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Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, D541X, Fireball 3, Diamond Max Plus 8, Diamond Max Plus 16, Diamond Max Plus 9"

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, D541X, Fireball 3, Diamond Max Plus 8, Diamond Max Plus 16, Diamond Max Plus 9"

Contents 1. Purpose..........................................................................................................................................................................2 2. Structure of drive families.............................................................................................................................................2 3. Basic options for repair of Maxtor drives .....................................................................................................................3 4. Preparation for work .....................................................................................................................................................3 5. Utility usage ..................................................................................................................................................................4 5.1. Launching the utility ..............................................................................................................................................4 5.2. Utility menu structure ............................................................................................................................................4 5.2.1. Logical scanning ............................................................................................................................................... 4 5.2.2. Disc firmware zone ........................................................................................................................................... 5 5.2.3. Disc ID .............................................................................................................................................................. 6 5.2.4. Defects table...................................................................................................................................................... 6 5.2.5. SELF TEST mode............................................................................................................................................. 7 6. Firmware .......................................................................................................................................................................7 6.1. General information ...............................................................................................................................................7 6.2. Firmware modules..................................................................................................................................................9 6.3. Translator in Maxtor drives .................................................................................................................................10 7. Software restoration of Maxtor HDD .........................................................................................................................10 7.1. Diagnostics of firmware zone malfunctions ........................................................................................................10 7.2. Automatic restoration of module headers ............................................................................................................12 7.3. Translator restoration ...........................................................................................................................................12 8. Surface testing of Maxtor drives.................................................................................................................................12 8.1. Surface testing of firmware zone .........................................................................................................................12 8.2. Logical scanning ..................................................................................................................................................12 8.3. Relocation of defects............................................................................................................................................13 8.4. Drive self-testing..................................................................................................................................................13 9. Auxiliary utility files...................................................................................................................................................14 10. Description of peculiarities in Maxtor drive families ...............................................................................................15 10.1. PROXIMA drive family.....................................................................................................................................15 10.2. RIGEL drive family ...........................................................................................................................................15 10.3. NIKE drive family .............................................................................................................................................16 10.4. ATHENA DSP drive family ..............................................................................................................................17 10.5. ATHENA Poker drive family ............................................................................................................................18 10.6. ROMULUS DSP/Poker drive family.................................................................................................................18 10.7. VULCAN drive family ......................................................................................................................................19 10.8. ARES 64K drive family.....................................................................................................................................19 10.9. N40P drive family..............................................................................................................................................20 10.10. FALCON drive family .....................................................................................................................................21 10.11. CALIPSO drive family ....................................................................................................................................22 11. Data restoration.........................................................................................................................................................23 11.1. Diagnostics during data restoration....................................................................................................................23 11.2. Solution to the translator problem for data recovery .........................................................................................24

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Ɋɋ-3000 £

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

1. Purpose Utilities of PC-3000 software and hardware complex can be used for service maintenance of Maxtor drives. Basic repair capabilities: -

correction of damaged data structures in drive firmware; hiding physically damaged parts of drive surfaces using reserved space provided by the manufacturer; removal of data protection password.

We have also reviewed repair methods for electronic boards of the drives as well as causes of specific malfunctions. Warning! The success of utilities' usage depends on the level of operator's proficiency. Incorrect application of algorithms implemented in the utilities may irreversibly damage a drive or prevent restoration of its data.

2. Structure of drive families Table 1. Structure of drive families. Family, factory alias, utility. 536DX, VULCAN, pcmx_dsp.exe, ver. 2.01 D541X, ATHENA DSP, pcmx_dsp.exe, ver. 2.01 Diamond Max VL40, PROXIMA, pcmx_dsp.exe, ver. 2.01 D540-4D, ROMULUS DSP, pcmx_dsp.exe, ver. 2.01 D531X, NIKE, pcmx_dsp.exe, ver. 2.01 Diamond Max Plus 60, RIGEL, pcmx_dsp.exe, ver. 2.01 D541X, ATHENA Poker pcmx_pkr.exe, ver. 2.01 Fireball 3, ARES 64K, pcmx_pkr.exe, ver. 2.01

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Reading / writing

Model

Capacity, Gb.

Disks

4W100H6 4W080H6 4W060H4 4W040H3 4W030H2 2B020H1 2B015H1 2B010H1

100 80 60 40 30 20.4 15.4 10.2

3 3 2 2 1 1 1 1

6 6 4 3 2 1 1 1

195,711,264 160,086,528 120,103,200 80,043,264 60,030,432 40,020,624 30,214,800 20,012,832

34098H4 33073H3 32049H2 31535H2 31024H1 4D080H4 4D060H3 4D040H2 4D030H2 2R015H1 2R010H1

40.9 30.7 20.4 15.3 10.2 30.0 41.0 61.5 82.0 15.0 10.2

2 2 1 1 1 2 2 1 1 1 1

4 3 2 2 1 4 3 2 2 1 1

80,043,264 60,032,448 40,021,632 30,015,216 20,010,816 160,086,528 120,069,936 80,043,264 60,030,432 29,297,520 20,011,824

5T060H6 5T040H4 5T030H3 5T020H2 5T010H1 2B020H1 2B015H1 2B010H1

61.5 40.9 30.7 20.4 10.2 20.4 15.4 10.2

3 2 2 1 1 1 1 1

6 4 3 2 1 1 1 1

120,103,200 80.043,264 60,030,432 40,021,632 20,010,816 40,020,624 30,214,800 20,012,832

2F040J0/L0 2F030J0/L0 2F020J0/L0

40 30 20

1 1 1

1 1 1

80,293,248 60,058,656 40,718,160

heads

Maximum LBA

Technical support: eng_support @acelab.ru (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

Diamond Max 16, FALCON, pcmx_pkr.exe, ver. 2.01 Diamond Max Plus 8, N40P, pcmx_pkr.exe, ver. 2.01 Diamond Max Plus 9, CALIPSO, pcmx_pkr.exe, ver. 2.01

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, D541X, Fireball 3, Diamond Max Plus 8, Diamond Max Plus 16, Diamond Max Plus 9"

4R060L0/J0 4R080L0/J0 4R120L0 4R160L0/J0 6E040L0 6E030L0 6E020L0

60 80 120 160 20 30 40

1 2 2 4 1 1 1

2 3 4 8 1 1 1

120,103,200 No data No data No data 80,293,248 60,058,656 40,718,160

6Y200P0 6Y160L0/P0 6Y120L0/P0 6Y080L0/P0 6Y060L0

200 160 120 80 60

3 3 2 2 1

6 5 4 3 2

398,297,088 320,173,056 240,121,728 160,086,528 120,103,200

D541X and D540X-4D drive families consist of two subfamilies: “DSP” and “Poker”, characterized by considerable differences in the functioning of factory mode commands. “DSP” and “Poker” are respective labels on a system controller chip (please see section 9). In families using a single disk and one head only the rated drive capacity is achieved through usage of different number of physical cylinders.

3. Basic options for repair of Maxtor drives The Ɋɋ-3000 package utilities for the above-listed drives provide for the following repair operations: - drive testing in factory mode; - restoration of the drive firmware data; - reading of the drive's ROM copy; - review and checking of the firmware structure; - loading of a program for firmware data access (LDR file); - creation of an LDR file if an operational drive is available; - review the G-List and P-List tables of hidden defects; - addition of discovered defects to P-List or G-List; - translator recalculation; - running and monitoring of a drive's self-testing routine (for DSP-based models).

4. Preparation for work 1.

Connect the Ɋɋ-3000PRO tester cable to the IDE connector of the drive being tested.

2.

Connect the power cable to the drive being tested.

3. Switch on the power. If a PC3K PWR power supply adapter is present, the power supply is switched on automatically at utility start. Power may be switched on without turning the PC off first. Damage to the PC-3000 PRO controller in that mode is unlikely; however its output cascades may be damaged in cases when a burnt-out electronic board is connected. Attention! You'll need to have EMM386.EXE loaded in order for the Maxtor utilities to operate. Due to some peculiarities of himem.sys driver functioning in Windows the utilities for Maxtor DSP, POKER/ARDENT have been designed for use of EMS services, therefore the following line must be present in the config.sys file to enable loading of the EMS driver (device=c:\windows\emm386.exe RAM). 4.

Start a utility corresponding to the connected drive's family using the shell.com command shell for convenience.

5. Auxiliary utility files are located in the same directory with the utilities. Please see details regarding auxiliary files in section 8.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

5. Utility usage 5.1. Launching the utility After launching the utility sends a command for reading a drive's ID area and displays a menu for drive family selection. Drive families are identified in the menu by their factory aliases. For correspondence between family aliases and models please see section 2. After drive family selection you'll see a menu for utility start: Standard mode Re-read drive ID Initialization from SA LDR-file loading Memory buffer writing Suppress Reset while utility work Standard mode starts the utility with complete drive initialization. If the drive is malfunctioning (LDR file is either not loaded or its loading has not activated the drive firmware) the following error message is output: Error loading the modules table! If the DISK(PN=1Fh) module cannot be read the following message will appear: Error loading configuration module! Re-read drive ID command updates configuration data in the “MODEL” line. This feature is useful for diagnostics during drive start. Initialization from SA command forces partial start of a drive loading firmware from its service data area on disk. If the drive start succeeds, firmware version should be modified, but that procedure is not automatic. Use the “Reread drive ID” command to update the information in the “MODEL” line. LDR-file loading – accessing that command is recommended without drive initialization in cases, when firmware data must be restored. Memory buffer writing command is optional and repeats similar option from the "Work with memory buffer" menu of the utility. It serves for a more convenient initialization of ATHENA DSP drives, which require for a proper start loading of a RAM copy from another drive in addition to an LDR file. Suppress Reset while utility work menu option disables the Reset signal during utility launch and operation. Resetting is enabled by default.

5.2. Utility menu structure Standard mode selection in the mode selection menu with subsequent drive initialization brings up the main menu of the utility: Logical scanning Disc firmware zone Disc ID Defects table SELF TEST Exit

5.2.1. Logical scanning Logical scanning is a drive surface test utilizing logical parameters. This command is described in detail in Section 8.2.

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Technical support: eng_support @acelab.ru (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, D541X, Fireball 3, Diamond Max Plus 8, Diamond Max Plus 16, Diamond Max Plus 9"

5.2.2. Disc firmware zone Selection of that option brings up the following menu: Work with memory buffer Work with SA LDR- file loading LDR- file creation Security subsystem

5.2.2.1. Work with memory buffer Work with memory buffer option brings up the following menu: Memory buffer reading Memory buffer writing Both those commands allow respectively reading and writing of memory buffer. Work with memory buffer is necessary while starting a drive with the help of an LDR file. As a matter of fact, when a drive is started using an LDR file several firmware variables remain uninitialized preventing recording to firmware zone. However, this method has limited applicability and works with ATHENA DSP family drives only. We do not consider currently the applicability of the method for other drive families because of its complexity since the procedure of loading adaptive data is just as efficient as memory image loading remaining at the same time much simpler and easier. An opportunity for work with memory buffer is implemented in the utilities for all drive families, so you can try to develop an alternative method different from the one suggested by our experts. Earlier versions of the utilities used the method of memory image loading instead of firmware initialization after loading of an LDR file, which somewhat complicated utility application. In the current version the problem has been resolved by the "Test firmware zone recording" command (please see section 7).

5.2.2.2. Work with SA Work with firmware zone menu consists of the following commands: Checking of disc FM structure SA surface checking Reading of modules Writing of modules Reading module groups Writing module groups SA write test Modules repairing Translator regeneration Spindle stop Checking of disc FM structure command outputs a report on the condition of firmware modules. Start of that command forces reading of modules taking about 1 minute on the average. The command is described in detail in section 6. SA surface checking command allows testing surface of the firmware zone using the UBA addressing mode. Reading of modules command allows reading of modules. While reading it records copied modules to the “MXDSPMOD” or “MXPKRMOD” directory. The first four characters represent UBA for the sector containing module beginning in hex format and the four characters following a colon mean module length in hexadecimal notation. The respective column will show the position number. Please see Table 2 for relation between a position number and the purpose of module corresponding to it. Writing of modules – command accomplishes recording of modules from the “MXDSPMOD” or “MXPKRMOD” directory. Checksum is not recalculated during module recording because many modules are not protected with a checksum and some of them have a different algorithm of its calculation. The respective column will show the position number. Please see Table 2 for relation between a position number and the purpose of module corresponding to it. Reading module groups and Writing module groups commands represent another variant of work with data contained in firmware zone. It grants access to firmware data copy using another magnetic head if the drive has one. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

Files of module groups (*.smb) contain all the modules accessible for individual reading plus blank spaces. Those commands are not used in the methods, which we have developed for restoration of hard drives; however, there is a certain probability of malfunctions, which might require their use. SA write test command loads adaptive data and determines correctness of recording to the firmware zone. The command is implemented for additional drive initialization after loading of an LDR file. Usage of that command is described in section 7. Modules repairing command allows restoration of modules with incorrect headers. Usage of that command is described in section 7. Translator regeneration command accomplishes creation of translator modules from the factory defects table (module PN=33h). That command is described in detail in para. 7.3. Spindle stop command switches a drive to the “sleep” mode. It is used during the Hot Swap procedure.

5.2.2.3. LDR-file loading LDR-file loading command will offer to select an LDR file and output the following loading mode menu: Load ROM and modules Load ROM Load modules Please see more detailed description of loading modes for LDR files in section 7.

5.2.2.4. LDR-file creation Using the command with an operational drive you can create a loader file (LDR file) for the drive. The command will function properly only if the family of the connected drive has been selected correctly during utility launch. Otherwise creation of an LDR file will either cause an error or produce a file with incorrect data unable to load.

5.2.2.5. Security subsystem The option brings up submenu with the following commands: Review information command displays current condition of security subsystem and set passwords. Clear passwords command disables data protection.

5.2.3. Disc ID The option serves for modification of model name and its serial number. These parameters are stored in the DISK module of the drive firmware (position number 1Fh).

5.2.4. Defects table The Defects table command brings up the following menu: View P-List View G-List Move G-List defects to P-List Erase G-List Erase P-List & G-List Import from Defectoscope View P-List command reports defects hidden to P-List. View G-List command reports defects hidden to G-List. The “LBA(def)” column of the report contains LBA addresses of defective sectors. The “LBA(subst)” column contains LBA addresses of sectors used for substitution of defective sectors. The “Candidate” column contains flags of candidate defects. If the respective defect row shows “¥” in the "Candidate" column it means that the defect hasn't been actually relocated and the "LBA(subst)" sector for such defect will be the same as "LBA(def)". Complete G-List size is indicated in the «Capacity» line, it is different in various drive families. For example, ATHENA DSP drives have capacity for up to 636 defects. Move G-List defects to P-List command allows to transfer defects from G-List to P-List.

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Technical support: eng_support @acelab.ru (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, D541X, Fireball 3, Diamond Max Plus 8, Diamond Max Plus 16, Diamond Max Plus 9"

Erase G-List command resets defects stored in G-List. Erase P-List & G-List command clears all hidden defects in a drive and resets the information about the number of relocated defects in the summary table of defects (module PN = 33h). If it is desirable to preserve the information about the defects previously relocated in the drive, you should create backup copies of modules PN = 37, 18, 78, 1B, 33. Import from Defectoscope command allows addition of defects discovered by the Defectoscope software to PList or G-List.

5.2.5. SELF TEST mode The SELF TEST command brings up the following menu: Start SelfScan Stop SelfScan View SelfScan state Start SelfScan switches a drive to self-testing mode. Stop SelfScan stops self-testing. View SelfScan state allows monitoring of self-testing progress. Drive's self-testing is discussed in more detail in para. 8.3.

6. Firmware 6.1. General information Firmware of Maxtor drives is subdivided into two parts. The first part of the microcode is stored in masked ROM inside the processor chip and in Flash ROM. The second part of a drive's firmware is recorded in the firmware zone. In Maxtor drives it is accessible through logical sectors specifically assigned for that purpose and called “UBA” (Util Block Addressing, somewhat similar to LBA), automatically converted by the microcode into respective physical location on disk surface. PCB firmware consists of two portions: masked ROM in the processor and an external parallel or serial Flash ROM. Such a scheme has been implemented most likely because masked ROM inside the processor cannot be modified with sufficient ease. The processor is initialized from the external ROM. If it is missing, the firmware microcode will be started from ROM inside the processor. A situation is possible, when the microcode inside processor may belong to another drive family. E.g. CALIPSO drives with disconnected external ROM may be identified as N40P. Maxtor drives have a “safe mode” jumper. When it is enabled, only firmware stored on the PCB loads but the routine for starting motors and initialization of firmware portion on disk is skipped. You can identify precisely the version of PCB firmware. In order to do so enable the “safe mode” jumper and launch the corresponding utility. The “MODEL” line will show ROM version after the model name. Drive initialization for an operational condition requires complete replacement of the PCB firmware with the firmware from the service area on disk. If for any reason the firmware cannot be launched from the service area, its loading to the drive processor can be forced by starting an LDR file. During the procedure keep in mind that an LDR file contains just microcode (ROM copy and overlays) but it does not contain the data necessary for drive operation (tables of defects, adaptive data and other settings). PCB microcode and firmware on disk have different versions. That difference helps to tell which version is currently being run by the processor. In Poker/Ardent drive families firmware area contains two programs for drive control: a regular version and a program for factory self test. Identification of firmware version by labels is complicated with Maxtor drives because manufacturing factories do not observe strict version numbering rules, which fact leads to quite a lot of incompatible firmware versions with the same identification codes. Compatibility issues may be caused also by the adaptive parameters for the reading/writing magnetic heads stored in firmware microcode. However, despite the fact that compatibility cannot be 100% guaranteed, firmware version can be identified using the following guidelines: 1. Abbreviated values MODEL+HDA+PCBA+UNIQUE. E.g.: 2B020H1110511. 2.

Identifying letters, through a comma. E.g.: K,M,B,E.

3.

The line in large print over the IDE connector label. E.g.: A4FBA.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

Modules map in Maxtor drives contains no names of modules, though some of them still do have names. Such names are stored in the header of a respective module. Therefore it is impossible to find out the name of a module without reading its contents. It is possible to introduce unified numbering of modules for various Maxtor drive families, i.e. the so-called position number (hereinafter PN), that allows convenient identification of specific modules' purpose. Purposes of the majority of active modules are described in the Table 2. Copies of the firmware zone are provided for each magnetic head. It is also duplicated using "senior" UBA locations that are not included into the main map. By default firmware works with all copies since the drive is capable of operation in a mode using all copies. Reading and writing of module groups serves as a means of accessing a copy of firmware zone. The report output by the “Check firmware structure” command (para. 5.2.2.2) contains the following information: General information The section displays selected drive family, minimum and maximum physical cylinders of user's data zone. DISK configuration module The module contains drive parameters: number of reading/writing heads and the map of their connections to the pre-amplifier/commutator chip. Zone table Physical location of density zones in a drive. Data modules The table with a report on data modules consists of: - data module number in “#” column; - PN – position number of the module; - UBA address of module beginning; - module length; - reading flag “Rd”, set to “¥” in case of successful reading or “-” if a module cannot be read; - “ChkSum” flag set to “¥” in case of successful checksum calculation or “-” in case of calculation error; - “Id” identification string, beginning with “*” character in case of module containing a table and a line identifying the table, it begins with “¥” in case of correct data module identification as well as the header read from the module; if the header contains an error the line will begin with “-” followed by the header actually read from the module; - comment that allows to determine the status of modules required for drive operation. Loadable ROM The report shows initial UBA, ROM version, identifier, reading status and checksum. Please note that reliable identification of ROM version is possible using checksum only. It is determined by the fact that the same version identifier in ROM corresponds to several different actual firmware versions. If checksums of ROM copies in different drives match, it means that the drives have the same microprogram. Overlays -

The table of report on overlays consists of: overlay number in “#” column (a drive has no 18h module); UBA address of overlay beginning; reading flag “Rd”, set to “¥” in case of successful reading or “-” if a module cannot be read; “Id” identification flag set to “¥” in case of identifier match or “-” if the identifier does not match; “ChkSum” flag set to “¥” in case of successful checksum calculation or “-” in case of calculation error. G-List The section reflects information on the G-List defects table status. Passwords Allows reviewing of passwords set in a drive.

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Technical support: eng_support @acelab.ru (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, D541X, Fireball 3, Diamond Max Plus 8, Diamond Max Plus 16, Diamond Max Plus 9"

6.2. Firmware modules Table 2 contains a summary of data regarding firmware modules and their purpose. It combines position numbers of modules, module purposes and their necessity for drive operation. Table 2. Position numbers correspondence. Position number (PN), hex 1E 21 37 78 18 1F 1B 39 38 4F 95 1D 2F 1A 30 70 71 63 33 72 34 64 5E 7B 11 43 0D 0E 22 7A 83 31 14 35 46 47 48

Module purpose

Importance

SRV – calibration adaptive data. RCT – adaptive information of data zone on surface. U_LIST – firmware zone translator. RZTBL – zone table. AT_PDL (P-List) – translator part responsible for P-List. DISK – drive ID. AT_POL (G-List) – growing defects table. ROM copy First part of microcode overlays Second part of microcode overlays Alternative DISK used in several Poker/Ardent drives. DMCS – translator part responsible for operations’ caching. S.M.A.R.T. thresholds. SECU – security system module (ATA passwords). S.M.A.R.T. attributes. S.M.A.R.T. Summary Log. S.M.A.R.T. Self-Test Log. Copy of S.M.A.R.T. attributes HUTIL & HUSR – pivot defects table. S.M.A.R.T. Host Vendor Log RAER_H00 MAXATG EVTLG_00 FWA MX_ST_CFG1 MX_ST_CFG2 MX_ST_CFG3 MX_ST_SCRIPT Various settings (flags) U_LIST – copy of firmware zone translator Information on drive parts. DISK – second drive ID copy STRS AT_XAL OPTI – self-testing settings. STRS Information on drive parts.

A A A A A B B B B B B C D D D D D D E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E E

Codes of the «Importance» column in Table 2: A – essential and must have version corresponding to the specific head-and-disk assembly; B – yes, necessary, but can be replaced with one from another drive; C – yes, necessary, but partial module corruption does not prevent drive from starting; D – without one the drive starts normally but considerably slower than a totally operational drive; E – a drive is operational without such module. One more mechanism is implemented in the utility for work with the firmware zone, i.e. reading or recording of groups of modules. A group of modules means modules or sectors combined according to a certain functional feature. For example, here belong modules containing microcontroller code (overlays) or data modules (translator, adaptive data and other tables). The said mechanism has the following differences compared to standard work with modules: Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

- it allows access to firmware zone areas that are not marked in the modules table; - it allows access to firmware copy using another physical head (or the same head if there is only one present in a drive). S.M.A.R.T. attributes can be cleared by recording the module with PN=30h from a drive with «good» S.M.A.R.T, using the “Writing of modules” command (para. 5.2.2.2.).

6.3. Translator in Maxtor drives Translator is a program that translates physical sectors into logical ones used by an operating system. It is a general rule for all drives that factory defects are hidden by means of their exclusion from translation. Thus, for example, if we have a sequence of physical sectors P0,P1,P2,P3, where LBA of physical sector P0 is indicated as L0 and sector P2 is defective, then the sector coordinates will be recorded to the P_LIST in a location inside the zone specifically devoted to the sectors P0-P3 that we have chosen. The record is made not explicitly as Cyl, Head, Sec, but in a special notation instead. The counter of defective sectors in the RZTBL table for the zone including the selected P0-P3 sectors will grow by 1. As a result when an operating system accesses the group of sectors beginning with LBA0 the translator will show the said group as follows: LBA0 – P0 LBA1 – P1 LBA2 – P3, etc. Thus we see that sector P2 is excluded from the totality of LBA sectors available to the operating system. Now let us examine a case, when there is no record indicating that the P2 sector is hidden. It can happen in the following cases: recording of translator tables from another drive, HotSwap operation or erasure of defects' tables. The situation will cause sector P2 to appear among the LBA sectors visible for the operating system, but there's more to it! LBA2 used to be indicated as P3, but now it is shifted to P2! Consequently, all numbers of subsequent sectors will be shifted by 1. Thus at an attempt to read the sector located after the LBA2 address and containing a directory or a FAT table the operating system will read not the actual sector containing the directory, but the preceding one containing erroneous information. The number of defects in an actual drive may come up to several thousands (or even tens of thousands) sectors. Therefore actual locations of files, directories and file system tables can be shifted from the expected values by several hundreds of sectors. But let us get back to Maxtor. The translator program data are stored in the following modules: U_LIST (PN=37h), AT_PDL (PN=18h) and RZTBL (PN=78h). A drive forms the translator through an intermediate table with the PN=33h. The table contains defects in regular notation: cylinder, head, sector. There is an opportunity of compiling translator tables from that intermediate table using the “Translator regeneration” command. The utility does not show defects interpreting the translator directly but uses the table instead. Therefore if the translator modules get overwritten the utility will continue to show the same list of defects as before modification of the translator modules. Relocation of defects to the G-List table is accomplished using another method. The G-List table does not exclude sectors from the LBA addressing space. Instead it replaces them using reserved sectors. The reserved space begins after the highest LBA of a drive. Then the above example will be represented as follows. L0 – P0 L1 – P1 L2 – reserved sector L3 – P3, etc. During the procedure no shift of LBA sectors occurs. Loss of information in the G-List table does not tell on data restoration in any way. Of course, a situation is possible when a sector hidden by a drive to the G-List could have contained information critical for functioning of the file system. However, such situation is unlikely and it is recommended to clear the G-List if it contains any hidden defects, during the process of damaged firmware zone restoration for data recovery.

7. Software restoration of Maxtor HDD 7.1. Diagnostics of firmware zone malfunctions Incorrect information recorded to the firmware zone can lead to drive's malfunctions. It may also result from a problem with electronics or mechanical parts. Diagnostics of such problems is complicated by the fact that

10

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malfunctions of electronics and firmware zone defects can be manifested by the same drive behaviour as incorrect information in the firmware zone modules. Firmware zone malfunction may manifest itself as follows: - The drive is identified correctly but it produces an error for each sector at an attempt to read from disk surface using LBA (similar situation is possible if a password is set). - The drive is identified by its factory alias, for example, “Maxtor ATHENA”. - The drive starts the motor, unparks the heads but does not report on readiness (hangs). Practically in all of the above cases (except for CALIPSO drive family, see para. 10.9.) factory mode commands of the drive do not work. In order to switch the drive to a mode, in which factory commands can be started, you'll have to start it using an LDR file. That can be accomplished using two methods: 1. Drive start without setting the “safe mode” jumper. That method will work if during the utility launch the drive is identified by its factory alias and the safe mode jumper is disabled. The essence of that method consists in loading just a part of LDR file modules. The modules at that must be exactly identical to the original ones in the drive. Step-by-step algorithm: 1. Switch on the power and start the pcmx_dsp.exe or pcmx_pkr.exe utility. 2. In the mode menu select the “LDR-file loading” option. 3. Load an LDR file in the “Modules loader” mode. If the loading procedure succeeds the drive will allow operations with the firmware zone. One difference of that method compared to drive switching to safe mode is expressed in the fact that during start the drive is able to load the defects table and adaptive parameters from the firmware zone. Drive start in safe mode does not accomplish that. That method will not work if modules having "A" importance are corrupt (see Table 2). 2. Drive start using the “safe mode” jumper setting. During utility launch in safe mode you'll see the drive's factory alias. The method is recommended in cases, when the drive "hangs during start" or does not start without the safe mode jumper. 1. Set the “safe mode” jumper (see PCB schemes in section 10). 2. Switch on the power and launch pcmx_dsp.exe or pcmx_pkr.exe utility. 3. If you work with a ROMULUS DSP or Poker hard drive run the “Initialization from SA” command (see para. 5.1.). 4. In the mode menu select the “LDR-file loading” option. 5. Load an LDR file in the “Load ROM and modules”. In case of successful loading the drive will spin up its motor and report on readiness. 6. In case of ROMULUS DSP hard drives sometimes you have to suppress the Reset signal during utility launch (see para. 5.1.). 7. Select the “Standard mode” from the mode menu. If during mode entry you see the «Error loading modules table!» message, it means that an unsuitable LDR file has been loaded, drive hanging has occurred while loading RAM copy or some problem with electronics/HDA has taken place. After drive start with the help of an LDR file in order to determine the modules condition you should start the “Checking of disc FM structure” command (para. 5.2.2.2) and study the report contents carefully using the Table 2. If the report contains incorrect module headers, their restoration is described in para. 7.2. Prior to modules repair you should make sure that sectors recording to the firmware area is performed correctly. In fact drive start using an LDR file firmware initialization is accomplished incompletely leading to errors in its operation. In order to verify recording correctness you should run the "Test firmware zone recording" command (para. 5.2.2.2). The test consists of two parts: loading of adaptive data from module PN=1Eh and testing of the drive’s ability to write to firmware zone by recording one sector with randomly selected contents to an unused portion of firmware zone called “swap1”. If the recording test succeeds the following message is displayed: «Record offset: 0», which means correctness of recording operations in the firmware zone. Let us consider the problems which may arise during the test. If the module PN=1Eh is damaged the routine for loading the adaptive data will abort with an error, which definitely means impossibility of correct recording to the firmware zone. If a record offset occurs, operations over firmware are also impossible; that may be caused by drive malfunction during the adaptive data loading stage. Warning! Save all modules from a drive prior to recording anything to it. That requirement is determined by unstable drive behavior during recording to its firmware zone. It means that in case of problems with adaptive data one module can be written over another! That will lead to loss of firmware data, which will be unrecoverable, if the data hasn't been saved!

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11

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

7.2. Automatic restoration of module headers One quite frequent malfunction of Maxtor drives is manifested in data corruption in the firmware zone modules. They can become corrupt because of errors during reading/recording operations. Errors may be caused by lack of contact between motor/commutator, magnetic head malfunction, scratches on disk surface or, most often, interruptions in drive power supply. The symptoms in all these cases are the same indicating translator modules corruption. Usually modules corruption is limited to an incorrect identification string, though checksum remains correct. In order to restore such a module (for example, P-List), it would be sufficient just to record the correct header and recalculate its checksum. The following modules may be damaged as described above: P-List (PN=18h)1, G-List (PN=1Bh), DMCS (PN=1Dh). If they are corrupt, their identification strings are replaced with the following: NO_PLIST, NO_GLIST, NO_DMCS. Similar corruption is possible for the module U_LIST00 (PN=37h), but it is very rare. If this module has correct header, its automatic recovery is not recommended. Despite the fact that practically all the modules have copies, it is impossible to restore the original modules using their copies, since they are corrupt, too. Checksums of modules are practically always correct; though module contents may be damaged. For the restoration of a module with damaged header the following command sequence is used: “Firmware data” – “Work with firmware zone” – “Restore modules” (para. 5.2.2.2). Then the name of damaged module is selected from: DMCS, U_LIST, AT_POL (G-List), AT_PDL (P-List) with subsequent pressing [Enter]. If a module is undamaged accidental selection of the command for its restoration will not affect its contents at all. Warning! The “Restore modules” command just corrects module header and recalculates its checksum! Module contents remains as it has been read from the drive being restored. If the data stored in the module is incorrect and the drive hangs during its loading, the "Modules repairing" command will produce no effect. That command also doesn't control recording, i.e. if a drive has recorded the module incorrectly or recorded it to another location, the restore operation will return no errors! Warning! The “Restore modules” command records the module being restored to the firmware zone and a recording failure may erase important data in the firmware zone. Therefore you should save the modules and create an LDR file prior to launching that command.

7.3. Translator restoration The task of translator restoration appears when its tables contain incorrect data or unreadable sectors. In such situation it is possible to create translator tables on the basis of a pivot defects table (module PN=33h) provided it is intact. Translator recalculation is started by the “Translator regeneration” command (para. 5.2.2.2.). The operation may take quite a long time. Everything depends upon the number of defects in the pivot table. The resulting translator will not contain the defects relocated in the service zone (therefore the operation is blocked when relocated defects are present in the firmware zone). All tracks hidden using RZTBL will also be transferred to AT_PDL; theoretically it may cause a discrepancy between the original and recalculated translator. We haven’t encountered such discrepancies in practice.

8. Surface testing of Maxtor drives 8.1. Surface testing of firmware zone Firmware zone condition can be evaluated using the test provided in the utility: SA surface checking (please see para. 5.2.2.2). Testing is performed in UBA notation. Discovered defective sectors are added to a report. Only areas containing groups of modules are tested.

8.2. Logical scanning

1

Complete list of correspondence between position numbers (PN) and modules is summarized in the Table 2.

12

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The “Logical scanning” command starts drive surface test utilizing logical parameters (para. 5.2.1). Test parameters: Initial LBA position: 0 Final LBA position: xxxxxxxx Reversive scanning: No Number of passes: 3 Perform writing test: No Verif. instead of reading: Yes Put defects to: P-LIST Initial and final LBA position parameters determine the test range. Reversive scanning defines testing direction. Switching is performed using the [Y] key for "Yes" and [N] for "No" or [Space]. A drive reads data ahead therefore direct scanning is somewhat faster than reverse. Number of passes parameter determines the number of complete test passes from the initial to final LBA. Input range is from 1 to 100. Writing can be switched on in the Perform writing test and verification procedure can be replaced with reading. Testing quality in such case improves, but its duration increases, too. Switching writing on/off and substitution of reading instead of verification is done using [Y] key for "Yes" and [N] for "No" or [Space]. The surface test is based on an adaptive algorithm – detected defects are not addressed during subsequent passes. This procedure considerably decreases test duration for drives with a large number of defects. Please keep in mind that testing duration depends heavily on the number of defective sectors in a drive: the greater their number is the longer the test will run! Put defects to P-LIST or G-LIST. Switching is accomplished using the [Space] key. Upon completion of the surface scanning procedure, the table of all discovered logical defects in LBA notation appears on the screen. Pressing [Enter] key converts all logical defects into physical ones and displays them on the screen; second pressing [Enter] appends all the defects to previous records in the defects table.

8.3. Relocation of defects The utility allows hiding defects to the P-List factory defects table as well as to user's G-List table. P-List defects table can be reviewed using the “View P-List” command (para. 5.2.4). Defects are output from the pivot defects table (PN=33h) and not restored from the respective translation tables. . It means that if the translation tables are overwritten with tables from another drive or modified otherwise, the "View P-List" command will still display the same list of defects as it used to prior to recording and the list will not correspond to the defects actually relocated in the drive. The same inconsistency is observed when module PN=33h is recorded by copying from another drive. However, if the utility tools are used for operations with the defects’ tables the pivot table of defects will be modified correctly. Some Maxtor drives have relocated defects within the firmware zone. In that case resetting the tables of defects will be disabled because the utility does not provide for firmware zone recording taking into account the relocated defects. G-List defects table can be reviewed using the “View G-List” command (para. 5.2.4). Defects search is accomplished using the “Logical scanning” command of the utility or with the help of Defectoscope software (“Import from Defectoscope” command). Discovered defects can be transferred either to P-List or G-List at user's discretion. Maxtor drives allow hiding of whole tracks as well as track parts, i.e. several successive sectors added together as one defect record saving the table space. Grouping of successive defects is performed by the drive automatically. Maxtor drives automatically relocate defective sectors to G-List, and the “Defects table” - “Move G-List to PList” command sequence transfers those defective sectors to P-List, the procedure simultaneously clears G-List. The operation is performed by the drive itself, the utility just issues the command, therefore if the transfer of defects ends in an error, it means that the defects stored in G-List cannot be added to P-List.

8.4. Drive self-testing This version of the utility allows running factory self-testing routine in Maxtor DSP drives; the feature is not implemented for Poker and Ardent drive families yet. Upon self-testing a drive recalculates its adaptive parameters, hides defective sectors and resets S.M.A.R.T. attributes to factory defaults. A drive is switched to self-testing mode by the Start SelfScan command (para. 5.2.5), whereupon, during subsequent power-on a 30 sec. pause will be made before the drive starts self-testing (drive LED will indicate the running procedure by blinking at 2Hz frequency). If during those 30 seconds you issue a reset or drive ID reading command, the drive will enter its operational mode until next power-off/on. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

13

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

Drive LED will be blinking with varied frequency while performing the tests. The utility can display progress of the self-testing procedure. To accomplish that you should issue the View SelfScan state command (para. 5.2.5) for an already connected drive with on-going testing procedure. The window will show current status: test number, cylinder, etc. Please note, that a connected drive does not respond to utility commands during on-going self-testing process, utility launch in that case may cause self-testing failure. As a summary we can suggest two methods for indication of self-testing progress with monitoring of a drive connected or not connected to a PC and powered by an independent supply. 1. Procedure of drive start with status monitoring. - SELF TEST - Start SelfScan - Without leaving the utility and with IDE cable connected to the drive, switch its power off and on. - Start View SelfScan state, then the self-testing progress report will be displayed on-screen. 2. Procedure of self-testing using an independent power supply without a connection to PC. - SELF TEST - Start SelfScan - Disconnect the drive and connect it to an independent power supply unit. - Since PCBs in Maxtor drives have no LEDs you can connect an external LED as shown in figure 1. IDE Pin 39

390 Ohm

+ 5V

Fig. 1. Connection of external LED for monitoring the drive self-testing process. We have observed different probability of successful self-testing completion with a prior resetting of the defects’ tables and without it. Therefore we advise to clear the tables of defects before running the test. Successful completion of self-testing will be indicated by the drive LED blinking regularly at 1 Hz, failure and emergency exit from the testing procedure are indicated by much faster blinking – at approximately 10 Hz. Drive hanging during self-testing is manifested by absence of changes in its condition for a long (for example, half an hour) time and lack of LED indication. The LED in such case may be on or off, but it won't blink. Warning! In some cases when self-testing terminates with a fatal error, firmware zone is considerably damaged (modules essential for drive operation are missing), therefore you must always backup the firmware zone before beginning self-testing procedure. Warning! Self-testing will not start correctly if a drive is started using an LDR file. Warning! All user data will be destroyed during the self-testing procedure.

9. Auxiliary utility files The main pcmx_dsp.exe ɢ pcmx_pkr.exe utility files of the complex are supplemented by auxiliary service files. The names of those files coincide with utility name while their extension corresponds to the file type: /utility’s name/.log – text file for the drive test results generated by the utility at the first program launch and appended with every subsequent drive test. The file contains all the settings and test results. Data on the automatic drive test performance is also written to this file; /firmware version/.ldr – firmware update file. /firmware version/.ram – file containing a copy of drive RAM. Other file names are selected by user, but their extensions are determined by the utility depending on their types: *.rpm – technological files of resident firmware modules in a drive. During the reading procedure they are copied to the directory “MXDSPMOD” or “MXPKRMOD, where first four characters represent UBA sector of module beginning in hex notation, while four following characters mean module length in sectors in hex notation. *.smb – technological files of groups of resident firmware modules in a drive. During the reading procedure they are copied to the directory “MXDSPMOD” or “MXPKRMOD”, where first four characters represent UBA sector of module beginning in hex notation, while four following characters mean module length in sectors in hex notation. *.log files can be viewed as regular text files, *.rpm files can be viewed as binaries using a hex editor.

14

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10. Description of peculiarities in Maxtor drive families Drive families are represented by their factory aliases. Though an alias is not printed (usually on HDA label) it can be checked quite easily by means of setting the safe mode jumper. If the jumper has been set correctly the drive will not spin up its disks and it will be identified as “Maxtor ”, for example, “Maxtor N40P”. The string is formed by a ROM microprogram and output either in safe mode, or when an error occurs during firmware zone initialization. In some drive families aliases are marked on PCBs using serigraphy. Safe Mode jumper location is shown in figures representing external view of drive electronics boards.

10.1. PROXIMA drive family

4

MAXTOR

2

LUCENT 1181K

3

1

LUCENT MS353B3

1 2

1. RDS035L03 2. 78L08A Master

1 1

1

1

3. 20 MHz 4. M29F102 Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 2. External view of controller board in MAXTOR PROXIMA drive family.

10.2. RIGEL drive family The format of G-List table in that drive family is different from the usual. Therefore the information about defects displayed by the “View G-List” command will be not quite correct. However, defects will be appended to GList correctly. Automatic restoration of the G-list module will also work correctly.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

15

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

DSP

2

2

D741667APGF

AGERE MS453

1

1 1

1 1

1

1. RDS035L03 2. 20 MHz Jumper Configuration Slave

Master

Safe mode

Fig. 3. External view of controller board in MAXTOR RIGEL drive family

10.3. NIKE drive family

1 1

3 1

1

SH6770C

1

1

HY57V161610D

2

DSP D741864CPGF

LUCENT

2

1. B3185 2. 78L08A 3. M29F102BB Master

Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 4. External view of controller board in MAXTOR NIKE drive family

16

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10.4. ATHENA DSP drive family One quite frequent peculiarity of drives belonging to the family is demonstrated by their behaviour in case of PList malfunctions, when after motor spin-up and removing the heads from parking area a drive turns the spindle motor off but "forgets" to park the heads. The problem can be identified by a typical sound heard when the motor is turned off. Such drives should be restored using the method of loading an LDR file in safe mode (see para. 7.1). Then you should perform diagnostics of problems in the firmware zone, save firmware modules and restore the drive translator (para. 11.2).

1 1

3 1

SH6770C

1

1 1

48LC1M16A1

2

DSP D741667APGF

AGERE

2

1. B3185 2. 78L08A Master

MS453

3. M29F102BB Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 5. External view of control board in MAXTOR ATHENA ATA2-PLUS drive family. Appendix 1 hereto contains a circuit diagram for connection of motor control chip in PCBs of ATHENA DSP drives.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

17

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

10.5. ATHENA Poker drive family 1 1 1

2

HY57V 161610DTC-6

1

SH6770C

1

1

1

POKER C6 040108200 4370J2 0224S 4849943

2

1. B3185 2. 78L08A

Jumper Configuration Slave

Master

Safe mode

Fig. 6 External view of controller board in MAXTOR ATHENA Poker-based drive family.

10.6. ROMULUS DSP/Poker drive family Malfunction of one of the heads in drives belonging to that family causes knocking sounds while loading an LDR file or during calibration at utility launch.

DSP

2

3

D741667DPGF

AGERE MS453

1

1 1

1

2

1

1

1. RDS035L03 2. A172E Master

3. 20 MHz Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 7. External view of controller board in MAXTOR ROMULUS drive family.

18

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10.7. VULCAN drive family

5

2

040405000 D741667CPGF CC-15AE72W

AGERE MS453

4

1

1 2

3

1

1. PHN210T 2. PHN207 3. A171B Master

1 1

5. M29F102BB Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 8. External view of controller board in MAXTOR VULCAN drive family.

10.8. ARES 64K drive family "L" letter in model name indicates that a fluid dynamic bearing was used, for example, 2F040L0. "J" letter means that a ball bearing was used, for example, 2F040J0. With that drive family Maxtor designers began to use two firmware zones with similar structure but totally different purposes. The main firmware zone is used during normal drive operation. It contains all the modules with correct data required for drive operation. Table of correspondence between starting modes and firmware versions in ARES 64K drives. User mode of operation VAM51JJ0

ROM loader mode VAM52JaZ

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Self Test mode VBM51J80

19

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

1 1

3 1

1

SH6770C

1

1

HY57V161610D

2

Poker 040111600

LUCENT

2

1. B3185 2. 78L08A Master

3. M29F102BB Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 9. External view of controller board in MAXTOR ARES 64K drive family.

10.9. N40P drive family In this drive family ST25P10V6 external Flash ROM with serial access is used. Quite numerous existing ROM versions complicate the issue of their compatibility making it difficult to pick a matching board. ROM chip can be soldered to a new board since it does not have too many pins so the procedure can be performed fairly quickly. Such variety of versions results from the fact that program microcode, namely, overlay 6 and ROM chip on PCB contain built-in adaptive parameters for the reading/writing heads. When modified heads are installed during the manufacturing process, the whole firmware version has to be changed. That produces numerous versions and as a result the microcode in the masked ROM of the drive processor ceases to match those versions. Consequently it has to be supplemented with external ROM containing the necessary modifications to the adaptive data and firmware version. That situation also influences drive starting with the help of an LDR file. The utility may start a drive using another firmware version, but the adaptive data of that version may not match the drive. Usually it is practically impossible to read the firmware if the adaptive data built-in into the microcode does not match the drive, although running a loader file with suitable adaptive data makes everything work fine. Compatibility of adaptive data can be controlled using the ROM version on PCB output by the drive in “safe mode”. This family is characterized by peculiar P-List corruption. Besides the header one or several sectors of P-List become BAD. After header restoration and recalculation of checksum the drive is still unable to start and, moreover, it is impossible to make it record anything else to its firmware zone.

20

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2

3

1 2

2125G W981616BH-6

Ardent C5-C1 040110100 ARDENT-C5C1 -790UK 023S 4963143

1. ST25P10V6 2. SH6782B 3. FDS9431A Jumper Configuration Slave

Master

Safe mode

Fig. 10. External view of controller board in MAXTOR N40P drive family.

10.10. FALCON drive family 1

LUCENT MS353B3

2

2

3 MAXTOR LUCENT 1181K

4

1. 2DPFS20V 2. FDS9431A Master

3. M29F102BB 4. 20 MHz Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 11. External view of controller board in MAXTOR FALCON drive family. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

21

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

10.11. CALIPSO drive family Just like in N40P drive family here external Flash ROM with serial access is used. For this family a specific malfunction is typical, when one of magnetic heads goes out of order. As a result such drive is identified as Maxtor CALIPSO, but allows reading/writing of firmware zone without an LDR file and all the modules remain intact. The said effect is caused by the fact that during start the drive does not find one of the heads included into its table. Therefore the firmware zone mapped for a different number of heads cannot be correctly processed by the drive control microcode. Such drives produce slight knocking sound if a calibration command is issued! The following problem is possible with drives from that family: incorrect recording during an attempt to restore a module will erase some modules having A or B importance. Consequently the drive’s firmware during the next start will be unable to load the essential modules from the main firmware zone and it will have to switch to the alternative zone. Therefore the modules prove to be intact after restart, but those are in fact absolutely different modules. That condition cannot be repaired using the current version of the utility. The “safe mode” jumper position is yet unknown for the Serial ATA modification of CALIPSO drive family. That family uses two formats of the G-List table of defects. The utility cannot recognize table format automatically and thus it is set up for the newest format. The older format will be displayed incorrectly. In order to view G-List in the older format you should enter the utility having selected, for example, N40P. 1

LUCENT MS353B3

2

2

MAXTOR LUCENT 1181K

4

1. 2DPFS20V 2. RDS035L03 Master

3

3. 25P10V6 4. 20 MHz Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Fig. 12. External view of controller board in MAXTOR CALIPSO drive family.

22

Technical support: eng_support @acelab.ru (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, D541X, Fireball 3, Diamond Max Plus 8, Diamond Max Plus 16, Diamond Max Plus 9"

11. Data restoration 11.1. Diagnostics during data restoration The task of data recovery from a Maxtor drive requires, first of all, precise diagnostics of malfunction, preferably without HDA disassembly; with simultaneous minimizing of further damage to the drive or data loss. Malfunctions, just like methods of diagnostics can be subdivided as follows: -

PCB malfunction. Motor/bearing failure. Parking element failure. Reading/writing heads failure. Heads failure and surface scratch. BAD sectors. Complete or partial loss of firmware data.

When the scope of problems is identified it is time to begin diagnostics. What of the above has happened? In the first turn keep in mind that damage to the firmware zone in Maxtor drives is usually not independent. It frequently results from constant (appearance of numerous BAD sectors) or short-term malfunctions of the mechanical (bearing, etc.) or electronic components (pre-amplifier, heads, motor control circuit, etc.). Step 1. Let us begin with the electronics board. In order to make sure that the board is operational it is sufficient to connect it to another drive with the same firmware version and check, whether the drive works flawlessly with the board. That method is not complicated for Maxtor drives since the board contains no adaptive data and its start in another drive requires just firmware version match. Please see section 6 for details on firmware version. Step 2. If the problem is not caused by electronics then motor diagnostics should be performed. If the motor does not spin up though the board is operational the cause is either damaged motor winding or heads sticking to disk surface. However, in Maxtor drives the situation of motor malfunction caused by stuck heads does not occur probably due to quite powerful motor or insignificant heads sticking. One more cause preventing rotation is seizure of a fluid dynamic bearing. Seizure practically does not occur in drives using ball bearings in spindle, but another problem appears, namely motor operation with obviously high noise level. That is caused by considerably greater disk beating. One more motor problem may be related to bad contact or cable break in the connector between the electronics board and HDA. As a result motor problems can be identified by the following signs: - Winding closure or break. - Seizure of fluid dynamic bearing (FDB). - Motor operation with considerable noise level. - Problem with connection between the motor and electronics board. - Problems with voice coil glue quality. Step 3. If a drive with operational electronics having no obvious problems in motor functioning does not knock heads or produce slight knocking at attempted calibration we should proceed to the following step. Now we should start diagnostics of surface scratch. It is difficult to perform the diagnostics completely without drive disassembly, but through the STW lifter opening one can see up to 90% of the surface from the PCB side. In drive families containing just one head the opening shows the work surface. A scratch having appeared on one of the surfaces will very quickly spread to all the rest. If a significant scratch is present, it would be sufficient to identify it without disassembling the HDA. Step 4. If the diagnostics procedure proves operable condition of the motor, control board, absence of scratches, and the drive unparks its heads without knocking, the cause of malfunction is either in heads damage or their incorrect functioning (and inability to read firmware zone as a result), or in the presence of BAD sectors or in corrupt firmware data. That is the hardest issue for identification because several malfunctions have the same signs. Let us set the safe mode jumper. The jumper position is shown in section 10 for each drive family. Then you should load from the menu shown at utility launch any LDR file corresponding to the family of the connected drive. Appearance of knocking sound at loader roll-in will indicate heads malfunction. If the loader roll into memory is not followed by knocking, but an error reading modules table occurs at entering the standard mode, it means that the loader version does not match the ROM contents and you should select such an LDR file, which would allow reading the modules table. Step 5. If the table of modules can be read you may proceed with firmware diagnostics as described in para. 7.1. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

23

"MAXTOR: D536DX, D541X, Diamond Max VL40, D540-4D, D531X, Diamond Max Plus 60, "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

11.2. Solution to the translator problem for data recovery In very rare cases a drive may not start or it may hang at power-up when its G-List contains incorrect information under a correct header and valid checksum. You can view the G-List with an LDR file loaded. An attempt to reset (the record to the firmware zone should be correct) G-List in that mode will not achieve a proper result as the replacement LBA will be defined as –1. Recording a clear G-List copied from another drive of that family with the same capacity represents a more accurate method. There is a rather frequent situation when translator modules have correct headers and checksums and all other essential modules are in order, but the drive still does not function using its logical parameters. At present two reasons for such condition are known: The first and quite rare cause occurs in CALIPSO drives when one of drive heads gets physically disconnected – the drive translator refuses to load. That happens because the RZTBL (PN=78h) module contains the number of heads. Diagnostics of that malfunction is described in more detail in para. 10.11. The second variant of that situation is encountered practically in all Maxtor drives supported by the PC-3000 complex. It results from occasional recording of random or pseudo-random data to the translator table fields (data from one module can be recorded to another). Module headers and checksums at that may remain correct. Automatic restoration of modules in such a situation will not help restore the drive. In order to perform diagnostics in that situation you should record to the malfunctioning drive translator modules (PN=37h, PN=18h and PN=78h) copied from an operational drive with the same capacity. Prior to the operation save all modules from firmware zone, especially module 33 and ensure that the firmware zone has no relocated defects. The suggested method of diagnostics is not applicable if the firmware zone contains hidden defects. If after recording of the translator modules the drive starts normally and can be accessed using its logical parameters, it means that the problem resulted exactly from invalid data in the modules. If the module PN=33 is intact (the utility will output a list of defects upon P-List query) you can perform the “Translator recalculation” procedure (see para. 5.2.2.2 and para. 7.3).

24

Technical support: eng_support @acelab.ru (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £

A

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$PIN24 $PIN25 $PIN26 $PIN27 $PIN28 $PIN29 $PIN30 $PIN31 $PIN32 $PIN33 $PIN34 $PIN35 $PIN36 $PIN37 $PIN38 $PIN39 $PIN40 $PIN41 $PIN42 $PIN43 $PIN44 $PIN45 $PIN46 $PIN47

25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48

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Title MAXTOR ATHENA ATA2-PLUS motors controller

REGULATOR 8V PREAMPLIFIER CIRCUIT

VOICE COIL MOTOR

Size A3 Date:

A

Document Number ACE Lab. PC-3000 Documentation Wednesday, July 30, 2003

Rev 1 Sheet

1

of

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ROM R512

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Title

J1 (41)

Maxtor Diamond Max Plus 9 CALYPSO

Port for Diagnostic -5V

Size B Date:

A

Document Number

Rev 1

ACE Lab. PC-3000 Documentation Friday, January 23, 2004

Sheet

1

of

1

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"IBM"

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

IBM 22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

Contents 1. Structure of drive families.............................................................................................................................................2 2. Utility command menu..................................................................................................................................................2 2.1. Launching the utility ..............................................................................................................................................2 2.2. Utility usage ...........................................................................................................................................................3 2.2.1. Servo test, surface scanning ............................................................................................................................3 2.2.2. Firmware data .................................................................................................................................................3 2.2.2.1. Work with memory ..................................................................................................................................4 2.2.2.2. Work with firmware zone ........................................................................................................................4 2.2.2.3. “Modify configuration” command ...........................................................................................................7 2.2.2.4. “Run an LDR file” command...................................................................................................................8 2.2.2.5. Translator recalculation............................................................................................................................8 2.2.2.6. Spindle stop..............................................................................................................................................8 2.2.2.7. Enable write cache ...................................................................................................................................8 2.2.3. Drive ID ..........................................................................................................................................................9 2.2.4. Formatting.......................................................................................................................................................9 2.2.5. Logical scanning .............................................................................................................................................9 2.2.6. S.M.A.R.T. table .............................................................................................................................................9 2.2.7. Defects table..................................................................................................................................................10 2.2.8. Automatic mode............................................................................................................................................10 2.2.9. SELFSCAN...................................................................................................................................................10 3. Drive firmware............................................................................................................................................................12 3.1. Structure of IBM HDD firmware.........................................................................................................................12 3.2. Compatibility of electronics printed circuit boards..............................................................................................13 3.3. Description of structure and methods of firmware zone access in case of malfunctions.....................................13 3.4. Critical modules for drive data.............................................................................................................................16 4. Description of IBM drive families ..............................................................................................................................17 4.1. Construction peculiarities of 22GXP(DJNA7), 34GXP(DPTA7), and 37GP(DPTA5) drive families ...............17 4.2. Construction peculiarities of 40GV(DTLA5), 75GXP(DTLA7), 60GXP(AVER), and 120GXP(AVVA) drive families........................................................................................................................................................................18 4.3. Software repair.....................................................................................................................................................20 4.3.1. Identification and relocation of defects in user's area ...................................................................................20 4.3.2. Malfunctions of “Open modules' table cannot be read!” type ......................................................................20 4.4. Peculiarities of software restoration.....................................................................................................................21 5. Auxiliary utility files for IBM drives ..........................................................................................................................21 6. Malfunctions of electronics boards in IBM drives......................................................................................................22 7. Electric circuit diagram...............................................................................................................................................22 7.1. Elements layout....................................................................................................................................................22 7.2. Electric circuit......................................................................................................................................................23

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

1

"IBM"

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

1. Structure of drive families Table 1. Family, Utility. 22GXP1, pcibmdjn.exe, ver. 1.15 1

34GXP , pcibmdpt.exe, ver. 1.15 37GP, pcibmdpt.exe, ver. 1.15 40GV, pcibmdtl.exe, ver. 1.15 1

75GXP , pcibmdtl.exe, ver. 1.15

1

60GXP , pcibmavr.exe, ver. 1.15

1

120GXP , pcibmava.exe, ver. 1.15

Model DJNA-372200 DJNA-371800 DJNA-371350 DJNA-370910 DPTA-373420 DPTA-372730 DPTA-372050 DPTA-371360 DPTA-353750 DPTA-353000 DPTA-352250 DPTA-351500 DTLA-305040 DTLA-305030 DTLA-305020 DTLA-305010 DTLA-307075 DTLA-307060 DTLA-307045 DTLA-307030 DTLA-307020 DTLA-307015 IC35L060AVER07 IC35L040AVER07 IC35L030AVER07 IC35L020AVER07 IC35L010AVER07 IC35L120AVVA07 IC35L100AVVA07 IC35L080AVVA07 IC35L060AVVA07 IC35L040AVVA07 IC35L020AVVA07

Capacity, Gb 22.60 18.04 13.57 9.11 34.21 27.37 20.52 13.67 37.50 30.00 22.52 15.02 41.17 30.73 20.57 10.27 76.86 61.49 46.11 30.73 20.57 15.36 61.49 41.17 30.73 20.57 10.27 123.52 102.93 82.34 61.49 41.17 20.57

Disks

Heads

5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 5 4 3 2 2 2 1 1 5 4 3 2 2 1 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1 1

10 8 6 4 10 8 6 4 10 8 6 4 4 3 2 1 10 8 6 4 3 2 6 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2 1

Physical cylinders 15400 15400 15400 15400 17493 17493 17493 17493 17687 17687 17687 17687 34326 34326 34326 34326 27724 27724 27724 27724 27724 27724 33946 33946 33946 33946 33946 55443 55443 55443 55443 55443 55443

Sect. / track 351-214 351-214 351-214 351-214 450-270 450-270 450-270 450-270 522-280 522-280 522-280 522-280 792-370 792-370 792-370 792-370 702-351 702-351 702-351 702-351 702-351 702-351 780-373 780-373 780-373 780-373 780-373 928-448 928-448 928-448 928-448 928-448 928-448

Maximum LBA 44,150,400 35,239,680 26,520,480 17,803,440 66,835,440 53,464,320 40,088,160 26,712,000 73,261,440 58,600,080 43,985,088 29,336,832 80,418,240 60,036,480 40,188,960 20,074,320 150,136,560 120,103,200 90,069,840 60,036,480 40,188,960 30,003,120 120,103,200 80,418,240 60,036,480 40,188,960 20,074,320 241,254,720 201,045,600 160,836,480 120,103,200 80,418,240 40,188,960

2. Utility command menu 2.1. Launching the utility At the start the utility offers the choice between two available initialization modes: “Standard” and “By Default”. When started in the standard mode the utility reads certain parameters from the drive and initializes its internal structures accordingly. A launch in the default mode forces the utility to act as though the drive does not respond to its queries; however, the utility skips the delay allocated for awaiting response. Actually it does not access the drive in that mode. That may be useful in cases of damaged drive’s firmware, when a drive does not respond to access attempts or fails beginning to knock. Let us review the “Standard” mode of utility launch in detail (the “By Default” launch respectively will be accompanied by all the error messages mentioned below and pertaining to collection of information about the drive).

1

2

‘X’ in family names denotes 7200 rpm drives. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"IBM"

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

The utility reads drive ID during launch in order to determine its logical parameters. If a drive returns an error the following message will be output: Unidentified logical drive parameters Default values used – “Final LBA” = 1000 At that the information about model name returned in the drive ID will appear in the “MODEL:” top line of the utility window. Then you'll be prompted to select a model in order to define the number of physically present heads for further work. After that the utility will be adjusted to the connected drive during the following sequence: 1. reading of NV-RAM to identify some internal drive parameters. In case of an error the following message appears: “Error reading NV-RAM. Using default parameters”. 2. reading of modules table (“USAG”). In case of an error the following message appears: “Modules table cannot be read.Do continue?” 3. reading of the so-called "open modules table" (a synthetic table returned by a drive in case of its correct initialization). In case of an error the following message appears: “Open modules table cannot be read”. 4. reading of zone allocation module (“ZONE”). In case of an error the following message appears: “Error reading zone allocation module. Default zone allocation used”. If a module has been read successfully, the number of drive heads will be adjusted accordingly. If the user's choice (selected model) does not match the estimated number the smallest figure is assumed and the following message appears: “Model adjusted according to the number of physically present heads. Press [Enter]”. Please see further possible causes of malfunctions resulting in the above error messages as well as methods of their elimination.

2.2. Utility usage After launching the program will bring up the main operating modes menu: Servo test Surface scanning Firmware data Drive ID Formatting Logical scanning S.M.A.R.T. table Defects table Automatic mode SELFSCAN Exit

2.2.1. Servo test, surface scanning Servo test and Surface scanning, unlike utilities for other drive families do not accomplish hiding and relocation of defects since this version of utilities has no automatic algorithm for hiding corrupted areas. Presence of those menu items in the utility is determined by the task of telling heads that have problems from those that have none. Thus it is not recommended to use those commands if a drive has just insignificant damage. After servo test the drive will be unable to read from the surface in LBA mode, therefore subsequent factory formatting is required.

2.2.2. Firmware data Firmware data. Selection of that item brings up the following menu: Work with memory Work with firmware zone Modify configuration Run an LDR file Translator recalculation Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

3

"IBM"

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

Spindle stop Enable write cache1

2.2.2.1. Work with memory Work with memory option brings up the following submenu: Work with ROM Read RAM into a file Work with NV-RAM Work with ROM command allows reviewing data in ROM header and reading ROM into a file. ROM report contains the following parameters: - firmware version number (for example, A45A). It is necessary for HDD operation that the first 2 characters of firmware version number match the corresponding two characters of P - Code recorded in NV-RAM. If there is no match the drive will be unable to initialize using NV-RAM and spin up its spindle. - firmware version code (Ex.: E75D9E90). It is necessary for HDD operation that the codes of firmware version recorded in ROM and NV-RAM were the same. Otherwise the drive will be unable to initialize using NV-RAM and spin up its spindle. Read RAM into a file command allows reading the whole RAM space of the microcontroller or a part thereof into a file. The maximum file size is 256 Mb. Of course, drive RAM size is much smaller but it is distributed among different frames, thus the utility is designed with a capability of operating with the whole address space of drive microprocessor to ensure that all required blocks can be read. Work with NV-RAM command allows reviewing of a report on NV-RAM, reading or writing of NV-RAM to a file. The report on NV-RAM contains the following parameters: - Identifier. It has to be “E2PR” for HDD operation. - P - Code (Ex. ER4OA45A). First 4 characters (ER4O) represent family descriptor (please see Table 2. “Family codes”). 4 last characters (A45A) represent firmware version number. It is connected with the firmware version number recorded in ROM, namely: the first 2 characters (A4) must be the same, while 2 last characters (5A) may differ (please see Chapter 3.1 “Structure of IBM HDD firmware”). Besides, correct drive initialization requires that P - Code values recorded in NV-RAM and USAG match, too. Otherwise the drive will be initialized with the default values in accordance with NV-RAM; it will spin up the spindle, but will not read firmware from disks' surface. - Code of microprogram version (for example, E75D9E90). It is necessary for HDD operation that the codes of firmware version recorded in NV-RAM and USAG were the same. Otherwise the drive will be initialized with the default values in accordance with NV-RAM; it will spin up the spindle, but will not read firmware from disks' surface. - Heads map (for example, 0 1 2 2 2 2 2 2 2 2). The field reflects mapped correspondence between electrical head connections and numbers of physical heads. Table 2. Family codes. Code Drive family J5 DJNA 5400 J7 DJNA 7200 TW DTLA 5400 TX DTLA 7200 ER IC35AVER VA IC35AVVA

2.2.2.2. Work with firmware zone Work with firmware zone command brings up the following submenu: Check firmware structure Write/read firmware Ignore reading error Read modules Write modules Load USAG Re-read module tables 1

4

This menu item is available only in utilities for DTLA, AVER, and AVVA drive models. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

"IBM"

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

Cleaning of logs (ELG1, EVLG) Clear FLYH Restore firmware zone Create an LDR-file Security subsystem Check firmware structure is a mode that provides a report on firmware modules' integrity and their contents. Besides, it indicates the status of "spaces" between modules located in the main and additional firmware tracks. Names of the "spaces" are formed as follows: “~##xx” - “spaces” in the main firmware track, where xx stands for the number of a “space”; “[email protected]@xx” - “spaces” in the additional firmware track, where xx stands for the number of a “space”. Please refer to Section 3 for details on firmware structure. The information about modules is displayed in tables and individual report blocks containing the “RD:” and “ID” fields. The “—” character in the “RD:” field means that the module has been successfully read from the drive disks while the “-” character means that a reading error occurred. Presence of the “—” character in the “ID:” field means that module identifier found in its header matches the identifier used for selection of its position from the respective modules table; however, the “-” character means that the identifier in the module header differs from the one in the respective modules table. Identification error (“ID:” = “-”) during normal operation of a drive is allowed only for modules belonging to the ”open modules table” because the latter in addition to other data contains links to copies of tables, at that the name of a copy of course differs from the original name and respectively it does not match the information from the module header. Besides the “open modules table” contains aliases for modules from “USAG”. In particular, “RDM1” serves as alias for “RDMT”, “PDM1” stands for “PSHT”, etc. Write/read firmware command allows to create a copy of a drive's firmware or record it to a drive from a previously saved copy. NV-RAM is also saved during copying to a database, but it can be extracted from it to a file only. It will not be copied to a drive during full firmware recording. Ignore reading error command influences just the “Read modules” menu item. When the "Ignore reading error" mode is on, red "IRE" indicator appears in the status bar of the utility. The said menu item allows to read partially corrupt modules. If a drive error takes place while reading a module in normal mode the reading operation stops and such module is placed into a modules' directory with a ".bad" extension, at that the file will contain only sectors, which could be recovered from the drive without errors. If the utility encounters a reading error in the "IRE" mode it saves to the file a sector filled with "DE AD" signature and continues reading the module. As usual, error-free modules have ".rpm" extension while corrupt modules have ".bad" extension. "DE AD" signature allows identifying a corrupt sector easily in any hex editor. Read modules, Write modules commands allow to work separately with modules and "spaces". That feature provides an opportunity to change contents of just one module or a selected group of modules without modifications to the rest. The utility allows reading the modules in several modes; therefore it offers the following menu for mode selection: Any main copy Copy 0 Copy 1 Factory copy The “Any main copy” mode forces reading of copy 0 or, if it is corrupted, copy 1. The necessity for reading another copy is determined by the utility analyzing module readability. Selection of “Copy 0” or “Copy 1” modes forces reading of ONLY 0 or 1 copy respectively. In drives with several heads copy 1 as a rule corresponds to head 1; in single-head drives it is usually located on another track. The exact copy location is indicated by the address modifier byte in NV-RAM. Therefore recording to a single-head drive NV-RAM from a drive with several heads in case of firmware problems may cause knocking sounds since the drive will start looking for a copy using a non-existent head. That mode is useful when only copy 0 is damaged and data of a single module contains garbage or when firmware modules have to be collected partially from one copy and partially from another. Such a necessity is frequently caused by drastic firmware corruption. Disk rotation is likely to extend module corruption in copy 1 to the following sector offering an opportunity to restore the module from copy 0 by transferring the information from copy 1 through a hex editor. Enabling of the “Ignore reading errors” mode certainly allows most complete utilization of that opportunity. WARNING! Not all the modules are present in copy 1, thus they are listed in the zero copy reading mode only. In particular, the modules, which are listed in the “open modules table” but not listed in “USAG” are unavailable in the copy 1 reading mode.

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Selection of the “Factory copy” mode provides access to modules recorded at the manufacturing factory to a separate track unused by the drive. WARNING! Only modules listed in “USAG” will be accessible in that mode. Besides, the SRVM module present in that copy will differ from its actually operating counterpart as regards its adaptive part. Apparently the difference is caused by final drive calibration performed after recording of the “factory copy”. Load USAG command allows loading to the utility's memory of a selected modules’ directory without recording it to a disk. That feature is useful while estimating the condition of a drive with corrupt “USAG” module. Re-read module tables command loads USAG and a table of open modules. That feature may be useful for utility readjustment for changes introduced to the firmware zone by user or a launched LDR file (no need to leave the utility and start it again in cases when firmware zone is modified). Cleaning of logs (ELG1, EVLG)command allows to clear a drive's error log (in 60GXP and 120GXP models EVLG event log is also cleared). The feature is useful in cases of zero drive head overcommutation. It is necessary to perform Clear SMART after finishing of this operation. Clear FLYH command (derived from Fly Head) allows clearing the mechanical hits log in a drive. The log is present in all drives described in this manual from 120 GXP (IC35AVVA) to earlier models. Restore firmware zone command attempts to restore unreadable areas in drive's firmware zone. That menu item is necessitated by the fact that firmware zone in IBM drives is scattered, i.e. there are areas between the modules, which are not included into the module tables. Such areas mostly are either not utilized by the drive altogether or contain SELFSCAN modules. At the same time a drive reads the firmware track to RAM completely during initialization. Consequently, an attempt of initialization will end in error, if the track contains unreadable areas. Besides, in cases of data restoration, when the most of own drive service data must be restored, there might arise a situation when a part of some module essential for such data cannot be read, for example, in the final part containing no information. In that case restoration will allow obtaining the required module with empty space instead of its previously inaccessible area. And in some cases the actual data from the area will be restored, too. That menu item processes the whole firmware in a drive, which is slower than reading modules in "IRE" mode (please, see "Ignore reading error"), but its advantage is in the ability to attempt reading of an inaccessible sector using physical parameters during restoration (at user's option). One more application aspect of that operation regards overcommutation of a drive's system head (please see details in the "Modify configuration" section). That menu item brings up a dialog window, where you can select drive heads for restoration, operation type (restoration, clearing or extensive clearing), and number of retries using logical and physical parameters. If you select "clear" or “extensive clear” operation type or 0 of retries, the firmware data area will be filled with 77h code. Selection of the “extensive clear” menu item forces clearing in the style adopted in 1.07 version of the utilities. It is slightly safer when a drive is damaged, but takes more time than plain clear operation. However, the statistics proves that it is frequently necessary in order to restore the readability of firmware area. Thus we recommend using the “extensive clear” option only in cases, when selection of common clearing procedure had no desired effect. WARNING! Performing of this part can be potentially dangerous for HDD! If you have choosen Recovery and HDD have a problem with heads the execution of this command can caused the damaging of service area or incorrect writing into the correct sectors of service area. Moreover if you have choosen the Cleaning or Extended cleaning, the microprogram can be erased. Therefore before performing of this operation you should save the maximum of modules from all disc surfaces of HDD. For this can be useful paragraphs Load USAG (load into the utility table of modules from the file ~USAG.rpm from compatible HDD) and Ignore reading error (allows while reading to get maximum information of module, even if it has unreadable areas ). Remember that microprogram has great amount of special information about this HDD and simple substitution of it by another HDD can caused inability to work of repairing drive. Create an LDR file menu item allows saving drive's firmware to a file in IBM LDR format. After selection of that menu item you'll be prompted to enter a name for the LDR file. Since the file size is limited, tables of defects (PSHT, RDMT) are saved in a separate file in LDR format under the same name but with ".dld" extension (i.e. in order to restore original modules using the file you should rename it to *.ldr). Besides, another file with the same name and ".ldl" extension is created containing information about the drive and a list of modules recorded to the LDR file. If any modules cannot be read, they will be skipped with subsequent listing of such cases in a report after the operation is complete. WARNING! The loader thus generated will differ from the original one since it will contain modules specific for the individual drive and a complete NV-RAM block. If you wish to use the loader for firmware updating in another drive you should copy the “native” SRVM module and NV-RAM of that drive after using the loader.

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Security subsystem menu item allows viewing information about user passwords and their resetting, i.e. removal of passwords opening access to drive's data. The "Setup" item serves for modification of password module location in a drive's memory. The address is presumably the same for the whole drive family, though it is likely that it may differ in some firmware version. Beginning with 40GV drive family some firmware versions employ an encryption mechanism for the password module. Therefore the password reviewing routine will display an encrypted block of security module, which cannot be used as password text. Besides, beginning with 60GXP drive family password-protected drives block factory mode commands. Therefore the algorithm of password removal becomes somewhat more complicated. During the process you'll have to short-circuit data pins of NV-RAM (No. 5 and 6) to ensure drive's report on readiness without initialization of its security subsystem. The said procedure is implemented in Wizard style, which allows to skip its detailed description here.

2.2.2.3. “Modify configuration” command "Modify configuration" menu item contains the following commands: “Isolate heads” “Head map change” “Switch SA access” “Isolate zones”. “Isolate heads” command allows software deactivation of magnetic heads and modification of their connection order. That command brings up a dialog window, where you can select the number and sequence for the arrangement of heads in a drive. The utility automatically corrects the modifier byte for the address of a module copy in NV-RAM. Thus, you do not have to worry about producing a single-head model, which might require presence of module copies on a different track instead of head 1. The dialog window in the utility designed for heads' table modification shows cells with numbers of heads inside (from left to right). The leftmost cell contains the number of physical head, which the drive will use as its zero head. For instance, if you record 2 in that cell, it will mean that drive firmware will use as zero head the one physically connected to the second commutator line in the head and disk assembly. The actual overcommutation mechanism is implemented in the utility as creation of an LDR file with necessary modifications from the modules present in a drive. Specific character of the process requires a certain procedure in cases, when the system head is changed (in case of "simple ending head(s) removal" starting an LDR file should suffice). Let's describe the procedure: generation of an LDR file from a given drive with definition of heads number, order, and file name; 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

clear firmware zone having selected the head, which should become the system head; run an LDR file clear firmware zone for the system (zero) head; switch the drive power off and on; run an LDR file; switch the drive power off and on; run an LDR file.

After completion of the operation do not forget to re-read the tables of modules (“Work with firmware zone” / ”Re-read module tables”). The need to run an LDR file several times is determined by the fact that it contains the whole complex of actions for overcommutation, which at the same time should be performed in several steps. Therefore intermediary starts of an LDR file may complete with an error. If the final start of an LDR file finishes with an error, too, either of the following has happened: - NV-RAM was not overwritten during LDR file start; - one of modules in firmware zone has not been overwritten during LDR file start; - one of the original HDD modules contained garbage. If an error resulted from impossibility to overwrite any module (it can be verified by looking through the report on firmware structure), try to repeat the procedure from step 4. If some modules in the original drive cannot be read or recorded you'll have to copy them subsequently from a set of modules for a corresponding model. Here we should note that the mechanism modifies several modules so it is Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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likely that after their recording from another drive you may need to repeat the algorithm procedure again. Here belong modules ZONE, SRVM, MLBA, and CNSL. A situation is possible, when none of modules can be read (when the system head is damaged). In that case the LDR file would contain only corrected NV-RAM. Then you should perform steps from 2 through 5, record to the drive corresponding firmware from a database or as modules, and switch power supply to the drive off and on. Then perform the complete overcommutation procedure again from the first step. “Head map change” command allows modification of heads mapping only in NV-RAM without readjustment of other drive structures. Thus it is possible to define heads mapping filled, for example, with just one number using the dialog box produced by the command. That may be useful for recovery of drives with corrupted sectors in firmware area. “Switch SA access” command inverts the high bit in the lower byte identifying firmware version in NV-RAM. The operation grants access to drive modules in cases, when firmware area is corrupted so that during regular start such drives either hang or start knocking with the heads. Previously for the same purpose it was recommended to find NVRAM of a similar, though not the same NV-RAM version containing heads’ map identical to the current NV-RAM. The command functions as a trigger, i.e. running it twice successively will produce the original NV-RAM. Isolate zones” command accomplishes isolation of zones in the beginning of a drive only. Its selection brings up a dialog window, where you'll have to input the number of the first operational zone of the drive. Previously isolated zones will be skipped. After successful performance of that operation you'll need to set the correct MaxLBA value separately using the SetMaxLBA command in the PC3000AT utility. The new MaxLBA can be obtained with either of two methods: - calculate the number to deduct from the current MaxLBA taking into account the isolated zones; - perform logical scanning and assume as new MaxLBA the value followed by continuous IDNF error zone. Activation of drive zones is performed separately by means of recording a respective ZONE module in the "Write modules" dialog; then you'll have to restore correct MaxLBA in the PC3000AT utility. The utility will display the default MaxLBA value in the respective dialog window. Thus you may just confirm the value displayed by the utility without any modifications.

2.2.2.4. “Run an LDR file” command “Run an LDR file” command starts a “script” of firmware update. The function is somewhat similar to that in Quantum drives, but it has several basic differences. That function has been designed for firmware version update in a drive being initialized only. It will not achieve a temporary drive initialization by recording information into its RAM. LDR file name corresponds to P - Code of firmware to replace the current firmware version, for example, TX2DA59A.LDR. The structure of P - Code is as follows: TX – drive family identifier; 2 – the number of magnetic heads; A59A – firmware version. WARNING! The first 6 characters in P - Code should never be changed, i.e. TX2DA50A can be replaced with TX2DA59A, but not TX2DA69A.

2.2.2.5. Translator recalculation Translator recalculation is a command that allows to transfer defects from G-List to P-List. Data from the user area are lost in the process since the defects hiding is accomplished not through their relocation to reserved sectors but through removal of defective sectors from the translation space. During such isolation of defects all the drive sectors beginning from the first defect change their numbers. The so-called "candidate" defects (sectors with unstable reading access) are ignored during the process because of some peculiarities in the operation of firmware co.

2.2.2.6. Spindle stop Spindle stop is a command required for Hot Swap operations.

2.2.2.7. Enable write cache This menu item is available in utilities for DTLA, AVER, and AVVA drive models because it is actually a patch fixing an error in older utilities for those drives, where incomplete initialization of G-List (RDMT) resulted in

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disabling the write-cache. Technically you could simply clear G-List using the current utility version, but we believed that you might wish to preserve the original G-List of the drive sent for repair in order to facilitate a more complete user data recovery.

2.2.3. Drive ID Drive ID command allows to modify the information returned by a drive in response to drive ID request (drive ID is read during PC loading procedure performed by system BIOS) and compare identification records from the firmware zone and the drive labels.

2.2.4. Formatting Formatting command performs translator recalculation and quick LBA surface overwriting using random code from the sector buffer. The procedure ends with an error if it encounters a seriously damaged area. In order to perform the formatting procedure you should enter the initial value and the number of LBA sectors in the range to be formatted. Besides, you can define the utility behavior in case of errors. The following variants are possible: - stop formatting when an error is encountered; - skip several sectors (their number is entered in a dialog window by the user) when an error is encountered and continue to a previously defined limit. The need for the second mode is predetermined by the fact that 60GXP and newer models require completion of formatting at the last accessible LBA from the user's data zone for normal subsequent work with such data. Upon completion of formatting a report will be output listing zones skipped because of errors. Then logical scanning of those zones with writing on must be performed. Besides, that menu item allows to detect zones with considerably damaged servo fields, which can be hidden then into "cylinder table" (please see "defects table”). WARNING! Because of an error in firmware of IBM drives the formatting command leaves some LBA at disk end unformatted. For safety reasons we did not modify the utility algorithm though it could enable the utility to define block range greater than the one entered by the user. Thus after formatting you will need to add the final range of a drive (2-3 tracks per head) using logical parameters. WARNING! The command forces formatting of sectors in accordance with P-List, but actual recording is performed over the whole disk surface with the exception of cylinders listed in the SRVM table, thus formatting errors (corrupted servo fields, circular scratches, etc.) cannot be excluded by appending those defects to P-List. As a last resort the corrupted area can only be isolated from the user data space by running the formatting procedure manually and beginning with a location outside the corrupted area after the defects are added to PList. In such cases it is recommended to append to P-List the preceding and the following track in addition to the one with actually damaged formatting.

2.2.5. Logical scanning Logical scanning command scans the surface using logical parameters and adds the defects to G-List. This utility version does not block drives' autoassign feature, thus a drive automatically adds discovered defects to G-List itself. At that you can manually edit RDMT (G-List) and “cylinder table” (SRVM) (please see "defects table").

2.2.6. S.M.A.R.T. table S.M.A.R.T. table menu item allows to view the values of S.M.A.R.T. parameters, load them from a model module, reset S.M.A.R.T. values1, and control thermal mode of head and disk assembly (HDA). You may also monitor the changes of temperature in the process of random positioning. The "latency period" parameter controls the delay between positioning to random LBA.

1

Information on SMART reset command has been kindly provided by Lev Koriagin ([email protected]).

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2.2.7. Defects table The Defects table command brings up the following menu: View defects table Editor Clear defects tables View defects tables – allows to view cylinder defects table (SRVM), P-List (PSHT) and G-List (RDMT). Within that menu you can select necessary tables using [SPACE] key. If none of the tables has been selected pressing [ENTER] will display a table corresponding to the current cursor position. WARNING! Because of some peculiarities of the interface used for creation of the utilities the maximum number of lines available for displayed reports is 32767. Thus, if P-List contains more records, not all of them will be displayed. However, the number of all the defects in the report header will be correct. Editor menu item contains options “Cylinder table editor”, “RDMT editor”, “Load from defectoscope”. Let's review each of them: - “Cylinder table editor” – allows manual entrance and removal of selected cylinder defects. Peculiarities of drive's firmware operation cause cylinders listed in the "cylinder defects table" to "disappear" from the address space of the drive. Therefore modification of "cylinder table" renders the defects listed in P-List and G-List invalid; they have to be cleared. Besides, in 60GXP and newer models cylinder defects are used to block a service zone located close to the middle of disk radius. The utility indicates attempts to remove such defects with a beep and ignores them. - “RDMT editor” – allows to edit the contents of RDMT (G-List) manually. Due to some reasons "translator recalculation" is required after editing of RDMT; and the operation is performed automatically by the utility. This menu item allows selection of actions to be performed over "candidate" defects: taking them into account during editing, ignoring them or their preliminary export into an external file with the ".dft" extension (a list of defects in the "defectoscope" utility format). - “Load from defectoscope” option allows loading into RDMT a defects’ list created by the "defectoscope" utility. Due to some reasons "translator recalculation" is required after loading of defects; and the operation is performed automatically by the utility. Just as with the previous menu item, here you can select actions to perform over the current "candidate" defects from G-List. Clear defects table option allows to reset G-List (RDMT), P-List (PSHT), and “cylinder table” (SRVM). In this menu you can select necessary tables using the [SPACE] key. If none of the tables has been selected pressing [ENTER] will display a table corresponding to the current cursor position. Attention! If you clear “cylinder table”, the defects listed in other tables (RDMT, PSHT) will become invalid and will have to be cleared by the user, too. Attention! In 60GXP and newer models a certain group of cylinder defects is used to block a service zone located close to the middle of disk radius. The utility does not remove those defects while clearing a "cylinder table".

2.2.8. Automatic mode Automatic mode command allows running test sequences (formatting, translator recalculation, scanning using physical parameters, logical scanning and servo test) in arbitrary order with output of results. Automatic operation with IBM drives does not differ from work with other drive types (see, for example, description for Fujitsu HDDs).

2.2.9. SELFSCAN The SELFSCAN menu contains elements for control and status review of the so-called “SELFSCAN” routine. SELFSCAN is a part of factory firmware stored in a drive and designed for drive self-testing and self-adjustment. In IBM drives SELFSCAN performs adjustment of adaptive drive parameters and multi-pass surface scanning of the disks with defects relocation. At that during the first pass the drive scans its firmware zone, during the second pass it scans the user's data area and adds defects to the cylinder table, the third pass is used for scanning with defects entry into PList. SELFSCAN menu consists of the following options: Start SELFSCAN Stop SELFSCAN

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View state View result Read SELFSCAN module Write SELFSCAN module View MFG parameters View HLRC data View SRST dump table parameters Read SELFSCAN log Repair SELFSCAN module Start SELFSCAN menu item serves for initialization of the SELFSCAN routine. After the initialization you should connect the drive to an independent power supply and wait for the procedure completion. While waiting it is possible to view SELFSCAN state – i.e. drive registers – in order to estimate information on the progress of SELFSCAN. WARNING! The command starting the SELFSCAN routine will automatically clear P-List and G-List, ELG1 and EVLG logs and reset SMART parameters. WARNING! It is essentially important that you do not disconnect the power to the drive throughout the whole procedure of SELFSCAN. If the SELFSCAN procedure is interrupted by a power shutoff, after the next poweron SELFSCAN will restart with incorrect parameters since some of them are stored by the drive in RAM. Therefore you should abort the incorrectly started SELFSCAN procedure using the Stop SELFSCAN command. Then you can restart SELFSCAN. Stop SELFSCAN menu item serves for termination of SELFSCAN procedure. Its selection brings up a wizardstyle sequence of windows guiding through the actions required to stop SELFSCAN. View state menu item serves for reviewing the current status of SELFSCAN procedure. Its selection brings up a window reflecting the contents of IDE registers, thus it allows identification of current SELFSCAN stage and surface scanning position. SELFSCAN completion is manifested by the presence of a specific group of values in the “1x3” and “1x4” drive registers. For DJNA and DPTA models it is “1x3” = 0x40, “1x4” = 0x11. For DTLA and newer models it is “1x3” = 0x62, “1x4” = 0x11. View result menu item allows checking the key word or error code after SELFSCAN completion. Attention! That operation becomes available ONLY UPON COMPLEION of the SELFSCAN procedure. The following key word variants are possible: x x x

“COMPFIN1”, “COMPLETE” – SELFSCAN completed successfully “ABORTED!” – SELFSCAN completed with an error “SELFSCAN” – SELFSCAN did not complete, it was terminated by the utility.

If SELFSCAN ends with an error the drive has to be restored manually using the formatting procedure, please find extensively damaged areas and add them to the cylinder table, then perform standard procedure of defects search (please see section 4.3.1). You can see some of SELFSCAN error codes: Code

Description

00 00

SELFSCAN completed successfully

01 01

SELFSCAN detected a defective head

02 02

overflow of track defects’ table

06 02

P-List overflow

Read SELFSCAN module menu item allows reading SELFSCAN module from a drive to a file. WARNING! Together with the SELFSCAN module you should also copy the MFGP module containing SELFSCAN parameters (available as "[email protected]@01.rpm" module for drive families older than AVER, please see Table 5 and a footnote thereto). SELFSCAN can be subsequently started normally only if a valid pair of MFGP and SELFSCAN modules is available. WARNING! Current version of the utility does not save the SELFSCAN module to the firmware database and does not read it after selection of the "read modules" menu item, therefore the module should be saved separately. Please note, besides, that the body of SELFSCAN module may contain empty sections that prevent its reading but do not tell on its functionality. Correction of such situation is achieved through the Repair Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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SELFSCAN module menu item. When it is invoked, the utility reads a SELFSCAN module ignoring reading errors and records it back. After that action you'll be able both to read the SELFSCAN module and attempt to start it. Write SELFSCAN module menu item serves for recording of a SELFSCAN module to a drive. WARNING! Record to a drive SELFSCAN module belonging only to a corresponding firmware version AND A CORRESPONDING DRIVE MODEL! Recording an unsuitable SELFSCAN module to a drive may lead to its destruction (heads “knocking away”). WARNING! While recording a SELFSCAN module keep in mind that its proper functioning depends on the presence of the corresponding MFGP module containing SELFSCAN parameters. The “corresponding” module here means that it must be copied from the same drive or, at least, from an identical model WITH THE SAME NUMBER OF HEADS! WARNING! In DTLA and newer drives starting SELFSCAN procedure when isolated heads are present will cause an error since the module contains a record with a strictly defined number of heads. Therefore starting the module requires copying the MFGP and SELFSCAN modules from a corresponding model with smaller capacity. View MFG parameters menu item will display a report on the current parameters of SELFSCAN (MFG parameters). View HLRC data menu item will display an interpretation for the factory report on drive test (HLR1 / HLR2 modules). It contains aggregated data about heads' status based on various tests. Probably, it may be modified by the SELFSCAN routine. Those reports appeared beginning with the 60GXP (AVER) drive series. View SRST dump table parameters menu item outputs a summary report on the tests performed by SELFSCAN and compiled by the drive itself on the basis of its operation log. Read SELFSCAN log menu item allows reading the SELFSCAN progress log as a binary file. Its interpretation will be implemented in the utility later or we shall create a separate utility for its analysis. Repair SELFSCAN module menu item is applicable when a SELFSCAN module contains empty buffer sections, which do not influence the code itself or module data. If the SELFSCAN procedure does not start or the SELFSCAN module cannot be read, please try this option prior to overwriting the "native" module, attempt to read the SELFSCAN module and analyze its contents. WARNING! Due to microprogram specifics SELFSCAN does not record all the defects. Therefore after SELFSCAN completion you should perform formatting with subsequent standard defects search procedure (please see section 4.3.1.).

3. Drive firmware 3.1. Structure of IBM HDD firmware Firmware of IBM drives consists of a firmware portion stored in ROM, configuration data in NV-RAM and loadable firmware portion with data from the service data zone of a drive (DISK firmware). Firmware is identified by its version number and version code (please see Fig. 3.1). Firmware version number reflects its development. Firmware version code is actually a project number.

ROM

Firmware version number (ASCII) Firmware version code (HEX)

NV-RAM

Firmware version number (ASCII) Firmware version code (HEX)

DISK F/W

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22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

Firmware version code (HEX) Figure 3.1. Structure of IBM HDD firmware. Firmware is stored in masked ROM, which cannot be modified1. The whole modernization of firmware is performed using the pair of NV-RAM + Disk F/W. Therefore IBM experts introduced the following rule for identification of new versions: only firmware version NUMBER is changed while the firmware version CODE remains the same. At that only the second pair of characters in the number is changed. For example, firmware version number before modification might have been A46A. After update the version will change to A4xx, where xx stand for another two characters. Attention! Replacement with firmware from another drive family is not allowed. Thus the sets (ROM+NV-RAM+Disk F/W) will be compatible if they conform to the following conditions: - firmware version CODE is the same for ROM, NV-RAM, and Disk F/W; - P - Codes in NV-RAM and Disk F/W match; - firmware version NUMBER stored in ROM may differ from the number in NV-RAM and Disk F/W in the last pair of characters only.

3.2. Compatibility of electronics printed circuit boards Compatibility of PCBs can be conveniently identified using the label at IDE connector2 (see Fig. 3.1). If the first symbols in the first two lines match, electronic parts are mostly compatible and are completely interchangeable. Precise identification of compatibility can be performed using the information from ROM or NV-RAM3. 07N6544 H31718_ L5Y106 HBM5

Figure 3.2. Electronics PCB label at IDE connector. NV-RAM contains the map of drive heads. Therefore PCBs from different models belonging to the same drive family turn out to be incompatible. In order to adapt a PCB you should record NV-RAM from a corresponding model into it. But the masked ROM version in the processor should match the version in NV-RAM and firmware modules (please see section 3.1 “Structure of IBM HDD firmware”). You can review version of PCB firmware using the command “View NV-RAM data” from the “Work with NV-RAM” menu. P - Code of firmware looks as follows: ER2OA41A, where ER is the drive family code (please see Table 2. “Family codes”), 2 – means the number of physical heads, A41A – represents the firmware version number. Besides, the “View ROM data” item from the “Work with ROM” menu allows reviewing the basic firmware version and its version code. Firmware data set for a given ROM with the smallest number actually recorded in that ROM chip is viewed here as the basic version. For details on the structure of firmware version line refer to sections 2.2.2.1 “Work with ROM” and 3.1 “Structure of IBM HDD firmware”.

3.3. Description of structure and methods of firmware zone access in case of malfunctions Just as with many other drives, firmware in IBM drives is recorded in service tracks allocated to a separate zone and consists of modules. The only considerable difference is the presence of non-volatile memory (NV-RAM) with serial access on a PCB; memory size is 256 or 512 bytes. The memory contains an additional service module with setup information adjusted for a specific model. One more difference is manifested in the presence of "open" service modules that can be read and recorded without switching the drive to factory mode. A considerable part of the "open" modules list is constituted by modules from USAG (the main table of drive modules). Besides the list contains 1 In drives from sample testing shipments firmware is not stored in masked ROM; instead it is loaded from serial Flash ROM. 2 The code from IDE connector label is also recorded in PIDM "open" module. 3 Since NV-RAM may become corrupt or overwritten incorrectly it is safer to rely on information stored in ROM.

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additional modules used by the utilities distributed by the manufacturer for diagnostics of malfunctions. A large part of those additional modules is not necessary for drive functioning. Some spaces are just allocated for modules, but contain nothing, producing an error at an attempt to read such space. All the main functional parts are located in a protected firmware zone described in the USAG module. The data in firmware zone can be subdivided into four categories: - RSVD module, present in none of the tables containing modules; it marks the beginning of a service track. - Modules listed in the USAG table. All the modules are critical for drive operation. - Records that are not included into USAG table but participate in factory self-testing. - A part of open firmware data, which does not intersect with the group of modules from USAG (the table of open modules contains, apart from the rest, references to a large number of USAG modules required for functioning of the manufacturer's testing utilities). After the “Check firmware structure” command is issued, both the closed and open parts of firmware are read. Besides, the "spaces" in the main and additional service tracks are checked (a "space" is a service track portion, which is not occupied by any module from the lists). The "RD" label indicates, whether a module could be read. “RD: —” appears, if the module has been read, otherwise you'll see “RD: -”. The “ID” label reflects whether a module identifier in the table of modules matches its identifier contained inside the actual module body. We should note that the table of "open modules" contains, apart from the rest, aliases of modules (for example, the main copy of the RDMT module in the table of "open" modules in named RDM1, and a copy thereof is called RDM2). The command also outputs the table of zone allocation and some other parameters. The purposes of some firmware modules are listed in tables 4 and 5. Table 4. Functional purpose of some «closed» modules. Module identifier PSHT RDMT RLBA ZONE RAM0 OVR1 SMRT MLBA PSWD or SECI IDNT USAG RSVD SRVM

Purpose Factory table of defects (P-List). Growing table of defects (G-List). Extension to the zone allocation table. Zone allocation table. Resident firmware. Resident firmware. Module with S.M.A.R.T. values LBA parameters. Module containing passwords and security settings. Drive ID. Table of modules' location within the service data area. Mark of firmware data beginning Table of skipped cylinders Table 5. Functional purpose of some «open» modules.

RDM1 RDM2 PIDM PDM1 PDM2 DDD0 ELG1 EVLG @@01 or MFGP1

Alias of RDMT Copy of RDMT Module containing information from the labels of PCB and HDA. Alias of PSHT Copy of PSHT Log of DDD utility Log of the drive defects' table. Event Log MFG parameters – the module containing SELFSCAN parameters

You should take into account during firmware analysis that there is no checksum in the modules; therefore it is quite difficult to identify structural corruption of firmware modules. IBM drives can read and record firmware data with a partially initialized PCB (initialization from NV-RAM is required; firmware loading from the service data area is not necessary for manipulations with modules), therefore if 1

The MFGP module appeared in the “open modules table” beginning with AVER drive family only. For earlier models it is available as a “space” module “[email protected]@01.rpm” in the “open modules table”.

14

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22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

some modules in a drive cannot be read, such problem can easily be identified after looking through a report on firmware zone structure. If a drive switches to "endless knocking" after an attempt to read firmware data, you can proceed as follows: disconnect the spindle motor control cable between the PCB and HDA and wait until the drive reports on readiness. Here we should note that the said procedure is inapplicable for 120GXP drives, since they do not report on readiness without a HDA. In that case you'll have to use another method: 1. having switched the drive off first, short-circuit the 5th and the 6th pins of NV-RAM, then switch the drive's power supply on with the short-circuit between the said pins. After a few seconds the drive should report on readiness. Then remove the short-circuit bridge. 2. select the “Switch SA access” option in the menu “Work with firmware zone / Modify configuration” After that the drive will be correctly initialized from NV-RAM but having read USAG with a different version it will terminate further loading. However, its firmware zone will be accessible for analysis. Then we should perform diagnostics of firmware zone (DISK F/W). For that purpose we shall read modules from the drive one by one using the "Firmware", "Work with firmware zone", "Read modules" menu. The module causing knocking sounds during the procedure is damaged. Besides, we should mention the so-called Safe Mode of IBM drives. A drive is switched to that mode by a special jumper configuration (please see section 4). The drive allows reading and recording NV-RAM in that mode, but rejects commands for work with disk surface. Consequently the Safe Mode can be used as an alternative to the method of "short-circuit" in order to modify NV-RAM. The Safe Mode interacts differently with the firmware zone in different drive families.

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP 40GV and newer

while addressing firmware zone firmware overlays are read and started, performing complete drive initialization. Thus, if firmware zone is corrupt, the drive may enter the "endless knocking" mode attempts to access firmware zone are ignored.

Thus Safe Mode cannot be used for testing and restoration of corrupt data in firmware zone. While working with firmware zone you should keep in mind information from the following sections of this manual: - Work with ROM (please see review of a report on ROM and NV-RAM) - Work with firmware zone You may use the following scheme as a general guideline for discovery of possible malfunctions:

Yes

No

The drive produces knocking sound with its heads

- a part of module or a space between modules cannot be read from the main firmware track - missing RSVD, USAG (unparking without recalibration), though access to firmware data is still available.

The spindle spins up

No

Check: - NV-RAM - PCB - motor

Yes

- problem with commutator - problem with heads - problem with electronics - RSVD and USAG are present, but modules are damaged

While checking NV-RAM you should pay attention to the following aspects: - Identifier must be “E2PR” - Firmware version number must match ROM version (please see the section on viewing a report about ROM and NVRAM) Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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"IBM"

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

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Firmware version code must match the ROM code (please see the section on viewing a report about ROM and NVRAM) Mapping of drive heads must correspond to the one typical of that drive family, if the drive hasn't been previously repaired with overcommutation of heads – or it should at least have a certain sense. For example, it may never contain references to non-existent points of connection to the commutator (for instance, for the 33rd head). Besides you should keep in mind that NV-RAM contains a checksum and if NV-RAM gets corrupt the drive will terminate loading procedure having discovered a checksum mismatch. In that case you can record from a database to the drive NV-RAM having corresponding type and version. In cases when NV-RAM structural corruption has caused malfunctioning of the device, the drive will spin up the spindle and attempt to load firmware from disks' surface as soon as its power supply is turned on. Checking of firmware modules is accomplished through the menu items "Firmware / Check firmware structure”. If a part of any module is unreadable, the testing report will reflect inaccessibility of a respective module. In such cases you should overwrite corrupt modules using database as the source of modules collected from a corresponding drive type with a matching firmware version using the guidelines on modules critical for user's data and the drive itself and described in this manual. You should bear in mind that firmware modules in IBM drives have no checksum, which makes identification of corrupt modules somewhat more complicated. It is worthwhile to review individually the cases of damage to the “RSVD” module when the “RSVD” marker is present in it, but the module body is filled with “garbage”. In such cases a drive behaves as though its heads are malfunctioning, making it impossible to restore its functionality using regular methods. Let us describe the case and the procedure for drive repair. Problem: the drive cannot find the firmware, it produces typical sounds, the drive cannot write anything, i.e. behaves as though recording is disabled for all its heads and: 1) a part of firmware got corrupted 2) all of the firmware got corrupted 3) reading has become disabled for all the heads Cause: logical corruption of the RSVD module, when the RSVD marker is present in its due place, but the remaining information is invalid. Recovery procedure: x Set the Safe Mode jumpers (or disconnect the motor controller cable for DJNA, DPTA) and create an alternative loader with heads mapping where another head is substituted into the position for the zero head. You could try to use head 1. Return the jumpers to the regular position, switch the power on and wait until the drive reports on readiness. It would be useful to inspect NV-RAM, too (just in case). x Run the loader to switch the order of heads’ assignment. x The drive should report on readiness, but you will see a message telling that the modules’ table could not be read. x Clear the drive using all the heads. x Switch the drive power off and on and clear the firmware zone again. x Record the native NV-RAM, clear the firmware zone. x Switch the drive power off and on and clear the firmware zone again. ¾Record NV-RAM, the CORRECT RSVD, USAG ¾Record the remaining modules ¾Run the loader with modules (not the one switching heads mapping, but the loader containing modules to be recorded). This action will additionally ensure normal recording of the modules. x Record PSHT, RDMT x Switch the drive power off and on ¾Clear the firmware zone. ¾Record RSVD, USAG ¾Record the remaining modules ¾Run the loader containing modules. x Record PSHT, RDMT WARNING! The listed actions marked by an arrow are to be performed at once, without a prior switching of the power off/on or restarting the utility.

3.4. Critical modules for drive data

16

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The following are modules essential for drive data in IBM HDDs: PSHT, RDMT, SRVM, ZONE, CNSL, MLBA (please see Table 2). Besides, you should remember about the requirement of conformity to the heads mapping in NV-RAM.

4. Description of IBM drive families Drive families are grouped according to their similar construction peculiarities and methods of their repair.

90G0653

4.1. Construction peculiarities of 22GXP(DJNA7), 34GXP(DPTA7), and 37GP(DPTA5) drive families

1

90G1267 N37951H45100HP 923B-130

1

M5118165050TK

2

3

1. IBM36 JAPAN AMSRC04 03 TQA7BB.6C 1C23081TQA 2. 25.0 Mhz 3. NV-RAM S93C56

Master

Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Figure 4.1. External view of controller board in the DJNA drive family. Table 1 demonstrates the model composition of drive families. Junior model in the family contains 4 heads. The maximum number of disks for those drive families is 5. Two ROM chips are present on the PCB: - Masked ROM integrated with the processor. It contains the executable processor code and default setup values. - Flash ROM with serial access - NV-RAM. It contains setup parameters for access to the drive's firmware zone. Its type is S93C56, size – 256 bytes. In case of processor malfunction the PCB is unable to report on readiness without HDA. At the utility launch you'll see a message "Error reading NV-RAM". If the processor is functioning the PCB will always report on readiness without a HDA (only DRDY and DSC LEDs in status register will be illuminated) independently from NV-RAM contents. If firmware modules could not be read, you'll see the following messages: "Modules table cannot be read. Continue?" and "Error reading zone allocation module. Default zone allocation used". If the drive unparks its heads during the procedure and you do not hear knocking sounds the error is most likely in the firmware data. In that case you can perform the "Check firmware structure" command and see, which modules have been damaged. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

If modules can be read, but contain incorrect information, you can overwrite them using the "Write modules" command from the menu for work with firmware zone. PCBs have several firmware versions located in masked ROM inside the processor. Matching firmware versions are compatible. Besides, two last characters in the firmware version and ROM version number may be different (please see section 3.1 “Structure of IBM HDD firmware”). Installation of PCB from one drive family to a HDA from another is impossible in principle because masked ROM and different chips are used for reading/writing and motor control. If there is a need to transfer a PCB from a drive with a different number of heads but containing the same processor ROM version you should eliminate the difference, i.e. NV-RAM contents. It is possible to read /write to NV-RAM on a separate board without a connected HDA. For that purpose it would be sufficient to disconnect the cable to spindle motor and wait until the PCB reports on readiness. If one or more magnetic heads are malfunctioning, the drive enters a continuous cycle, during which it keeps knocking the magnetic-head assembly against the limiting stop. If the heads are functioning and the problem is caused by incorrect firmware data the drive will report on readiness quite quickly after the knocking sounds.

90G2018

4.2. Construction peculiarities of 40GV(DTLA5), 75GXP(DTLA7), 60GXP(AVER), and 120GXP(AVVA) drive families

1

90G2232 N37980F83000HP 007AT00

IBM36 IREL AMSRC04 03 TQA7BB.6C 06K2869 PQ

2

1

1. 33.3 ɆȽɰ 2. NV-RAM S93C66 Jumper Configuration Master

Slave

Safe mode

Figure 4.2. External view of controller board in the DTLA-7 drive family.

18

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22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

1

1

1. NV-RAM S93C66 Master

Jumper Configuration Slave

Safe mode

Figure 4.3. External view of controller board in the DTLA-5, AVER, and AVVA drive families. Table 1 demonstrates the model composition of drive families. Junior model in the family contains 2 heads (sometimes you may encounter factory-refurbished drives with 1 head). The maximum number of disks for those drive families is 5. In those models glass disks are used since the accuracy of smooth surface production is higher for glass than for aluminum. Two or three ROM chips are present on the PCB: - Masked ROM integrated with the processor. It contains the executable processor code and default setup values. - Flash ROM with serial access - NV-RAM. It contains setup parameters for access to the drive's firmware zone. Its type is S93C56, size – 512 bytes. - The third ROM chip is not always present on a PCB. Those Flash ROM chips were used in sample testing shipments of drives with firmware recorded in serial Flash ROM instead of a masked ROM, which fact allowed correction of errors in ROM code. The socket for that chip is located near NV-RAM. Its size is 1 Mbit, type 25FV101T. Unlike the previous drive families incorrect information in NV-RAM may result in PCB "hanging" preventing it from reporting on readiness. In such case you may use the methods listed in section 3.3 “Description of structure and methods of firmware zone access in case of malfunctions” in order to bring the drive out from the "endless knocking" state and make it report on readiness. After the drive reports on readiness you must record correct NV-RAM to it. It is recommended to perform that operation having first launched the utility without a drive so as to exclude sending of additional commands, for example, drive ID request and software reset. A drive with corrupt modules behaves similar to drives from the previously described families. The drive families in question use heads' parking not on disks, as it used to be, but at the external edge of the disks – on a special polymer stand. Sometimes such method causes complete notching of disks in cases when a head either gets bent during its entrance/exit or when it hits under the parking stand guide. Heads also quite frequently get "stuck" remaining on disks. If a drive demonstrates defects that disappear during the recording process, it is convenient to repair it using "factory formatting". It replaces the process of overwriting the whole drive space and it is performed with the maximum speed possible since no data or control commands are sent from/to the drive. The duration of a complete factory format cycle is 25 minutes for 40Gb AVER drive. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

19

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22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

As a matter of fact, such situations when corrupt sectors appear result most frequently from lack of contact between the PCB and HDA connector. The case is that the contact between electronic circuitry and the PCB is accomplished through a pin connector under the board located near the power connector. However, PCBs mounting is quite unreliable in those drives, as a result mechanical influences or thermal deformations cause perforation of tin contact pads under the contact pins, which thus cease to provide adequate connection. Therefore prior to the repair it is necessary to caulk the contact pads by soldering. This manual is supplemented with a part of a drive's circuit diagram showing the portion controlling the spindle motor rotation and the voice coil together with a scheme of parts location and their labeling.

4.3. Software repair 4.3.1. Identification and relocation of defects in user's area Mechanisms of software relocation of defective sectors provided in the utility allow to hide defects in G-List using the "autoassign" method and also perform manual editing of G-List (RDMT) and “cylinder table” (SRVM). Please refer to "Defects table" section for details on respective features. In case of insignificant damages the algorithm of defects relocation is quite simple: In case of insufficient contact in the connector refer to section 6 “Malfunctions of electronics boards in IBM drives.” in this manual for diagnostics of that malfunction and a description of the main electronic circuitry defects. 1. Perform factory format. If it completes normally (without errors), there is no serious damage. 2. Perform logical scanning and relocate defects to G-List. Testing using physical parameters presently does not add defects automatically to relevant tables. 3. Perform translator recalculation if any defects have been discovered. During the process defects from G-List will be moved to P-List and G-List will be cleared. We should note that candidate defects will not be transferred from G-List to P-List due to specific operation of the transfer feature algorithm implemented in the drive itself. It is explained in particular by the fact that a drive views candidate defects just as areas with unstable access. If you still wish to transfer candidate defects to P-List enter the RDMT editor (menu “Defects table./ Editors”) and respond "Transfer" to the question regarding action to perform with candidate defects – and save the table immediately. Translator recalculation will be carried out automatically after that. 4. Perform logical scanning once again. If any defects are discovered, return to step 3. Factory formatting, apart from its other features, allows to localize considerably damaged servo fields that may subsequently be hidden to the "cylinder table”. Specific manner of firmware operation after modification of "cylinder table" requires to clear ɨɱɢɫɬɤɢ P-List and G-List since such modification invalidates the defects listed in those tables. Besides, defects that have not been eliminated using the "autoassign" mechanism can be added to G-List (RDMT) manually using an internal editor. Specific character of that operation requires to perform translator recalculation started automatically by the utility after editing. It is also to load a list of defects created by "defectoscope" software. For details refer to section 2.2.7 "Defects table”.

4.3.2. Malfunctions of “Open modules' table cannot be read!” type The table of open modules is a synthetic one, i.e. it does not exist as an actual integral block of data on disk surface. The table of open modules is generated from the OVR4 overlay (OVR1 module contains several overlays, including OVR4) based on drive geometry. The table itself is returned by the drive in response to a special command that does not belong to the group of factory commands. Consequently, the impossibility to obtain the table from a drive results from its incomplete initialization. The situation may arise for a number of reasons. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

20

Unreadability of RSVD. Unreadability of a module from USAG. “Garbage” in a USAG module. Unreadability of a sector (space) between modules. Corruption of NV-RAM image on disk surface (beginning of WRT0 module). Incompatibility between firmware modules that resulted from incorrect firmware update or incorrect repair. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

Problems 1- 3 are solved by overwriting of respective modules from compatible firmware. Problem 4 can be solved using the "Repair firmware zone" menu item or by recording corresponding "spaces" from a collection of modules. Problem 5 is fixed by recording to a drive of its own NV-RAM (you should first read it to a file and then record the file to NV-RAM). The drive itself will write it to the firmware zone at the beginning of WRT0 module. Problem 6 can actually be solved by comparison with a sample collection of modules having excluded first individual modules of a drive, which will have to be analyzed based on their purpose. Thus the general procedure in case of such malfunction is as follows: 1. record to a drive its own NV-RAM. 2. having checked firmware zone structure identify damaged modules and "spaces" and, if they are present, overwrite them with corresponding firmware. 3. If necessary, perform firmware zone restoration. In order to speed up the procedure you may clear firmware zone and record the drive's own modules back to it. Attention! In that case some original modules, unreadable modules and a part of "open" modules in particular, will be lost. If the listed operations did not solve the problem, there might be sense in looking for modules containing "garbage" or incompatible modules with further additional diagnostics of controller board and drive's HDA.

4.4. Peculiarities of software restoration When firmware data gets corrupt a drive frequently enters the state of endless knocking with its heads against the limiting stop, endless waiting, etc., i.e. conditions making software repair impossible. In those cases it is necessary to prevent the drive's attempt of loading firmware data from disks' surface, still preserving access to firmware zone. It is necessary to modify NV-RAM header, namely firmware version number, to achieve that goal. However, it requires at least the ability to read/write to NV-RAM. Different models of IBM drives differ from each other as regards the methods of accomplishment of that task. The methods and description of NV-RAM header modification are in the section 3.3. "Description of structure and methods of firmware zone access in case of malfunctions". Here we show the table of applicability for the described methods as regards different drive. Model/method 22GXP(DJNA7), 34GXP(DPTA7), 37GP(DPTA5) 40GV(DTLA5), 75GXP(DTLA7) 60GXP(AVER), 120GXP(AVVA)

Disconnection of spindle control cable

Short-circuit of NV-RAM pins

Safe Mode1

+

+

+

+

+

+

-

+

+

5. Auxiliary utility files for IBM drives The main *.exe utility files of the complex are supplemented by auxiliary service files. The names of those files coincide with utility name while their extension corresponds to the file type: /utility’s name/.rsc – firmware resources' database file used for hardware data writing/reading and included in the supplied kit; /utility’s name/.log – text file for the drive test results generated by the utility at the first program launch and appended with every subsequent drive test. The file contains all the settings and test results. Data on the automatic drive test performance is also written to this file; /utility’s name/.sma – file contains the "SMRT" module containing factory values of S.M.A.R.T. attributes. It is used in the SMART parameters reset operations. /utility’s name/.ldr – firmware update file. Other file names are selected by user, but their extensions are determined by the utility depending on their types: 1

In Safe Mode only reading/writing to NV-RAM is possible, work with surface is prohibited.

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*.tsk – task file, which is used for settings’ saving in automatic test mode; *.bin – file contains firmware for the drive’s ROM, and it is created during firmware reading from ROM; *.rpm – technological files of the drives' resident firmware modules. During the reading procedure they are copied to the directory “IBMxxMOD”, where xx represents drive family identifier; (*.bad – modules that have been read with an error) *.log files can be viewed as regular text files; *.bin files can be viewed as binary files using a hex editor.

6. Malfunctions of electronics boards in IBM drives. Here we shall review a brief list of electronic elements from the controller board that may cause errors in drive operation. Undoubtedly the most troublesome part is the pin connector between the controller board and HDA. The case is that PCB's mounting is quite unreliable in those drives, as a result mechanical influences or thermal deformations cause perforation of tin contact pads under the contact pins, which thus cease to provide adequate connection. It leads to appearance of numerous "phantom" BAD sectors and even to corruption of firmware data on disks' surface. Therefore prior to the repair it is necessary to caulk the contact pads by soldering. Then you should either perform formatting or recording using the logical parameters in order to eliminate "phantom" errors. Ceramic resonator near the microprocessor and the 35th contact of IDE connector. Generation presence is tested with an oscilloscope. Interface connector. Here problems may arise because of poor soldering quality and also because of malfunctions in low-resistance transmission resistors located nearby. Power elements of voltage stabilization and their coils. There is no separate voltage stabilization chip on the board. The function is performed by one of the units in the spindle and positioner's voice coil controller chip. That malfunction results in 5 V voltage instead of 3,3 V. It may not only burn out the elements from the electronics board but also damage the commutator inside HDA. If data must be restored from such drive you'll have to replace the magnetic head assembly inside the HDA. Flash ROM containing firmware in drives from sample testing shipments. NV-RAM. Its electrical damage or damage to data contained therein render the drive inoperative. RAM chip.

7. Electric circuit diagram 7.1. Elements layout

22

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R9 R3 R2 R35

C64

C31

C47 C41

R1 R48 C60 C35

C59 R47 C58 C38 C61 D1

C66

R46 C11

R25

C56

C39

C48

R28

C46 C44

C43

C42

C29

IBM36 IREL AMSRC04 03 TQA7BB.6C 06K2869 PQ

C17 C12

C56 C54 C27

C67

C57 1 J3

C40 R19 C37

C69 C36

Q3

C62 R50

D2

R38

R7 C88

C34

R36

R5

C70

R6

C20 C19 R31 R16 C18

R4

R26

L1

Q1

R14 R25

U9

ɋ5 R20 R18 C2 R50 R17

R22

U6

R27

R21

C10

R8

C53 C51

C50 R58 R55 C68 C26 C33 R41 R24 R53 R37 R23 R52 C32 R51 C30 C36 C25 C23 R40 C24 R30 C22 R29 C21 R56

R82

C6

R11

C7

C65 R49 C63

R13

90G2018

R39

R12

C8 C79

C52

Q2

C49 R45

C78

C1

22GXP, 34GXP, 37GP, 40GV, 75GXP, 60GXP, 120GXP

C45 C9 R42

"IBM"

R10 C28

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

7.2. Electric circuit

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

23

5

4

3

2

1

LS1 1 2 3 4

D1

C55

C27

D

1

C39

D2 C58

C48

SPINDLE MOTOR

3 2

D

C54

3 2 1

C29

12v R40 R47 U1

C59

VCM1 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16

C

C57 C11 R1 C38 R48 C60 R50

P1 P2 P3 P4 P5 P6 P7 P8 P9 P10 P11 P12 P13 P14 90G2018 P15 P16

P48 P47 P46 P45 P44 P43 P42 P41 P40 P39 P38 P37 P36 P35 P34 P33

48 47 46 45 44 43 42 41 40 39 38 37 36 35 34 33

VCM2

C50

C

12v

R42 C49 C51

R45 C52

R39

P17 P18 P19 P20 P21 P22 P23 P24 P25 P26 P27 P28 P29 P30 P31 P32

C62

C33

C36 B

C63

17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30 31 32

B

R41

64 63 62 61 60 59 58 57 56 55 54 53 52 51 50 49

R46

P64 P63 P62 P61 P60 P59 P58 P57 P56 P55 P54 P53 P52 P51 P50 P49

C56

C53 c109

R49

C64

C67 R10 C66

m37(106) U9

5v 2

m37(99)

D1758

m37(101) ibm36(18)

+3.3v

5v

m37(102) A

3

1

R37

IN OUT Vref

C65

m37(103)

A

m37(100)

C1

C28

Title

C68

IBM SCHEMATIC

m37(96)

C9

C45 Size A

R13

Date: 5

4

3

Document Number PC-3000 Monday, October 21, 2002 2

Rev 0 Sheet

1

of 1

1

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

Western Digital

Western Digital Classification of WD drive families Western Digital is the oldest manufacturer of hard disk drives and their components. Thus, WD belongs to the leading companies developing and manufacturing system controllers, which it uses in its HDDs. Therefore it is customary to subdivide the generations of WD HDD models according to their architecture (Arch.), which depends first of all upon the circuitry solutions used in the system controller.

1. Nomenclature of products A drive’s family and capacity can be identified by its name. The first generation of WD IDE drives was called Centaur and consisted of 4 drive families. The models of the first four families were labeled as follows:

WD

9

5

Western Digital

Form factor: 3,5"

Peculiarities: 3 - type 1 5 – type 2

04

4

A

Capacity, x10, Mb

Seek time: 8 - 70 ms 4 - 28 ms

Interface type: A - AT X - XT

E.g.: WD93048A, WD95044A The second generation of WD HDDs consisted of more than 50 families identified as follows:

WD Western Digital

A

C

Interface type: A - ATA C - PCMCI Ph - Portable IDE ɇɟɬ - SCSI

B - Tadbit 2.5" C - Caviar D - Portfolio 3.0' E - Enterprise 3.5" L - Lite 2.5" U - Ultra Lite 1.8"

3

3100

The number of disks in the headand-disk assembly

Capacity, Mb

E.g.: WDAC2120, WDAC35100A, WDE4360, PhD2100, WDCU140 Beginning with the 20.5 GB model in WD205AA drive family the labeling of models was changed to the one used nowadays:

WD 2000 B B - 32 AA A0 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

1. WD Western Digital 2. Capacity 200,0 GB (up to 999,9 GB maximum) 3. Rotational speed of the disks letters A-E are assigned to EIDE A - 5400 rpm (WD Caviar 5400) B - 7200 rpm (WD Caviar 7200) C - 10'000 rpm D - 4500 rpm (WD Spartan) E - 5400 rpm (WD Protege) letters F-Z are assigned to SCSI and specialized HDDs F - 10'000 rpm, 2 Mb cache G - 10'000 rpm, 8 Ɇɛɬ cache H - 10'000 rpm, 4 Ɇɛɬ cache J - 7200 rpm, 8 Ɇɛɬ cache K - 7200 rpm (Performance) L - 7200 rpm (Fluid Bearing Motor) M - 5400 rpm (Fluid Bearing Motor) N - 5400 rpm (WD Protégé - Fluid Bearing Motor) Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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P - 7200 rpm, 8 Mb cache (Fluid Bearing Motor) Q-Z - reserved 4. Interface letters A-E are assigned to EIDE A - ATA-66 B - ATA-100 C - FireWire D - Serial ATA E - ATA-133 letters F-V are assigned to SCSI and specialized HDDs F - Fibre Channel G - Ultra2 (68 pin) H - Ultra2 (80 pin) J - Ultra160 (68 pin) K - Ultra160 (80 pin) L - Ultra3 (68 pin) M - Ultra3 (80 pin) N - Ultra SE (50 pin) P-V - reserved A/V product for home use, letters W-Z W - A/V for home use X-Z - reserved 5. Customer ID 00 - Generic 60 - Compac 10 - DEC 80 - Motorola 11 - WD Protégé OEM 90 - Distribution Only 12 - Intel 95 - Tektronix 18 - Dell 99 - Boeing 23 - IBM 25 - Toshiba 28 - Microsoft 32 - Reseller 35 - WD Spartan 40 - Apple 44 - WD Protégé Other 6. Family identifier Lower descriptor of the engineering denomination of an HDD. It reflects the differences in the configuration of one and the same device and is useful during replacement of some parts, which are compatible if their family identifiers match. 7. Customer Configuration Code - CCC X0, X1, X2… - device version for testing purposes A0 – first high-quality sample B0, B1, C0, C1 – models for specific resellers Ax, Bx, Cx, Ex - WD Caviar Fx, Gx, Hx, Jx - WD Protégé Kx, Lx, Mx, Nx - WD Performer Remark: X0 – pre-production phase A0 – production phase, then the revision number grows: first from 0 to 9, then letters follow (except for letters I, O and Q)

2. Identification of drive families 2.1. Identification of WD Arch-0.. Arch-IV HDD family Prior to the 20.5 GB model of WD205AA drive family (Arch-V) each family of Western Digital drives was identified by an individual number assigned to that family during the design stage. The number could be used to identify the electronics boards compatible with a certain drive family and to select a corresponding utility for testing

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Western Digital

purposes. The number used to be indicated on microprocessor package or on a paper label over the ROM chip (if external ROM is used), it consists of three parts: 62-xxxxxx-yyy, where: 62 – indicates that the device belongs to magnetic hard disk storage type, xxxxxx – six-digit number indicating the drive family, yyy – three-digit number indicating firmware version. E.g.: ROM number 62-602208-064 corresponds to the WDAC 33100 drive family. Please see the table of correspondences below: Table 2.1. HDD architecture Arch-V

Arch-IV Arch-III

HDD family

Family number

Testing utility

WD 450AA WD 307AA WD 272AA WD 205AA WDAC 313000A WDAC 310100A WDAC 38400A WDAC 36400A WDAC 35100A WDAC 34000A WDAC 33100A

62-001003-xxx Blank Blank 62-602234-xxx 62-602233-xxx 62-602230-xxx 62-602225-xxx 62-602220-xxx 62-602221-xxx 62-602210-xxx 62-602208-xxx, 62-602222-xxx 62-602214-xxx, 62-602215-xxx, 62-602203-xxx 62-602111-xxx 62-602202-xxx, 62-602209-xxx 62-602110-xxx, 62-602200-xxx 62-602107-xxx 62-602108-xxx 62-602101-xxx 62-602104-xxx 62-602103-xxx, 62-602084-xxx 62-602082-xxx, 62-602083-xxx, 62-602091-xxx 62-602085-xxx

pca450aa.exe pca307aa.exe pca272aa.exe pca205aa.exe pca31300.exe pca31010.exe pca38400.exe pca36400.exe pca35100.exe pca34000.exe pca33100.exe

WDAC 32500A

Arch-II

WDAC 31600A WDAC 21200A WDAC 2850A WDAC 2700A WDAC 31200A WDAC 31000A WDAC 2540A WDAC 2420A

Arch-I

Arch-0 Centaur Family

WDAC 2340A

WDAL 2170A WDCU 140A WDAC 2200A WDAC 2120A WDAC 280A WD9xxxxA

62-600059-xxx 62-600060-xxx 62-600031-xxx -

pca32500.exe

pca31600.exe pca21200.exe pcac2850.exe pcac2700.exe pca31200.exe pca31000.exe pcac2540.exe pcac2420.exe pcac2340.exe

pcal2170.exe pccu140.exe pcac2200.exe pcac2120.exe pcac280.exe pcwd9x.exe

Beginning with Arch-V generation WD discontinued marking the ROM chip with an identification code (although those marks was preserved in some Arch-V drive families, please see Table 2.1). It complicated drive family identification and really impeded identifying the firmware version necessary to ensure compatibility between the electronics board and a head-and-disk assembly or interchangeability between different boards. Most likely it resulted from the fact that WD began using FLASH ROM instead of 27ɋɯɯɯɯ one-time-programmable chips, recording firmware to ROM after board assembly.

2.2. Identification of WD Arch-V (WDxxxAA) HDD family WD Arch-V drive families in a certain sense illustrate the transition from the old identification method to the new one. Thus the older identification was preserved in WD205AA and WD450AA drive families (please see section 2.1). The labels over ROM chips were also preserved in the WD272AA and WD307AA drive families, but in most cases they are left without any marks. Table 2.2. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Family, (top-of-the-line model labeling)

Capacity, (topof-the-line model)

Suffix

WD450AA 45,0 GB - xxBAyy WD307AA 30,7 GB - xxANyy WD272AA 27,2 GB - xxAFyy WD205AA 20,5 GB - xxAAyy where: xx - Customer ID BA, AN, AF, AA – device number yy - Customer Configuration Code - CCC zzz – firmware version in a drive family

Nomenclature

Remark

62-601003-zzz Blank label Blank label 62-602234-zzz

Thus in this architecture it is possible to identify a family by the number on ROM label, if present (it is the most precise identification method) or by the model name suffix (in the MDL line on the label over the head-and-disk assembly). In that case you should use the family number and Configuration Code in order to check for boards’ compatibility. Customer ID is irrelevant.

2.3. Identification of WD Arch-V, VI HDD families and newer models Those family drives include: WD-Spartan, WD-Protégé and WD-Caviar, where a new construction was used for the head-and-disk assembly (HDA). Just as with earlier Arch-V drive families (Table 2.2), identification has to be performed using the MDL line on the HDA label (please see section 1 of this document). However, unlike the Arch-V families, where boards within one family were compatible (provided that the versions of firmware stored in ROM were compatible, too), in these drives ROM also contains the table of enabled heads. Thus electronics boards from similar drive families and with identical firmware versions are incompatible if copied from HDDs with a different number of heads. ROM has to be reprogrammed to adapt the electronics board if it is swapped to another drive. In the Arch-V, VI and newer drive families one more designation – DCM- appeared on the HDA label; it consists of 9 characters. That number (as we suggested) indicates the suppliers and components used for manufacture of a drive. Some of those components are not interchangeable (e.g., the type of commutator pre-amplifier, used disks, heads, etc.). Compatibility of HDAs and their components can be postulated only if 3 right characters in their DCM line must match. While designing the utilities for WD Arch-V, VI, we had to diverge from the regular approach of creating a utility for each drive family because of the complexity of exact family identification. Instead, we subdivided the utilities according to the architectural peculiarities and compatibility of the drives on the level of internal HDD tables, please see Table 2.3. Table 2.3 WD HDD model name WD Caviar WD Protege WD Spartan

Designation, MDL WDxxxAB, WDxxxBB, WDxxxJB

Testing utility pcwd_abj.exe or pcwd_cb2.exe1

WDxxxEB WDxxxDA

pcwd_eb.exe pcwd_da.exe

Remark for drive families 120 GB with LBA48 addressing

3. Conclusion Attention: A corresponding utility must be selected correctly for HDD testing. Otherwise you may irreversibly damage the drive. If there is no individual utility for a specific model, such drive can be tested with universal utilities of the complex only. You can use the ac_ident.exe utility in order to identify the family of a drive (up to Arch-V). It will display the drive family (which can be used for selection of a corresponding testing utility, please see Table 2.1), the number of physical cylinders and heads in the drive.

1

4

The pcwd_cb2.exe offers a limited number of features. Technical support: [email protected] 8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

Contents 1. Purpose..........................................................................................................................................................................2 2. Basic options for the repair of WD Caviar Arch-V drives ...........................................................................................2 3. Preparing for work ........................................................................................................................................................2 4. Utility usage ..................................................................................................................................................................3 4.1. Standard mode .......................................................................................................................................................3 4.1.1. Servo test........................................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.2. Surface test........................................................................................................................................................ 3 4.1.3. Disc Firmware zone .......................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.4. Drive description............................................................................................................................................... 6 4.1.5. Formatting......................................................................................................................................................... 6 4.1.6. Logical structure scanning ................................................................................................................................ 6 4.1.7. S.M.A.R.T. table ............................................................................................................................................... 6 4.1.8. Defects table...................................................................................................................................................... 6 4.1.9. Automatic mode................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.2. SAFE MODE .........................................................................................................................................................7 4.2.1. Alternative SAFE MODE ................................................................................................................................. 7 5. Brief technical description of WD450AA, WD307AA, WD272AA, and WD205AA drive families .........................8 5.1. The structure of HDD firmware.............................................................................................................................9 5.2. Compatibility between electronics boards .............................................................................................................9 5.3. The structure of loadable firmware portion (DISK F/W) ....................................................................................10 5.3.1. Critical modules for drive data........................................................................................................................ 11 5.4. Modification of configuration..............................................................................................................................11 6. Software restoration of a drive....................................................................................................................................11 7. Restoration of firmware modules................................................................................................................................12 7.1. HDD translator recalculation ...............................................................................................................................13 8. Flash ROM recording .................................................................................................................................................13 8.1. Creation of an external loader file........................................................................................................................13

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

1. Purpose The utilities are designed for restoration of 3" Caviar Arch-V drives manufactured by Western Digital, drive families: WD450AA, WD307AA, WD272AA, WD205AA (please see Table1.1.). You can use the ac_ident.exe utility for a more precise identification of models within drive families. Table 1.1. Utility (family) “PC-450AA” (WD450AA) Ver.1.15 “PC-307AA” (WD4307AA) Ver.1.15

“PC-272AA” (WD272AA) Ver.1.15

“PC-205AA” (WD205AA) Ver.1.15

Supported models – Capacity

WDC WD450AA - 45.0 GB WDC WD300AA - 30.0 GB WDC WD153AA - 15.3 GB WDC WD75AA - 7.5 GB WDC WD307AA - 30.7 GB WDC WD205AA - 20.5 GB WDC WD153AA - 15.3 GB WDC WD136AA - 13.6 GB2 WDC WD102AA - 10.2 GB WDC WD272AA - 27.2 GB WDC WD205AA - 20.5 GB WDC WD172AA - 17.2 GB WDC WD136AA - 13.6 GB WDC WD84AA - 8.4 GB WDC WD43AA - 4.3 GB WDC AC205AA - 20.5 GB WDC AC172AA - 17.2 GB WDC AC136AA - 13.6 GB WDC AC102AA - 10.2 GB WDC AC64AA - 6.4 GB

Number of disks

Heads

3 2 1 1 3 2 2 2 1 3 3 2 2 1 1 3 3 2 2 1

6 4 2 1 6 4 3 3 2 6 5 4 3 2 1 6 5 4 3 2

MDL

Family number1

-xxBAyy

62-001003-xxx

-xxANyy

Blank label

-xxAFyy

Blank label

-xxAAyy

62-602234-xxx

2. Basic options for the repair of WD Caviar Arch-V drives - testing and recovery of service information in a drive; - correction of drive ID data in a HDD (logical parameters, serial number, model) - restoration of low-level format; - reviewing the tables of relocated defects; - reviewing and resetting S.M.A.R.T. table in a drive; - physical and logical surface scanning, and, based on the results, addition of the revealed defects to the defects table; - relocation of defective sectors; - restoration of translator tables in a drive; - automatic restoration of the drive. The utilities function in tandem with the “Ɋɋ-3000PRO” tester board.

3. Preparing for work 1. Connect the PC-3000AT tester IDE cable to the IDE connector of the drive being tested. 2. Connect power cable to the drive. The utilities support operation with PC-3K PWR power supply adapter, if present; in that case power is switched automatically depending upon the drive testing mode. If no power supply control adapter

1

- the number is printed on the ROM chip label; xxx – stands for the version of microprocessor firmware in this drive family. 2 Reduced recording density.

2

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

is present, the standard external PC power supply should be used with manual switching of power on/off according to messages displayed on the screen. 3. Current directory must contain the utility executables (*.exe) and resource files (*.rsc). 4. Switch on the power supply to the drive being tested. If the PC-3K PWR adapter is present power supply is controlled via PC keyboard (please see description for shell.com software command shell). 5. Start a respective utility using the shell.com command shell. Attention! Utility tests have lots of options. It is recommended that novice users begin working with default test options.

4. Utility usage After utility start the following mode selection menu appears on the screen: Standard mode SAFE MODE The standard mode is the regular mode of utility operation provided that the drive can be initialized. SAFE MODE serves for working individually with the printed circuit board (PCB) containing the electronic components without a head-and-disk assembly (HDA). The drive switches to SAFE MODE if three jumpers are enabled together: CS, SLAVE and MASTER.

4.1. Standard mode When the utility starts in the Standard mode it checks if the drive belongs to the corresponding drive family. In case of a mismatch the following message appears: CONNECTED DRIVE NOT SUPPORTED BY THE UTILITY with a subsequent offer of exit from the utility. If the utility corresponds to the type of the connected drive it lists the drives which constitute the corresponding family. The cursor automatically moves to the name of the connected drive model, but the choice can be changed if necessary. Pressing [Enter] will bring up the main menu of operation modes: Servo test Surface test Disc Firmware zone Drive description Formatting Logical structure scanning S.M.A.R.T. table Defects table Automatic mode Exit

4.1.1. Servo test Servo test – testing is performed using physical parameters in ABA format (absolute block addressing). The test routine does not differ in any way from that for the previous drive families; please see details in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PC-A38400, PC-A36400”.

4.1.2. Surface test Surface test allows to estimate the quality of magnetic surfaces, the state of magnetic-head assembly (MHA) and its switch circuit, to detect and relocate all defective tracks and sectors. The test routine does not differ in any way from that for the previous drive families, please see details in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PC-A38400, PC-A36400”.

4.1.3. Disc Firmware zone Disc Firmware zone – allows to format and test the service area of a drive, to view and check the firmware structure, to rewrite the firmware completely and reconfigure the drive. Selection of that mode will bring up the following menu: Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

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Disc firmware zone Translator operations Spindle stop Change time scale

4.1.3.1. Disc firmware zone The command performs operations over the firmware zone of a drive: cyl: -6…-1, head: 0-1. Disc Firmware surface test. The command starts the procedure for detecting defects located in the firmware area of the drive (cyl: -6…-1, head: 0-1). The detected defects are displayed on the screen. No defects of cylinders -4 and -1 are allowed for normal functioning of the drive. The utility yet does not have the feature for relocation of defects detected in firmware zone, but ongoing work continues for implementation of such functionality. Disc Firmware structure test. This command brings on screen a list of firmware modules: TRACKS DIRECTORY; ZONE TABLE CONFIGURATION SECTOR; PLIST DEFECTS; GLIST DEFECTS; FIRMWARE MODULES. When the command is executed, module search is performed with their checksum test. All the firmware data are located on side 0 and duplicated on side 1. If the sectors containing a module cannot be read the following message will appear: Read error. If a module has been read but checksum does not match, you will see the message: Checksum error. If the checksum is correct, the following information will be displayed: MODULE NAME dd/mm/yy Copy number Location Status 1 C:-1 H:0 OK 2 C:-1 H:1 OK specific module parameters where: dd/mm/yy mean the date, when the module was recorded. For modules directory you will see a version number displayed, it is the disk firmware version. After the list of main modules a list of FIRMWARE MODULES appears which looks as follows: # ID Cyl Head Sec Length Date Ver Ch.ɋ. Status, where: # is the module number; ID - module identifier Cyl, Head, Sec – module location; Length – module length in sectors; Date - the date, when the module was recorded Ver – module version; Ch.S. – checksum byte; Status – testing result: OK, READ ERR, CHECK ERR. Disc Firmware zone formatting. This command forces formatting of service area, cylinders –14…-1. This procedure will destroy all the service data. After execution of the formatting command it is necessary to record the firmware using the image recording method, see further. Disc Firmware data read/write. The command accomplishes reading or recording of firmware data image (tracks from -1 through -4) from (to) an *.rsc resource file. Running the command is identical to the same procedure for the preceding drive families, please see the details for the Service data read/write command in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PC-A38400, PC-A36400”. WARNING! Please note that the firmware zone in WdxxxAA drives occupies cylinders from ɫ -1 to -14, but the utility saves just cylinders from -1 through -4, since we believe that it should be sufficient. That peculiarity saves the space occupied by a resource file and the time required for reading. However, there may be certain HDD modifications, for which not all of the firmware data will be read and recorded.

4

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

Read modules - this operation allows reading of HDD firmware stored in the modules directory within the disk service area. The read modules are placed then into the WD5_MOD subdirectory. The name of each read module file is generated as follows.: ~idxx.rpm, where: xx is the module identifier, e.g.: ~id20.rpm is the module of the 20h translator table. Before the operation a list of modules available for reading appears on the screen, you will need to select either a specific module in it or “ALL MODULES” item. In the latter case all the firmware modules will be read to the WD5_MOD subdirectory. If the subdirectory already contains modules with the same names, repeated reading will overwrite them without notification. WARNING! Not all the modules present in the firmware area are indicated in the modules directory; instead it contains just modules required for HDD operation. Thus, for example, several auxiliary modules - Selfscan, Selfscan results, etc. may be not included into the modules directory. Therefore it is recommended to use firmware image reading method in order to save the firmware completely (please see the paragraph on firmware data read/write). Write modules – this operation allows recording a firmware module (or modules) to the firmware zone of the drive. Prior to the procedure you will see a list of all modules, which are available for writing in the WD5_MOD subdirectory. The user has to select a certain module or the “ALL MODULES” option. In the latter case all the modules from the WD5_MOD subdirectory will be written to the firmware zone. Module(s) checksum recalculation and correction takes place before recording. WARNING! The utility does not check the module structure before writing, therefore you should be extremely attentive, otherwise you may irreversibly damage the drive. Security subsystem1 menu option contains commands, which allow reviewing and resetting master and user passwords in a hard drive.

4.1.3.2. Translator operations Clear translator – this command accomplishes creation of a translator skipping the defects table, i.e. acts in such a manner as though the drive has no relocated defects at all. Such a translator may be necessary to ensure correct conversion of logical addresses (LBA) into physical (PCHS) or ABA to PCHS and to detect the location of defects. That is why such a translator is created during surface scanning using physical parameters and during operations for conversion of ABA to PCHS. The operation is identical to the command Translator recalculation without P- and GList. ABA to PCHS translation – such conversion is useful, when you have to relocate a damaged sector on the disk surface, but attempts to test it fail. The drive either hangs on that sector or starts knocking, etc. In that case you have to “pin down” the defective zone as precisely as possible and define the zone in ABA. Then use the conversion to identify the tracks bordering on the defective zone and add the tracks surrounding the damaged area to the table of defects. In order to do so you will have to use the option: Add physical track (please see the section about work with the defects table). Regenerate Translator– accomplishes recalculation of a drive’s translator, modules 20h and 25h, based on the defects tables of P- and (or) G-List. The need for recalculation appears, when the 20h and (or) 25h modules in the firmware zone get corrupted, please see details in section 7.

4.1.3.3. Spindle stop The option sends a SLEEP command; it is used for HOT-SWAP operations.

4.1.3.4. Change time scale When the utility reaches a timeout it terminates the current command and displays a message informing the user that the HDD has not reported on readiness within 15 sec. However, some HDD models may require a lot of time to report on readiness, especially those with corrupted modules in firmware zone – 3 and more minutes. Use the Change Time scale feature to increase the 15-second wait period by entering the corresponding factor (1 - 15 sec, 2 - 30 sec, etc.).

1

That command is used in the WD450AA drive family only.

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4.1.4. Drive description Drive description - – brings the drive’s disk description on the screen. All non-displayable ASCII characters are replaced with spaces. Drive’s description: logical structure parameters and serial number can be corrected. When it is necessary to correct model name you should first set MODEL FROM ROM parameter to NO by pressing [Space]. Press [Enter] to enter the parameter or to move to editing the next one; press [Esc] if you do not want to rewrite the drive description area.

4.1.5. Formatting Formatting – starts the low-level formatting procedure. During formatting the drive skips defective sectors and defective tracks reading their numbers from the defects table (if the method using one or another table has been selected). The formatting procedure cannot be interrupted because when it finishes a translator recalculation and recording are performed. If format ends in error it means presence of corrupt servo information or incorrectly compiled defects table. Even if formatting ends in error, the translator is recalculated and recorded, though not all the surface of the drive will be formatted. Before the start of formatting you have to select the defects table mode or formatting without defects table data. Formatting takes approximately 40 minutes, but it depends on the model, condition of magnetic disks and can grow considerably with defective surfaces.

4.1.6. Logical structure scanning Logical structure scanning – starts the defects detection procedure utilizing logical parameters in LBA. The test routine does not differ in any way from that for the previous drive families, please see details in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PC-A38400, PC-A36400”.

4.1.7. S.M.A.R.T. table S.M.A.R.T. table – allows viewing S.M.A.R.T. parameters of a drive. You can read in detail about S.M.A.R.T. in the PC-3000AT tester description.

4.1.8. Defects table Defects table – allows to view, add, clear defects table or perform defects grouping: View defects table. This command displays the table of relocated defects in a drive. Viewing defects’ tables helps estimate the quality and status of the magnetic disks used in the drive. Add LBA defect. This command adds a logical defect in LBA notation. After addition all entered logical structure defects are translated into physical location and placed into the defects table P-List or G-List at operator’s option. Formatting is required after adding defects to the table. Add physical track. Allows to enter physical defective tracks manually. Import logical defects table. This command allows to add values from a *.dft file to the defects table (P or GList at your option). Such a file may be prepared, for instance, by Defectoscope 2.10 software or any other program. The *.dft file structure is described in the appendix for the Defectoscope utility. After adding the defects formatting must be performed. Clear defects table. After execution of that command the respective defects table will be reset – the number of defective sectors become equal to 0. The user has to select which table should be cleared. Move G-List to P-List. This command adds the contents of G-List table to the contents of P-List table; G-List is reset during this procedure. This mode does not influence the drive operation in any way but it allows to increase the S.M.A.R.T. parameter Relocated Sector Count. Group to tracks. This menu item allows to group into defective tracks those defective sectors, which already are entered into the tables of defects. When you enter the mode you will see the message: LIMIT OF GROUPING INTO TRACKS. Then you have to enter the limit value above which sector defects should be grouped into defective tracks in both P-List and G-List tables. The input range is from 1 to 50.

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

4.1.9. Automatic mode Automatic mode allows scanning the drive automatically without operator intervention. When this mode is selected two lists appear on the screen: TASKS LIST and AVAILABLE TASKS. Before testing starts a test program must be created or a previously created one loaded. Attention! The work in the automatic mode does not differ in any way from that for the previous drive families, please see details in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PC-A38400, PC-A36400”. Exit – exits from the utility.

4.2. SAFE MODE The mode provides access to a limited number of drive features. The safe mode is meant for testing the printed circuit boards (PCB) separately from the HDA. However, after switching a drive into safe mode you may leave a PCB on its HDA. In order to enable the safe mode you should set three jumpers at once: CS, SLAVE, MASTER and switch on the power. The drive at that does not process bits D6 (DRDY) and D4 (DSC) in the status register. The following menu appears after selection of that mode: Work with ROM PCB testing Work with ROM menu option allows access to recording, reading and viewing of a drive’s ROM: Viewing ROM information command displays on-screen firmware version, the version of the links’ table and a list of modules supported in that drive family: Copyright 1996-99 ROM version : WDC 05.09 B ROM revision : 1F Links table version: 05.56 Supported models WDC WD51AA WDC WD102AA WDC WD153AA WDC WD205AA WDC WD255AA WDC WD307AA Reading ROM command accomplishes reading of ROM contents to a file with *.bin extension. If you select that operation you should enter the file name without an extension. The read-in file will be placed in the current PC3000 subdirectory. Writing ROM1 command accomplishes recording of drive ROM from a file. During the procedure you should first select the wd_aa.lmc loader file (or compatible), then select a *.bin file to be recorded, it has to be in the PC3000 subdirectory. When the file is selected, the actual recording process begins. The method of recording ROM is described in more detail in section 8. PCB test command allows checking several components of a drive’s electronics board, namely, it can sector buffer test and initiate internal self diagnostic. Please see details of those modes in the description to the PC-3000AT tester.

4.2.1. Alternative SAFE MODE The WD3xxxAA drive family has one more mechanism for switching a drive into Safe Mode, i.e. by default. If you remove the PCB from its HDA without installed jumpers and leave it for 3 minutes with power on, then the board will report on readiness when that period expires. If you launch after that the universal PC-3000AT utility, the board will be identified as the top-of-the-line model in the family. That will enable you to check the board electronics by testing the sector buffer and running the drive’s self-testing routine, those tests are available in the controller testing mode of the PC-3000AT tester. You can also view drive ID in that mode. It is helpful, when you do not know exactly

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ɗɬɚ ɨɩɟɪɚɰɢɹ ɜɨɡɦɨɠɧɚ ɬɨɥɶɤɨ ɜ ɧɚɤɨɩɢɬɟɥɹɯ, ɜ ɤɨɬɨɪɵɯ ɢɫɩɨɥɶɡɭɟɬɫɹ Flash ROM.

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

the family, to which a PCB belongs. By reviewing the drive ID description you can identify the family and ROM firmware version.

5. Brief technical description of WD450AA, WD307AA, WD272AA, and WD205AA drive families Electronics boards of WD405AA and WD205AA drive families are shown in Pic. 5.1.1. and Pic. 5.1.2. respectively. 1 M27C102435C1 62-001003 -065

WD70C12

CL-SH3367DH-B3

4

WDC © 1999

1. 25.00 MHz 2. US1010-3,3 3. L6262 2.6 4. 78M08A

MASTER SLAVE CS

Master only 1

3

Configuration Standart Settings Master with Slave Slave

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

2

Safe Mode 1

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

Pic. 5.1.1. External view of the electronics board in WD405AA drive family.

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Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

1 WDC99 62-602234 -080

WD70C10-SW

CL-SH3367HC -B2

4

WDC © 1999

1. 25.00 MHz 2. US1010-3,3 3. L6262 2.6 4. 78M08A

2

Configuration Standart Settings Master with Slave Slave

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

Master only

3

1

Safe Mode 1

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

Pic. 5.1.2. External view of the electronics board in WD205AA drive family.

5.1. The structure of HDD firmware Firmware of WD HDDs consists of a microprogram stored in ROM, a configuring links table also located in ROM, a loadable firmware portion and data in the service area of a drive (DISK Firmware). The firmware is characterized by its revision number (F/W Rev.), which defines its development and compatibility. Firmware part Microprogram Links table Loadable firmware version, tables

Version, example 82.18A 10.07 82.18A

Location ROM ROM Firmware zone, (cylinders -1 to -14)

You can find out the microcode version and the version of ROM links table using the Viewing ROM information command in Safe Mode. The version of loadable firmware portion (DISK F/W) can be displayed by running the Disc Firmware structure test menu item in the basic utility mode. The version indicated in the modules’ directory will be the version for DISK F/W. Version number output by the drive in the “firmware version" line after the Identify DRV (ECh) command, i.e. when the drive ID is viewed, is an aggregative value and contains the information from all three parts of HDD firmware, e.g.: ROM firmware: 82.18A ROM links table: 10.07 DISK F/W: 16.14A As a result the compiled version of HDD firmware will look like: 82.10A16. As it can be seen in this example, the version number was formed using the first bytes from the respective versions of the parts of HDD firmware. The letter is borrowed from the version of ROM microcode. If you read microprogram version in Safe Mode, the DISK F/W part of the version will be missing, because all operations with disk firmware portion are disabled in that mode.

5.2. Compatibility between electronics boards As with previous WD drive families the manufacturer indicates the firmware recorded to a 27ɋ1024 ROM chip with a special label bearing version number according to internal factory classification: 62-xxxxxx-yyy, where: 62 – indicates that the device belongs to HDD storage type; Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

xxxxxx – family number (it may have different values even within one family); yyy – firmware version number in that family. Thus, for example, for a WD64AA drive (WD205AA family) firmware version is 62-602234-080, while for a WD153AA drive (WD450AA family) firmware version will be 62-001003-065. Such classification is very convenient and allows error-free selection of replacement boards – if the ROM numbers match it means that the boards are completely interchangeable. However, in WD272AA and WD307AA drive families the manufacturer started using Flash ROM with a circular label on the chip, but it does not bear any numbers, therefore firmware version can be identified only after reading ROM contents or by running the Viewing ROM information command in Safe Mode.

5.3. The structure of loadable firmware portion (DISK F/W) WD drives have 14 service cylinders (from –14 through –1) used for storage of firmware recorded in two copies over sides 0 and 1. However only first 4 cylinders (-1 through -4) are actually used for recording of the firmware modules. Firmware data are stored in the form of individual modules, which form together HDD control and operating system. Navigation between the modules is performed in accordance with the modules’ directory containing the address of each module, its identifier and length. Each module, in its turn, has a standard header containing its date, checksum, identifier, version number and module length expressed in sectors. Please see the main DISK F/W modules in the summary table below.

Table 5.3.1 Functional purpose of modules Module ID, hex 01 02 10 11 12 14 20 21 22 23 25 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 36 41 (~dir) 42 43 44 46 48 49 4A 4C 4D

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Purpose Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Translator Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Module containing SMART parameters SMART log SMART log SMART log Module containing SMART parameters Initial table of SMART parameters, it is not used during drive operation and serves as a model Loadable portion of firmware code Modules directory (the table of modules location within firmware zone) Configuration table (HDD ID) P-LIST defects table G-LIST defects table ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters ? Reserved ? Reserved ? Reserved Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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4E 61 FF

Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

? Reserved Loadable portion of firmware code, the part which performs overwriting of Flash ROM Selfscan module

5.3.1. Critical modules for drive data The translator modules (20h – 25h) and modules containing adaptive parameters (46h – 49h) are traditionally essential for data integrity in drives belonging to WdxxxAA families, there may be other important modules, but we haven’t identified any so far. If the translator modules become corrupted you can perform their recalculation based on the P and (or) G-List defects tables and overwrite them. The procedure is performed by the Regenerate Translator command.

5.4. Modification of configuration At power-up a drive configures itself as a specific model of its family during initialization. The FLT/SE signal produced by the commutator pre-amplifier chip is used for that purpose. After spin-up of the spindle motor the drive microprocessor sequentially checks all heads beginning with the zero one. When a missing head is detected, the FLT/SE signal is sent to the microprocessor. Thus the drive determines precisely the number of heads and configures itself as a corresponding model. The signal for heads’ switching is sent by the microprocessor in a serial code. Developers of the utility have not yet discovered a method for software isolation of defective surfaces; so there is just one way to decrease the capacity of a drive – i.e. disabling the disk sides “from the top”. In order to disable a malfunctioning side you’ll have to open the HDA and disconnect the conductors from the magneto-resistive heads of the defective sides and all sides above the ones being disabled. Keep in mind the location of magnetic surfaces during that procedure.

6. Software restoration of a drive Depending upon the state of the drive being repaired, certain operations might be necessary for its restoration. For example, if at power-up a drive does not spin up the spindle motor or spins it up and stops, then such a defect most likely has to deal with the electronics board and requires its repair. If a drive starts to spin up the spindle motor and monotonously knocks with its positioner against locking plate instead of recalibration, then such a defect demonstrates malfunctions of the drive’s servo system and can be caused by one of the following: - electronic controller board and the sealed HDA belong to different drive families and are incompatible; - malfunction of commutator pre-amplifier chip of the Head Assembly (HA) inside the HDA; - malfunction of the HA itself; - seriously corrupt servo data or a shift of magnetic disks pack after a shock (increased noise of spindle motor rotation usually and case vibration show that the drive has been hit). In all of the above cases except for the first one software restoration of the drive is impossible. If after switching power on the drive spins up the spindle motor and unparks the magnetic heads, but while entering the PC-3000AT program generates the ABRT (04h) error, or errors appear one after another while reading drive surfaces, then it means that the drive can’t read firmware data from the disk. That kind of defect may arise from: - data reading/translation channel malfunction; - servo modules corruption; - incompatibility between the disk firmware version and the firmware code recorded in the control board ROM. In such case ensure that the control board is functional (the best method is swapping of the boards), the ROM and HDA versions are compatible, and begin the hardware data restoration from step 1. If after switching power on the drive initializes, recalibrates, and its drive ID is read, but testing reveals BAD sectors, then the restoration should be started from step 2. 1. Restore firmware data (F/W). The F/W restoration procedure is as follows:

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA" ¤ ACELab

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a). Perform the command “DISC FIRMWARE STRUCTURE TEST” and identify corrupted modules. If just some modules are damaged while others remain normal, you can overwrite the defective modules using the method described in section 7. b). If the majority of modules are corrupted in a drive select the “DISC FIRMWARE ZONE” menu option and run the “DISC FIRMWARE SURFACE TEST” command. Make sure that there are no errors on cylinders: -5 .. -1, heads: 0-1. If errors occur, perform DISC FIRMWARE ZONE FORMATTING; c). Select the menu items: “DISC FIRMWARE DATA READ/WRITE”, “WRITE FW TO THE DISC” and write the data to the drive being restored according to the version of the drive processor microcode. After successful recording the firmware is restarted; d). Correct the logical parameters, if necessary. 2. Clear PLIST and GLIST defects tables and reset SMART. 3. Run SERVO TEST. Ensure that the CLEAR TRANSLATOR option is enabled. During testing a block-by-block surface formatting is performed, the testing procedure measures the time of decoding for all the servo fields in the current block and the obtained value is shown on a respective diagram. When the test is complete the table containing the number of the defective sectors in ABA notation appears on the screen. Pressing the [Enter] key converts all block numbers in ABA notation into physical PCHS notation and displays a table of defective tracks. Pressing [Enter] appends all defective tracks to P-List. 4. Run SURFACE TEST. The test is performed using physical parameters in ABA format. It is allowed to switch off writing and perform verification instead of reading to make the test run faster. After testing procedure a table containing defective ABA numbers appears on the screen. Pressing [Enter] converts all the ABA-represented blocks into physical PCHS notation and a table with defective sectors and tracks appears on the screen. Pressing [Enter] appends all defective sectors and tracks to P-List. 5. Using the results of tests 3 and 4 make a conclusion concerning the necessity of defective surfaces isolation (see section 5.4.). After turning off defective sides it is necessary to continue the drive restoration beginning with step 2. 6. Perform low-level formatting using PLIST, which should complete successfully. If formatting ended in an error, you have to repeat steps 3, and 4 or, if the drive was reconfigured, correct its logical parameters (cyl, head, sec) in accordance with the new model parameters. 7. Perform LOGICAL STRUCTURE SCANNING procedure, which is executed in LBA format. After completion of surface scanning procedure a table of all detected logical defects in LBA notation will be output on the screen. Pressing [Enter] converts all logical defects into physical addresses and adds them to the P-LIST or G-LIST defects table at user’s option. 8. Perform low-level format using P and G-List. 9. Write serial number into the drive ID area, if necessary. 10. Perform COMPLEX TEST with the PC-3000AT tester. If errors are detected repeat steps 3-6 or run the UNIVERSAL DEFECTS RELOCATION procedure. 11. Run the PC-3000AT tester COMPLEX TEST and make sure that the drive is functional.

7. Restoration of firmware modules A defect of firmware data modules is a frequently occurring fault. The malfunction manifests itself as follows: the drive spins up the spindle motor, remains unable to report on readiness for a very long time (more than a minute), then it reports on readiness but responds to any command with the ABRT error. Diagnostics of such malfunction requires to select the "DISC FIRMWARE STRUCTURE TEST" command in the "DISC FIRMWARE ZONE / DISC FIRMWARE ZONE" menu, and to inspect which modules are defective in the "FIRMWARE MODULES" table. You can also do it in a different manner. Select the " READ MODULES " mode from the "DISC FIRMWARE ZONE" menu and read all the modules from the drive. Then it is necessary to exit the utility and view lengths of the copied modules. If the length of some modules is equal to 0, then consequently these modules are defective, and it is necessary to re-write them. Modules 20h, 21h, 25h (translator), 2Ah, 2Dh (SMART), etc. suffer from corruption most frequently. Overwriting the modules requires using the Disc firmware data read/write command from the Disc firmware zone menu. The procedure requires first reading all modules from a drive; they are subsequently added to the WD5_MOD directory. Then you should replace the damaged modules in that directory with normal ones copied from an operational compatible drive and record the modules to the HDD.

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Western Digital "Caviar" Arch-V "PC-A450AA" "PC-A307AA" "PC-A272AA" "PC-A205AA"

Some of the modules are critical for data protection and should not be overwritten if you wish to preserve the user's data, for example, the 20h - 25h translator modules, 46h - 49h modules containing adaptive parameters. Other modules are not so essential and they can be overwritten, however, it’s better to copy normal modules from the same HDD model with an identical firmware version. Anyway, prior to starting the drive restoration it is necessary to save all the modules and the ROM firmware to have an opportunity to reverse the changes.

7.1. HDD translator recalculation Translator restoration can be invoked as follows: Disc Firmware zone, Translator operations, Regenerate Translator. Upon entering the mode you will be offered to select the basic tables to be used for the recalculation: Take into account PLIST and G-LIST Take into account Use PLIST Take into account Use G-LIST Do not take into account neither PLIST nor G-LIST Factory testing of a drive appends defects to the P-List table (primary) only; the G-List (Grown) table remains empty. It is filled in the process of drive operation by the device itself in the Data Lifeguard and Assign modes. Thus, translator of a drive arriving from a factory is recalculated using P-List only. Therefore if you restore a drive with corrupted 20h and 25h modules, the procedure should be performed using P-List only, in that case access to user data will be restored.

8. Flash ROM recording1 Some models in the WDxxxAA drive families contain Flash ROM, which can be overwritten in Safe Mode. It is just overwriting, which is possible, because Safe Mode is a software mode of the control firmware stored in ROM. If a portion of ROM gets corrupted or erased, overwriting of the chip contents on board becomes impossible. Therefore you will have to unsolder the chip and program it using a ROM programmer (e.g., PC-PROG). In order to enable recording to ROM you have to switch the drive to Safe Mode by setting three jumpers together: CS, SLAVE, MASTER and turning the power on. Then select the mode: Safe Mode, Work with ROM, Writing ROM, the following menu will be displayed: Select an *.lmc loader file The loader is nothing else than module ID=61h renamed to wd_aa.lmc. It contains the subroutines for work with ROM (type identification, erasure and recording). A situation is possible, when the manufacturer changes the type of Flash ROM on drive PCB so that the wd_aa.lmc loader would not support that type, then ROM will not be overwritten. In such case you can copy module 61h from a WDxxxAA drive supporting that Flash ROM type, rename it to *.lmc and attempt to overwrite the ROM contents again. After loader selection you will have to select a binary *.bin file containing the ROM firmware. The loader file and firmware ROM file should be located in the current PC-3000 directory. After recording it is necessary to read the ROM and compare the files.

8.1. Creation of an external loader file In order to produce an external loader file copy the ~id61.rpm module from an operational drive with a Flash ROM chip of the required type. Rename the file so that it receives the Loader Micro Code (lmc) extension.

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Flash ROM chips are marked: 28xxx, 29xxx, 49xxx. 27xxx chips do not belong to Flash type.

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Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2"

Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2"

Contents 1. Purpose..........................................................................................................................................................................2 2. Basic options for the repair of WD Arch-V drives .......................................................................................................2 3. Preparing for work ........................................................................................................................................................3 4. Utility usage ..................................................................................................................................................................3 4.1. Standard mode .......................................................................................................................................................3 4.1.1. Disc Firmware zone .......................................................................................................................................... 3 4.1.2. Drive description............................................................................................................................................... 6 4.1.3. Formatting......................................................................................................................................................... 6 4.1.4. Logical structure scanning ................................................................................................................................ 6 4.1.5. S.M.A.R.T. table ............................................................................................................................................... 6 4.1.6. Defects table...................................................................................................................................................... 7 4.1.7. Automatic mode................................................................................................................................................ 7 4.2. SAFE MODE .........................................................................................................................................................7 5. Brief technical description of Spartan, Caviar, Protege Arch-V, and Caviar Arch VI drive families. .........................8 5.1. The structure of HDD firmware...........................................................................................................................10 5.2. Compatibility between electronics boards ...........................................................................................................10 5.2.1. HA compatibility (knocking sounds at power-up).......................................................................................... 11 5.3. The structure of loadable firmware portion (DISK F/W) ....................................................................................11 5.3.1. Critical modules for drive data........................................................................................................................ 13 5.4. Data structure in Flash ROM in WD Caviar and Protege drive families .............................................................13 5.5. Modification of drive configuration, software heads deactivation ......................................................................13 6. Software restoration of a drive....................................................................................................................................14 7. Restoration of firmware modules................................................................................................................................15 7.1. HDD translator recalculation ...............................................................................................................................15 8. Flash ROM recording .................................................................................................................................................16 8.1. Creation of an external loader file........................................................................................................................16 9. Electric circuit.............................................................................................................................................................16 9.1. Reference voltage sources....................................................................................................................................16 9.2. Control circuit of spindle motor and positioner ...................................................................................................17 9.3. Data reading channel............................................................................................................................................17

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1

Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2" ¤ ACELab

Ɋɋ-3000 £

1. Purpose The utilities are designed for restoration of 3" Spartan, Caviar, Protege Arch-V and Caviar Arch VI drives manufactured by Western Digital, drive families: WDxxxDA, WDxxxAB, WDxxxBB, WDxxxEB, and WDxxxJB (please see Table 1.1.). Table 1.1. Utility Arch. Supported models – Number Heads Speed, Utility (family) capacity of disks RPM WD2000BB/JB - 200 GB 3 6 WDxxxBB/JB, Caviar WD1800BB/JB - 180 GB 3 6 (WD2000BB series) VI 7200 pcwd_cb2.exe1 WD1600BB/JB - 160 GB 3 6 WD1200BB/JB - 120 GB 2 4 WD800BB/JB - 80 GB 1 2 WDxxxBB/JB, Caviar V WD600BB/JB - 60 GB 1 7200 pcwd_abj.exe 2 (WD800BB series) WD400BB/JB - 40 GB 1 1 WD1200BB/JB - 120 GB 3 6 WD1000BB/JB - 100 GB 3 5 WDxxxBB, Caviar WD800BB - 80 GB 2 4 (WD1200BB series) V 7200 pcwd_abj.exe WD600BB - 60 GB 2 3 WD400BB - 40 GB 1 2 WD200BB - 20 GB 1 1 WD400BB - 40 GB 1 2 WDxxxBB, Caviar V WD300BB - 30 GB 1 2 7200 pcwd_abj.exe (WD400BB series) WD200BB - 20 GB 1 1 WD400EB - 40 GB 1 2 WDxxxEB, Protégé V WD300EB - 30 GB 1 2 5400 pcwd_eb.exe (WD400EB series) WD200EB - 20 GB 1 1 WD1200AB - 120 GB 3 6 WD1000AB - 100 GB 3 5 WDxxxAB, Caviar WD800AB - 80 GB 2 4 (WD1200AB series) V 5400 pcwd_abj.exe WD600AB - 60 GB 2 3 WD400AB - 40 GB 1 2 WD200AB - 20 GB 1 1 WD153DA - 15.3 GB 1 2 WDxxxDA, Spartan V 4500 pcwd_da.exe WD75DA - 7.5 GB 1 1

2. Basic options for the repair of WD Arch-V drives - testing and recovery of firmware data in a drive; - correction of drive ID data in a HDD (logical parameters, serial number, model); - restoration of low-level format; - reviewing the tables of relocated defects; - reviewing and resetting S.M.A.R.T. table in a drive; - physical and logical surface scanning, and, based on the results, addition of the revealed defects to the defects table; - relocation of defective sectors; - drive reconfiguration (software disabling of malfunctioning heads); - restoration of translator tables in a drive; - automatic restoration of the drive. The utilities function in tandem with the “Ɋɋ-3000PRO” tester board.

1

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The utility has limited functionality. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2"

3. Preparing for work 1. Connect the PC-3000PRO tester IDE cable to the IDE connector of the drive being tested. 2. Connect power cable to the drive. The utilities support operation with PC-3K PWR power supply adapter, if present; in that case power is switched automatically depending upon the drive testing mode. If no power supply control adapter is present, the standard external PC power supply should be used with manual switching of power on/off according to messages displayed on the screen. 3. Current directory must contain the utility executables (*.exe) and resource files (*.rsc). 4. Switch on the power supply to the drive being tested. If the PC-3K PWR adapter is present power supply is controlled via PC keyboard (please see description for shell.com software command shell). 5. Start a respective utility using the shell.com command shell. ATTENTION! Utility tests have lots of options. It is recommended that novice users begin working with default test options.

4. Utility usage After utility start the following mode selection menu appears on the screen: Standard mode SAFE MODE The Standard mode is the regular mode of utility operation provided that the drive can be initialized. SAFE MODE serves for working individually with the printed circuit board (PCB) containing the electronic components without a head-and-disk assembly (HDA). The drive switches to SAFE MODE if three jumpers are enabled together: CS, SLAVE and MASTER.

4.1. Standard mode In the Standard mode the utility does not check the family of the connected drive during launch (unlike earlier versions of utilities for WD drives). Instead it displays an entry menu: Spartan, Protege or Caviar (depending upon the launched utility). Users have to check personally the model of the connected drive. Pressing [Enter] will force reading of the configuration modules and bring up the main menu of operation modes: Disc Firmware zone Drive description Formatting Logical structure scanning S.M.A.R.T. table Defects table Automatic mode Exit

4.1.1. Disc Firmware zone Firmware zone – allows to format and test the service area of a drive, to view and check the firmware structure, to rewrite the firmware completely and reconfigure the drive. Selection of that mode will bring up the following menu: Work with ROM Disc firmware zone Translator operations Spindle stop Change time scale

4.1.1.1. Work with ROM The menu option accomplishes writing, reading and the drive’s ROM viewing operations. That mode also allows software disabling/enabling of magnetic heads. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

3

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Viewing ROM information command displays on-screen firmware version, ROM revision (which might serve as a family code), the version of the links’ table and a list of supported models together with information about heads mapping: Copyright 2001 WDC ROM version ROM revision Links table version Supported models WDC WD200BB WDC WD400BB WDC WD600BB WDC WD800BB WDC WD1000BB WDC WD1200BB Heads assignment data Heads assignment

: 06.40 G : 33 : 04.27

: default

The data is valuable for estimation of compatibility between different ROM versions during selection of PCBs for replacement. Changing heads map in ROM1 command accomplishes software disabling or enabling of previously disabled drive heads. When that mode is selected the cursor is positioned over the current variant of heads assignment: by mapping or default, the variants are switched by pressing the [Space] key. Selection of By default heads assignment means that HDD heads mapping will be formed according to the results received after physical polling of the heads connected to pre-amplifier/commutator during the initialization stage. Selection of assignment by mapping allows disabling of the internal map used for physical heads polling. In such case a drive will not rely on the data about physically connected heads using instead the heads mapping data in ROM. Then you must indicate the Full heads amount – i.e. the value of their maximum number allowed for that drive family (usually 6). Then you can proceed and disable or enable drive heads using [Space]; pressing [Enter] will shift the highlighted rectangle to the next head. After completion of the current operation you will see an offer to record thus generated ROM to a file or write the modified heads mapping directly to the drive’s Flash ROM. Please see details about the mechanism of ROM recording in the paragraph devoted to the Write ROM command. If you define the flag “by mapping” for a HDD, which used By default heads mapping before that, then the Full heads amount and Active heads values will equal 0, all heads become configured as disabled. In that case you should set the value “Full heads amount” = 6 (as the maximum allowed in the drive family) and enable the suggested heads, e.g. 0 and 1 for a model with 2 heads. If the drive starts knocking after that, it means that the heads have been enabled incorrectly and you should attempt to select two other heads, e.g. 1 and 2, in Safe Mode. Read ROM command accomplishes reading of ROM contents to a file with *.bin extension. If you select that operation you should enter the file name without an extension. The read-in file will be placed in the current PC3000 subdirectory. Write ROM2 command accomplishes recording of drive ROM from a file. During the procedure you should first select the loader - module 61h or an external *.lmc module, then select a *.bin file to be recorded (it has to be in the PC3000 subdirectory). When the file is selected, the actual recording process begins. The method of recording ROM is described in more detail in section 8.

4.1.1.2. Disc firmware zone The command performs operations over the firmware zone of a drive: cyl: -10...-1, head: 0-1. Disc Firmware surface test. The command starts the procedure for detecting defects located in the firmware area of the drive (cyl: -10…-1, head: 0-1). The detected defects are displayed on the screen. No defects of that area are allowed for normal functioning of the drive. The utility yet does not have the feature for relocation of defects detected in firmware zone, but ongoing work continues for implementation of such functionality. Disc Firmware structure test. This command displays on-screen a list of firmware modules. It is similar to the previous WD drive families (please see description in PC-3000 - Western Digital "Caviar" Arch. V, Arch. IV, etc.). We shall mention just new peculiarities of that command: 1 2

4

That mode is unavailable for the WD Spartan drive family. The operation is possible only for drives where Flash ROM is used. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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First of all, the utility lists the modules’ directory with a version actually representing the version of HDD firmware portion recorded on disk surface (Disk F/W). Two new data tables have been also added into the report: DCM Info and VER Info1. In fact they are logs containing certain ASCII information output by the utility. The DCM Info table is stored in module ɋ5h, table VER Info is stored in module 4Eh: DCM Info – the purpose of that table is not quite clear yet; it is likely to be useful in future during selection of matching “donor" drives for replacement of heads assembly (HA) for data recovery. Please see details in section 5.2.1 VER Info table contains the versions of ROM, links table, and Disk F/W. That information is useful for selection of matching PCB. ATTENTION! The information in DCM Info and VER Info in the ɋ5h and 4Eh modules is optional; it is generated in logs. Therefore absence of data or garbage in those tables does not indicate a drive’s malfunction. Disc Firmware data read/write. The command accomplishes reading or recording of firmware data image (tracks from -1 through -8 excluding track -7) from (to) an *.rsc resource file. The utility reads the number of sectors in the firmware zone from the zone allocation table. If the table cannot be read, the operator will have to enter manually the number of sectors per track for the firmware zone of that HDD model at utility launch. Running the command is identical to the same procedure for the preceding drive families; please see the details for the Disc Firmware data read/write command in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PCA38400, PC-A36400”. WARNING! Please note that the firmware zone occupies cylinders from -1 to -32, but the utility saves just cylinders from -1 through -8 (except for cyl. -7), since we believe that it should be sufficient. That peculiarity saves the space occupied by a resource file and the time required for reading. However, there may be certain HDD modifications, for which not all of the firmware data will be read and recorded. Read modules - this operation allows reading of HDD firmware stored in the modules directory within the disk service area. The read modules are placed then into the WDxxxMOD subdirectory, where xxx: DA_ - for WD Spartan EB_ - for WD Protégé ABJ - for WD Caviar The name of each read module file is generated as follows: ~idxx.rpm, where: xx the module identifier, e.g.: ~id20.rpm is the module of the 20h translator table. Before the operation a list of modules available for reading appears on the screen, you will need to select either a specific module in it or “ALL MODULES” item. In the latter case all the firmware modules will be read to the WDxxxMOD subdirectory. If the subdirectory already contains modules with the same names, repeated reading will overwrite them without notification. WARNING! Not all the modules present in the firmware area are indicated in the modules directory; instead it contains just modules required for HDD operation. Thus, for example, several auxiliary modules - Selfscan, Selfscan results, etc. may be not included into the modules directory. Therefore it is recommended to use firmware image reading method in order to save the firmware completely (please see the paragraph on firmware data reading/writing). Write modules – this operation allows recording of a firmware module (or modules) to the service area of the drive. Prior to the procedure you will see a list of all modules in the WDɯɯɯMOD subdirectory available for writing. The user has to select a certain module or the “ALL MODULES” option. In the latter case all the modules from the WDɯɯɯMOD subdirectory will be written to the firmware zone. Module(s) checksum recalculation and correction takes place before recording. WARNING! The utility does not check the module structure before writing, therefore you should be extremely attentive, otherwise you may irreversibly damage the drive. Erase firmware area command fills all sectors in the service area with code 7777h using heads 0 and 1. All information in that zone will be deleted. Before the operation you should enter the initial and ending cylinders, default values are read from the zone allocation table (-32 .. -1). The need for that operation arises when service area contains “garbage” preventing normal drive operation. WARNING! All information within the firmware zone will be erased during area clearing. Therefore you should save firmware data as modules and firmware zone image prior to the operation.

1

DCM Info and VER Info tables are missing in the WD Spartan drive family.

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Change servo area SPT command helps define the number of sectors per track for operations with service area (from cyl. -32 through cyl. -1). The default value is read from the zone allocation table, the allowed maximum is limited by the default 1361 cyl. value. The SPT value has to be modified in cases when the command for reading zone allocation data returns invalid information (negative values, garbage or error). In such cases you have to explicitly provide to the utility the number of sectors per tract to use. The number of sectors in firmware zone can be identified by running the Disc Firmware surface test. Sector numbers in that test grow sequentially beginning with 1. The maximum cylinder number will be the one producing constant errors on all cylinders of firmware zone. Security subsystem menu option contains commands, which allow reviewing and resetting master and user passwords in a hard drive.

4.1.1.3. Translator operations Regenerate Translator – accomplishes recalculation of a drive’s translator, modules 20h and 25h, based on the defects’ tables of P- and (or) G-List. The need for recalculation appears, when the 20h and (or) 25h modules in the firmware zone get corrupted, please see details in section 7.1.

4.1.1.4. Spindle stop The option sends a SLEEP command; it is used for HOT-SWAP operations.

4.1.1.5. Change Time scale When the utility reaches a timeout it terminates the current command and displays a message informing the user that the HDD has not reported on readiness within 15 sec. However, some HDD models may require a lot of time to report on readiness, especially those with corrupted modules in firmware zone – 3 and more minutes. Use the Change Time scale feature to increase the 15-second wait period by entering the corresponding factor (1 - 15 sec, 2 - 30 sec, etc.).

4.1.2. Drive description Drive description – brings the drive’s disk description on the screen. All non-displayable ASCII characters are replaced with spaces. Drive’s description, i.e. logical structure parameters and serial number can be corrected. When it is necessary to correct the model name you should first set MODEL FROM ROM parameter to NO by pressing [Space]. Press [Enter] to enter the parameter or to proceed to editing the next one; press [Esc] if you do not want to rewrite the drive description area.

4.1.3. Formatting Formatting – starts the low-level formatting procedure. During formatting the drive skips defective sectors and defective tracks reading their numbers from the defects table (if the method using one or another table has been selected). The formatting procedure cannot be interrupted because after its completion translator recalculation and recording are performed. If format ends in error it means presence of corrupt servo information or incorrectly compiled defects table. Even if formatting ends in error, the translator is recalculated and recorded, though not all the surface of the drive will be formatted. Before the start of formatting you have to select the defects table mode or formatting without defects table data. Formatting takes approximately 40 minutes, but it depends on the model, condition of magnetic disks and can grow considerably with defective surfaces.

4.1.4. Logical structure scanning Logical structure scanning – starts the defects detection procedure utilizing logical parameters in LBA. The test routine does not differ in any way from that for the previous drive families, please see details in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PC-A38400, PC-A36400”.

4.1.5. S.M.A.R.T. table S.M.A.R.T. table – allows viewing S.M.A.R.T. parameters of a drive. You can read in detail about S.M.A.R.T. in the PC-3000AT tester description.

6

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4.1.6. Defects table Defects table – allows to view, add, clear defects table or perform defects grouping: View defects table. This command displays the table of relocated defects in a drive. Viewing defects’ tables helps estimate the quality and status of the magnetic disks used in a drive. At the manufacturing factory defects are added to P-List only; thus presence of records in the G-List means new defects. Add physical track. Allows to enter physical defective tracks manually. Import logical defects table. This command allows to add values from a *.dft file to the G-List table of defects. Such a file may be prepared, for instance, by Defectoscope 2.10 software or any other program. The *.dft file structure is described in the supplement to the Defectoscope utility. After adding the defects formatting must be performed. Clear defects table. After execution of that command the respective defects table will be reset – the number of defective sectors becomes equal to 0. The user has to select which table should be cleared. Move G-List to P-List. This command adds the contents of G-List table to the contents of P-List table; G-List is reset during this procedure. This mode does not influence the drive operation in any way but it allows to increase the S.M.A.R.T. parameter of Relocated Sector Count. Group to tracks. This menu item allows to group into defective tracks those defective sectors, which already are entered into the tables of defects. When you enter the mode you will see the message: LIMIT OF GROUPING INTO TRACKS. Then you have to enter the limit value above which sector defects should be grouped into defective tracks in both P-List and G-List tables. The input range is from 1 to 50.

4.1.7. Automatic mode Automatic mode allows scanning the drive automatically without operator intervention. When this mode is selected two lists appear on the screen: TASKS LIST and AVAILABLE TASKS. Before testing starts a test program must be created or a previously created one loaded. Attention! The work in the automatic mode does not differ in any way from that for the previous drive families; please see details in the description for WD Arch.4 “PC-A313000, PC-A310100, PC-A38400, PC-A36400”. Exit – exits from the utility.

4.2. SAFE MODE The mode provides access to a limited number of drive features. The safe mode is meant for testing the printed circuit boards (PCB) separately from their HDAs. However, after switching a drive into safe mode you may leave a PCB on its HDA. In order to enable the safe mode you should set three jumpers at once: CS, SLAVE, MASTER and switch on the power. The drive at that does not process bits D6 (DRDY) and D4 (DSC) in the status register. The following menu appears after selection of that mode: Work with ROM PCB testing Work with ROM menu option allows access to recording, reading and viewing of a drive’s ROM: Viewing ROM information command displays on-screen firmware version, the version of the links’ table, the list of models supported in that drive family and heads mapping: Copyright 2001 WDC ROM version ROM revision Links table version Supported models WDC WD200BB WDC WD400BB WDC WD600BB WDC WD800BB WDC WD1000BB WDC WD1200BB

: 06.40 G : 33 : 04.27

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Heads assignment data Heads assignment

: default

Changing heads map in ROM1 - that mode allows software access in order to disable or enable previously disabled magnetic heads in a drive. The mode is identical to the similar mode described in section 4.1.1.1. “Work with ROM”. Reading ROM command accomplishes reading of ROM contents to a file with *.bin extension. If you select that operation you should enter the file name without an extension. The read-in file will be placed in the current PC3000 subdirectory. Writing ROM2 command accomplishes recording of drive ROM from a file. During the procedure you should first select an *.LMC loader file, then select a *.bin file to be recorded, it has to be in the PC3000 subdirectory. As soon as the file is selected, the actual recording process begins. The method of recording ROM is described in more detail in section 8. PCB test command allows checking several components of a drive’s electronics board, namely, it can sector buffer test and initiate internal self-diagnostic. Please see details of those modes in the description to the PC-3000AT tester.

5. Brief technical description of Spartan, Caviar, Protege Arch-V, and Caviar Arch VI drive families. External views of electronics boards in Spartan, Protege, Caviar Arch. V, and Caviar Arch. VI drive families are shown in Fig. 5.1., Fig. 5.2, Fig. 5.3, and Fig. 5.4. respectively.

U5 WD70C12-SW

M29F102BB

U2 WDC © 2000

U4

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

U6

U3

1

U1

1. US1235 2. L6262 2.6

Standard Configuration Settings

Safe Mode 1

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

Slave MASTER SLAVE CS

1

Master with Slave MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

Master only

1

Fig. 5.1. External view of the electronics board in Spartan drive family.

1 2

8

The mode is unavailable in the WD Spartan drive family. The operation is possible only in drives, where parallel Flash ROM is used. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2"

U4 M29F102BB

U2

U5

WD70C23-GP

D7 L6 U6

1 MASTER SLAVE CS

U8 U7

1

U1

3 Q4

1. IRU1239SC 2. ST755 3. 50G64741 4. L6278 AC

Standard Configuration Settings

1

Safe Mode

MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

Slave 1

MASTER SLAVE CS

Master with Slave

Master only

1

Fig. 5.2. External view of the electronics board in Protege drive family.

U4 M29F102BB

U2

U5 WD70C23-GP

L6 D7 U6

1 MASTER SLAVE CS

U8 U7

1

U1

3 Q4

1

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

Standard Configuration Settings Safe Mode Master with Slave Slave MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

Master only

1. IRU1329 2. ST755 3. 50G66474 4. L6278 1.2

1

Fig. 5.3. External view of the electronics board in Caviar Arch. V drive family.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2" ¤ ACELab

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U4 U9 L7

Q3

U5

D7 WD70C22-GP

U12

U6 1 U7 1

3 U1

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

Master only

Standard Configuration Settings Master with Slave Slave

1

1. IRU1239SC 2. 26P10AV 3. 88C5540-LFE 4. L6282 3.2E 5. 349T 6. 25 MHz Safe Mode MASTER SLAVE CS

MASTER SLAVE CS

1

Fig. 5.4. External view of the electronics board in Caviar Arch. VI drive family.

5.1. The structure of HDD firmware Firmware of WD HDDs consists of a microprogram stored in ROM, a configuring links table also located in ROM, a loadable firmware portion and data in the service area of a drive (DISK Firmware). The firmware is characterized by its revision number (F/W Rev.), which defines its development and compatibility. Firmware part Microprogram Links table Loadable firmware version, tables

Version, example 06.40G 04.27 06.C0G

Location ROM ROM Firmware zone, (cylinders -1 to -32)

You can find out the microcode version and the version of ROM links table using the Viewing ROM information command. The version of loadable firmware portion (DISK F/W) can be displayed by running the Disc firmware structure test menu item in the standard utility mode. The version indicated in the modules’ directory will be the version of DISK F/W. Version number output by the drive in the “firmware version" line after the Identify DRV (ECh) command, i.e. when the drive ID is viewed, is an aggregative value and contains the information from all three parts of HDD firmware, e.g.: ROM firmware: 06.40G ROM links table: 04.27 DISK F/W: 06.C0G As a result the compiled version of HDD firmware will look like: 06.04G06. As it can be seen in this example, the version number was formed using the first bytes from the respective versions of the HDD firmware parts. The letter is borrowed from the version of ROM microcode. If you read microprogram version in Safe Mode, the DISK F/W part of the version will be missing, because all operations with disk firmware portion are disabled in that mode.

5.2. Compatibility between electronics boards Unlike the previous families of WD HDDs, in the Spartan, Caviar, and Protege the manufacturer discontinued indication of firmware code on the ROM chip label. That complicates selection of replacement PCBs considerably. Moreover, WD does not adhere to strict classification of Caviar and Protege trademarks and frequently totally identical

10

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Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2"

and compatible HDDs are named differently. One should also pay attention to the construction peculiarities of headand-disk assemblies and, consequently, of their PCBs. We mean the location of the mounting hole on a PCB near the spindle motor connector. In several PCBs it is located along the centerline of the connector while in some PCBs it is shifted away from that line, please see Fig.5.1-5.4. We can offer the following compatibility criteria useful for electronics boards in WD HDDs. First of all, here belongs the family code indicated in the MDL line over HDA label (see WD classification) and in Table 5.2.1. Table 5.2.1 several drive family codes of WD HDDs WD Spartan WD Protégé WD Caviar Arch. V WD Caviar Arch. VI WD75DA-xxAWxx WD300EB-xxCPxx WD1200BB-xxCAxx WD1200JB-xxEVxx WD400EB-xxCPxx WD600AB-xxCBxx WD1200JB-xxFUxx WD800BB-xxCJxx WD1200JB-xxCRxx WD200BB-xxCVxx WD1200BB-xxDAxx WD400BB-xxDExx WD200BB-xxDGxx WD1200BB-xxKAxx Secondly, you should note the version of firmware in ROM and the number of links’ table. Those numbers can be identified by switching the PCB to Safe Mode and running the Viewing ROM information command. In the third place note the mapping of HDD heads. It is also displayed together with reviewed ROM data showing the disabled and active heads. There is very high probability that knocking sounds will be produced by “non-native” HDAs when used with totally identical PCBs having compatible firmware versions just because different heads are indicated as enabled in those boards. Please see details about the mechanism of heads selection during initialization in section 5.5.

5.2.1. HA compatibility (knocking sounds at power-up). The need for Head assembly (HA) replacement appears when it becomes damaged, i.e. when preamplifier/commutator goes out of order or, more frequently, in case of MR heads’ malfunctions. In such situations a drive after power-up produces knocking sounds hitting its positioner against the limiting stop. A HDD can be repaired in case of such malfunction (if the defective MR head does not scratch disks) using software access to disable the defective head. Of course, the drive’s capacity will decrease, but the HDD will become totally operational. If HDD repair is of minor importance but valuable user data from that HDD have to be recovered, there is only one way remaining – it is replacement of damaged HA with a known-good one taken from an operational HDD of the same model. Beginning with Arch. V (Spartan, Caviar, and Protege) WD drives demonstrate total disorder as regards interchangeability of HA. Similar models (with identical MDL lines) may use different number of heads or their different positions. According to our observational studies, the DCM line (see Fig. 5.2.1.) on HDA label contains information valuable for compatibility. At least, the letters next to last in DCM of both drives should match if the same preamplifier-commutators are used in HA (e.g. Fig. 5.2.1, number 2). We recommend using as “donors” drives with a matching MDL line, matching 2-3 last letters/figures in DCM and with closest dates of manufacture. S/N: WMAATC607218 MDL : WD300EB-75CPF0 DATE: 03 MAY 2003 DCM : DSBBNV2A Fig. 5.2.1 Label of WD drives (preamplifier type denoted by figure 2 in DCM). The utility outputs the DCM information line while reviewing firmware zone structure (see section 4.1.1.2.) displaying DCM line decoded for a specific drive; however its purpose and applicability for “donor” selection are yet not clear, probably, that information will be of use in future.

5.3. The structure of loadable firmware portion (DISK F/W) WD drives have 32 service cylinders (from –32 to –1) used for storage of firmware recorded in two copies over sides 0 and 1. However only first 8 cylinders (-1 through -8) are actually used for recording of the firmware modules. Firmware data are stored in the form of individual modules, which constitute together HDD control and operating system. Navigation between the modules is performed in accordance with the modules’ directory containing Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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the address of each module, its identifier and length. Each module, in its turn, has a standard header containing its date, checksum, identifier, version number and module length expressed in sectors. Please see the main DISK F/W modules in the summary table below. Table 5.3.1 Functional purpose of modules Module ID, hex 01 02 10 11 12 14 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 25 26 29 2A 2B 2C 2D 2E 2F 36 41 (~dir) 42 43 44 46 48 49 4A 4B 4C 4D 4E 59 5A 5B 61 7x BF C4 ɋ5 Ex Fx FF

12

Purpose Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code Loadable portion of firmware code ? 2 sect. table (usually empty) ? 2 sect. table (usually empty) Loadable portion of firmware code Translator Translator Translator Translator Translator Module containing SMART parameters Module containing SMART parameters SMART log SMART log SMART log Module containing SMART parameters Initial table of SMART parameters, it is not used during drive operation and serves as a model SMART/RESERV log Loadable portion of firmware code Modules directory (the table of modules location within firmware zone) Configuration table (HDD ID) P-LIST defects table G-LIST defects table ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters ? Adaptive parameters Log (versions of: ROM firmware, links table in ROM, DISK F/W, lots of other info), frequently empty 4 sector table, purpose? Table or log, occupies 1 sect., purpose? Table or log, occupies 1 sect., purpose? Loadable portion of firmware code, the part which performs overwriting of Flash ROM Tables, 2 sector each, purpose? Bit table, 2 sect., purpose? Calibrator module Calibrator log Reserved? Reserved? Selfscan module

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5.3.1. Critical modules for drive data The translator modules (20h – 25h) and modules containing adaptive parameters (46h-4Dh) are traditionally essential for data integrity in drives belonging to Spartan, Caviar, Protege families, there may be other important modules, but we haven’t identified any so far. Besides, yet unknown remains the degree of importance for the modules containing adaptive parameters and the opportunities for their replacement if the original modules become corrupted. If the translator modules get corrupted you can perform their recalculation based on the P and (or) G-List defects tables and overwrite them. The procedure is performed by the Regenerate Translator command (please see details on restoration of damaged modules in chapter 7).

5.4. Data structure in Flash ROM in WD Caviar and Protege drive families The structure of parallel Flash ROM in those drives differs from earlier families. First of all, it is manifested in the presence of heads’ table (there is no such table in earlier drive families, like WD-Spartan, WDxxxAA,). Table 5.5.1 describes the structure of parallel Flash ROM contents, newer families are based on serial Flash ROM chips using a different data structure. Table 5.5.1 Address 0h 200 h … 1EBxx h 1EBxx h +3 h +A h +B h +83 h … 1FFD0 h +2 h

Length 512 bytes … … 15 bytes 3 bytes 7 bytes 1 byte 120 bytes … 5 bytes 31 bytes 1 byte

+3h +4h +5h + 31 h …

1 byte 1 byte 1 byte 1 byte …

Purpose Interrupt vectors Microprocessor control firmware code Copyright 2001 WDC WDC (keyword, followed by ROM firmware version) ROM firmware version, ASCII ROM revision (HDD family code) Supported HDD models (6 records, 20 bytes each, ASCII) Links table (configuring jump table) Links table version, ASCII (the last element of the links table) Table of active heads Heads table flag (00-assignment according to heads table, 01- according to MHA polling) Maximum possible number of heads for the drive family, usually 6 The number of active (enabled) heads Bit map of active (enabled) heads Checksum byte for the heads’ table

ROM data consists of executable microprocessor code and various tables including jump tables. However, those portions do not have fixed constant addresses; their locations are floating depending upon ROM version, and that circumstance complicates indexing of data tables. Therefore they are searched using keywords and offsets.

5.5. Modification of drive configuration, software heads deactivation At power-up a drive configures itself as a specific model of its family during initialization. The FLT/SE signal produced by the commutator pre-amplifier chip and MR heads polling are used for that purpose After spin-up of the spindle motor the drive microprocessor sequentially checks all heads beginning with the zero one. When a missing head is detected, the FLT/SE signal is sent to the microprocessor. Thus the drive determines precisely the number of heads and configures itself as a corresponding model. Beginning with Protege and Caviar drive families the manufacturer changed the algorithm of adjustment for MHA type. ROM (beginning with address 1FFD0h) has been supplemented with heads mapping containing records of their total number and enabled heads. The map contains a byte, which serves as a flag switching the method to be used by microprocessor for identification of the total number of heads and the enabled ones – MHA polling or heads mapping in ROM. During drive initialization its microprocessor reads the heads mapping byte after MR heads polling. If the flag is not set, the processor uses information about drive heads received after MHA polling; if the byte is set, it uses respectively the heads mapping in ROM. Then the drive configures itself as a specific HDD model and reads firmware data.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

13

Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2" ¤ ACELab

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The mechanism can be utilized to disable or enable previously disabled heads using software access. Manufacturing factories frequently ship drives with some magnetic heads already disabled, they can be enabled using software access and turn out to be absolutely operational! The need to use software access in order to disable/enable drive heads arises when they become damaged or when you have to adapt a PCB to a HDA containing thus disabled heads. WARNING! If you define the flag “by mapping” for a HDD, which used default heads mapping before that, then the Total number of heads and Active heads values will equal 0, thus all heads become configured as disabled. In that case you should set the value “Full heads amount” = 6 (as the maximum allowed in the drive family) and enable the suggested heads, e.g. 0 and 1 for a model with 2 heads. If the drive starts knocking after that, it means that the heads have been enabled incorrectly and you should attempt to select two other heads, e.g. 1 and 2 or 2 and 3. You can also try to enable heads one by one and thus determine all operational heads. WARNING! If a drive starts knocking after modification of heads mapping, you have done something wrong. In that case you should switch the PCB to Safe Mode and record the original ROM (saved prior to mapping modification). Always save the native ROM before making changes to heads mapping.

6. Software restoration of a drive Depending upon the condition of the drive being repaired, certain operations might be necessary for its restoration. For example, if at power-up a drive does not spin up the spindle motor or spins it up and stops, then such a defect most likely has to deal with the electronics board and requires its repair. If a drive starts to spin up the spindle motor and monotonously knocks with its positioner against locking plate instead of recalibration, then such a defect demonstrates malfunctions of the drive’s servo system and can be caused by one of the following: - ROM version on electronic controller board is incompatible with the sealed HDA; - incorrect heads mapping; - malfunction of commutator pre-amplifier chip of the HA inside the HDA; - malfunction of the HA itself; - seriously corrupt servo data or a shift of magnetic disks pack after a shock (increased noise of spindle motor rotation usually and case vibration show that the drive has been hit). In all of the above cases except for the first two software restoration of the drive is impossible. If after switching power on the drive spins up the spindle motor and unparks the magnetic heads, but while entering the PC-3000AT program generates the ABRT (04h) error, or errors appear one after another while reading drive surfaces, or it takes too long to report on readiness, then it means that the drive cannot read firmware data from disk. That kind of defect may arise from: - data reading/conversion channel malfunction; - firmware modules corruption; - incompatibility between the disk firmware version and the firmware code recorded in the control board ROM. In such case ensure that the control board is functional (the best method is swapping of the boards), the ROM and HDA versions are compatible, and begin the hardware data restoration from step 1. If after switching power on the drive initializes, recalibrates, and its drive ID is read, but testing reveals BAD sectors, then the restoration should be started from step 2. 1. Restore firmware data (F/W). The F/W restoration procedure is as follows: a). Perform “DISC FIRMWARE STRUCTURE TEST” and identify corrupted modules. If just some modules are damaged while others remain normal, you can overwrite the defective modules using the method described in section 7. b). If the majority of modules are corrupted in a drive select the “DISC FIRMWARE ZONE” menu option and run the “DISC FIRMWARE SURFACE TEST” command. Make sure that there is no considerable damage in firmware zone. If necessary, CLEAR FIRMWARE ZONE but prior to that procedure save modules, which can be copied and firmware area image, see section 4.1.1.2.

14

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c). Select the menu items: “DISC FIRMWARE DATA READ/WRITE”, “WRITE FW TO THE DISK” and write the firmware data to the drive being restored, observe its compatibility with the version of the drive processor microcode. After successful recording the firmware is restarted. d). Correct the logical parameters, if necessary. 2. Clear the GLIST defects table and reset SMART. You will have to reset the P-LIST table if you have disabled HDD heads, if external firmware has been recorded to the drive or if P-LIST has been copied from another drive. 3. Perform low-level formatting using P-LIST, which should complete successfully. If formatting ends in an error one of drive surfaces may have corrupt servo information. You can attempt to use grouping into tracks (defective tracks block corrupted servo fields) or isolate the side containing too many defects. 4. Perform LOGICAL STRUCTURE SCANNING procedure, which is executed in LBA format. After completion of surface scanning procedure a table of all detected logical defects in LBA notation will be output on the screen. Pressing [Enter] converts all logical defects into physical addresses and adds them to the G-LIST defects table. 5. Using the results of tests 3 and 4 make a conclusion concerning the necessity of defective surfaces isolation (see section 5.5.). After turning off defective sides it is necessary to continue the drive restoration beginning with step 2. 6. Perform low-level format using P and G-List. 7. Write serial number into the drive ID area, if necessary. 8. Perform COMPLEX TEST with the PC-3000AT tester. If errors are detected repeat steps 3-6 or run the UNIVERSAL DEFECTS RELOCATION procedure. 9. Run the PC-3000AT tester COMPLEX TEST and make sure that the drive is operational.

7. Restoration of firmware modules A defect of firmware data modules is a frequently occurring fault. The malfunction manifests itself as follows: the drive spins up the spindle motor, remains unable to report on readiness for a very long time (more than a minute), then it reports on readiness but responds to any command with the ABRT error. Diagnostics of such malfunction requires to select the "DISC FIRMWARE STRUCTURE TESTING" command in the "DISC FIRMWARE ZONE/ DISC FIRMWARE ZONE " menu, and to inspect which modules are defective in the "FIRMWARE MODULES" table. Modules 20h, 21h, 25h (translator), 2Ah, 2Dh (SMART), etc. suffer from corruption most frequently. Overwriting the modules requires using the Disc Firmware data read/write command from the DISC FIRMWARE ZONE menu. The procedure requires first reading all modules from a drive; they are subsequently added to the following directories: WDABJMOD for WD-Caviar, WDEB_MOD for WD-Protege and WDDA_MOD for WD-Spartan. Then you should replace the damaged modules in that directory with normal ones copied from an operational compatible drive and record the modules back to the HDD. Some of the modules are critical for data protection and should not be overwritten with modules from another drive if you wish to preserve the user's data, for example, the 20h - 25h translator modules, 46h - 49h modules containing adaptive parameters. Other modules are not so essential and they can be overwritten, however, it is better to copy normal modules from the same HDD model with an identical firmware version. Anyway, prior to starting the drive restoration it is necessary to save all the modules and the ROM firmware to ensure an opportunity to reverse the changes.

7.1. HDD translator recalculation Translator restoration can be invoked as follows: Disc Firmware zone, Disc Firmware zone, Regenerate, Translator. Upon entering the mode you will be offered to select the basic tables to be used for the recalculation: Take into account PLIST and G-LIST Take into account Use PLIST Take into account Use G-LIST Do not take into account neither PLIST nor G-LIST Factory testing of a drive appends defects to the P-List table (primary) only; the G-List (Grown) table remains empty. It is filled in the process of drive operation by the device itself in the Data Lifeguard and Assign modes. Thus, translator of a drive arriving from a factory is recalculated using P-List only. Therefore if you restore a drive with corrupted 20h and 25h modules, the procedure should be performed using P-List only, in that case access to user data will be restored. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

15

Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2" ¤ ACELab

Ɋɋ-3000 £

8. Flash ROM recording WD Spartan, Caviar, and Protege drives are equipped with Flash ROM (although some models contain a write-once chip) which can be overwritten in normal HDD operating mode (after a drive has reported on readiness) or in the Safe Mode (on a separated PCB). Only overwriting is possible, because Safe Mode is a software mode of the control firmware stored in ROM. If a portion of ROM gets corrupted or erased, overwriting of the chip contents on board becomes impossible. Therefore you will have to unsolder the chip, program it using a ROM programmer and then solder it back. ROM recording in standard mode requires that the HDD reports on readiness and reads its firmware data (at least one copy). Then select in the utility commands Firmware zone, Work with ROM, Writing ROM, the following menu will be displayed: Drive module 61h External *.LMC module If you select the first variant the utility will use for recording the native firmware module ID=61h copied from HDD service area. It is exactly the one containing subroutines for operations with ROM (type identification, erasure and recording). If you select the second variant you will be offered to use an external loader that is nothing else than module ID=61h, copied earlier from an operational drive and renamed to *.lmc. It may be necessary if the respective module in firmware zone turns out to be corrupted or “non-native”. Recording in Safe Mode requires just an operational PCB (HDA is not used). You have to switch at that the drive to Safe Mode by setting three jumpers together: CS, SLAVE, MASTER and turning the power on. Then select the mode: Safe Mode, Work with ROM, Write ROM, the following menu will be displayed: Select an *.lmc loader file Then you will be offered to select a loader from those supplied with the utility: spartan.lmc, protege.lmc or caviar.lmc for WD Spartan, WD Protege and WD Caviar HDD respectively. A situation is possible, when the manufacturer changes the type of Flash ROM on drive PCB so that the supplied loaders would not support that type, then ROM will not be overwritten in Safe Mode. In such case you can copy module 61h from a drive belonging to a corresponding family and supporting that Flash ROM type, rename it to *.lmc and attempt to overwrite the ROM contents again. After loader selection you will have to select a binary *.bin file containing the ROM firmware. The loader file and firmware ROM file should be located in the current PC-3000 directory. After recording it is necessary to read the ROM and compare the files.

8.1. Creation of an external loader file In order to produce an external loader file copy the ~id61.rpm module from an operational drive with a Flash ROM chip of the required type. Rename the file so that it receives the Loader Micro Code (lmc) extension. The standard package contains several loaders to be selected in accordance with the families of drives being repaired, see the table: Family WD Caviar Arch. VI, Serial ROM WD Caviar Arch. V WD Protege WD Spartan

Original file ? ~id61.rpm ~id61.rpm ~id61.rpm

Renamed loader file none Caviar Protege Spartan

9. Electric circuit WD Spartan, Protege, Caviar Arch. V and Caviar Arch. VI drives use different electronics boards (see Fig.5.1 - 5.4) and electric circuits, but labels of elements on PCBs match in most cases. That helps to use the basic electric circuit even in those cases, when it does not fully match the PCB of a HDD.

9.1. Reference voltage sources Checking all voltage generating devices (see electric circuits: WDxxxBB/JB R/W Channel, SPINDLE MOTOR Control and WDxxxBB/JB L6278 1.2) is the first thing to do for diagnostics of malfunctions in the electronics board of a HDD. WD Spartan, Protege, and Caviar drives use six voltages, they are: +12V, +5V (from the PC power supply), +3.3V, +2.6V (generated by the U6 IRU1329SC stabilizer), +1.8V (generated by the U7 chip when

16

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

Western Digital "Spartan", "Protege", "Caviar" Generation electronics Arch-V, Arch-VI "PCWD_DA", "PCWD_EB", "PCWD_ABJ", "PCWD_CB2"

an external power control on Q4 is employed) and a -5V source that supplies power to the preamplifier-commutator (generated using the U8 chip of the DC-DC ST755 converter). In Caviar Arch. VI drives -5V negative voltage generator is based upon the FG2M chip and Q3 power switch (see electric circuit WDxxxBB/JB Serial ROM, Converter DC-DC -5V). It is essential to check +5V and -5V supply voltages directly over the J1 pocket-plate MHA connector, pins 4 and 2 respectively (see electric circuit WDxxxBB/JB R/W Channel, SPINDLE MOTOR Control). A malfunction may be manifested in divergence or absence of supply or reference voltages because of defective stabilizers, power switches or their control schemes. You should also check the L2, L4, L5, and L6 filter inductors since supply voltages may disappear when they are broken. Use digital millivoltmeter and an oscilloscope for measurements of supply and reference voltages. The voltmeter is useful for checking voltage values, oscilloscope checks pulses.

9.2. Control circuit of spindle motor and positioner The control circuit of spindle motor in WD drives may be based either on L6278 1.2 or on L6278AC/AH chips. Those two chips have different packages, different number of pins; they are incompatible though their functionality is practically identical. The chips operate on several voltages +12V, +5V and +3.3V. The chips are controlled using software access via a serial bus. The SHUT-DOWN line is used by the drive’s microcontroller for sending a signal activating the spindle motor control chip, -5V converter and the reading channel chip. Upon power-up, system reset, and initialization of the microcontroller, the line must propagate log. “1” signal; at the same time starting pulses of phase switching should appear on the spindle motor phases with 12V range. If you disconnect the demand (i.e. spindle motor) by taking the PCB off the HDA, then you should be able to observe on the outputs of 3 phases in L6278 chip clear rectangular two-level pulses with 6 and 12V range. At the “midpoint” pin the static level should be equal to 6V (small needle-like surges are allowed at phase switching moments). Please note that the spindle motor will not start in Safe Mode, consequently you will have to test its control chip in normal operation mode (with all configuration jumpers disabled, see details on Safe Mode). If the L6278 chip goes out of order, one can notice signs of defects or overheating on its package. Before its replacement it is essential to check the supply voltages and load carrying elements in - D1, D2 framework; also use ohmmeter to check the resistance of the spindle motor windings (phases), it should be equal to 2,2 Ohm.

9.3. Data reading channel It is based on the 50G6474 chip manufactured by WD. The chip is quite reliable and proves defective rather rarely. Its diagnostics requires checking of 3.3V supply voltages and the operation of the built-in 1,8 V regulator based on an external Q4 switch. Then initiation of Y1 crystal clock has to be checked.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

17

A R37

3 +3.3V

U12

JP2(1) WD70c22(101) JP2(7)

C

1

S

Vcc

8

2

Q

HOLD

7

IRF9240 1

JP2(9)

WD70c22(104)

2

WD70c22(108) 3

C

W

6

JP2(4)

WD70c22(105)

3

WD70c22(103) 4

JP2(8)

D

GND

5

JP2(3)

2

1

FG2M

WD70c22(102)

+5V

4

M25P10(SROM)

5

C 4.7mkf R 100om

+5V C

R25

C79

2 R

Q3 1

R24 0om E36

IRF9240

A

R21

C109

3

Plug to HDA

D2 R

J1(2)

FG2M 5

R

3

FB

Vin

4

Sens

GND

C47 2.2mkF L SW

-5V

L

1

2

R

R

R

R

R124 R125

1om

1om

1om

1om

R

R

1om

1om

C2 1om

1om

Title

WDxxxxBB/JB Serial ROM, Converter DC-DC -5V Size A Date:

A

Document Number

Rev 1

ACE Lab. PC-3000 Documentation Tuesday, January 06, 2004

Sheet

1

of

1

A

A

C

plug to HDA -5V

R (10k)

R 80 (0.5)

C72

C33

J1(2)

C61

C71

C68

U8 ST755 R

J1

5

Vo

CC

4

6

GND

SS

3

7

LX

Vref

2

8

Vcc

SHDN

1

19

R D7 R77(2om)

R(1om)

L6

R(1om) C80

C

17

R6

R1

R79

Voice Coil R

R

+5V

R

C

plug to HDA

C69

Converter DC-DC -5V C

23 23

25

26

27

24 24

25

26

27

29

30

31

28 28

29

30

22

21

21 20 19

18

18

17

17

40

16

16

41

41

15

15

42

42

14

14

43

43

13

13 C5

44

44

12

12

A

E90

SHUT-DOWN control(Vcc=ON,GND=OFF)

+12V

WD70C23-GP(80) WD70C23-GP(84) +3.3V

11

WD70C23-GP(89)

11

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

C12

SPINDLE MOTOR

10

1

2

1

1

10

4

9

40

L6278 1.2

8

39

R28 WD70C23(56)

19

7

38

39

+5V C5

20

6

38

U1

5

37

4

36

37

3

36

3

R14

31

22

35

2

R15

32

34

35

J6

R16

32

34

2

A

33

33

C

C6 C R

D1 R23(10 kOM)

+12V C9

C13

3.3V

Title WD70C23-GP(82)

WD70C23-GP(81)

WD70C23-GP(83)

WDxxxxBB/JB L6278 1.2 Size B Date:

A

Document Number

Rev 1

ACE Lab. PC-3000 Documentation Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Sheet

1

of

1

A

U2 M29F102BB WD70C23(119)

1

A9

Vss

40

WD70C23(120)

2

A10

A8

39

WD70C23(98)

WD70C23(121)

3

A11

A7

38

WD70C23(99)

WD70C23(122)

4

WD70C23(124)

5

WD70C23(125)

6

WD70C23(126)

7

A12

A6

37

A13

A5

36

A14

A4

35

A15

A3

34

WD70C23(103)

33

WD70C23(105)

WD70C23(128)

9

W

A1

32

WD70C23(106)

+3.3V WD70C23(129) WD70C23(130)

E1

11 12 13

WD70C23(131)

14

WD70C23(132)

15

WD70C23(133)

16

WD70C23(135)

17

WD70C23(136)

18

WD70C23(137)

19

WD70C23(138)

20

A0

31

RP

G

30

E

DQ0

29

DQ15

DQ1

28

DQ14

DQ2

27

DQ13

DQ3

26

DQ12 DQ11 DQ10 DQ9 DQ8

WD70C23(147)

WD70C23(140)

3

48

48

WD70C23(149)

4

4

47

47

WD70C23(141)

5

5

46

46

WD70C23(150)

WD70C23(142)

6

6

45

45

WD70C23(151)

7

7

44

44

WD70C23(143)

8

8

43

43

WD70C23(152)

WD70C23(144)

9

9

42

42

WD70C23(154)

L5

10

10

41

41

WD70C23(145)

11

11

40

40

WD70C23(155)

WD70C23(146)

12

12

39

39

WD70C23(156)

13

13

38

38

14

37

WD70C23(168)

15

15

36

36

WD70C23(169)

16

16

35

35

WD70C23(170)

17

17

34

34

18

18

33

33

WD70C23(171)

19

19

32

32

WD70C23(160)

WD70C23(172)

20

31

31

WD70C23(162)

WD70C23(173)

21

21

30

30

WD70C23(163)

WD70C23(174)

22

22

29

29

WD70C23(164)

WD70C23(175)

23

23

28

28

WD70C23(165)

24

24

27

27

WD70C23(166)

26

26

WD70C23(176) WD70C23(116) E

WD70C23(117)

C16

A

37

E

R17 (10k)

E

14

WD70C23(113)

WD70C23(115)

21

49

WD70C23(112)

DQ5

Vss

49

WD70C23(111)

WD70C23(114)

DQ7

2

3

WD70C23(110)

24

22

2

WD70C23(108)

25

23

WD70C23(139)

WD70C23(107)

DQ4

DQ6

50

+3.3V

A2

Vcc

50

WD70C23(104)

NC

10

1

WD70C23(101)

8

+5V

1

WD70C23(100)

WD70C23(127)

R29 (10k)

A

U4 K4S1616220

E

25 C37

C24

20

25

E

R36

WD70C23(157)

E

C51

Title

WDxxxxBB/JB ROM, RAM Size A4 Date:

A

Document Number

Rev 2

ACE Lab. PC-3000 Documentation Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Sheet

2

of

2

R

J1(20)

WD70C23(84)

E

42

43

41 41

42

44

43

44

46

47

48

49

50

45 45

46

47

48

49

52

51

50

51

52

54

53 53

30

72

29

73

73

28

28

76

25

25

77

77

24

24

78

78

23

23

79

79

22

22

80

80

21

21

5

2

6

1

WD70C23(71)

WD70C23(73) WD70C23(72) WD70C23(74) WD70C23(75)

WD70C23(76) WD70C23(77) WD70C23(78)

C43 WD70C23(79)

A

20

C42

WD70C23(93) R2 (0)

20

19

18

17

1 3

16

1 Y1

19

76

18

26

17

26

16

27

75

4

WD70C23(70)

C44 29

74

J1(5)

7

6

5

4

3

1

55

30

75

R23(10k) +5V

54

71

72

15

+ 100mkf

55

71

E

J1(10)

2.6V

Vdd

1.24V

GND

Vcc

3.3V

1.2V

31

E

R10

+3.3V

2

C12

31

50G6474 IBMBM 1.1

27

J1(7)

C8

70

74

+5V C58

70

15

L4

J1(4)

VOLTAGE REGULATOR U6 IRU1329SC

3.3V

32

14

C5

E5

J1(3)

33

32

14

J1(1) WD70C23(89)

33

69

C36

WD70C23(56)

12

11 11

10

9

8

7

6

5

4

3

2

1

C6

A

121

13

10

3

9

48 8

48

7

14

6

14

5

47

4

15

47

3

46

15

plug to HDA

68

69

U7

WD70C23(69)

C45

68

13

16

34

67

13

16

34

66

67

12

17

45

46

35

35

65

66

11

44

17

36

36

12

18

37

10

18

43

C35

WD70C23(80)

R39

C

SHUT-DOWN control(Vcc=ON,GND=OFF) R28 (470)

19

38

37

9

19

38

64

11

L6278AC

42

63

64 65

R9 +12V

63

10

20

39

9

21

20

U1

40

39

C86

Converter DC-DC -5V

+5V

40

62

8

21

41

1

61

62

8

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

34

25 25

26

27

28

29

30

31

32

33

E

40

45

35

22

41

44

34

36

E

22

1

R16

23

39

40

43

R15

38

23

39

SHDN

J1(14)

24

37

Vcc

C57 24

38

42 R14

36

37

35

C9

C48

61

7

8

+5V C13

2

+12V

J1(18)

6

E

7

C

6

C D2

56

60

plug to HDA

57

2

56

Vref

R

R6

57

C80

5

LX

3

58

7

SS

4

GND

3

6

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C26

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WD70C23(55)

R

plug to HDA

WD70C23(68)

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4

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58

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60

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4

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WD70C23(66)

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plug to HDA -5V

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19

WD70C23(61)

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WD70C23(62)

A

+12V R24

1

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(81)

WD70C23(83)

C

L2

+3.3V + C50 100mkf C17

C18

C

C

C

C

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SPINDLE MOTOR

1

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WD70C23(2)

C20

WD70C23(43)

C22

WD70C23(88)

C52

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WD70C23(118)

WD70C23(134)

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WD70C23(25)

WD70C23(102)

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REGULATOR +1.8V

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C49

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IRU1329C

Title

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

WDxxxxBB/JB R/W Channel, SPINDLE MOTOR Control Size

Document Number

Rev 1

ACE Lab. PC-3000 Documentation Date:

A

Wednesday, March 17, 2004

Sheet

1

of

2

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Fujitsu Co, Ltd (Arh. ARM7) Contents 1. Introduction.....................................................................................................................................................................2 2. Structure of drive families...............................................................................................................................................2 3. Basic options for repair of Fujitsu drives........................................................................................................................2 4. Preparation for work. ......................................................................................................................................................2 5. Utility usage. ...................................................................................................................................................................3 5.1. Servo test................................................................................................................................................................3 5.2. Surface scanning. ...................................................................................................................................................4 5.3. Disk firmware zone................................................................................................................................................5 5.4. Drive ID. ................................................................................................................................................................8 5.5. Formatting..............................................................................................................................................................8 5.6. Logical scanning. ...................................................................................................................................................8 5.7. S.M.A.R.T. table ....................................................................................................................................................9 5.8. Defects table...........................................................................................................................................................9 5.9. Automatic mode...................................................................................................................................................10 6. Brief technical description of ARM7-based families of Fujitsu drives.........................................................................10 6.1. MPF3xxxAT family.............................................................................................................................................10 6.1.1. Disk space organization in MPF3xxxAT family drives................................................................................10 6.1.2. Modification of drive configuration..............................................................................................................12 6.2. MPG3xxxAT/H/E family.....................................................................................................................................13 6.2.1. Disk space organization in MPG3xxxAT/H/E family drives........................................................................13 6.2.2. Modification of drive configuration..............................................................................................................15 7. Repair of ARM7-based Fujitsu drives. .........................................................................................................................16 7.1. Hardware repair. ..................................................................................................................................................16 7.1.1. Structure chart...............................................................................................................................................16 7.1.2. Initialization. .................................................................................................................................................17 7.1.3. Microcircuitry malfunctions..........................................................................................................................17 7.2. Software repair.....................................................................................................................................................18 7.2.1. Drive restoration algorithm. ..........................................................................................................................18 7.2.2. Tests' duration. ..............................................................................................................................................19 8. Special utility files for Fujitsu drives. ...........................................................................................................................19 9. Restoration of hardware modules in the MPF-AT and MPG families..........................................................................20 10. ROM data structure in MPF-AT and MPG drive families..........................................................................................20 10.1. Mutex byte in ROM. ..........................................................................................................................................21 11. On compatibility between ROM firmware and HDA service data in MPF-AT and MPG drive families (boards compatibility)....................................................................................................................................................................21 12. Data saving peculiarity in MPF-AT and MPG drive families. ...................................................................................22 13. Password disabling. ....................................................................................................................................................23 14. Patching the module ID=3Dh in non-standard models of MPF-AT, and MPG drive families...................................23 14.1. Fujitsu MPF-AT (PB15). ...................................................................................................................................24 14.2. Fujitsu MPG-AT E (PB16E)..............................................................................................................................24 14.3. Fujitsu MPG-AT (PB16)....................................................................................................................................24 14.4. Fujitsu MPG-AH (PB16 AH), Fujitsu MPG AHE (PB16 AH E)......................................................................24 15. ROM reading/writing to PCB without a HDA (kernel - mode)..................................................................................25 16. Translator recalculation. .............................................................................................................................................25 17. Work with adaptive data. ............................................................................................................................................25 18. Addition of the new firmware ROM into the file Fujitsu.ini. .....................................................................................26 19. Pcb circuit. ..................................................................................................................................................................27

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1. Introduction. This manual contains descriptions of 3" family drives manufactured by Fujitsu Co, Ltd. and based on 32-bit ARM7 processor of the Advanced Risk Machines (ARM) integrated together with drive electronic components by Cirrus Logic as well as methods of their repair. It also covers methods of software restoration using PC-3000 complex. This architecture differs mostly from the previous one based on MB9000 microprocessor by its use of loaded firmware code. A portion of control code is stored in the control board ROM while another portion is recorded in firmware zone of module 3Dh and loaded to RAM during initialization. Therefore a mode of direct service data loading to drive RAM is provided for in the utilities.

2. Structure of drive families. ARM7-based families: Family Picobird-16 (PB-16/E/H/HE) Picobird-15 (PB-15)

Model name MPG3xxxAT/E MPG3xxxAH/HE MPF3xxxAT

Max. capacity 40,98 Gb 40,98 Gb 20,49 Gb

Spindle speed 5,400 rpm 7,200 rpm 5,400 rpm

PC-3000 utility Pcfujmpg.exe Pcfjmpgh.exe Pcfujmpf.exe

3. Basic options for repair of Fujitsu drives. The PC-3000 package utilities provide for the following software repair operations: - drive testing in factory mode; - restoration of the drive hardware service data (in RAM and on disk); - writing/reading of the drive's ROM; - restoration and correction of the serial number in the drive ID area; - low-level format restoration; - modification of the drive configuration (isolation of defective surfaces); - review of the service data structure in the ROM and in disk service zone; - review of hidden defects table; - review of drive S.M.A.R.T. table and resetting of attributes; - physical and logical surface scanning for defects, and, based on the results, addition of revealed defects to the defects table; - hiding of defective sectors; - hiding of defective tracks; - automatic drives' restoration. Repair of the drives by reprogramming the loadable firmware part1 allows to: - correct the physical parameters of the drive in the drive ID zone; - correct model name.

4. Preparation for work. 1. Connect the Ɋɋ-3000PRO tester cable to the IDE connector of the drive being tested. 2. Connect the power cable to the drive being tested. The utilities support operation with PC-3K PWR power supply adapter, if present, in that case power is switched automatically depending upon the drive testing mode. If no power supply control adapter is present, the standard external PC power supply should be used with manual switching of power on/off according to screen messages. 3. Current directory must contain the utility executables (*.exe) and resource files (*.rsc). 4. Switch on the power supply to the drive being tested. If the PC-3K PWR adapter is present power supply is controlled via PC keyboard (please see description for shell.com software command shell). 5. Start a respective utility using the shell.com command shell. Attention! Utility tests have lots of options. It is recommended that novice users work with default test options. 1

2

Recorded in service zone of module 3Dh on disk; Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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5. Utility usage. After utility start the following mode selection menu appears on the screen: Standard mode Kernel - mode The standard mode is the regular mode of utility operation provided ROM can be read. Kernel - mode is designed for writing/reading of FLASH ROM in cases, when ROM cannot be read, when ROM firmware version does not correspond to service data version of the head-and-disk assembly or when ROM firmware contains adaptive data that is not native for the drive. Kernel mode operation is further described in detail in a chapter under the same title. (See part 15). If the standard mode is selected, the utility reads drive ROM header, determines firmware version and adjusts itself according to ROM configuration tables (table of modules, table of zone distribution, etc.). If ROM cannot be read the following message is output: Error reading ROM You'll be offered to press [Enter] – and setup the utility using a file (containing previously read ROM data). You'll have to indicate a file containing ROM firmware with a corresponding version1. Otherwise you should press [Esc] – and start operating the utility with default parameters. If the ROM has been read but is not recognized by the utility, the following message appears: Unknown drive ROM firmware discovered (F/W=xxɯɯ)2. Using default parameters. You'll be offered to press [Esc] to leave or [Enter] to continue (in that case the utility may operate erroneously). Then a list of basic family models will appear. After model selection and pressing [Enter] the program reads the drive's configuration tables and verifies their conformity to physical parameters of the selected drive. If they match the program will bring up the main operating modes menu: Servo test Surface scanning Disk firmware zone Drive ID Formatting Logical scanning S.M.A.R.T. table Defects table Automatic mode Exit If there is no match, the following message appears: Model adjusted according to the number of physically present heads. It indicates that the basic model configuration has been changed.

5.1. Servo test Servo test – prior to starting the test you'll have to define the test range and the limit for grouping into tracks, i.e. the number of defective sectors, which would cause track removal as a defective one. The test is run track-by-track separately on each surface. The test is performed according to physical parameters and zone allocation. The testing procedure measures the time of decoding for all the servo fields on the current track and the obtained value is shown on a respective diagram. If servo fields are faultless the time for their decoding will be equal for all tracks of the disk. The diagram in that case will look like a straight or slightly stepped line. If servo fields of some track turn out to be corrupt, their decoding time will increase drastically. The diagram will show a spike in the corresponding section. The greater part of servo fields is corrupt the higher the spike is. If the number of intact servo fields on a track is insufficient for support of stable spindle speed the corresponding spike will be marked yellow. Pressing [Esc] during the test will interrupt the measurement for current surface and skip to measuring the next surface. After measurement completion a 1 2

ROM version number can be seen on HDA label, see Chapter 11 if: ɯɯɯɯ=FFFF, ROM has been read but it could not be recognized; ɯɯɯɯ=0000, ROM could not be read.

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table containing numbers of defective sectors and tracks is output, with every record accompanied by a respective error code. If an error code is missing, the defect was recorded after the critical time had run out. Pressing [Enter] will move all the discovered defective sectors to the PL table and defective tracks – to the TS1 table. If there is no need to hide the defects, please press [Esc]. During servo test surfaces are formatted track-by-track. That is "physical" formatting unlike logical format procedure (accomplished, for instance, during factory formatting), therefore in order to perform further drive testing, i.e. to carry out subsequent scanning of surfaces for physical parameters compliance, you'll have to run servo test from the beginning to the end of the user data zone on every surface. And vice versa, for testing of the drive's logical parameters you'll have to accomplish factory formatting without errors.

5.2. Surface scanning. Surface scanning allows to estimate the quality of magnetic surfaces, functional condition of magnetic-head assembly and discover and isolate all defective sectors and track. Prior to the test start you'll see the following setup screen: Initial cylinder: xxxx Final cylinder: xxxx Passes: 3 Retries of a defect: 3 Critical time (ms): 300 Perform writing test: No Test all heads: Yes Limit of grouping into tracks: 4 Initial and final cylinders determine the test range. Passes parameter defines the number of complete test passes from the initial to the final cylinders. The input range is from 1 to 100. Retries of a defect parameter determines the test reaction to errors. The test is performed track-by-track and if an error is discovered the test proceeds to sector-by-sector analysis of such track. The number of repetitions for the analysis is defined by the "retries of a defect" parameter. In order to increase the test speed during the first pass the index equal to 1 is always suggested (the value input by the operator is used during all subsequent passes). The index value range is from 1 to 10. Critical time means the wait period for reading (and writing) operations. If the set limit is exceeded, the sector is considered to be defective. Input range is from 40 ms to 999 ms, the default value is 300 ms. The critical time value should be decreased very cautiously. Setting a value, which is too small (it depends upon specific drive, the testing computer, etc.) may lead to detecting false errors. Besides the drive periodically performs re-calibration procedure, which can also be interpreted as an error. Perform writing test (No/Yes) – if the writing test is set on the testing quality will be slightly better, but it almost doubles the test duration. Switching writing on/off is performed by the keys [Y] – Yes and [N] – No or [Space]. Switching the writing test on is recommended for individual defective surface parts with an indication of the test range. After the surface test procedure is performed the table containing all the detected physical defects represented in PCHS (Physical CHS) notation appears on the screen. Pressing the [Enter] key moves all the defects to the PL defects table. Formatting procedure should be performed after that. Test all heads (Yes/No) – test can be performed for some of the heads. That is achieved using the No option. Switching is executed by the keys [Y] – Yes and [N] or [Space] – No. Then the heads that are to remain untested should be defined. This mode is used for preliminary estimate of the magnetic surfaces condition, if a large number of errors on such surface(s) impedes performing the test. Limit of grouping into tracks (cylinders) is a parameter determining the number of defective sectors in a track that will cause the whole track to be isolated as a defective track or cylinder. By default the maximum values are set. For the MPG-AT/H/E families a track containing more than 63 defective sectors is considered to be defective and hidden as a track defect. For the MPF-AT family a track containing more than 63 defective sectors causes the whole cylinder to be considered defective. This test must be preceded by servo test! After the surface test procedure is performed the table containing numbers of defective sectors and tracks appears on screen. Pressing the [Enter] key records the defective sectors into the PL table, and the defective tracks - into the TS one (for the MPF3xxxAT family into the CS). Transformation into tracks is performed according to the LIMIT OF GROUPING INTO TRACKS parameter (for the MPF3xxxAT family – into cylinder defects). The test setup menu contains recommended parameters by default.

1

4

- In the MPF3xxxAT family defective tracks are recorded to the CS table and hidden as cylinder defects. Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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5.3. Disk firmware zone. Disk firmware zone option allows reviewing and testing the disk hardware structure, which is stored in the ROM and on the disk service tracks, to rewrite completely the ROM and the disk service data recorded in tracks, as well as to reconfigure the drive. This command brings the following menu on screen: Work with ROM Work with disk firmware zone Heads deactivation Spindle stop Work with adaptive data Work with ROM – accomplishes writing, reading and the drive’s ROM viewing operations: Review of the disk firmware zone in ROM - displays the microprogram header from the drive ROM and the module catalogue on the screen. The microprogram header shows version (Firmware Revision), version for HDA (HDA Hardware Revision), code generation date (Date), name of the family (Family), ROM checksum (Checksum), and availability of the adaptive data (Adaptives) as follows and byte Flags represented in hexadecimal mode: (C) FUJITSU . . . . . . . . . . . . . F/W : 80C24E04 F/W HDA : 82-80C2 Data : 29/01/2001 Family : PB-16E HIMALAYA Checksum : 480D31C6 Flags : 81 The module catalogue shows the modules used in the current microprogram. If the utility does not recognize the microprogram version (with a corresponding message at utility start), then the module catalogue and the zone allocation table are assumed by default depending on the selected model at the utility start. Read ROM into file command performs reading of the ROM contents into a file with the *.bin extension. When this operation is selected the file name should be input without extension. The read file is placed into the current \PC3000\ subdirectory. This operation can be executed for a completely functional drive only, and cannot be performed for a separate PCB. Write ROM from file – performs writing the drive ROM from a file. If this operation is selected the file with *.bin extension located in the PC3000 subdirectory should be indicated. As soon as the file is chosen, the writing process starts. During the procedure the drive spindle motor stops, the ROM microcircuit is programmed, after that the drive RESET, the spindle motor spinning up and recalibration are executed, and the drive reports on readiness. If for some reason the writing procedure was not accomplished or was performed incorrectly then the spindle motor will not start and you'll see an error message on screen. There is a great diversity of firmware versions in the MPF-AT and MPG families, and at that the majority of them are incompatible. To some extent it is caused by the manufacturer’s efforts to fix errors1, as well as by differences in the construction of HDA within the same family, more specifically - in the construction of the magnetic-head assembly and servo information. An attempt to create a correspondence table for firmware and PCB versions and HDA types failed because of their immense number (please see Chapter 11 on compatibility between firmware and HDA). Writing the ROM can be performed to a PCB without HDA in Kernel mode. It is possible in case when the ROM microcircuit’s checksum doesn’t match its reference value (when the ROM firmware is corrupt or if the ROM microcircuit is empty). If the ROM microcircuit’s checksum matches the reference value, then writing the ROM is possible on an assembled and set on readiness disc only. But a situation is possible when by mistake a firmware version inappropriate for the board is recorded, then the disc is unable to report on readiness. In such case the board only without its HDA is connected to PC-3000 and prior to switching on the power supply any two of the data lines (I/O) of the ROM microcircuit have to be short-circuited with tweezers (see picture of the package types at the end of the Fujitsu HDD description), after turning power on the tweezers should be removed. At that the checksum of the ROM will not match, and the board gets set on readiness immediately, then the utility can be loaded in Kernel mode and a corresponding firmware version can be written. Please see Chapter 15 to learn about this procedure in detail. Supported ROMs – output the information about the ROM versions connecting up into the utility and ROM versions which are located at this moment in configurational file Fujitsu.ini. As required the user of the utility can connect up by himself the ROM into the ini-file, in case discovering a new versions of ROM. This procedure is described in details in part 18. Work with disk firmware zone – accomplishes operations with disk service data stored on service tracks: 1

There is firmware update software (see http://www.fel.fujitsu.com/home/drivers.asp?L=en&CID=1).

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Disk service data check. Selection of this command brings the following list of basic modules on screen: SN (Serial number) module – contains the drive's serial number; HS (Head Select) module – contains the total number of heads and numbers of the used ones; TS (Track Skip, for MPG-AT/H/E) module – drive's table of defective tracks; CS (Cylinder Skip, for MPF-AT) module – drive's table of defective cylinders; PL (Primary List) module – drive's table of defective sectors; FI (Factory Information) module – contains information on production cycle. Of all the data the utility displays just the date of drive manufacture. CI (Components Information) module – contains information about HDA components: magnetic discs (MEDIA), heads (HEADS), preamplifier/commutator microcircuit (HD-IC), spindle motor (DCM); ZP (Zones Plan) module – contains information on allocation of zones; SM (Security Master) module – contains information about master password; SU (Security User) module – contains information about user password. Following the list of basic modules a list of FIRMWARE MODULES is output as follows: # ID Name Length Output Identification where: # - module number; ID – module descriptor; Name – module key name; Length – module length in sectors; Output – result of module reading; Identification – result of module header comparison. Resource – is a place of pickup the module: HDA from service zone and ROM from the RAM of the pcb. At correct initialization of HDD the modules from service zone is copying in RAM of pcb. If the HDD has reading of service information problems (errors in HDA strikes) the value in the strike ROM will show errors (modules errors in RAM), except the modules which are loaded in RAM by defaults from ROM. Drive service data writing/reading. This command records all the necessary data into the disk service zone. It is necessary to re-write the service data if it is corrupt or if drive’s electronic circuit board was replaced during repair (or ROM program was changed) and the version of microprocessor control program of the new board is incompatible with the resident HDA microprogram. In order to write the service data you should select the menu option “WRITE FIRMWARE FROM DATABASE TO DISK”, ROM version and appropriate service data version. You'll be offered to write to drive’s RAM or to disk service zone. In order to accomplish a flawless writing the service data should first be written to RAM, and only then to disk. Upon completion of writing to the disk it is necessary to switch off/on drive power supply, clean the PL and TS (CS) tables of defects and switch off/on the drive power supply again. In case you use PC-3K PWR adapter the whole switching procedure is performed automatically. Attention! The utility checks whether the service data matches the version of ROM being recorded to. In case of mismatch a notification will appear with an offer to write compatible modules only. In such case even after successful writing completion an error message will appear on screen. This utility enables the user to create and supplement a firmware database. In order to add a new firmware version to the database you'll have to connect a good drive with that firmware and select the («ADD FIRMWARE TO DATABASE») option; then the processor firmware version and model name should be input, for example: 82-80C2 MPG310AT. If firmware has been added with errors it can be deleted using the option «REMOVE FIRMWARE FROM THE DATABASE». Attention! If the utility recognizes the ROM1 it works with the list of modules taken from the drive ROM during subsequent service data writing and reading. But it is possible that some of the modules have not been recorded by the manufacturer on an absolutely functional disk. In that case the utility will notify about module absence and offer to stop the writing/reading operation or to continue. If it is known a priori that the drive being read is good then the operation may be continued, for it will be accomplished correctly. Such peculiarity of work is caused by certain confusion at the manufacturing plant. For example, the ROM modules' list contains module ID=00h, however, there is no such module in actual drives, therefore utilities block it. Modules reading – the operation allows reading the drive hardware data in the order of its storage in HDD service zone. Read modules are placed in a respective subdirectory (see Table 5.3.1):

1

If the utility could not recognize the drive ROM all the operations are performed with a reduced set of default modules.

6

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Table 5.3.1 Family MPG3xxxAT/E MPG3xxxAH/E MPF3xxxAT TAU, MPA-MPE, MPF3xxxAH

Utility name Pcfujmpg Pcfjmpgh Pcfujmpf All Arh. MB9000 utilities

Subdirectory for work with modules FUJMODGA FUJMODGH FUJMODF FUJ_MOD

The name for every read file is generated as follows: ~PR ID NAME.rpm, where: ~ - the symbol identifying a firmware module; PR – module type, 01 - module from the disc, 02 – module from RAM, Hex byte; ID – module’s descriptor, Hex byte; NAME – file name, it can contain from 2 to 3 ASCII symbols. For example: ~010csm.rpm – means master password module SM read from disc; ~0204hs.rpm – HS module (heads selection) read from RAM. Prior to execution of modules reading operation a list of modules available for reading appears on screen, where you should pick up any specific module or the «ALL MODULES» option using the [SPACE] key. In the latter case all the service data modules are read into respective subdirectories (see table 5.3.1). If a subdirectory already contains modules with the same names, the reading procedure will overwrite them without warning. Modules writing – the operation allows to write a service data module (or modules) to the drive's service zone or RAM. Prior to execution of this operation a list of modules in the modules work subdirectory (see Table 5.3.1) available for writing appears on the screen, where you should pick up any specific module or the «ALL MODULES» option using the [SPACE] key. In the latter case the utility offers to select writing modules to disk or to RAM, where all the modules located in a respective subdirectory will be subsequently written. Attention! During the writing process the utility doesn’t check module’s structure, therefore it is necessary to exercise extreme caution while using this operation otherwise the disk can become irreversibly damaged. Translator recalculation – that menu option is meant for restoration of static translator part (DM module) on the basis of the PL table. Complete translator restoration also requires to provide for accuracy of its dynamic part (TS module). Safety subsystem – allows viewing set passwords and resetting them without corrupting user’s data if needed. Log cleanup – it allows to perform the cleanup of modules containing the list of errors which HDD have found during the work. These modules are 27h, 28h, 2Dh (FA), 31h(RE), 32h(WE), 70h and for the families MPGAT/AH additional modules 51h ɢ 52h. Heads deactivation performs software deactivation of defective drive heads, inverse operation is also possible. Prior to switching-off make sure that there are no records about heads being deactivated in the defects table, otherwise the defects table should be reset first. When the heads deactivation mode is selected the table of used heads appears on screen and you are prompted to switch the defective heads off or to switch operable ones on. After entering this mode the blinking cursor appears at the first head. Press the [Space] key to switch the head off/on, and [Enter] - to move to the next one. Press [Esc] to cancel this mode. Any head can be switched off, unless a restriction exists in the family. Attention! After software heads de/activation it is necessary to switch off/on drive power supply and reboot the utility! In case of software heads de/activation drives automatically change model name after reboot, with the exception of nonstandard models (please see Chapter 14). Spindle stop commands to stop the drive spindle. This mode is used during performance of HOT SWAP boards replacement and might be used in the process of user’s data recovery. Work with adaptive data offers two modes – "adaptives transfer" and "adaptives matching". Adaptives transfer menu option serves for copying the adaptive data from one file to another. No actions are performed with the connected drive. The pop-up window allows to select the type and name for source adaptive data file and the destination file. The file type is determined by the location of adaptive data block in it. There are two defined file types: "ROM file" and "module file". In case of work with ROM file the adaptives are located at offset FDE0h. In case of work with the module 20h the adaptives are located at file beginning. After input of all the necessary parameters the utility will perform actual transfer of 512 bytes of the adaptive data from one file to the other. Adaptives matching menu option is designed to search for adaptive data matching the current drive in the existing file set. In order to work with a drive you'll have to find a firmware that would quite promptly (in less than 1 min.) set the drive on readiness without knocking sounds. Files with adaptive data should be located in the ADP_DIR subdirectory of the utility directory. In the process of work the utility will sequentially load adaptives from source files Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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to drive RAM and attempt to read module 20h from disk surface. If reading operation is successful the report will include the name of the file containing adaptives that allow to read module 20h and the name of the file to which the 20h module has actually been read. You can break the matching process at any time by pressing [ESC]. In such case, as with completion of matching all the source files, you'll see a brief report (containing a list of successful operations only) on performed works. A complete report that allows to find out, which files have been processed but did not match, names of matching adaptive data files and downloaded 20h modules can be found in the file ADP_DIR\adp_find.log.

5.4. Drive ID. Drive ID option outputs to screen the drive ID. Actually you can modify its serial number only. You should press [Enter] to enter new parameters or [Esc] if the ID has to remain unchanged.

5.5. Formatting. Formatting option starts the native format procedure (Low-Level Format). Prior to the formatting procedure the drive will erase the translator tables, check the defects tables for quantity and accuracy and start the actual formatting process, when the drive skips defective sectors and defective tracks, the numbers of which it reads from the defects table. The formatting procedure cannot be interrupted since after its completion a recalculation and translator recording takes place. If format ends in error it means presence of corrupt servo information or incorrectly compiled defects table (illegal values or values exceeding limits), in such case the drive's translator will not be recalculated, which will render impossible its work using the logical parameters. Therefore it is recommended to save in a temporary file the service data prior to formatting start to allow its subsequent restoration. Formatting takes approximately 20 minutes, but it depends on the model, condition of magnetic disks and can increase considerably for defective surfaces. Formatting error can appear immediately after the formatting procedure begins in case of incorrect PL and TS (CS) tables' contents. For instance, that happens if some heads were switched off in the process while the PL and TS defects tables contain left-over notes about defects for deactivated heads. That will be indicated in PL and TS tables by the difference between the total number of defective sectors and their total amount for the remaining heads. In that case, it is necessary to reset the tables of defects. You should remember to group defective sectors into tracks. The following threshold values are allowed for MPG drives: - the number of P-LIST records does not exceed 5200; - the number of defective sectors in one track does not exceed 63; - consecutive chain of track defects in TS does not exceed 128 cylinders. If an error occurs the contents of drive's registers is output on the screen. In some cases the information can be useful, thus the 04h (ABRT) formatting error indicates incorrectly created PL, TS (CS) tables of defects, for example, containing more than 63 defects per track. In that case the registers 1F4 and 1F5 will contain the defective cylinder number and 1F6 – head number. Formatting error 18h means corruption of servo information; registers 1F3 - 1F6 contain LBA, where a corrupt servo field has been discovered. The information can be used for drive capacity restriction from the end.

5.6. Logical scanning. Logical scanning option starts the defects detection procedure utilizing logical parameters in LBA. The following setup menu appears on the screen before the test beginning: Initial LBA position Final LBA position Reverse scanning Passes Retries of a defect Critical time (ms) Perform writing test Verification instead of reading

0 xxxxxxxx No 3 3 100. No Yes

Initial and final LBA position parameters determine the test range. Reverse scanning defines testing direction. Switching is performed using the [Y] key for "Yes" and [N] for "No" or [Space]. A drive reads data ahead therefore direct scanning is somewhat faster than reverse. Passes parameter determines the number of complete test passes from the initial to final LBA. Input range is from 1 to 100.

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Retries of a defect parameter determines the test reaction to errors. The test is performed block-by-block in LBA notation and if an error is discovered the test proceeds to sector-by-sector analysis of such block. The number of repetitions for the analysis is defined by the "retries of a defect" parameter. In order to increase the test speed during the first pass the index equal to 1 is always suggested (the value input by the operator is used during all subsequent passes). The index value range is from 1 to 10. Critical time – determines latency time of performing the operations read (or write). If this period is exceeded the sector is considered defects. The limitation of inputs are 10ms up to 999 ms, by defaults parameters it is indicated 100 ms. The reducing of critical time should be performed very carefully. Too small value of critical time (depends of the model of HDD, concrete model of pc where the test is performing) can caused the faulse error. Moreover, periodically the HDD is performing termocalibration and this can be considered as error. Writing can be switched on in the test and verification procedure can be replaced with reading. Testing quality in such case improves, but its duration increases, too. Switching writing on/off and substitution of reading instead of verification is done using [Y] key for "Yes" and [N] for "No" or [Space]. The surface test is based on an adaptive algorithm – detected defects are not addressed during subsequent passes. This procedure considerably decreases test duration for drives with a large number of defects. Please keep in mind that testing duration depends heavily on the number of defective sectors in a drive: the greater their number is the longer the test will run. Upon completion of surface scanning procedure, the table of all discovered logical defects in LBA notation appears on the screen. Pressing [Enter] key translates all logical defects into physical ones and displays them on the screen; second pressing [Enter] appends all the defects to previous records in the PL table. After that the formatting procedure should be performed. The test setup menu contains recommended parameters by default.

5.7. S.M.A.R.T. table S.M.A.R.T. table allows to view and reset S.M.A.R.T. drive parameters, and to load parameters from an external file: View S.M.A.R.T. table. This command allows viewing S.M.A.R.T. drive parameters. You can read about S.M.A.R.T. in details in the PC-3000-AT tester description. In the drive S.M.A.R.T. table is located in 09h, 0Ah, 0Bh modules. Attributes are stored in 09h module and thresholds - in 0Ah module. S.M.A.R.T. parameters reset – this command returns all the attributes to initial values except some of them. For example, relocated defects attribute resets in case of successful formatting and recalculation of translator’s tables while the spindle spin up time attribute is calculated every time the power supply is switched on. The attributes reset doesn’t work with some drives, in such case you can use S.M.A.R.T. external module loading option. Load S.M.A.R.T. (external module) – this command allows to load a value from some external file with the *.sma extension containing the “reset” attributes to the 09h module.

5.8. Defects table Defects table – allows to view, to add, to regroup or cleanup the defects table. View defects table. This command allows to view the table of relocated defects of the drive. First the TS track defects are displayed (for MPF-AT family – cylinder CS), followed by the sector PL. In the MPG-AT/H/E families defects are represented in the tables by heads in PCHS (Physical CHS) and ordered by cylinders and sectors. In the MPF-AT family defects aren’t ordered by heads, they are in the same list, but sorted by cylinders, heads and sectors. While viewing the table the total number of drive defects is indicated (and for MPG-AT/H/E the number of defects ordered by heads). Viewing the tables of defects allows to estimate the quality and condition of the magnetic disks used in the drive. Add LBA defect. This command adds a logical defect in LBA notation, which was detected, for example, by a PC-3000AT or Defectoscope utility. After addition all logical structure defects are translated into physical notation and placed into the defects table. Formatting is required after adding defects to the table. Add LCHS defect. This operation is similar to the previous one with the exception of defects input, which is performed using logical parameters in CHS notation. Please keep in mind that logical CHS mode’s limitation is 8 Gbt. Add physical sector. The operation allows to input physical defective sectors manually. This command is necessary to input a supposed defect, which couldn’t be discovered during surface scanning. For example, on completion of SURFACE SCANNING the following defects appeared in the table: Cyl: 745 Cyl: 747 Cyl: 748

Sec: 46 Sec: 46 Sec: 46

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The records demonstrate that the defect is a scratch, but the table contains no records on cylinder no. 746, where sector 46 supposedly should be defective. It is recommended to add such defects to the table. Formatting is required after adding defects to the table. Add physical track (cylinder). The operation allows to enter physical defective tracks (cylinder for MPF-AT) manually. Group into tracks (cylinders). This menu item allows to group into defective tracks those defective sectors, which already are entered into the PL defects table. When you enter the mode the message: LIMIT OF GROUPING INTO TRACKS appears, and you are prompted to input the threshold value above which sector defects are to be grouped into defective tracks (cylinders) and added to the TS (CS) table. Group tracks into cylinders- it allows to regroup track defects into cylinders (only for the family MPGAT/AH). In this connection all tracks defects which are in the table TS must be automatically copied by all heads of defective track. Such operation allows to hide defects better. Import of logical defects table. This command allows to add values from a *.bad file to the defects table. Such file can be prepared, for instance, by PC-DEFECTOSCOPE software. The pcdefect.bad file structure is described in the manual for the PC-DEFECTOSCOPE utility. After adding the defects formatting procedure must be performed (please see Chapter 5.5). Clear defects table. You'll be offered to reset the defects table(s). After the execution of this command the selected defects table(s) is cleaned-up – the number of defective sectors is made equal to zero. In case of TS (CS) table erasing it is necessary to switch off/on the drive power supply to force reloading of dynamic tables; if you use PC-3K PWR adapter the operation is performed automatically.

5.9. Automatic mode. Automatic mode allows to scan the drive automatically without operator intervention. When this mode is selected two lists appear on the screen: TASKS LIST and AVAILABLE TASKS. Before the testing starts a test program must be created or a previously created one loaded. Attention! Operation in automatic mode for Arh. ARM7 families does not differ from that for Arh. MB9000 families therefore please consult the automatic mode description for Arh. MB9000.

6. Brief technical description of ARM7-based families of Fujitsu drives. The main difference between ARM7-based drives and previous MB9000-based drive families is manifested in the presence of resident loaded complementary code for the controlling microprocessor. Therefore a mechanism of firmware modules' loading directly to drive RAM via IDE interface has been implemented in those drives. Thus, in cases of service data corruption the modules first have to be loaded to RAM and only then recorded to disk.

6.1. MPF3xxxAT family The manufacturer's specification defines this family as Picobird-15 (PB-15). Table 6.1.1 Family

MPF3xxxAT

Basic model MPF3204AT MPF3153AT MPF3102AT

Capacity 20,4 Gb 15,3 Gb 10,2 Gb

Number of disks 2 2 1

Number of heads 4 3 2

Phys. cyls 19680 19680 19680

Sect./track 352-624 352-624 352-624

Logical cyl. param, hds, sect.1 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63

ROM label PFT

6.1.1. Disk space organization in MPF3xxxAT family drives Logical disk space is represented in the Table 6.1.1. In all the models their full capacity is available in LBA mode only since the minimum capacity of manufactured drives is 10 Gb. As with previous families MPF3xxxAT drives provide for an opportunity to limit the logical disk space (please see Arh.MB9000-based drives description). Physical disk space structure is shown in the Figure 6.1.1. The drives utilize the principle of zone-sector writing, at that the whole disk space is divided into 15 zones. It is necessary to pay attention to the initial cylinder of the user's data zone. Unlike the previous families, in the MPF3xxxAT family the operating zone begins with the 0 cylinder corresponding to the logical zero cylinder.

1

- full capacity available in LBA mode only.

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Zone 1

Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Zone 5

Zone 6

Zone 7

Zone 8

000...1199 1200...3479 3480...4799 4800...5759 5760...6719 6720...7559 7560...8999 9000...10319 624 sec 600 sec 588 sec 576 sec 576 sec 560 sec 544 sec 528 sec Zone 9

Zone 10

Zone 11

Zone 12

Zone 13

Zone 14

Zone 15

10320...11879 11880...12599 12600...13799 13800...15359 15360...16919 16920...18239 18240...19680 480 sec 448 sec 396 sec 504 sec 492 sec 420 sec 352 sec

Fig.6.1.1. Disk space structure of MPF3xxxAT drives. The firmware zone is inaccessible in an apparent form and is represented by modules, available through their identification numbers (ID). Those modules contain essential configuration tables of the drive, and unlike previous drive families, also resident microcode for the controlling microprocessor in the module identified as 3Dh. During initialization that module is loaded to HDD RAM, and along with ROM it forms the drive controlling microprogram. Module 3Dh is registered as ROM (it has a corresponding header), and an absolute version match between that module and ROM firmware is an essential condition. If module 3Dh has not been loaded into RAM the drive cannot be operated, besides, the commands of modules writing/reading in the disk service zone do not work. In such case it is necessary to load hardware data into drive RAM first, and then write the data to the drive hardware zone. Modules are handled through their road map located in the ROM microcircuit on the control board. In case if the ROM version has not been recognized (modules road map has not been found) then operations with hardware zone are performed by default in accordance with the following table: ID 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E

Length 78 41 1 1 1 16 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Name DM PL CS HS FI DT SI SN none none none SM SU CI

ID 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E

Length 4 1 2 1 1 64 32 8 1 1 41 4 32 1

Name SCH SEQ WTP END ECT ERR SVE TAM DPT CS PL RRO none none

ID 27 28 2D 30 31 32 35 3D 70

Length 1 1 1 1 8 8 1 44 30

Name none none FA ZP RE WE none none none

Capacity of the PL sector defects table is 5247 defects as sum total for all surfaces. Capacity of the CS cylinder defects table is 253 defects as sum total for all surfaces. Unlike other drive families, the MPF3xxxAT family utilizes cylinder-by-cylinder defects relocation instead of a track-by-track procedure. One more peculiarity of that family is manifested in its combined organization of defects tables, i.e. contrary to other Fujitsu drive families the tables are not recorded separately for each head. As it has been stated above, unlike the previous Arh. MB9000 families the firmware contained in ROM on the control board of the Arh. ARM7 HDD family is insufficient for drive operation. A part of microprocessor code necessary for drive operation is located in the drive service zone, and loaded during initialization into RAM for subsequent use of the code. Therefore, if drive hardware data is corrupt, performance of a writing procedure requires loading of hardware data into RAM first with its further writing onto the drive. Please see Chapter 11 of this manual for details on microcode compatibility. External view of MPF3xxxxAT control board is shown in Fig. 6.1.2.

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CA21246 -B76X

HA13626

28F1101T PFT

1

3

1

2 W981616AH

1. 20.0 MHz 2. BA3946 3. TA7BM08F Master

Jumper Configuration

2 4 6 8

Slave 2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7 9

1 3 5 7 9

Cable Select 2 4 6 8

Slave Present 2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7 9

1 3 5 7 9

Fig.6.1.2. External view of MPF3xxxxAT control board. Translation from LCHS or LBA into actual physical representation is achieved in the same manner as in the MPE drive family. One distinctive feature is the initial cylinder in the user's data zone. The said zone in the MPF3xxxxAT family starts from cylinder 0, which corresponds directly to the logical zero cylinder.

6.1.2. Modification of drive configuration Drive model in this family is defined according to the heads selection table (HS module). During initialization the table is read, and the drive is set up as a specific model depending on the number of used surfaces, please, see Table 6.1.2 and Figure 6.1.3. The basic models of the manufacturer are shown in italics, regular font means monosurface model obtained by switching on just 1 operating head. Setting drive up as such a model requires modification of module ID=3Dh, please see Chapter 14 for details. Table 6.1.2. Family Model Number of surfaces 4 MPF3204AT MPF3153AT 3 MPF3xxxAT MPF3102AT 2 MPF3102AT 1

H3 H2 H1 H0

Fig.6.1.3. Disks arrangement inside the package.

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Reconfiguration can be performed from the top downwards by switching off defective surfaces and magnetic disks. Besides, not only top surfaces can be switched off but also those in the middle of the package. Junior models are thus created from the top ones. In case of configuration modification the model name, logical drive parameters and translator’s operation are set up automatically. Monosurface model is an exception, and requires updating of module ID=3Dh. Upon completion of configuration modification it is necessary to switch the drive power supply off/on in order to initialize such drive with new parameters, and reload the utility, selecting a basic model at utility start.

6.2. MPG3xxxAT/H/E family The family is constituted by four subfamilies: Picobird-16 (PB-16), Picobird-16E (PB-16E), Picobird-16H (PB-16H), and Picobird-16HE (PB-16HE). They differ by recording density and consist of various listed models (please see Table 6.2.1.). Table 6.2.1 Family PB16 PB16E PB16H

PB16HE

Basic models1

Capacity

MPG3307AT MPG3409AT MPG3204AT MPG3102AT MPG3204AH MPG3102AH MPG3409AH-E MPG3307AH-E MPG3204AH-E

30.7 Gb 40.9 Gb 20.4 Gb 10.2 Gb 20.4 Gb 10.2 Gb 40.9 Gb 30.7 Gb 20.4 Gb

Number of disks

Number of heads

Phys. cylinder

2 2 1 1 2 1 2 2 1

4 4 2 1 4 2 4 3 2

28928 30784 30784 30784 19423 19423 30784 30784 30784

Sect. / track 357-630 441-789 441-789 441-789 352-608 352-608 456-736 456-736 456-736

Logical cyl. param, hds, 2 sect 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63 16383, 16, 63

ROM label PGT8 PGT8 PGT8

PGT8

6.2.1. Disk space organization in MPG3xxxAT/H/E family drives The full capacity of all models in this family is available in LBA mode only. Just as with the previous families, MPG3xxxAT/H/E provides for an opportunity to limit the logical disk space (see technical description of Arh.MB9000-based drive families). In such case setting a jumper between the 1st and the 2nd pins (see fig. 6.2.5.) in the MPG3102AT/H/E, MPG3204AT/H/E, and MPG3307AT/H/E models imposes capacity limitation of 2.1 Gb, and in MPG3409AT/H/E model the limitation is 33.8 Gb. Physical disk space structure for Picobird-16 (PB-16), Picobird-16E (PB-16E), Picobird-16H (PB-16H), and Picobird-16HE (PB-16HE) subfamilies are shown in the figures 6.2.1.-6.2.4 respectively. Those drives use the principle of zone-sector writing with subdivision of all the disk space into 15 zones. The initial cylinder of the operating zone starts from the cylinder 0, which corresponds directly to the logical zero cylinder. Zone 1 0...2655 630 sec Zone 9

Zone 2

Zone 3

2656...5311 5312...6527 630 sec 601 sec Zone 10

Zone 4

Zone 5

6528...9151 588 sec

9152...11839 567 sec

Zone 11

Zone 12

Zone 6

Zone 7

Zone 8

11840...13823 13824...15743 15744...18751 546 sec 525 sec 504 sec

Zone 13

Zone 14

Zone 15

18752...19583 19584...21887 21888...24191 24192...25631 25632...27039 27040...28895 28896...28927 483 sec 462 sec 441 sec 420 sec 399 sec 378 sec 357 sec

Fig.6.2.1. Disk space structure in drive: MPG3307AT. Zone 1

Zone 2

0...3231 798 sec

3232...5727 777 sec

Zone 9

Zone 10

Zone 3

Zone 4

5728...9055 9056...11071 756 sec 720 sec 11Zone

Zone 5

Zone 6

Zone 7

Zone 8

11072...13055 13056...15743 15744...17663 17664...20031 702 sec 672 sec 648 sec 630 sec

Zone 12

Zone 13

Zone 14

Zone 15

20032...22335 22336...23999 24000...25375 25376...27135 27136...28799 28800...30431 30432...30784 588 sec 567 sec 546 sec 518 sec 504 sec 468 sec 441 sec

Fig.6.2.2. Disk space structure in drives: MPG3409AT, MPG3204AT, MPG3102AT.

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Zone 2

Zone 3

Zone 4

Zone 5

Zone 6

0...1215 608 sec

1216...2431 608 sec

2432...3743 608 sec

3744...4831 600 sec

4832...5823 588 sec

5824...7743 576 sec

Zone 9

Zone 10

Zone 11

Zone 12

Zone 14

Zone 13

Zone 7

Zone 8

7744...9631 544 sec

9632...10815 528 sec

Zone 15

10816...12351 12352...13951 13952...15231 15232...16287 16288...17823 17824...19071 19072...19423 496 sec 480 sec 448 sec 432 sec 400 sec 384 sec 352 sec

Fig.6.2.3. Disk space structure in drives: MPG33204AH, MPG3102AH.

Zone 1

Zone 2

0...2783 736 sec

2784...5567 736 sec

Zone 9

Zone 3

Zone 4

5568...8351 8352...11263 736 sec 736 sec

Zone 10

Zone 11

Zone 5

Zone 6

Zone 7

Zone 8

11264...13439 13440...16095 16096...17983 17984...19839 720 sec 684 sec 672 sec 640 sec

Zone 12

Zone 14

Zone 13

Zone 15

19840...22175 22176...23583 23584...25087 25088...26719 26720...28575 28576...29951 29952...30783 608 sec 588 sec 576 sec 544 sec 512 sec 492 sec 456 sec

Fig.6.2.4. Disk space structure in drives: MPG3409AH-E, MPG3307AH-E, MPG3204AH-E. The firmware zone is inaccessible in an apparent form and is represented by modules, available through their identification numbers (ID). Those modules contain essential configuration tables of the drive, and unlike previous drive families, also resident microcode for the controlling microprocessor in the module identified as 3Dh. During initialization the module is loaded to HDD RAM, and along with ROM it forms the drive controlling microprogram. Module 3Dh is registered as ROM (it has a corresponding header), and an absolute version match between that module and ROM firmware is an essential condition. If module 3Dh has not been loaded into RAM the drive cannot be operated, besides, the commands of modules writing/reading in the disk service zone do not work. In such case it is necessary to load hardware data into drive RAM first, and then write the data to the drive hardware zone. Modules are handled through their road map located in the ROM microcircuit on the control board. In case if the ROM version has not been recognized (modules road map has not been found) then operations with hardware zone are performed by default in accordance with the following table: ID 01 02 03 04 05 06 07 08 09 0A 0B 0C 0D 0E

Length 81 41 13 1 1 18 1 1 1 1 1 1 1 1

Name DM PL TS HS FI DT SI SN none none none SM SU CI

ID 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 1A 1B 1C 1D 1E 1F

Length 1 1 2 1 4 128 32 8 1 13 41 5 36 1 7

Name SCH SEQ WTP END ECT ERR SVE TAM DPT TS PL RRO none none REC

ID 20 27 28 29 2D 2E 30 31 32 35 36 3D 40 41 50 51 52 60 70

Length 6 1 1 10 1 5 1 8 8 1 51 52/56 1 1 2 9 9 14 0

Name none none none SH FA none ZP RE WE none SH none none none none none none SR (used irregularly) none

Capacity of the PL sector defects table is 5243 defects as sum total for all surfaces. Capacity of the TS cylinder defects table is 3319 defects as sum total for all surfaces. As it has been stated above, unlike the previous Arh. MB9000 families the firmware contained in ROM on the control board of the Arh. ARM7 HDD family is insufficient for drive operation. A part of microprocessor code

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necessary for drive operation, is located in the drive service zone, and loaded during initialization into RAM for subsequent use of the code. Therefore, if drive hardware data is corrupt, performance of a writing procedure requires loading of hardware data into RAM first with its further writing onto the drive. Please see Chapter 11 of this manual for details on microcode compatibility. External view of MPGxxxxAT/H/E control board is shown in Fig. 6.2.5.

1 1 2 3

1. HA13627 2. DI758 3. LE28F1101T-40 Jumper Configuration Master 2 4 6 8

Slave 2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7 9

1 3 5 7 9

Cable Select 2 4 6 8

Slave Present 2 4 6 8

1 3 5 7 9

1 3 5 7 9

Fig.6.2.5. External view of MPG3xxxAT/H/E control board.

6.2.2. Modification of drive configuration Drive model in this family is defined according to the heads selection table (HS module). During initialization the table is read, and the drive is set up as a specific model depending on the number of used surfaces, please, see table 6.2.2 and figure 6.2.6. The basic models of the manufacturer are shown in italics, regular font means monosurface model obtained by switching on just 1 operating head. Setting a drive up as such a model requires modification of module ID=3Dh, please see Chapter 14 for details.

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Table 6.2.2. Family PB16

PB16E

PB16H

PB16HE

Model MPG3307AT MPG3153AT MPG3153AT MPG3153AT MPG3409AT MPG3102AT MPG3204AT MPG3102AT MPG3204AH MPG3102AH MPG3102AH MPG3102AH MPF3409AT MPF3307AT MPF3204AT MPF3102AT

Number of surfaces 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1 4 3 2 1

H3 H2 H1 H0

Fig.6.2.6. Disks arrangement inside the package. Reconfiguration can be performed from the top downwards by switching off defective surfaces and magnetic disks. Besides, not only top surfaces can be switched off but also those in the middle of the package. Junior models are thus created from the top ones. In case of configuration modification the model name, logical drive parameters and translator’s operation are set up automatically. Monosurface model is an exception, and requires updating of module ID=3Dh. Upon completion of configuration modification it is necessary to switch the drive power supply off/on in order to initialize such drive with new parameters, and reload the utility, selecting a basic model at utility start.

7. Repair of ARM7-based Fujitsu drives. Repair of drives belonging to MPF-AT and MPG families has some peculiarities compared to preceding MB9000-based drive families. They include the presence of resident microprocessor code, a large number of incompatible firmware versions, factory errors in code (especially in models dated by the year 2000) as well as differences in the HDA construction and service data structure even in the same models with different dates of manufacture. All of the above complicates initial fault diagnostics and selection of control board for replacement in case of its malfunction. Still, for malfunction search one can employ the methods suggested for Fujitsu drive families of preceding generations.

7.1. Hardware repair. 7.1.1. Structure chart. The circuit design of Fujitsu drives reviewed in this manual is very similar, all models are based on HIMALAYA integrated chip. Various families differ by their cache buffer capacity, data storage density, etc. The MPG3xxxAT drive structure chart is represented in Figure 7.1.

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Console I/F (RS232C) Himalaya 2.0

CL-SH8671 Switch

40.0 MHz

MCU ARM7TDMI

Flach ROM 64K x 16 bits

ATA Series Termination

RDC CL-SH3515 HDC SH7661

I/F - PIO Mode-4 - Multiword DMA Mode-2 - Ultra DMA Mode-2 (66.6 MB/s) - Ultra DMA Mode-2 (100 MB/s) Buffer

Head IC SR1756 R/W

SVC HA13627 SPM/VCM control

Bandwidth = 160.0 MB/s

Data Buffer 256K x 16 bits or 1024K x 16 bits

Figure 7.1 MPG3xxxAT drive - structure chart.

7.1.2. Initialization. The drive initializes itself at power-up: 1. Power-up. 2. Self-diagnostics 1: - data bus and MPU address test; - writing/reading test of microcircuit registers via internal data bus; - internal RAM writing/reading test. 3. Spindle motor start-up. 4. Self-diagnostics 2: - buffer RAM writing/reading test. 5. Stabilizing the spindle motor rotation speed. 6. Heads release from latch (magnetic heads' unparking). 7. Service data reading. 8. Recalibration start. 9. Setting itself in readiness mode (ATA command waiting).

7.1.3. Microcircuitry malfunctions. 1. Flash ROM malfunction. Problems with Flash ROM circuit in MPF-AT and MPG are considerably less frequent than in previous families. However, data corruption or erasure still can happen to Flash ROM microcircuits. The board in such cases demonstrates "no signs of life" or the drive operation may look erratic. Diagnostics of such malfunction requires reading the Flash ROM contents and its subsequent comparison to a reference value. If the drive starts operation and sets itself on readiness Flash ROM can be read through the utility option WORK WITH ROM. If the drive does not set itself on readiness then the ROM contents can be read in Kernel mode only or in a ROM programmer having unsoldered the ROM circuit first. Attention! When you compare the Flash ROM contents to the reference value, keep in mind that the last 512 bytes of ROM contents are adaptive HDA data and they are individual for the specific drive model. That’s why during comparison their contents may turn out to be different. 2. VCM (voice coil motor) & SPM (spindle motor) controller malfunction (HA13626 in MPF-AT, HA13627 in MPG. Hitachi Semiconductors, the manufacturer of those microcircuits, doesn’t distribute their description. HA13626 microcircuit is quite fail-safe and if there are no evident signs of its overheating then most likely it is functional. The Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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HA13627 microcircuit is used in MPG families and frequently enough suffers from the substrate separation defect and local overheating of the crystal. With such malfunction the drive spins up normally, sets on readiness, operates, and after a while the spindle motor stops. (it’s a defect similar to TDA5247HT microcircuit of the Quantum drives). 3. Integrated chipset (CL-SH8669 in MPF-AT and CL-SH8671 in MPG family), contains the ARM7TDMI processor, CL-SH3515 reading/writing channel (the microcircuit was used separately in MPF-AH drives) and CL-SH7661 interface controller. This circuit is the weak spot of MPF-AT and (especially) MPG drives, it causes 90% of troubles with those drives. The malfunction becomes apparent after circuitry heating (especially in summer period) during writing cycles. As a rule in such cases a drive corrupts its own firmware modules. One can indirectly judge about the microcircuit operability by activity in data bus lines, connected to ROM and buffer RAM chip. If there is none you should check the presence of power voltage and clock generation or a steady "RESET" signal. Complete check of integrated chipset requires drive testing in PC-3000AT in cyclic mode with writing set on for at least 3 full passes. If a drive malfunctions, hangs (does not report readiness), erases firmware modules, then the circuit is defective. In some cases this can be corrected by microcircuit unsoldering, solder alloy replacement on board pads and the circuit, flushing the residue of old fusing agent and subsequent soldering the microcircuit back with obligatory flushing.

7.2. Software repair. 7.2.1. Drive restoration algorithm. The basic distinction of these families from the previous ones is manifested in a wide diversity of incompatible firmware versions and service data versions. And more, even similar ROM versions have an area of 512 bytes at the end, containing adaptive data (i.e. firmware adjustments for a specific HDD model). That leads to incompatibility even between similar ROM versions, causing both common operation slow-downs during reading and even knocking sounds during initialization. Thereat during the diagnostics of the drive by the method of the substitution of the printed circuit board of the operable HDD it is essential to reprogrammed ROM of the working pcb using the firmware of the diagnosed one. Depending on the condition of the drive being repaired its restoration may require some specific operations. For example, if at power-up the drive doesn’t spin up the spindle motor, or spins it up and stops, then most probably the defect consists in malfunction of the electronics board, which needs a repair. If spindle motor spins up, but instead of recalibration sounds you hear monotonous strokes of the positioner hitting against the limit stop, then the defect indicates incorrect drive servo system operation and may arise from: - ROM version incompatible with HDA (see Chapter 11 for more details); - malfunction of the head-and-disk assembly preamplifier-commutator microcircuit located inside HDA; - malfunction of HDA; - heavy corruption of servo fields or a shift of magnetic disks' package after an impact (one sign indicating that the drive took an impact is greater noise of spindle motor operation and case vibration). In any of these cases excepting the first one, software restoration of such drive is impossible. If after switching power on the drive spins up the spindle motor and unparks the magnetic heads, but while entering the PC-3000AT program generates the ABRT (04h) error, or errors appear one after another while reading drive surfaces, then it means that the drive can’t read hardware data from the disk. That kind of defect may arise from: - data reading/translation channel malfunction; - servo modules corruption (see Chapter 9 for more details); - incompatibility between the hardware data version and the firmware recorded in the control board ROM (read more about that in Chapter 11). In such case ensure that the control board is functional (the best variant is the method of the substitution), the ROM and HDA versions are compatible, and begin the hardware data restoration from step 1. If after switching power on the drive initializes, recalibrates, and its drive ID is read, but testing reveals BAD sectors, then the restoration should be started from step 2. 1. To restore service area (SA). The HDD restoration procedure is: a) To perform Check firmware structure and determine the damaged modules. If only part of modules is damaged you can overwrite it, using the technique described in chapter 9. b) If the HDD has the most of damaged modules, including the overlay module 3Dh you should write the modules into the RAM first and only then into the disc. c) Switch the drive power supply off/on to reinitialize it. 2. Cleanup: - Defects table PL, TS (CS); - erase the logs;

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- reset SMART. 3. Run SERVO TEST. During testing a track-by-track surface formatting is performed, the testing procedure measures the time of decoding for all the servo fields on the current track and the obtained value is shown on a respective diagram. When the test is complete the table containing the number of the defective sectors appears on the screen. Pressing the [Enter] key will write all the defective sectors into the PL-table, and defective tracks into the TS (CS) table. Servo test shouldn’t be interrupted and must be accomplished from the beginning to the end. 4. Run SURFACE SCANNING. The test checks physical parameters. When the surface test procedure is complete a table containing the number of defective sectors appears on the screen. Pressing the [Enter] key will write all the defective sectors into the PL-table, and defective tracks into the TS (CS) table. 5. To perform the group of tracks into the cylinders (only for the family MPG-AT/AH). 6. On completion of the tests 3 and 4 according to their results make a conclusion about the necessity of switching some surfaces off. For example, you can switch off the surfaces with extensive servo corruption, or surfaces containing maximal number of defects. After surfaces deactivation it is necessary to switch the drive power supply off/on and restart the program, having selected a new model at utility start, and proceed with hardware restoration from step 2. 7. Perform low-level (factory) format procedure, which should be accomplished successfully. If formatting ends in error you should repeat steps 3, 4, and 5. 8. Run LOGICAL SCANNING procedure performed in LBA format. It is possible to switch writing off and perform verification instead of reading to speed up testing considerably, see Chapter 5. When the surface scanning procedure is over the table of all discovered logical defects in LBA notation appears on screen. Pressing the [Enter] key translates logical defects into physical and displays them on screen; second pressing [Enter] key appends all the defects to the PL table. After that step 8 should be performed. If the logical scanning didn’t detect any errors, then proceed with step 9. 9.

Perform low-level (factory) format procedure, which should be accomplished successfully.

10. Record serial number to drive ID if necessary. 11. Run PC-3000AT COMPLEX TEST. If an error is discovered, repeat steps 7 and 8. 12. Run PC-3000AT COMPLEX TEST and make sure the drive is fully functional.

7.2.2. Tests' duration. Tests' duration is shown in the Table 7.2.2. and corresponds to testing in a Celeron-466 PC. Table 7.2.2.1 Test2 Servo test Surface scanning Formatting Logical scanning

MPF3102AT 20 min 45 min 15 min 40 min

MPG3102AT 10 min 30 min 10 min 25 min

8. Special utility files for Fujitsu drives. The utilities' complex contains besides the main files also auxiliary service files. Their names match the utility’s name while their extension corresponds to the file type: /utility’s name/.rsc – microprogram recourses' database file used for hardware data writing/reading and included in the supplied kit; /utility’s name/.log – text file for the drive test results generated by the utility at the first program launch and appended with every subsequent drive test. The file contains all the settings and test results. Data on the automatic drive test performance is also recorded to this file; /utility’s name/.sma – file contains the reset SMART attributes, and acts as a service module (ID=09h) image. It is used in the SMART parameters reset operations. Other file names are selected by user, but their extensions are determined by the utility depending on their types: *.tsk – task file, which is used for settings’ saving in automatic test mode; *.bin – file contains firmware for the drive’s ROM, and it is created during firmware reading from ROM; 1 2

- average testing duration is indicated, it can increase considerably if defects are numerous. - with default test setup parameters.

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*.rpm – technological files of the drives' resident firmware modules. During the reading procedure they are copied to their respective directory (see Table 5.3.1). *.log files can be viewed as regular text files; *.bin files can be viewed as binary files.

9. Restoration of hardware modules in the MPF-AT and MPG families. A defect of hardware data modules is a frequently occurring fault in these families (especially in MPG). The malfunction manifests itself as follows: the drive spins up the spindle motor, re-calibrates itself and outputs the ABRT error. And the most unpleasant thing is that it happens absolutely unexpectedly, especially for the user and the user’s data. Diagnostics of such malfunction requires to select the "HARDWARE DATA STRUCTURE TESTING" mode in the "HARDWARE DATA/OPERATIONS WITH HARDWARE" menu, and to inspect which modules are defective in the "PROGRAM MODULES" table. You can also do it in a different manner. Select the "MODULES READING" mode from the "OPERATIONS WITH HARDWARE" menu and read all the modules from the drive. Then it is necessary to exit the utility and view lengths of the read modules. If the length of some modules is equal to 0, then consequently these modules are defective, and it is necessary to re-write them. Modules ID=01h, 09h, 27h, 2Dh, 31h, 32h, 36h, 60h1, and 70h suffer from corruption most frequently. Some of the modules are critical for data protection and should not be overwritten if you wish to preserve the user's data, for example, the modules 01h (DM), 03h (TS/CS) and 06h (DT). The DM module contains a table of exceptions, TS (CS) module contains the track (cylinder) defects' dynamic table, the DT module contains translator and represents a link between the logical space, defects table and drive's physical space. The remaining modules are not so critical, and may be re-written, but it is recommended to copy them from the same HDD model with the same hardware version, for example, the modules ID=01h (DM), 04h (HS), 3Dh. Some modules can be copied from any suitable drive, namely: 08h, 09h, 0Bh, 0Ch, 27h, 2Dh, 31h, 32h, 36h, 51h, 52h, 60h1, 70h, however in 95% of cases corruption influences not the whole list but just a part of it. As a rule, the problem is in modules of logs 51h, 52h, 70h, while all the rest cause errors because of those three malfunctioning modules. Rewriting those three modules automatically restores the rest. Anyway, prior to starting the drive restoration it is necessary to save all the modules and the ROM firmware to have an opportunity to reverse the changes.

10. ROM data structure in MPF-AT and MPG drive families. Flash ROM firmware data structure of these families differs from the previous ones. First of all, it is due to their 32-bit CPU (compared to the 16-bit CPU used in previous families). Table 10.1 represents the firmware structure in ROM, and Fig. 10.1 demonstrates its header. Table 10.1 Address 0h 20 h 24 h 28 h 2A h 2B h 2C h 30 h … … 1FDE0 h 1FFE0 h

1

Length 32 bytes 4 bytes 4 bytes 2 bytes 1 byte 1 byte 4 bytes 16 bytes … … 512 bytes 32 bytes

Purpose Keyword: (C) FUJITSU ……………………………… Firmware version Version date Reserved Version prefix Mutex byte (presence of adaptive data, heads' map and disks' map.) Checksum for the whole ROM including adaptives but without header ASCII family name …. …. Adaptives (checksum adjusted and equal to 0) Keyword: (C) FUJITSU ………………………………

Module 60h is not used in several models, so it can be left without re-writing.

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00000: 00010: 00020: 00030:

Fujitsu MPF-AT, MPG

28 2E 80 50

43 2E B5 42

29 2E B6 2D

20 2E 03 31

46 2E 20 36

55 2E 00 45

4A 2E 11 20

49 2E 27 48

54 2E 00 49

53 2E 00 4D

55 2E A9 41

20 2E A1 4C

2E 2E 1C 41

2E 2E 12 59

2E 2E 4C 41

2E 2E 50 20

(C) FUJITSU .... ................ ȭµ¶ ' ©ȸ LP PB-16E HIMALAYA

Fig. 10.1 Firmware header in ROM. The loaded firmware portion has a similar header, the so-called overlay. It is located in the disk hardware zone in the module ID=3Dh, and loaded to the HDD RAM during initialization. The essential condition is an absolute match between the overlay version and the ROM firmware version. The overlay doesn’t contain adaptives, and may have different length depending on its version. Its last 32 bytes contain the keyword “(C) FUJITSU.......” (see the Table 10.1).

10.1. Mutex byte in ROM. Mutex byte is located at offset 2Bh from ROM beginning and consists of 8 bits. The bits' meanings are as follows: D7 – sign of adaptives' presence in ROM, but the bit does not influence anything, it's purely informative; D6, D5 – heads' table used for hardware data loading; D4 – purpose unknown. Usually = 0; D3 - purpose unknown. Usually = 0; D2 - purpose unknown. Usually = 0; D1, D0 – binary presentation of disks' number in a drive. If ROM is re-written from a database during drive repair please note the values of D6, D5, D1, and D0 bits. The rest are either set to 0 or influence nothing. For example, single-disk MPG3102AT model uses head 0 and its hardware data contains adaptives, therefore the mutex byte should read as follows: 10100001 = A1h. If the same model uses head 1, then it will look like: 11000001 = C1h. In case of MPG3204AT model with adaptives we have A1h, model MPG3307AT without adaptives is represented by 02h. Meaning of D6 and D5 bits: D6, D5 = 0 0 – a drive with two heads (it can also have two disks, see description of D1, and D0); D6, D5 = 0 1 – a single-head drive with operating head 0; D6, D5 = 1 0 – a single-head drive with operating head 1. Meaning of D1 and D0 bits: D1, D0 = 0 1 – single-disk drive; D1, D0 = 1 0 – double-disk drive. If bits D6 and D5 = 0, it is assumed that hardware data loading begins with head 0, i.e. values: 01h (81h) and 21h (A1h) are similar for model MPG3102AT.

11. On compatibility between ROM firmware and HDA service data in MPF-AT and MPG drive families (boards compatibility). The hardware data version written in HDA can be found on the drive label. Version number is indicated in its right lower corner, below the line REV.NO. A 0 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 (see fig. 11.1) and consists of a prefix (3 characters) and a version number (4 characters) written through dash.

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Figure 11.1. Fujitsu drive label. Version number A9-80B5. The first prefix character denotes the month of drive manufacture in hex notation and is of no importance for compatibility. Therefore if you wish to determine exactly the ROM version that has to be recorded for current HDA you should check 4-byte ROM version number in ROM dump and note its first byte and also note the prefix byte. Thus you'll have a 6-character number of a required ROM version (see. Table 10.1 and Figure 10.1). For example, in this dump the ROM version will be A9-80B5. If a drive sets itself on readiness you can review ROM firmware version using a corresponding utility (see Chapter 5.3) or else you can read the board ROM in Kernel mode (see Chapter 15). The match of the version’s number shown on HDA, and the ROM firmware version number doesn’t necessarily mean a trouble-free match between the HDA and the current ROM version. First, you should check in ROM (and correct, if necessary) the mutex byte (see Chapter 10). You should also take into account the presence of adaptives. Actually the adaptives – individual HDA program settings – are recorded in ROM of some single-disk models. They are calculated during servo fields recording on a Pushpin-free STW (Servo Track Writer)1. That means that use of a board other than native may cause "alien" adaptives to be recorded to ROM. It may lead to poor reading quality, slow work of such drive or even "fidgeting" or heads knocking during initialization. However, it is quite possible to pick up a board with suitable ROM firmware for a specific HDA. The examples can be as follows: 1. A drive board is damaged and needs to be replaced. To accomplish that you can take a similar functional board and solder the ROM from the damaged board onto the new one. It is possible to unsolder the ROM from the damaged board, read its contents in a ROM programmer and write it to the new board without HDA (see Chapter 15 on this procedure). Any of these operations produces a completely functional drive with a “native ROM”. 2. A drive doesn’t have its “native” board. Such situations are possible in the following cases: a. If the board ROM is malfunctioning; b. If the board is lost; c. If the HDD has already been repaired and it’s difficult to determine whether the board is “native” or not. Whatever the case is, first of all it is necessary to record the corresponding ROM version without its adaptives (i.e. to write the code 00h from the address 1FDE0h to the address 1FFE0h up to the line “(C) FUJITSU”). If you have a MPFAT or MPG-AH/AHE or a double-disk MPG-AT family drive the compatibility procedure can be considered complete (none of those families uses adaptives). The new installed board will work normally with drive HDA. If you have a single-disk MPG-AT (MPG3102AT or MPG3204AT) model its HDA may contain adaptives. So, if the actions above lead to "fidgeting sounds" during initialization you should use the adaptives' selection method described in Chapter 17. The method is reading the contents of the module ID=20h. Its first 512 bytes are a copy of the adaptives, which should be written to the ROM beginning with the address IFDE0h. Reading the adaptives and writing them to ROM allows to produce a completely functional drive. 3. A drive doesn’t have its “native” board, and its hardware zone is defective or re-written. That situation is the most complicated; being similar to the previous one with one exception: the module ID=20h either cannot be read, or is “alien”. In such case you should also use the adaptives' selection method, but the probability of 100% match of selected adaptives is extremely low. Most likely you'll succeed in picking up proper adaptives, but the drive will be really unstable operating very slowly and with eventual seek errors.

12. Data saving peculiarity in MPF-AT and MPG drive families. The problem is caused by existing variety of hardware data and ROM firmware versions. Besides, drive adaptives in these families are stored in ROM, that is why it is so important to save the “hardware data+ROM” set. Moreover, the adaptives make such a set strictly dependent on the model (the number of physically present heads). In this connection it is recommended to create a subdirectory called, for example, MPG, and generate subdirectories: PB16, PB16E, PB16H and PB16AHE in it, in order to place there ROM and hardware data of specific models in the corresponding families. An example of such structure is represented in Figure 12.1.

1

- adaptives are recorded both to ROM and service data module 20h on disk.

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C:\ PC-3000

ROM DATA MPG

PB16 PB16E PB16H PB16AHE

MPG3102A.001

FUJMODGA pcfujmpg.rsc rom.bin readme.txt

MPG3102A.002

MPG3204A.001

Figure 12.1. Sample directory structure for hardware data storage. It is necessary to save ROM contents and resource file of a given model, and all the read modules (arranged into directories according to Table 5.3.1). It is also possible to generate a text file containing necessary notes. The saved settings would be sufficient both for complete drive repair, and for restoration of individual modules thereof.

13. Password disabling. The problem of the ATA disk passwords disabling can arise in case when a user has set a password on the drive and has forgotten it, or when a password has been set by a malicious virus program. In the first case you might view the password in the “DISK SERVICE DATA CHECK” mode (see Chapter 5.3). In the second case unprintable ASCII characters (belonging to the 20h – 7Fh range) are frequently used. That is why the “SAFETY SUBSYSTEM” mode in the utility provides for a password resetting option (see Chapter 5.3). Both of these modes are available in the menu “WORK WITH DISK FIRMWARE ZONE”.

14. Patching the module ID=3Dh in non-standard models of MPF-AT, and MPG drive families The heads capacity miscount (understatement) problem often appears after software heads switching off in Fujitsu drives. This problem is related to the capacity evaluation routine used in the Fujitsu drive firmware. Every firmware contains Max LBA values for all manufactured modifications of a given model (in that case modifications are understood as drives with a different number of heads). They are stored in a table and indexed specifically depending on the HDA active heads number. Thus, you have to correct the corresponding section of that table in case of heads over-commutation into a model which is not manufactured by Fujitsu (for example, an MPF AT model with 1 head). The procedure of searching this table in the original (previously uncorrected) module ID=3D is very simple: you should search for the sequence of values, claimed by the Max LBA parameter. For example: Drive Standard heads set: Value Max LBA (Dec) Value Max LBA (Hex) Searching for sequence:

Fujitsu MPF AT (PB15) 2 20015856 1316AF0 F0 6A 31 01

Drive

Fujitsu MPG AT E (PB16E)

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3 30023280 1CA1E70 70 1E CA 01

4 40031712 262D5E0 E0 D5 62 02

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Standard heads set: Value Max LBA (Dec) Value Max LBA (Hex) Searching for sequence:

1 20015856 1316AF0 F0 6A 31 01

2 40031712 262D5E0 E0 D5 62 02

4 80063424 4C5ABC0 C0 AB C5 04

Drive Fujitsu MPG AT (PB16) Standard heads set: 2 4 Value Max LBA (Dec) 30023280 60046560 Value Max LBA (Hex) 1CA1E70 3943CE0 Searching for sequence: 70 1E CA 01 E0 3C 94 03 Commentary: in the module 3Dh the data is located in Intel’s format (higher significant byte of data is located in higher address.) The values of addresses of searching table is noted below: Model: MPG AT E (PB16E) (F/W HDA) Address : 80 C2 4E 04 (82-80C2) 31A0 82 B5 C1 02 (09-80B5) 31A0 80 B5 B6 03 (A9-80B5) 314C Model: MPF AT (PB15) (F/W HDA) 00 28 8B 00 (06-0028)

Model: MPG AT (PB16) (F/W HDA) 02 B5 AD 03 (30-02B5) 02 B9 D8 03 (00-02B5)

Address : 4370 30BC

Address 2C80

The LBA values correction procedure has some peculiarities for different models. See detailed description in the following sections.

14.1. Fujitsu MPF-AT (PB15). Let's assume that we need to produce a single-head model. We modify the lowest section for a model with 2 heads. In the process of recalculation we have to bear in mind that besides dividing the corresponding number by 2 we need to reserve some disk space for the drive’s service needs (1-2 cylinders). So, for MPF AT we obtain the value equal to 979218h, consequently we record the number 18 92 97 00 into the said section.

14.2. Fujitsu MPG-AT E (PB16E). Let's assume that we need to produce a model with 3 heads. In that case we have to change the section, corresponding to the single-head modification. This model does not require to reserve disk space for the drive’s service needs, we just increase the Max LBA parameter of the single-head modification by three times.

14.3. Fujitsu MPG-AT (PB16). Since the table for this model contains just 2 sections (for modifications with 2 and 4 heads), we need to write the Max LBA values for modifications with 1 and 3 heads into the section for the double-head modification. In that case during new Max LBA calculation we should reserve certain disk space for the drive’s service needs (1-2 cylinders). Let’s make an example: Heads quantity 1 3

Capacity Mb 7314 21942

Max LBA (Dec) 14979072 44936704

Max LBA (Hex) E49000h 2ADAE00h

Value for recording 00 90E4 00 00 AE AD 02

14.4. Fujitsu MPG-AH (PB16 AH), Fujitsu MPG AHE (PB16 AH E). Unfortunately we haven’t tested them in the absence of such drives.

Note:

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At this point we correct just the number returned by a drive as its maximum capacity value. The model’s name (for example, MPG3204AT) remains unchanged (incorrect). Actually the number in the model name is stored in the ID=3D module as a line recorded in several places, that are varied for different hardware, and their exact identification is not possible yet - thus modification may pose a threat of code damage. Theoretically, if someone wants to take a chance, one should look for the last 3 figures of identifier (for example, 204).

15. ROM reading/writing to PCB without a HDA (kernel - mode). The need for reading or writing of ROM data without HDA arises when the disk hardware version and the ROM firmware version do not match. Installation of a PCB with a different firmware version to the HDA leads to drive's inability to report on readiness; thus ROM cannot be written using regular methods provided in the respective utility. Here the microprocessor factory mode and its internal code – KERNEL CODE – can be helpful. The code allows to write ROM firmware without a HDA connected to the PCB. One peculiarity of its work is that the processor at start-up reads the ROM code and attempts to calculate a correct checksum, and if it does not match the CPU will enter the kernel mode that allows to perform ROM writing or reading. If ROM already contains valid firmware (with a different version) its checksum will match, of course. To force the PCB into kernel mode you will need to short circuit two data lines on the ROM chip with tweezers and switch power on the PCB. That will start the PCB in Kernel mode making it report on readiness immediately (DRDY and DSC LEDs will be illuminated). After that you may remove the tweezers. Actions summary: 1. Remove the PCB from HDA and connect PCB to PC-3000 interface and an external1 power supply, which must be off. 2. Short circuit two data lines on ROM chip with tweezers (ROM chip pins arrangement is detailed in the end of Fujitsu Arh. MB9000 description). 3. Start a corresponding utility and select Kernel - mode. 4. Power-up the drive. The PCB should immediately report on readiness (DRDY and DSC LEDs must be illuminated). If that doesn't happen repeat steps 2-4 having short-circuited other data lines. 5. Then you can proceed with ROM writing or reading operations. Fujitsu drives utilize several types of Flash ROM chips - SGS Thomson, Sanyo, etc. If you experience difficulties during work in Kernel – mode (which are especially apparent with Sanyo chips) you should try to short circuit other data lines while entering the mode. A potential problem is manifested in distortion of Flash ROM chip parameters used for adjustment of algorithms applied for subsequent operations with the chip. You can also prepare a temporary file containing just 00 values and record it first. After that at power-up the PCB will automatically switch to Kernel mode, since the checksum will not match. Then you'll be able to record required data. Writing must be followed by a reading operation so that you make sure (using files comparison) that the writing procedure was successful.

16. Translator recalculation. The menu option is meant for restoration of static translator part (DM module) using the PL table as basis. A similar procedure is performed by the low-level format command after successful surface formatting. Achievement of complete translator's restoration requires also to provide separately for the dynamic part accuracy (TS module). It is recommended to save all service data module prior to translator recalculation.

17. Work with adaptive data. Adaptives are individual HDA settings calculated during servo fields recording on a Pushpin-free STW2 (Servo Track Writer). MPG3xxxAH/AHE drive families do not have adaptive data. MPG3xxxAT drive family also uses adaptives just in some models, for example double-disk MPG3409ȺɌ and MPG3307AT contain no adaptives. In general, adaptives are used in single-disk MPG3204AT and MPG3102AT models, though not necessarily. You can tell whether a model uses adaptives or not having read the model ROM (please see Chapters 10 and 11). There is a special menu offered for work with adaptives, it contains two options Adaptives transfer 1 2

- an external power supply is recommended for that operation to make power switching on/off more convenient. - sometimes also called Low-Cost Servowriter.

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Fujitsu MPF-AT, MPG

Adaptives matching Adaptives transfer option serves for copying adaptive data from one file to another. No actions are performed with the connected drive. Utility pop-up window allows to select the type and name for source adaptive data file and the destination file. The file type is determined by the location of adaptive data block in it. There are two defined file types: "ROM file" and "module file". In case of work with a ROM file the adaptives are located at offset FDE0h. In case of work with the module 20h the adaptives are located at file beginning. After input of all the necessary parameters the utility will perform actual transfer of 512 bytes of the adaptive data from one file to the other. Adaptives matching1 is designed to search for adaptive data matching for the current drive using the existing file set and read the drive's module 20h with its "native" adaptive data. Attention! The operation is automatic but a situation is possible when a drive may be damaged during work with a loaded adaptives' block because of heads bouncing. In order to work with a drive you'll have to find a firmware version that would quite promptly (in less than 1 min.) set the drive on readiness without knocking sounds. Of course, reporting on readiness does not mean that anything can be read from such drive. It would be enough if at power-up it sets itself on readiness quickly (without additional self-damage caused by intensive "knocking"), even without loading hardware data from disks. Files with adaptive data should be located in the ADP_DIR subdirectory of the utility directory. There are three sources for matching: ROM files (*.bin), files with module 20h (*.rpm), and adaptive data files (*.adp). *.adp files represent the most space-saving variant of adaptives storage since the contain nothing more2. In the process of work the utility will sequentially load adaptives from source files to drive RAM and attempt to read module 20h from disk surface. If reading operation is successful the report will include the name of the file containing adaptives that allow to read module 20h and the name of the file to which the 20h module has actually been read. You can break the matching process at any time by pressing [ESC]. In such case, as with completion of matching all the source files, you'll see a brief report (containing a list of successful operations only) on performed works. A complete report that allows to find out, which files have been processed but did not match, names of matching adaptive data files and downloaded 20h modules can be found in the file ADP_DIR\adp_find.log.

18. Addition of the new firmware ROM into the file Fujitsu.ini. The utilities for the HDD Fujitsu families MPF-AT and MPG – AT/E/AH allows user to add new firmware ROM, which he can find. A part of the firmware wired-in the utility body and another part is loading after the initialization it from the module Fujitsu.ini. The addition of the unknown firmware into the utility allows to work correctly with the modules of the HDD, which have such firmware. Otherwise the work will be by defaults parameters and some inaccuracy in the head of modules, the length and the quantity of it is possible. To set the work of the utility it is necessary to indicate the shift to the modules table in ROM. The file of the settings of Fujitsu.ini editing: [PB15_DIR] – section for MPF AT (PB15) [PB16_DIR] - section for MPG AT (PB16) ɢ MPG AT-E (PB16E) [PB16H_DIR] - section for MPG AH (PB16H) ɢ MPG AH-E (PB16HE) Commentary – is a string which is beginning with symbol ";" . The format of writing: $xxxxxxxx=$yyyyyyyy ;zzzzzzzz xxxxxxxx – full version of the firmware: F/W (4 byte from the shift 0x20 into ROM), for example: 000020: 80 B5 B6 03 – for the firmware F/W HDA : A9-80B5. yyyyyyyy - hexadecimal shift of the modules table in ROM zzzzzzzz - commentary Example: [PB16_DIR] 1

- The function requires presence of PC-3K PWR power supply controller. - If adaptives have to be transferred from an “adp”-file to ROM file or a module 20h file (see paragraph “Adaptives transfer”) rename an *.adp file to *.rpm and select in the corresponding menu "module" source type. 2

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Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

Ɋɋ-3000 £ ¤ ACELab

Fujitsu MPF-AT, MPG

$20070204=$0001D480 ;x00-2007 Researching of the modules table in new ROM should be perform by signature. MPF AT : 01 00 4E 00 00 00 MPG AT : 01 00 51 00 00 00 MPG AH : 01 00 51 00 00 00 To view which firmware are switched on now you can by option: Service info / Work with ROM / supported firmware.

19. Pcb circuit.

Technical support: [email protected] (8632) 78-50-30, 78-50-40 www.acelab.ru

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