased by individuals as household for their    personal consumptions. Milk is typical consumer products purchased by Individuals for many purposes primarily making tea and sweets. The market of milk is also facing a competition and many companies are floating in the market with their products with different brand names. In such a situation different factors which influence the people choice for milk are taste and quality. So, marketing is both philosophy and technology. It is Technology because it suggests ways and means for effective production and Distribution of goods and services in the market to give maximum satisfaction to the consumer the marketing manager is responsible for both Determining and suitability of goods and services in the market to give maximum satisfaction to the consumer. The marketing manager is responsible for both Determining and suitability of goods and services presented by the company to the market and also determining about potential market and make better relation with retailer.

In this regard the marketing management with have to apply to marketing the marketing management for effective research and can be defined, “Systematic Objective and exhaustive study of tasks relevant to any  problem in the field of marketing.”


The ultimate aim of marketing is to meet and satisfy customer’s needs, wants and desires. But “knowing customers” is never simply. Customers may state their needs and wants otherwise. They may not in touch with their  deeper motivations. They may respond to influences that change their mind last minute. Plainly speaking the term consumer behavior refers to the behavior that consumers display in searching for purchasing, using evaluating and dispersing of products and services that they expert would satisfy their  needs. The study of consumer behavior is the study of how individuals make decisions to spend their available resources (Time, Money, Efforts) on consumption related items. As matter of human behavior, we are concerned with understanding consumer behavior with gaining insight into why individuals act in certain consumption related way & learning what external influences compel them to act as they do.


The market survey was conducted on “Comparative analysis of Sudha Milk and milk products with respect to its competitors". This study was done at Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd. Phulwarisharif, Patna. The survey covers a wide range of activities and factors, which determine the response of customer about his /her dairy products specially, milk. The samples of 100 respondents were taken to represent the response of customer. The validity of the findings of this survey is limited to the period during which the field survey was conducted i.e. eight weeks.

LIMITATION OF THE STUDY 1) Survey covers feed back from users and non users of Sudha Milk and milk products. 2) The study is done on survey method and suffers from this method. 3) The non users although they know the product but still they are not  buying the products because of some short-comings. 4) Time is the major constraint 5) Some respondents did not co-operate

6) Many respondents did not provide proper information due to bias Because of these limitations, it may not be possible to draw any major  conclusions. However the conclusion that is drawn in this study can be considered as indicative or suggestive in nature.


The eight weeks summer training is very important for a student of  MBA. This type of study gives some practical knowledge to MBA students and practical knowledge has more relevence than theoretical knowledge for  anyone. There is no certain formula for any particular problem but the aim of  this study is to develop the ability of decision-making. Right decision at right time itself helps an organization to run smoothly. The training in any organization gives us an idea of different marketing activities and main emphasis is given on “Promotional Activities” Aspect and also it is seen how business is taken tactfully. When any  problem comes to an executive, the way of problem solving right decision making and knowledge of different types of marketing activities gives much importance to this study.



To creates a world class selling.


To refresh the world in mind, body and spirit

To inspire moments of optimism through our brands and our action

To create value and make a difference everywhere we engage.

History of COMPFED

Background The Bihar State Co-operative Milk Producers Federation Ltd. (COMPFED) came into existence in 1983 as the implementing agency of Operation Flood (OF) program of  dairy development on Anand Pattern in the State. All the operation or erstwhile Bihar  State Dairy Co-operation was handed over to COMPFED.

Area of Operation Five-district level Milk Producer’s Corp. Unions affiliated to the Milk Federation were covering eighteen districts till the end of programme in March 1977 (end of Eighth Plan). Number Of districts being covered by unions at present has risen to twenty four  and in addition, five districts are being covered by the Federation, further work is being initiated in six districts more. District milk unions, which are organizing the DCS network in these districts, are listed below:


Vaishal Patliputra Milk Union, Patna

Patna, Vaishali, Nalanda, Saran and Siwan district.


Barauni Milk union, Barauni

Begusarai, Khagaria, Lakhisarai, Shekpura and Some villages of Munger  And Saharsa district.

iii. Tirhut Milk Union, Muzaffarpur

Muzaffarpur, Sitamarhi, Sheohar, E. Champaran,and

W. Champaran district

iv. Shahabad Milk Union, Arrah

Bhojpur, Buxor, Kaimur and Rohtas district.

v. Mithila Milk Union, Samastipur

Samstipur, Darbhanga and Madhubani district.

The milk Federation has already taken up organization of Dairy Co-operative societies (DCS) in the districts of Gaya, Jehanabad, Bhagalpur and Purnea. Departement of AH & Dairying in the Ministry of Agriculture, GOI has approved a propose for dairy development in Supaul, Madhepura and Saharsha districts. The districts of east and west Singhbhum, Ranchi, Bokaro and Dhandad are being covered by the dairies directly under the control of Milk Federation for the supply of  Milk and Milk products to the urban consumers in these Cities. Procurement of milk has  been taken up in Ranchi district only.


Because of initial teething tribules and the set back caused by the natural Vagaries, the progress was impeded. Regaining of confidence of the milk Producers in the cooperative dairying system shattered due to poor management by erstwhile. Bihar  State Cooperation earlier was also of one of the major reasons for sluggish growth. Lack  of functional infrastructure in the sphere of animal husbandry, especially in breed improvement, artificial insemination (AI) and animal health cover also contributed to the torpid progress. Policy decisions taken six to seven years ago have changed the trend for growth in all quarters of cooperative dairying in Bihar. In the earlier Years, the emphasis was on the horizontal expansion of area is also being done.


Patna was one of the milk shed identified under `Operation flood – I ’ (OF-01) for implementation of the programme. A hund red thousand liters per day capacity Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD ) and 100 MT per day Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) were set up under this Programme . A corporation known as Bihar State Dairy Corporation (BSDC) was formed in the year 1972 for speedy and effective implementation of the operation flood Programme in the state. The Dairy Corporation was to develop the Dairy Cooperatives both at the village level and mil shed level on ‘Anand Pattern’ and it was expected that the milk shed level cooperative would take over the entire infrastructure created in due course. The corporation positioned a multi disciplinary Procurement & inputs wing in 1975 after their recruitment and training a Spear Head Team (SHT) was deputed from National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) from the same year for helping the Corporation in-organizing and developing the Cooperatives through the progress in the initial years was encouraging, the programme, for obvious reasons could not achieve the goals for which it was established. Subsequently, the State Government felt it worthwhile to request the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) for taking over the infrastructure created on management basis. The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) took over the management to the infrastructure with effect form 1st October 1981 under the banner of  Patna Dairy Project (PDP).


The National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) immediately after taking over  the project positioned an integrated Spear Head Team (SHT) to restructure the milk    procurement activities and also for streamlining the work of the Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) and Cattle Feed Plant(CFP). Under the management of NDDB the project had not only made excellent progress but had been able to establish the fact that the Cooperatives could function equally well in Bihar too and what is essential is the proper  atmosphere guidance. Along with the organization of milk procurement activities and management of    both the plants Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) and Cattle Feed Plant(CFP) on commercial lines, National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) took special care to develop the Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS), the milk shed level cooperative for taking over the project once the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) withdraws its management. National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) handed over the arrangements of  Patna Dairy Project (PDP ) to Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd.(VPDUSS) with effect from 1st July, 1998.

PROGESS OF PATNA DAIRY PROJECT UNDER VAISHAL PATLIPUTRA DUGDH UTPADAK SAHKARI SANGH LTD. (VPDUSS) The major tasks before the Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak SAhkari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS) was to see that the excellent infrastructure developed by the National Dairy Development Board (NDDB) is not only maintained but also to see that pace of  development is not hampered. The Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Sahari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS) has been able to accomplish these tasks to a greater extent.


There are present 1285 nos. of functional Dairy Cooperative Societies (DCS) in the areas of Patna Dairy Project (PDP) covering the district of Patna, Vaishali, Nalanda and fringe areas of Saran with a total membership of 74663 members. The daily average  procurement has reached up to 147390 litres during the year 2005-2006. It is hoped that  project shall collect above one & half lack liters of milk per day in commencing year. There are 198 nos. of  Women Cooperative Societies (WCS) exclusively managed and run by rural women folk. While the union has a Fairly good number of  functional societies, emphasis is being given to c onsolidate the functioning of the primary societies by increasing the member’s participation. The graphs showing the no. of  functional societies, no. of members, yearly daily average milk procurement and daily average lean months procurement are enclosed. The Cooperative Development (CD) Program was also initiated from March 1991 with the assistance of  National Dairy Development Board NDDB . The graph showing the average producers price over the years is enclosed .

TECHNICAL INPUTS: The union (VPDUSS), in addition to providing a ready and state market for the rurally produced milk at the door-step has been providing the inputs required for milk   production enhancement viz. Artificial Insemination (AI) with Frozen Semen,      

Veterinary First Aid (VFA), Vaccination, Supply of Balanced Cattle Feed, Supply of Folder Seeds, Treatment of paddy straw/wheat bhusa with Urea, Supply of Urea Molasses Block (UMB)

etc. on No profit no loss basis . The response from the milk producers for all these has been exceedingly encouraging and the Union is in the process of extending these facilities to more and more Dairy Cooperative Societies and farmers.

FEEDER BALANCING DAIRY(FBD): The Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) with a capacity to handle 1.5 lakhs liter per day (LLPD), has facilities for manufacture of  Milk powder, Butter, Ghee, Ice Cream Peda, Panner, Plain/Misti Dahi, Lassi Mattha etc.

The Patna Dairy Project (PDP ) was first to start milk marketing in sachets in Bihar during 1981 and its product profile includes- fluid milk of various grades, milk  powder, butter, ghee, gulab-jamun, peda, ice-cream, paneer,Surabhi (Flavured Milk), rasogulla, diet ice cream and plain/misthi dahi along with this it also manufactures and supplies cattle to its members. The production and marketing of Table Butter under the brand name ‘SUDHA’ was introduced from 1st October 1993 and the response has been encouraging. The marketing of Sudha brand of  Ice Cream in patna after test marketing in August-September1994 , was formally launched from April, 1995. The initial response has been satisfactory. Efforts are on to increase the market share of Sudha ice-cream. The Marketing of Sudha brand Plain/Misti Dahi in Patna was started in OctNov.2001 and was formally launched from November, 2001. The initial response for this  product too has been overwhelming. The production of Sudha brand Lassi in Patna was stared in April-May-2003 .

CATTLE FEED PLANT: The role of balanced feed is not only increasing milk production but also sustaining the same by ensuring regular conception need not be over emphasized. Realizing the same the Union has been making constituent efforts for popularizing the consumption of balanced feed by the milk production. In addition to catering to the needs of the Dairy Cooperative Societies cattle feed is sold through dealers in rest of the state for better capacity utilization of the plant. Further  realizing the importance of introduction of latest technologies in this field, the production and sale of By Pass Protein Feed was started from the year 1989-90 . The response for this feed is encouraging.

MILK MARKETING: The marketing of liquid milk in sachets was introduced from the year 1981. However, initially the thrust was for organizing the milk procurement activities and to stabilize the same at reasonable level. Nevertheless there was some natural growth in the milk marketing over the years. However, for various reasons there was some stagnation for 

few years in the quantity of milk marketed. With certain modifications in the policy decisions and because of concerted efforts, the quantum of milk being marketed is steadily growing. The graph showing the local daily average milk marketing in different years is enclosed.

QUALITY & PRODUCTIVITY ACTIVITIES: The Dairy Plant Mangement Programme (DPM) was introduced in the year  1992 followed by Quality Assurance Programme (QAP) in the year  1993 with the help of NDDB. This resulted in bringing about a positive change leading to viability of the   project coupled lowering of operational costs on one hand and improved quality of   products on the other. Consequent to the liberalization and globalization of Indian economy in early 90,s it was felt that the organization should strive to make its total outlook, approach and systems of highest standards. Accordingly, it was decided in the year  2001 that the organization should go in for ISO certification both in quality management system and food safety. This process was successfully completed leading to ISO-9001:2000 and HACCP (IS-15000) certification by Bureau of Indian Standards in March 2002. The project has been honoured with “Best Productivity Perfomance” Award for  the two consecutive years 20001-2001 & 2001-2002 by National Productivity Council, New Delhi.


It is also called Board Of Directtors (BOD ) that consists of  17 Members as per  details: Elected Secretories of Societies






Managing Director (VPDUSS)



Managing Director (COMPFED)



Milk Commissioner



Representative from Government Cooperative Department






The management committee makes policy for the organization and takes area of  all the policy decisions regarding Patna Dairy Project .

Chairman : The chairman presides over the management committee meeting for  taking any policy decisions regarding the project.

Managing Director : He is responsible for day-to-day management implementing the Board of Directors decisions regarding the Patna Dairy Project (PDP) / Vaishal Patliputra Dugdh Utpadak Sahkari Sangh Ltd. (VPDUSS)

Manager Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD) : Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD) is controlled by a manager who is directly responsible for all the activities of Feeder 

Balancing Dairy(FBD) and works under the guidance of Managing Director technical officers and Quality Control Officer assist him in smooth running of Feeder Balancing Dairy (FBD).

Technical Officer Feeder Balancing Dairy(FBD) :

Technical Officers are   professionals to look after the operation of the plant by operation in shifts. Other  engineers and supervisors co-ordinate technical officers.

Quality Control Officers :

Quality Control Officers assures the quality of  incoming, under-processing and finished milk products. He reports to Manager Feeder  Balancing Dairy(FBD) and Managing Director directly. Chemists and lab assistants helps the Quality Control Officer.

Manager Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) : Manager Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) controls the activities of the Cattle Feed Plant(CFP). Animal Nutrition Officer and Technical Officer Co-ordinate the Cattle Feed Plant Manager.

Animal Nutrition Officer :

Animal Nutrition Officer is responsible for Research and Development work, developing formula at least cost for all animal feed and day to day inspections of raw materials of cattle feed and finished products also.

Technical Officer Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) :

Technical Officer Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) is directly under the Manager Cattle Feed Plant (CFP) and is responsible for  day to day production of different animal feed.

In Charge Marketing : Marketing –In-Charge is responsible for all the marketing activities of the project and reports directly to Managing Director. Sales Manager/ Executives assist the marketing In Charge in performing tasks and is guided by the Marketing-In-Charge.

Sales Executives :

Sales Executive works under Marketing-In-Charge and is responsible for day-to-day sale of milk and milk products and achieving the targets assigned from time-to-time for sales. Sales Executives are also In-Charge of assigned marketing zone and union for the smooth sale of milk and milk products through retailers and also handles customer complains, if any.

Deputy General Manager : Deputy General Manager handles Accounts section and is directly under Managing Director. Assistant Accounts Officer helps the Accounts officer in performing his tasks. Cashiers, Accountants and Auditors are also there to assist him.

Manager Milk Procurement : Manager Milk Procurement is he In-Charge of the milk procurement department of Patna Dairy Project (PDP) and reports directly to the Managing Director. Many group leaders of the different areas assist him in milk   procurement. These group leaders are directly responsible for milk procurement in their 

respective areas. Milk Procurement Officer and Route Supervisors assists these group leaders.

MEMBERS OF P.D.P ORGANISATION 1. Secretaries of Societies 2. Chairman 3. Managing Director (VPDUSS) 4. Managing Director (COMFED) 5. Milk Commissioners. 6. Manger Feeder Balancing Dairy 7. Technical officer  8. Quality Control officer  9. Manager Cattle Feeder Factor  10. Animal Nutrition offiver  11. In charge Marketing 12. Sales Executive 13. Deputy General Manger  14. Manger (Milk Procurement) 15. Representative from Govt. Co-Operative Department. 16. NDDB (National Dairy Development Board)



Procurment Department: The basis work of this department is to procure the milk from different places.

(ii) Financial Deparment: The basis work of this department is cost analysis, balance sheet formation & financial work.

(iii) Marketing Department: This is the heart of “SUDHA” because this Department is helpful to maintain the flow of product from Sudha Manufacturing unit to consumer.

(iv) Plant: Plant is manufacturing & storing unit of product &milk. (v) Laboratory: There are different types of Bacterial & viral test Test held in this laboratory. Such as: 

Microbial test

Caustic acid circulation test.



The main function of the marketing is to place right product to the right place at right, time. The distribution strategy is concerned with the product of service placement. Broadly speaking the overall distribution strategy is concerned with two categories of  issue and decision, which need to be handled. These are-Management of marketing channel and -The management of physical supplied. Channel decisions refer to the managerial decisions or the selection of best routes or paths for moving goods from the producer to consumer. Channel of distribution are concerned not only with the physical distribution of goods but also with their promotion, selling and marketing channel. The term channel of distribution is used to refer the various intermediaries who help in moving the product from the producer to consumer. These intermediaries bear a variety of means such as sole selling agent, marketers, whole sellers, Distributors, Stockiest, Dealer, and Retailer etc. All such marketing intermediaries used by the producers to continue the distribution channel. According to PHILP KOTLER  “Marketing channels are sets of interdependent organization involved in the process of marketing a product or service available for use or  consumption”.

IMPORTANCE OF CHANNEL OF DISRIBUTION Channel of distribution are the most powerful element among marketing mix elements. Many products which are intrinsically sound died, they never found the right way to the market. On the other hand by developing a sound distribution network and handling aggressive advertisement campaigns a company can earn much for itself. Its plays a very important role in achieving the marketing of a firm. Undoubtedly, Value utility is created by the manufactures of the product of service but time and place utilities is created of Distribution.

According to DRECKKER  “Both the market and distribution channel are option more crucial than the product ." Why marketing Intermediaries are used:-

Intermediaries normally achieve superior efficiency in marketing goods widely available and essential to the target markets. Though their contacts, experience, specialization and scale of operations. Intermediaries usually offer the firm more than it can achieve on its own.



Function of Middleman

The function of middleman in the marketing channel is to create utilize. Place Utility

Carry things from the produced to place where they are needed. Time Utility

Put the goods at the disposal of consumers when they are needed.

Transaction Costs

Transaction cost can be carried at lower cost through the distribution channel than through direct exchange. Process Efficiency

The intermediaries can increase the efficiency of exchange process. Matching Segments

Given heterogeneity of demand and supply, the marketing channels match segments of demand with segments of supply. Structure of Distribution Channel

The concept of functional spin-off is relevant to evaluate and analysis changes in the distribution structure. Few of the hypothesis founded on the functional spin-off  concept are: A producer will spin off a marketing function to marketing intermediary(s) if the later can perform the function the function more efficiently.Then he will spin-off function to the latter.

Distribution Channel Practiced at Patna Dairy In Patna Dairy, marketing of milk products start before production. At first the marketing manager collect order and demand from the customers.


Research in common parlance refers to a search for knowledge. One can also define research as a scientific and systematic search for pertinent information on a specific topic. Marketing Research

According to American Marketing association (AMA) – “Marketing research is a systematic gathering, recording and analyzing of data about problems relating of  the marketing of goods and services. ” In short, marketing research provides the requisite information for making marketing decisions.


The following are the major areas in which research plays a key role in making effective decision. Marketing research has become very crucial in taking sound marketing decisions. It involves proves of systematic collections compilation, analysis and interpretation of relevant data for marketing decisions.


Research design is the plan, structure and strategy of investigation conceived so as to obtain answers to research questions and to control Variance. DATA COLLECTION

The information needed to further proceeds in the project has been collected through primary data and secondary data.

Sources of Data

(a) Primary Data- Primary data are the fresh data collected for the first time by designing open samples by the organization. These data are very much crucial for the management and it assists the management in decision taking and analyzing any problem  pertaining to the management. IT is directly collected from the correspondence. Primary Data Sources

Following are the several methods of collecting p rimary data: 1. Observation Method 2. Interview Method 3. Questionnaire Method 4. Through Schedules 5. Other Methods which include:Warranty cards Distributor’s audits Pantry Audits Consumer Panels (b) Secondary Data : Any Data which have been gathered earlier by other organization and which have been already processed.

The major Advantages of these Data  

It is economical and easy to get. It helps in accessing the problem of the organization prior to the collection of   primary data.

The limitations of Secondary Data are:

Data fitness are not up to the mark i.e. there is variation in the unit of  measurement because time gap, different sample size, different sample design, etc.

Secondary Data sources

Books, Magazines, Websites of the company, Sales executives, sales representatives, distributors, sales man and other worker of the company and annual sales report of the company.


It plays a vital role in carry out any marketing research study. It is the backbone of marketing research. A company interested introducing a new style of packaging of its   product would be interested in knowing the reaction its customers- a study of which would require the selection of some type of samples.


1. Simple random sampling. 2. Systematic random sampling 3. Stratified random Sampling 4. Cluster Sampling NON PROBABLITY SAMPLING:

1. Convenience Sampling 2. Judgmental Sampling 3. Quota Sampling 4. Snowball Sampling


Although the study has been with proper care, certain shortcomings could not be ruled out which are beyond the reach of researchers control. (a) Limitation of Time : In a short span of 6 weeks the whole universe can’t be taken into consideration for the study which of course would have given more accurate result (b) Limitation of sample size : Since a limited number of customer/respondents and dealers/retailers were selected from the assign but the whole, so the result to be affected. (c) Biased Information : In some case biased information was received from respondents. Also at times misleading responses were given. So, in any case Market study is not an exact science. It relates to response given by the customer/ respondents as against the questions pertaining to their behaviours and reference, and hence this being the universal deficiency of market research. RESEARCH METHODOLOGY - USED

Marketing Research is a process of collecting and analyzing marketing and ultimately to arrival at a certain conclusion Patna Dairy Project (PDP) is a concern, which is marketing the product having different brands. Thus a survey method of marketing research is essentially exploratory in nature. Thus, I opted from “Questionnaire” method for conductive survey about the SWOT analysis of Sudha milk for Patna Dairy Project (PDP).


In this research I have used both the methods of data collection i.e. primary &secondary. Primary data is collected through questionnaire and secondary data is collected through in house journals, sales person, and dealers/retailer. The basic focus of  the survey was to do SWOT analysis of different brand of milk for Patna Dairy Project, Patna.

Sampling Method: Judgmental sampling :

The samples were on judgment and convenience. A sample size of 100 respondents was taken. The sampling unit was customer of Patna for which this sample size as considered a fair representative of the mentioned is. The sample consisted of  dealers /retailers spread over the entire area of the distributor. For analysis & interpretation of data the research used:

No. Of Respondent Percentage = --------------------------------------------



Total no. Of respondents Research design:-

During the research I have used the descriptive and diagnostic research which is concerned with describing the characteristic of a particular individual, of a group, where as diagnostic research studies determine the frequency with which something occurs or  its association with something else. In a descriptive or diagnostic study the first step is to specify the objectives with sufficient precision of ensure that the data collected are relevant.

SUMMARY OF FINDINGS: The following finding drawn by the respondents in Bihar: 1) The classification of respondents were as follows: Male-80% respondents Female-20% respondents 2) The brand name Sudha has awareness to the fullest extent and all the respondents knew very well about it. As it was the oldest brand of milk and ghee available in Bihar, all these respondents know about it through advertisement and through the retailer. 3) Most of the respondents were buying Milk and Milk products through open markets only a very few percentage of respondents bought them from retailers. Open market  plays a dominant role when it comes to distribution and sales of Milk and Milk   products and they are major influences in the buying of a particular brand of Milk and milk products. That is what has been portrayed in this study. 4) Almost every respondent’s deals through cash and carry mode of payment with the sellers. This is because of none of the companies in the market do not support any credit transactions. 5) Sudha is seen to b e a very eminent brand since all the 100% of respondents haves given a positive response regarding its awareness. 6) 3/4th of the respondents said that quality of SUDHA products is the thing that they admit the most and few others said that they admired competitive price of Sudha. While some of others also admired its availability and its agent’s service. This means that SUDHA has maintained its quality since it inception. 7) Recommendations for improvements of Sudha Milk and Milk products are seen as follows: 1. Improvement in availability. 2. Improvement in service. 3. Improvement in packaging. 8) The respondents were using more of Sudha Milk and Milk products when compared to any others products.

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