Patrol Operation With Police Communication System
PATROL OPERATION WITH POLICE COMMUNICATION SYSTEM THE IMPORTANCE AND OBJECTIVES OF POLICE PATROL PATROL is derived from the French word PATROUILLER which means to tramp about through the mud of a military camp or roughly to travel on foot. Patrol is the backbone of the Police department because of the following reasons: 1. First of all, it is the only division that cannot be eliminated. All other divisions of the police department may, if necessary, be eliminated. Patrol officers can, and have, assumed the duties of other police elements in times of financial crises requiring agency cutbacks. 2. Patrol officer is the primary agency representative. The majority of contacts between the public and police occur between citizen and patrol. The first and foremost police element is patrol; all other units exist to augment and support this function. This is the only police element to be distributed in a geographic manner calculated to provide rapid service anywhere in the jurisdiction. 3. Patrol provides the initial response every event requiring police presence; whether this is a major crime, serious injury, or a cat up a telephone pole. The patrol officer is the only member of the law enforcement agency to be involved in practically every incident calling for police action. GOALS AND OBJECTIVES: Primary goals and objectives The primary goals and objectives of police patrol are; maintaining order and protecting life and property. These are among the most basic roles of government, and government hires the police to perform these activities. Secondary goals and objectives: 1.
Preventing crimes – the police attempt to prevent crime by trying to create a sense of omnipresence through routine patrol; responding to calls by citizens with problems that may cause crime; and establishing and participating in police-citizens partnerships designed to prevent crime.
Arresting and prosecuting offenders – arresting offenders and assisting prosecutors in bringing charges against defendants is one of the primary methods used by the police to maintain order and protect life and property.
3. Recovering stolen and missing property – when people find property on the street, they generally bring it to a police officer or to a police station.
When people lose property, they generally go to the police station in the hopes that someone has turned it in. Besides all of their other duties then, the police serve as society’s foremost lost and found department. 4. Assisting the sick and injured – because they are available seven days a week and 24 hours a day and because they are highly mobile, the police generally are the closest government agency to any problem. 5. Enforcing non-criminal regulations – when government offices close, the police become roving representative of the government who assist people with problems no one else is available to handle. When lights go off in an apartment building, the water main breaks, people call the police. 6. Delivering services not available elsewhere in the community – the police respond and take whatever actions they can to ameliorate problems and deal with emergencies. They direct traffic, evacuate residents, and decide whom to call for assistance. Because of the diverse activities performed by the police specifically the patrol officers in their daily contact with the public, their responsibilities are categorized into two, namely: a. Law Enforcement – this embraces crime prevention and crime control role, including the customary police functions. b. Order Maintenance – peace keeping on community service role or social services. UNIT II. FACTORS AFFECTING PATROL OPERATIONS A. Factors affecting police performance 1. External factors a. trust and confidence of the people b. participation of the public in patrol activities c. support of the barangay officials 2. Internal factors a. higher pay b. endorsement by higher authorities B. Factors influencing decision making at an operational level Operational level decision makers’ judgments are governed by the same kinds of influences that affect decisions of higher level administrators. But,
because officers operate within a much smaller political sphere, they find their relationships with the more limited community potentially more intense. The reciprocal impact of both officer and community becomes clearer. It is easier to “bargain” within these more intimate relationships. 1. Community input – if citizens do not report crimes to the police or summon on officer when service is needed, police will intervene only in those situations that they personally observe. Witnesses and victims who do not cooperate with the police limit police discretion. A common reason why citizen do not report auto accidents or burglaries to the police is that their insurance might be cancelled or their rate increased if the report is made. Conversely, they might report if they believe such report is necessary in order for them to collect the insurance. The relationship between the victim and offender and the attitude of the citizen toward police also have a great influence on the willingness of the citizen to report. In a sense, the community members express their expectations to police in their interactions with them….The clearer the statement, the better police can structure their discretion to meet the community’s need. 2. Situational factors – several studies have found specific situational factors to be influential in discretionary decision making. Major factors include the attitude and appearance of the offender, political factors such as community attitudes, pressures, and biases. Another important factor is, whether the situation is on view ( one that the officer has been and in which he or she intervene without invitation) or , is one to which the officer was summoned by citizens. 3. Environmental factors a. personal values b. pressure of police supervisors and peers c. personal perception of what alternatives to assess are available An officer who grew up in a conservative environment may find decision making in a liberal environment uncomfortable. Routinely, the officers will be required to “assess” cultural and social engineer at the moment, in his discussion of police use of deadly force, points to an apparent correlation between attitudes of violence in a community and use of deadly force. Where high rates of police violence existed, he found high rates of citizen against police violence also. 4.
Educational and experiential factors – college-educated police recruits were slightly more likely to choose alternative to arrest. Their findings
suggest that education does have some effect upon discretionary decision making. ( Carter, Sapp and Stephens 1989) The Police Exercise of Discretion Discretion is the wise use of one’s judgment, personal experience and common sense to decide a particular situation. The police are decision makers, and most of the decisions they make involves discretion. Discretion is part and parcel of the police role. The policeman on the beat, or in the patrol car, makes more decisions and exercise broader discretion affecting the daily life of people every day, and to a greater extent in many respects than a judge who will ordinarily exercise in a week. No law book, no lawyer, no judge can readily tell how the police officer on the beat exercise his discretion perfectly in everyone of the thousands of hour to hour work of a police officer. The police are trained to be self-reliant and make decisions. Most of the decisions they make involve discretion. The police exercise discretion whenever they must use their own judgment and personal experience in deciding when to act when confronted with specific situations. Should there be full enforcement of the law by the police or can selective enforcement be restored to as a result of discretion. The fact of the matter is that the police do not enforce all laws all the time against all law violators. Several factors can be attributed for the lack of full, strict, or total law enforcement such as: •
Broadness and inflexibility of the criminal statutes
Ambiguity and vagueness of the law
Over criminalization of the criminal law, or too many laws
The need to individualize the law in action (selective enforcement)
Main Problems arising from uncontrolled discretion are: •
it lacks uniformity for implementation
it may be discriminatory
it fosters police corruption in victimless crimes
it converts the law into a personal instrument of social control through the so called “sidewalk justice”
A career in law enforcement can be exciting, challenging, and rewarding for people who are oriented and committed to public service. Yet it can be devastating for those who are not prepared for its rigors. Thousands of dedicated, well-meaning people who thought that police work was the career for which they were destined have discovered that the mental, physical, social, or economic costs of continuing such career were too high. Many others have perished within the field but at considerable expense on their part and that of others. Law enforcement is a hazardous craft that requires strong, caring individuals who can deal consistent with stressful situations. Overtime, the impact of the dangers and stressors inherent in policing affect individual police officers differently. Some, perhaps most, go through their entire careers without suffering personally in any unusual or specific way. For other potential appears to take a special toll on their lives. The sense of community isolations, the potential dangers, and the unique life style all seem to work together to affect adversely certain officer’s physical, mental, and social well-being. A. Physical Hazards 1.
Violence – danger is an inherent part of police work, and this danger is reinforced by the element of authority. Police are required to enforce laws, laws that are many times either more conservative or more liberal than the area or person against whom it is being enforced. Police officers are always interacting with people in moments of crisis. Thus, more often than not, the police are perceived more as adversaries than as friends.
The threat of death and injury due to violence as well as the physiological impact of possibly having to cause death or injury to others is a fact with which law enforcement officers must content. The keys to coping with these hazards are personnel selection and training. 2.
Accidents - law enforcement officers have about an equal potential to lose their lives due to accidents as due to homicide. Automobile accidents, motorcycle accidents, aircraft crashes, being struck by vehicles, accidental shootings, falls, and drowning, tend to be the most common causes for accidental deaths among officers.
3. Contagious disease – during the later half of the twentieth century, police officers hand relatively little to fear from contagious diseases. Some of the most common communicative diseases, such as gonorrhea, herpes, and syphilis, would hopefully not be contracted while on duty. Outbreaks of such old horrors of earlier times as diphtheria, polio, tetanus, small pox and whooping cough were being controlled through vaccinations. B. Psychological Hazards
Historically, many people believed that policing attracted persons with a propensity toward authoritarianism and cynicism – those with a specific police personality. A research suggests that there is no specific personality: rather, that the socialization process in becoming a police officer creates a working personality that the police officer uses in the performance of the job. The working personality and the accompanying sense of isolation are the result of conditions inherent in the practice of police work. Another aspect of the police personality is the concept of cynicism. This is the belief that all people are motivated by selfishness and evil. Unfortunately, after years of seeing humanity as its worst, many police officers subscribe to it. Cynicism become “an emotional plank deeply entrenched in the ethos of the police world, and it serves equally well for attack or defense. For many reasons, police are particularly vulnerable to cynicism. 1.
Emotional Distress. Due to the hazards that are inherent in the law enforcement, all officers will, on occasion, experience emotional distress. Although other occupation may be far more dangerous, the constant exposure to stressful stimuli makes policing one of the most difficult occupations.
The threat of violent death and injury, the constant exposure to human tragedies, the responsibility for others, the feelings of alienation and helplessness, the demands of shifts work, the limited career opportunities, and the lack of input in administrative decision making, all combine to create stress for even the most stable well-adjusted persons. It is of vital importance that law enforcement administrators and employees realize the source and consequences of stress before officers can learn to cope with the stress that is inherent in policing, they must be taught to overcome “John Wayne Mentality”, which means the police refuse to acknowledge any weakness. Once officers have learned to acknowledge the existence of stress, they can be taught how to identify and neutralize those stressors with which they as individuals must content. 2. Mental Illness. If the distress is not dealt with appropriately, it may escalate into behavior that, threaten the welfare of the officer and/others. The individual officer may suffer from relatively mild emotional disturbances, which require only counseling and reassurance, or she/he may be plagued by severe mental disorders that are career or even life threatening in nature.
Law enforcement agencies must not only have assistance programs designed to help officers contend with emotional distress but must also develop strategies to aid those for whom problems become too severe for continued police service.
Medical pensions, extended health coverage, and family support services are only fair for those who have paid too high a price for their police careers. 3. Suicide. Being a police officer also increases one’s risk of falling victim to suicide. Preliminary suicides appear to identify higher levels of suicides among police officers than among other professionals or occupations.
Given the general nature of police work, many officers who feel suicidal are either afraid or have no one to turn to in discussing their feelings. This leads to an even greater sense of isolation, with many believing that suicide is the only way out. 4. Substance abuse. Psychological dependency. Police administrators frequently report that alcohol is a severe problem with officers and often report the existence of alcohol-related problems. The use and abuse of alcohol among police officers is apparently one way of coping with the problems inherent in the job.
Although alcohol is the “drug of choice” among police officers, caffeine and nicotine are also extremely popular. It is not unusual for officers to drink several cups of coffee, glasses of tea, or soft drinks during their workday. Similarly, many officers use tobacco products while on duty. In addition to being chemically addictive, these drugs are also psychologically addictive, in that they often develop as means of killing time during periods of tedium. C. Physiological hazards 1. Substance abuse: Chemical dependency. The impact of drugs and alcohol is even more devastating physically than psychologically. All too frequently, casual use of such substances leads to chemical dependency. Social users of tobacco, alcohol, or narcotics now find themselves in constant need of that particular drug in order to “get by.” This addiction results not only in social difficulties but can become life threatening. 2. Physical health. In addition to substance abuse, a number of other physical hazards exist for police officers. Stress, poor nutrition, and lack of exercise also contribute to poor physical health. Terry 1981 has documented numerous physiological effects of police stress. Some of these problems include headache, indigestion, ulcer, lower back pain, and high blood pressure. In addition, Norveil, Belles, and Hughes (1988) have found that police officers have higher risk of mortality associated with cancer, diabetes,
and heart disease than the non police. It is evident that, strong relationship exists between job-related stress and physical illness. D. Social hazards 1. Isolation from the public. One of the difficult aspects of policing is the sense of isolation from the community. Perhaps this is endemic to law enforcement given the nature of the job. In addition to enforcing unpopular or at the very least nonconsensual laws, police are required to be suspicious. Required to ask questions, to demand answers, “to proceed forcefully against all appearance of transgression…..to penetrate the appearance of innocence…..to discover craftiness… “ 2.
Isolation from the family. All too often, policing becomes a disruptive influence for the family. The potential for danger, the authoritarian nature of the job, the round-the-clock shifts and constantly changing shifts, and accommodations that must be made in family life all work together to increase tension in the law enforcement family. As a result, many believe that marital problems are endemic to law enforcement.
E. Economic hazards 1. Salary limitations. If one’s goal is to accumulate great wealth, he/she should not become a law enforcement officer. Despite their education, training, and professionalism, unless they rise to top administrative positions, become corrupt, or win the lottery, they will experience a lower-middle-class existence. 2. Career limitations. Everyone cannot become the chief of police in a large metropolitan agency. Nor will all those who wish to become supervisor do so. Whether one’s career is successful depends on how one defines success. Many officers who have spent their entire careers as patrol officers in small or midsized law enforcement agencies are rightfully proud of their accomplishments. Similarly, there are many frustrated persons (at all ranks and level of policing) who feel that they never received a fair chance. 3. Liability issues. Failure to act in a manner that is felt to be consistent with proper law enforcement procedures could result in a minor reprimand. More serious violations could result in more severe disciplinary actions, such as suspensions, compulsory transfer, demotions, or even terminations. Violations that are felt to have infringed on the legal rights of others could result in costly civil litigation at the state levels. Violations thought to constitute criminal actions could result in arrest, conviction, and imprisonment.
Whether officers are convicted or subsequently acquitted of all charges, the economic impact of legal costs and career damages can be devastating to both the officers and their families PATROL ACTIVITIES 1. Patrol and Observation – constant and alert patrolling with a keen sense of observation on person and things is a gauge of an efficient patrol officer. Because only people commit crime and they invariably do so with the medium of things, the beat or the mobile patrol crew must focus their attention on these two factors that if left unobserved and unattended, will constitute hazards. Conceptually, a hazard is any person, things, situation or condition that, if allowed to exist may induce an accident or cause the commission of crime. 2. Called for services – the patrol officer, whether on foot or in a radio equipped car, respond to every conceivable call from the public. This is because the police have always been expected to know how to deal with every problem, although most of them are totally unrelated to actual policing functions. Due to diverse range of interpersonal problem the patrol office must mediate in his daily contact with the public, it is important that he must be provided with a background knowledge and understanding of both normal and deviant behavior which he will encounter in the community. 3. Inspectional services – are effectively performed by foot patrol officers in uniform. As they go about their routine tasks of walking their assigned beats they pay particular attentions to person and things. Particularly at night, when assigned in business, financial and commercial districts, they inspect and check doors and display windows of establishments. In residential areas, particularly where apartment-type of buildings abound, inspectional service of the police is necessary. 4. Control of public gatherings – considering the present thinking among the different groups of demonstrators, notwithstanding acts as malicious mischief and vandalism, aggravated by labor strikes and tantamount to anarchy, the police have their hands in these crowd control situations. In the forefront for this police activity is the patrol force whose manpower is drawn from the different police stations. Depending upon the scene of happening, the size of the gathering, and the gravity of the situation, each police station is held responsible to maintain peace and order in its jurisdiction. However, if the assembly is big and unruly, and in the estimate of the situation violence may erupt, the station commander can seek the assistance of the specialized strike force to quell and disperse the crowd. Crowd psychology is a factor in crime prevention. Demonstrations, in any form, whether involving the academe, labor, or subversion, in order to initially be
successful must attract attention. The demonstrator first concern is to arouse the curiosity of the people in their show and eventually win their sympathy to their cause. 5. Responding to emergencies – constant availability to public calls gives the patrol force a unique reputation for efficiency. The fact remains that, in many cases, the patrol office is the single police entity with trained and experienced personnel on duty where human emergencies and domestic crisis arise. The fact is, the public is immediately attended to in time of their need under every conceivable kind of situation. This is the yardstick that measures the patrol force efficiency. 6. Attending to complaints – the uniformed patrol officer on the beat must be, looked upon by the community as their friend and protector. This is the image he must constantly strive to maintain. In so doing, he will always be confronted with situational problems, most of which are not criminal in nature. Still, patrol officers must make every effort to settle the problem amicably because most of these cases are potentially a stimulus to criminal acts. However, he must be cautious to explain to the parties involved the limits of his authority because most often the ground for action is civil in nature 7. Conduct initial investigation – how reliable a patrol officer records the events of a crime to which he responds will have a definite impact on the case outcome when detectives takes over to pursue the case. Actual cases have demonstrated the important contributions made by patrol officers during the investigative process. Records have shown that, notwithstanding the efforts of detective specialists, it is often the information developed by the patrol officer during his initial investigation of the crime that determines whether a case will eventually be solved. The information supplied by the victim and/or the witness to the responding patrol officer can be an important factor fort he solution of the crime. Based on contemporary procedures of many police departments, most often the patrol officer, being the first to arrive at the scene in required to stand-by to protect the crime scene until the arrival of investigators or until the investigators are through in their crime scene investigation. Different police departments have different operating procedures in crime investigation. Patrol officer is limited to conduct only initial investigation at the scene. The objective is for the patrol officer to concentrate in his preventive task. 8. Preservation of crime scene – since crime scenes are classified into indoor, outdoor and vehicle, the first concern of the patrol officer is to estimate the situation. If it is an outdoor scene, he must approximate the area to be covered by the investigation; if it is indoor, he must prevent the entry and exit of people; if it is a vehicle, to protect it from being moved or
tampered. Generally, the success of most criminal investigation begins at the crime scene. The patrol officer should be cognizant of this. 9. Criminal apprehension – despite the utmost efforts by the patrol force in its crime prevention strategies, crime occur. Consequently, it becomes a police responsibility to apprehend the criminal. Hence, patrol commanders must be aware that this responsibility is their main concern, must program their manpower development in such a manner that constant availability of patrol officers to public calls is always assured; that members of the patrol force, whether on foot patrol beats or in mobile patrol sectors, can readily apply the element of surprise in the apprehension of the criminal. 10.Writing of reports – report writing is the last of the ten basic functions and activities a patrol officer has to perform. To many law enforcement officers, whether performing patrol work or investigation functions, report writing is a dilemma. When they enter police service they have only the vision of activity and excitement-pursuing criminals and solving crimes. They do not realize that amount of paper work involved; that for every police action there must be a report-writing reaction. In a police organization, reports are the source of planning, for policy formulation, for decision making and for operation. Since the patrol officer, by nature of his work, is primarily the constant man of the department with the community, his observation of persons, things, and happenings must be properly documented by means of carefully prepared report. ORGANIZATION AND STAFFING OF THE PATROL FUNCTIONS CONCEPT OF ORGANIZATIONBasically, organization consists of arranging personnel, and functions in a systematic manner designed to accommodate stated goals and objectives in the most efficient manner possible. A poorly organized police department cannot function effectively even with the best management. Similarly, an organized police agency will not operate with maximum efficiency if it is not well managed. The act of organizing is indispensable to proper management, and without some form or organizational structure, most police operations could not be carried out. If the organization is poor and if the organizational concepts are poorly understood or applied, the efficiency of the department will severely affected. ORGANIZING FOR PATROL The organization and operation of the patrol force is said to be a semblance of the pattern of organization of a police department because patrol is the police. Due to the nature of work they perform, they adhere very closely to rigid chain of command, specific assignment of duties and responsibilities, and functional job description that distinguishes between line and staff authority.
The objectives of the patrol are the same as those of a police organization. The uniformed patrol officer represents all the powers and responsibilities of the police. In a very real sense, the uniformed patrol force is the police while the specialized branches represent in depth applications of responsibilities and techniques that the patrol officer initiates. In fact, the beat officer, in August Vollmer’s opinion, should be a virtual organic unit. The operational heart of a police organization is the patrol force to which other departmental divisions relate in a supportive capacity. The patrol force incorporates all objectives inherent in the police organization. Since the problem of crime is the concern of government and crime prevention is the basic responsibility of the police, enforcement of laws through effective patrol work is its motivating ingredient to achieve peace and order. Undeniably, the programs of the community are inseparably linked with peace and order. Without peace, without order, society is doomed politically, socially, economically, and culturally. A police department is organized first and foremost for crime prevention. In a newly created community a prime concern of local government officials and citizens is peace and order. Hence, priority is the establishment of a police department entrusted with the basic responsibility of crime prevention. They are aware of the police role of safeguard the community’s progress and stability. Operationally, this task is the sole responsibility of the patrol force of any police organization. The prevention of crime is a fundamental role of the patrol force. The preventive role of the individual patrol officer on his beat is a basic element of modern police service. The mere presence of a properly organized and efficiently operating patrol force is conceded to be one of the greatest crime determine thus far developed by organized society. DETERMINATION OF PATROL FORCE REQUIREMENTS:
PATROL FORCE SIZE. Given the fact that personnel resources are limited in every police agency… no police administrator ever has as many officers as might be desired---what proportion of the force should be assigned to patrol. First, there is no magic number, and no role of thumb that can provide guidance. In small agencies, it is common for 80 to 90 percent of the force to be devoted to patrol. In very large agencies, the proportion might be 50 percent or less.
The single most important factor is the number and nature of the services that the patrol officers are expected to provide. If patrol officers are required to make complete investigations of every criminal incident reported or discovered on their beats, plus respond to all non-criminal crises, plus devote a considerable amount of time to preventive patrolling, plus handle a variety of nonproductive tasks, then certainly a large number of patrol officers will be needed. Geographical and population factors also influence the need for patrol officers. If population density is relatively high, a single officer may be kept busy responding to calls for service within a small geographical area. If population density is low, one officer may be enough to handle all calls that arise in a very large area. However, response time may be unacceptably large because of the long distances that an officer must travel to respond to a call. These are not the only factors that affect the size of the patrol force. The basic efficiency of the agency and the productivity of the patrol officers themselves have an importance influence. If administrative and operational procedures are designed to assist officers in carrying out their tasks quickly and effectively, and if the officers are competent, well trained, and highly motivated, fewer officers will be needed to handle a given quantity of work.
But the ruling factor, in practical terms, usually is the size of the agency’s budget. Few police administrators are given a budget large enough to hire all the officers they would like to have. Consequently, the usual procedure is to tract the personnel who must be assigned to non-patrol duties. Whatever is left determines the number of patrol officers available. This base number may be decreased by, shifting non-patrol officers to patrol-or by persuading the parent government to increase the agency’s budget. Decreasing the size of the patrol force is not always a bad idea. For example, in a small department it may be the standard practice for patrol officers to perform all of the tasks involved in booking their prisoners including fingerprinting, photographing, assigning a jail cell and so on. This may be a time-consuming procedure. At some point, it is likely to be preferable to assign one officer as the full-time booking officer, thereby reducing the amount of time that the patrol officers must spend off the street. Even if this means there will be less patrol officer on duty, the increased efficiency of the entire force may out weigh the loss. However, if the agency has a booking officer whose duties are not sufficient to keep officer occupied full time, it might be preferable to shift the booking officer to patrol and require the patrol officers to do their own booking of prisoners, or to assign other duties to the booking officer. PATROL FORCE STAFFING
It is not possible, of course, to retain all competent patrol officers within the patrol division. Even though the administrator must make conscientious efforts to avoid draining the patrol force to supply manpower for specialized units, the fact remains that the patrol division must usually accommodate most of the new officers who join the department. The patrol division is also the largest division, and thus there are far more basic police-officer positions within the patrol force than in any other division. Since it is therefore inevitable that good patrol officers will gravitate away from patrol, even in the best of systems, the department should compensate for their loss by staffing middle-level and command-level positions in patrol with the very best talent available in the department. SCHEDULING The police administrator and middle-management supervisors must make decisions about the assignment of shift hours, rotation of beat assignments, and rotation of shifts. Once the policy is established, there not be further planning work except when changes in procedures are contemplated. Frequent change of beats undesirable. The highest quality of patrol services results from the permanent assignment of an officer to a beat. Police hazards vary from place to place, and the resulting police duties consequently vary in nature from beat to beat. Advantages may be taken of difference in abilities and preferences of patrol officers by assigning them to beats having duties for which they are best suited. Frequent beat changes prevent an officer from becoming well acquainted with persons, hazards, and facilities on his beat; they also interfere with continuity of service because the investigation and disposition of cases sometimes extend over several days, and when a change is made, there is delay and sometimes neglect in disposing of these cases. Finally, frequent changes of beat assignments make it difficult to place responsibility for unsatisfactory conditions. Procedures that interfere with the application of the important rule that officers should be held responsible for the performance of their duties must not be tolerated. Rotation of shifts is undesirable. Most efficient patrol service is attained by the permanent assignment of patrol officer to a platoon unit such time as the quality of his/her services and the need for them justify transfer to another platoon. Police hazards, facilities, persons aboard, and physical conditions vary according to the hour of the day or night; consequently, knowledge of conditions on one shift is not as useful to service on another shift. Police duties at night are quite different from police duties during the daytime, and the officer should not be rotated if the advantages of specialization are to be derived and if the officer’s skills to be developed in handling certain types of situations.
Usually, the first platoon (midnight to 8 A.M shift) is considered the least desirable, and the second platoon (daylight shift) the most desirable. Recruits should be assigned for training and experience to the first platoon, where their less frequent contact with more critical citizens lessens the disadvantages of their experience. Also, if recruits exposed only to qualified field-training officers, they are likely to develop superior attitudes and work habits. Well-trained, experienced, very active officers are needed on the third platoon (evening shift); officers should be assigned to this shift as they become skilled by experience in police service and as they develop seniority. As they become older in years, more experienced, and less active physically, officers should be transferred finally to the day shift as a reward for long, efficient service; their knowledge of police service and acquaintance with the general public will prove most useful on this shift, and they will be subjected to less physical strain. Permanent shift greatly facilitate having different numbers of officers on each shift, in proportion to workload. Rotation of shifts, on the other hand, may force a chief to adopt the same number of beats on each shift simply because of the scheduling difficulties TYPES OF PATROL. The most common and known form of police patrol the world over is that performed on foot by a police officer in uniform. Its success in controlling crime was discovered in London since 1763, when Henry Fielding, aided by his brother St. John, both of whom successively, were Bow Street magistrates, organized a force known as the Bow Street Foot Patrol. This was a group of men, privately employed and, specially trained as thief takers. Its demonstrated utility gave rise to Robert Peel’s Metropolitan Police Act of 1829.
On the modern police department, there are many types of patrol. In this unit they will be discussed as the type of patrol, the advantages and disadvantages of each and various techniques that may be utilized. Most patrols are assigned to a particular area called a BEAT, and they are referred to as Beat Patrols. The size of the BEAT is determined by: a. The type of area to be patrolled ( business, farming, residential, recreation, etc.) b. The type of criminal activity that occurs in the area. c. The frequency of crime in the area
To properly cover the beat, when it is needed, patrols assigned in shifts. Shifts are usually determined by, the number of personnel available and, the frequency of calls for police service. A. FOOT PATROL The foot patrol is the most expensive type of patrol; and most departments have reduced their foot patrols to a minimum because of this. However, it does have certain advantages that warrant its continued use if even on a limited basis. Usually, a foot patrol is assigned to an area of dense population such as the downtown area, or where there is heavy traffic congestion and the assistance of an officer is needed to help eliminated traffic jams. Foot patrol is used to secure two types of police geographical units: 1. Post – a fixed position or location where an officer is assigned for guard duty. 2. Beat – the smallest area specially assigned for patrol purposes. Types of Foot Patrol 1. Fixed foot patrol – is usually used for traffic, surveillance, parades and special events 2. Mobile foot patrol – is used where there is considerable foot movement such as patrolling business and shopping centers, high crime areas, and in places where there are many or multiple family dwellings. a. line beat patrol is used in securing a certain portion of roads or street b. random foot patrol is sued in checking residential building, business establishments, dark alleys, and parking lots. Some of the advantages of the Foot Patrol Beat 1. The foot patrol officer can provide immediate traffic control when it is needed. Being within a close proximity to problem areas, he will know when his assistance is needed due to the increase of traffic. He does not have the problem of parking his vehicle, nor finding a place to park it without causing further traffic problems. 2. More person-to-person contact can be made with the public. This provides greater chances to promote good public relations. However, if the wrong man is given this assignment, it can backfire and harm public relations. The foot patrol officer makes more personal contacts and is seen more by the public than any other type of patrol, therefore becomes an important link between the department and the public.
3. The officer can actually get to know the physical layout of his beat better. There are many things that an officer misses by patrolling his beat in a police car because of the speed he is traveling and because of the size of the beat. 4. He gets to know the public on his beat better, and can develop criminal informants easier. He can also make rendezvous with informant easier without being noticed since he does not have to park his police car nearby. 5. A foot patrol officer can sneak up on situation where a patrol car is easily noticed when it approaches. Basic Techniques and Procedures of Foot patrol 1. Do not establish a set of pattern of patrolling procedure 2. Walk systematically (with purpose) on the beat while on patrol 3. Do not smoke nor drink while on patrol especially during night shift. 4. Walk near the curb during daylight. This technique offers: •
a better view for observing street activity
less chance of obstruction by pedestrian on the sidewalk if you are required to take quick action
higher police visibility, which is effective in crime prevention
5. Walk near buildings during night patrol. 6. Do not immediately open the door when intending to get inside. Observe and evaluate first the situation. 7. Check the interiors of buildings and rattle door knobs to ensure that the premises are secure 8. Enter and inspect alleys when not seen by public. 9. Watch for persons loitering or hiding in doorways, either ingress or egress 10.Use fire escapes to inspect building rooftops once in a while. 11.Be attentive or on alert for the sound of breaking glass B. AUTOMOBILE PATROL The automobile is the most economical type of patrol, and offers the greatest tactical ability when used in numbers. The automobile has advantages over all other methods of transportation for general patrol under ordinary conditions.
Some of the advantages of the automobile patrol 1. When speed and mobility are needed such as in a large area that must be covered by few officers, the speed of the automobile allows them to service the whole area and do so efficiently. 2. It is of the best means of preventive enforcement. The patrol type police can with its distinctive colors, red light and doors insignia, is very effective in deterring criminal activity by making people conscious of the presence of police enforcers, and by creating an awareness of punitive action. 3. It offers the officer protection. It protects him from the weather and to some extent from traffic in that he would probably suffer less if hit by another car while he is in the patrol car than he would if he is walking. 4. It permits the officer to carry extra equipment such as rain gear, extra clothing, first aid equipment etc. 5. Patrol vehicles can be used as barricades in roadblocks, and they also offer a higher degree of safety during pursuit of criminals. General techniques and procedures in automobile patrol 1. Thoroughly check the patrol car before leaving the garage. 2. Do not establish route patterns in patrolling the area of jurisdiction (sector) 3. Do not develop the habit of using only the main arteries (primary routes) in your area. Most criminal activity occurs at the back streets, out of sight from the main thoroughfares. 4. Always take note the license numbers of strange or suspicious vehicles. 5. Do not spend too much time in drive-inns or coffee spots. 6. Get out from the patrol car regularly/frequently 7. Se an example to other motorists 8. Avoid driving too fast on general patrol conditions except during emergencies or in pursuing criminals/suspects. Maintain a cruising speed of 20-25 mph during patrol. This is slow enough to make detailed observations without impeding the traffic flow. 9. When conducting solo patrol, maintain frequent contact with the dispatcher or other communication personnel in the field or at the HQ. 10.If you are patrolling with a partner, divide the observation area around your vehicle
11.Minimize hiding behind hills, curves or signboards to trap traffic violators. This is bad PR and serves to erode community confidence in the police sense of fair play. 12.Frequently check the potential trouble spots in your patrol area. 13.Stop periodically among parked cars at the entrance of side streets to observe activity on the street. 14.Check the occupants of vehicles that stop beside and behind you at intersections. 15.Check parking lots in your patrol area regularly for abandoned stolen vehicles. 16.In stopping and checking a vehicle, park at the rear side of the suspect vehicle. Leave the door slightly open unless the area is highly populated. 17.Make it a habit not to leave the key in the police car even for just a minute. One Man versus the two man automobile patrol Two man patrol car 1. A two man patrol car provides the officer with a greater safety factor doubling the manpower and the physical protection. 2. The mistake that one-man makes may be caught by his partner, and vice versa. 3. One officer does not have to drive a full eight hours, and therefore, he is physically fit and can do a better job. The variety of tasks makes the job more interesting. 4. Two pairs of eyes are better than one. It is difficult to drive in our present traffic let alone devote much attention to what is going on around us while we are driving. 5. One-man can operate the radio while the other drives. 6. On quiet nights the driver can have someone to talk to and help keep him awake. Morale is improved through companionship. One-man patrol car 1. The preventive enforcement is doubled by having as many police car on the street.
2. When the officer is alone, he devotes his full attention to his driving and the beat rather to the conversation with his partner. 3. In a two-man car, the officers begin to rely on each other, and as a result of human error, an officer expects support when it isn’t there. A man alone develops self-reliance. 4. In the two-man car, an officer will take more chances than if he is alone. He apparently builds a false sense of security, and sometimes acts without caution because he does not want to appear to be a coward in front of his partner. 5. Personality clashes are reduced. Riding in a small patrol car with another person for eight hours will soon reveal most of his faults. In a short time these faults can get on the other person’s nerves. NOTE: Historically, the traditional foot patrolling in the Philippines was initiated in August 7, 1901 by operation of Act No. 183, known as the Charter of Manila, enacted on July 31, 1901. Governor William Howard Taft, the first Civil Governor of the Philippines formally created the Manila Police Department. Likewise, the second recorded event concerning patrol method in police work was on March 10, 1917, as provided for in the Revised Administrative Code of the Philippines when it mentioned, “Requirement of police service or patrol duty for male residents.” After fifty-three years of foot patrolling in the Philippine policing system the first automobile patrol was introduced on May 17, 1954 by the Manila Police Department, through the initiative and foresight of Hon. Arsenio H Lacson, the first elected Mayor of Manila Isaias Alma Jose was designated by the Mayor to organized the first automobile patrol. He was appointed the first Chief of the Mobile patrol Bureau that he commanded for ten years. C. HORSE PATROL (Mounted patrol) The horse patrol is one of the oldest types of patrol next to walking. At the present time there is still need for the horse patrol where the terrain is steep and rough. The disadvantage of the horse patrol is the cost of stables and upkeep, and their limited use in a city. They are not much good at chasing criminals in an automobile. They tire easily and require close physical attention. The following are some of the most common uses of horse patrol: 1. Park patrol 2. Beach patrol
3. Posse and search duty - any community that is close to, or part of a mountainous area has the problem of chasing down escaped or wanted person who have fled to their areas. They also have the problem of children, hunters and fishermen becoming lost in those areas. The mounted posse is undoubtedly the best means of locating these persons when used in conjunction with the helicopter. 4. Parade and crowd control
The horse also provides its rider with higher and better plane of vision than the driver of a patrol car.
D. DOG PATROL History shows us that dogs have been used as a means of personal protection throughout recorded history. During world war 11,the military on all side widely used dogs as a means of security and protection. ( Egyptian first to use dogs in patrolling). In US, dogs have been used in police patrol since 1900. In April 1957, Baltimore was the only American police force that used trained dogs handler teams on patrol. As of April 1968, about 200 police agencies used a total of 500 man dog teams in police patrol work. The key to the successful use of police dogs in patrol is based first of all on an understanding and willing master; second is, on the proper selection and training of the dogs; and finally is, on preparing the general public for their use. To become a dog’s master or handler, the officer must first of all have an understanding of animals. He must be willing to make personal sacrifices in keeping the dog, as must his family. The selection and training of dogs is very important, and can present many problems. Not all breeds of dogs are suited for police work. Even among those most suited for police work there many that didn’t work out. The type of dog that so far seems to be the best suited for all round police work is the German Shepherd. The use of dogs can work out fine, but if the public thinks that they are a danger to the community as well as to the criminal, they will not last. A well planned public relations campaign must be conducted to show the general public that the police dog is gentle except when commanded by his master, and that his use will be restricted to the more serious offenses. Uses of dogs or K-9s in police operations 1. Provide great assistance in search and rescue as well as in smelling out drugs and bombs. 2. Provide protection for one officer patrol.
3. Great value in crowd control. Trained dogs are fearless and loyal to their handlers have a significant psychological effect on would-be trouble makers. 4.
Extensively used in international airports to detect narcotics and bombs because of their keen sense of smell. A dog is capable of recognizing an odor 10 million times better than a human can.
5. Specially trained dogs are extremely effective in finding bodies dead or alive, just buried or buried for years. 6. Locating trapped people during emergencies. 7. Can be an asset to public efforts. Well trained police dogs can be used for demonstrations in public affairs, schools, or parades. What breeds of working dogs are best suited for police works? 1. German Shepherds – the most frequently used and highest scoring dog for police work. 2. Black Labrador retrievers and Giant Schnauzers 3. Rottweilers, Doberman pinschers 4. Bouviers and Newfoundlands 5. Airedale terriers 6. Alaskan malamutes Disadvantages of using K-9 1. Most police dogs work with only one handler. 2. K-9, like most dogs, is territorial, and its handler and its K-9 cruiser are part of its territory. 3. Dog training is expensive. Dog training usually takes 10 to 20 weeks. 4. Police department that K-9 section is vulnerable to law suits. E. AIRCRAFT PATROL . Among the more recent trends in patrolling is the use of aircraft, either helicopter or fixed-wing. Today, it has become necessary for the police use aircraft in performing both routine and specialized patrol activities. The use of aircraft is not totally new. In 1925, the Los Angeles County Sheriff Department has already formed a volunteer Reserve Aero Squadron. Full-time Aero detail is still an official unit in this police department today. Before 1929, the New York police department
began using aircraft. In 1947, the New York Port Authority began using helicopters for surveillance, transportation, and rescue. Other cities and state agencies in USA have employed helicopters, usually during daylight hours. In 1986, the state of California developed an experimental program using helicopters for police patrolling known as SKY KNIGHT. During the latter part of 1959, the Public Safety Department of Dade County in Florida used the aerial patrol concept. At present, it is effectively utilizing fixed-wing aircraft and helicopters in regular patrols to prevent crime and apprehend offenders or engage in surveillance activities. Advantages of Fixed-wing Aircraft Patrol 1. Patrolling long stretches of highway or expresses of inaccessible land. 2. Excellent for traffic control in long stretches of highways, for search and surveillance and other special missions. Disadvantages of Fixed-wing Aircraft Patrol 1. Fixed-wing aircraft has very little flexibility in congested metropolitan areas. 2. Needs a space of flat land for lift-off and landing. 3. Very expensive to operate. Advantages of Helicopter Patrol 1. Able to travel at low speeds, to hover if necessary, and to land even in small patch of flat land. 2. Increased visual range/scope. 3. More efficient for rescue, medical evacuation, surveillance, and other high profile police activities. 4. Improved response time to emergency calls and other called-for service 5. Increased rate of apprehension of professional and organized crime groups. 6. Improved efficiency of regular patrol units through airborne reconnaissance. 7. Increased ability in conducting searches for missing/lost people suspected offenders and escaping prisoners. 8. Provide a better system of flood lighting areas to be patrolled at night. 9. Capable of broadcasting information to a large area through airborne speakers. 10.Provide rapid emergency transportation of personnel.
11.Added security to patrol officers on foot, motorcycles or in patrol cars through backup offered by aerial patrol. Disadvantages of Helicopter Patrol 1.
Very expensive – high cost of training of pilots/operators, buying, fuel, and special facilities for housing and maintenance.
2. Public complaints about the noise and about being spied upon. 3. Forcibly grounded during bad weather; smog and light or intermittent clouds affecting visibility. 4. Presence of various hazards especially in congested areas. 5. There are landing patterns or procedures that must be followed, which delays landing time. 6. Pilots must work shorter periods of time than regular police shifts since driver of helicopters easily suffer work fatigues. 7. There are many tactical problems to overcome such as location of police units on ground and the exact location of addresses. 8. Element of surprise is lost since criminals could hear the helicopter coming even from a great distance. F. BICYLE PATROL Bicycle patrols are more common in temperate urban areas where limited coverage areas are available. The use of bicycles instead of cars can make police officers more easily approachable, especially in low-crime areas. Bicycles can also be issued to police officers to enhance the mobility and range of foot patrols. Bicycles can also be effective crime-fighting tools when used in densely populated urban areas. The bikes are nearly silent in operation and many criminals do not realize that an approaching person on a bike is actually a police officer. Furthermore, if the criminal attempts to flee on foot, the riding police officer has a speed advantage while able to quickly dismount if necessary. In the Philippine setting the bicycle patrol was once introduced by the Manila Police in 1939 to augment the foot patrol coverage in parks and residential areas. Unfortunately, when two patrol officers were killed, one was stabbed when chasing in his bicycle a bag snatcher at the Luneta Park, while the other one was sideswiped by a bus. Bicycle patrol was abandoned it was then considered hazardous. Advantages of Bicycle Patrol 1. It is economical or inexpensive to operate.
2. It has the combine advantage of mobility and stealth because it can be operated very quietly and without attracting attention. 3. To control burglaries which are getting out of hand. G. MOTORCYCLE PATROL Although the use of motorcycle has lost ground to the use of patrol cars in recent years, their need in congested traffic will insure their continued use as a form of police patrol. The two-wheel motorcycle is quite adaptable to traffic enforcement, parades and escort duty. It has disadvantages of being used only in fair weather, of causing a greater number of accidents that are usually quite serious, and in the long run costing the department almost as much as a patrol vehicle despite the apparent low rate cost. The chance of a motorcycle rider being injured is nine times as great as that of the driver of an automobile. He is also four times likely to be killed than police officer riding in an automobile. The three-wheel motorcycle is used almost exclusively in the enforcement of parking. It has the disadvantage of not providing the rider with protection against the weather. H. MARINE PATROL/BAY AND RIVER PATROL/ BOAT PATROL Marine or water patrol units, aside from being a highly specialized form of police patrol, is likewise expensive to maintain. In the early years of the PC/INP integration, it was the Western Police District who introduced this type of patrol in police work. The objective was to use the watercraft in the anti-smuggling operations along the Pasig river and Manila Bay as well as against robberies committed in bonded warehouses located along the riverbanks. However, because of the expenses incurred in its operation and maintenance did not compensate the advantages, police use it became inoperative. Water patrol units are extremely specialized and are not in great use except in areas with extensive coasts or a great deal of lake or river traffic. The objective was to use the water vehicles in anti-smuggling operations as well as against robberies committed in warehouses along riverbanks or water ports. Like aircraft, boats are expensive to buy, operate and maintain. Further, those who operate them must have special training. Nonetheless, boats are the best means to effectively control violators of water safety regulations as well as to apprehend drug and gun smugglers. They are also valuable in rescue operations during times of flooding as well as in dragging operations for drowning cases.
PATROL TACTICS, STRATEGIES AND ACTIVITIES If the police are to continue to fulfill their basic responsibilities to detect and deter crimes and to apprehend criminals that are the primary goals of patrol activities, they must continue to search for new and more effective patrol activities.
No single patrol strategy will work well in all cases or in every police jurisdiction. The choice of the particular patrol strategy, or combination of strategies, to be employed will depend upon. 1. the resources of the police agency concerned 2. the particular crime problems and patrol objectives 3. the characteristics of the individual community 4. the imagination and determination of the police administrator and his patrol commander in developing patrol strategies tailored to best meet the needs of their department, the community their police will serve. Types of Police Patrol: Preventive, proactive and reactive.
The reactive function is a constant activity representing the bulk of what the public expects police agencies to do- answer calls for services; enforce laws; arrest criminals; give traffic citations, and perform random preventive patrol. The proactive function requires officers to develop directed or structured patrol strategies in response to identified crime problems. Officers are empowered with new responsibilities to cope with crime. To a large extent, these new responsibilities downplay the use of random, moving patrol cars. Instead emphasis is placed in tactical planning to develop patrol strategies for responding quickly and effectively to a myriad of crime problems (i.e. a series of street robberies in a neighborhood, a pattern of rapes at an apartment complex, or drug dealing on a school campus attributed to the actions of juvenile gang.) These types of tactical response strategies are again dependent on accurate and timely information from crime analysis units. The third function is referred to as “co-production” or “co-activity”. It can be defined as an active outreach and systematic engagement between the police and the public for the purposes of identifying and addressing localized problems of crime and disorder. Co-activity addresses long range strategic problems identified through ongoing contacts between individual patrol officers and the citizens in a specific geographic area.
Theoretically, officers become more familiar with a district the longer they work in their assigned areas. Therefore, officers are expected to identify what services are needed in specific areas through self-directed effort. Through selfdirection, officers are expected to contact people, explain why they are needed, seek assistance in problem identification and learn how to coordinate police agency involvement to remedy the problem. The Psychology of Omnipresence: Patrol Strategy in crime prevention While it is true that the patrol officer cannot detect the thinking or desire of the criminal yet, he can destroy the opportunity to commit a crime by his ever presence patrol strategy. The psychology of omnipresence, as an initial police strategy, is to establish the aura of police presence in the community, and is best exemplified and effectively applied in: Patrol’s crime prevention activities by uniformed foot patrol officers as well as mobiles patrol crew in conspicuously marked radio-equipped, patrol cars. There is no denying that a criminal in planning to commit a crime is not solely prompted by his strong desire. More importantly, he has to consider the presence of an opportunity, i.e. the absence of apprehension, wherein the police are known to be lax, inefficient, scarce. So, the communities in which, their police have established a reputation of being extremely vigilant and aggressive in their patrol functions are avoided by criminals. The Walking Beat: The traditional patrol pattern Before WW11, the walking beat or foot patrol was the only type used by our local police forces for crime prevention activities. It was a very successful method because of strict supervision employed- close personal supervision; supervision by instrumentation; that resulted in a highly and satisfactory visible police presence. During those years, the Manila Police Department, looked upon as the premier law enforcement agency in the country, have installed throughout the city the “Gamewell Police Call-Box System.” Gamewell is simply the trade name of the American manufacturer, its system operates like a telephone. It is operated only by a specially fitted solid brass key issued to every police officer assigned for patrol duty as part of his official police equipment. The distribution of those “boxes” were so strategically apportioned that two or three patrol officers of adjoining beats can use one call-box, that the set-up facilitated the supervisory technique of the patrol supervisor over his patrol officers. Another patrol strategy, to further assure his high and constant visibility, is through the following patrol pattern:
a. The Clockwise pattern – The Police Manual and the List of Patrol Beats were the police bibles. It must be memorized if one has to stay in the police service. A beat patrol officer, irrespective of the size and number of beats, is assigned two call-boxes. The objective of the clockwise patrol pattern at the start of the 8 hour tour of duty is for the patrol officer to survey the situation and condition of the boundaries of his area of responsibility. b. The Zigzag or Freewheeling Patrol Pattern – this is done by patrolling the streets within the perimeters of the beats, not at random, but with a definite target-location where he knows his presence is necessary. This action is on course based on his study of the situations and conditions of his beat. c. The Counter clockwise Patrol Pattern – this technique is simply the reverse of the clockwise patrol pattern. It is done at the last hour of the 8 hour tour of duty in order to ensure that nothing unusual has happened in his area of responsibility. d. The Straightway and the Crisscross Patterns – the straightway is patrolling the length of a street, and therefore, the easiest to observe the movement of the patrol officer, whereas, the crisscross is more or less similar to the zigzag pattern. What is important is that the movement technique of a patrol officer must have a purpose and objective. It is not aimless nor at random. The observation of the patrol officer must keenly be aimed at persons and things, the sources of hazards. Mobile Patrolling: Concept of Operation The operation of mobile patrol shall be under centralized command, irrespective of the size of the department and the area of coverage where, the assignment of the patrol cars and its crew components shall be the sole responsibility of its commander. The radio cars shall be used exclusively for patrol functions. Flexibility in their deployment shall be the primary consideration. Normally, radio cars shall be allocated to areas in accordance with – a) volume of crime incidence; b) need for police service; and c) prevalence of hazard. The mobile patrol crew, perform the same functions and duties and is subject to the same discipline like his counterpart- the man on the beat. The only distinguishing feature is found in the extent and facilities for patrol performance where the crew is provided with an automobile equipped with two-way radio transceivers to afford immediate communication and dispatch to scene of crime. Two Phases to consider in managing mobile patrol
a. Staff supervisor – an inspector in charge of shift or platoon b. Disposition officer – supervising deskman c. Deskman – patrol officer assigned to receive phone calls from public and reports from mobile patrol crews. d. Dispatcher – patrol officer in charge of the radio control room that are dispatching mobile patrol crew to scene of assignments, transmitting, and receiving, recording radio message. 2. Operational Aspect a. Field supervisor – one who supervise mobile crew in the field, for discipline and performance. b. Crew – normally two men complement of uniformed patrol officers in the radio car, one acting as the driver and the other as the recorder. Team Policing Team Policing represents an attempt to integrate the police and community interests into a working relationship so as to produce the desired objective of peace keeping in the community. Team policing is said to have originated in Aberdeen Scotland, shortly after WW11. The project was introduced by the Aberdeen Police out of boredom, it appearing that their police officers who, were assigned alone to patrol quiet streets during the night were, getting bored and experiencing low morale. To remedy the situation, it allocated teams of five to ten men on foot and in patrol cars to cover the City of Aberdeen. The patrols were distributed according to the concentration of crimes and citizen’s calls for police service, with the teams moving to different sections of the city as the workload demanded. Thus, the monotony and loneliness were relieved. Whatever was the motivation for its introduction in police performance the system was abandoned in 1963 in the city of its origin. Nevertheless, its influence had already spread an adopted by no less than 70 police agencies in the United States. The Syracuse Police Department in New York was the first American City to try team policing. This was followed by the Tucson Arizona also in 1963. Characteristics of Team Policing a. Geographic stability of the patrol force. b. Maximum interaction between team members c. Maximum communication between team members and community residents
Organizational Features of Team Policing – While the structure and composition of team policing programs vary widely, these programs usually exhibit the following organizational features: a.
Unity of Supervision – intended to enhance consistency and continuity of police policies and procedures and to provide greater uniformity in developing solutions to community problems.
b. Low-level flexibility in decision making – team members are encourage to share and exchange ideas, and work together in solving problems within their area of responsibility. c. Unified delivery of services – it places emphasis on the development of generalist, rather than specialist, skilled among team members. d. Combined investigation and patrol functions – this is designed to bridge the gap between patrol officers and investigators, thereby leading to a more cooperative approach to problem solving. High and Low Visibility Patrol The general tendency in crime prevention strategy is high police visibility to ensure citizen feelings of security for the law abiding but the creation of fear for would be violators. However, in other instances, low visibility patrol programs have been designed to increase police activities of arrest of criminals who have already committed or are in the act of committing selected types of crimes. The theory underlying the high visibility patrol concept is that, certain types of crimes can be reduced by, increasing the aura of police omnipresence in the community. Another strategy is the saturation concept wherein selected risky crime of robbery in residential areas of the city is saturated by intensive patrol of clearly marked police cars equipped with 2-way radios. Low-visibility patrol is a strategy wherein members of the force in plainclothes patrol areas on foot or in unmarked automobiles where street crimes become highrisk crimes. Under the low-visibility set-up the primary purpose of the patrol is no longer crime prevention but crime repression, wherein the objective is – the increased apprehension of criminals engaged in selected street crimes, and the deterrence of criminal activity as a result of greater probability of apprehension. Directed Deterrent Patrol An alternative to random routine patrol is directed patrol, in which officers are given specific directions to follow when they are not responding to calls. The directed patrol assignments are given before they begin their tour and are meant to replace uncommitted random patrol time with specific duties that police commanders believe will be effective. Directed patrol assignments can be based on crime analysis, specific problems, or complaints received from the community.
Split force Patrol One of the problems with directed patrol, however, is that calls for service often interrupt the performance of directed patrol assignments. Split force patrol offers a solution to this problem. One portion of the patrol force is designated to handle all calls dispatched to patrol units. The remaining portion of the officers working that tour, are given directed patrol assignments with the assurance that except for serious emergencies, they will not be interrupted. Decoy Patrol One of the primary purposes of police patrols is to prevent crime through the creation of sense of omnipresence; potential criminals are deterred from crime by the presence or potential presence of the police officer. Obviously, omnipresence does not work well. We have crime both on our streets and in areas where ordinary police patrols cannot see crime developing, such as the inside of a store or the hallway of a housing project. Additionally, we have seen that retroactive, investigations of crimes with the intent to identify and arrest perpetrators, is not very effective. Decoy operations take several forms. Among them are blending and decoy. In blending, officers dressed in civilian clothes try to blend into an area and patrol it on foot or in unmarked police cars in an attempt to catch a criminal in the act of committing a crime. Officers may target areas where a significant amount of crime occurs, or they may follow particular people who appear to be potential victims or potential offenders. In order to blend officers assume the roles and dress of ordinary citizens - - construction workers, shoppers, joggers, bicyclists, physically disabled persons, and so on—so that the officers without being observed as officers, can be close enough to observe and intervene should a crime occur. In decoy, officers dress as, and play the role of, potential victims –drunks, nurses, business people, tourists, prostitutes, blind people, or defenseless elderly people. The officers wait to be the subject of a crime while a team of backup is ready to apprehend the violator in the act of committing the crime. Stop and Frisk To imprint in the mind of criminals the feeling of fear of arrest is the application of the strategy of “stop and frisk” both by the foot patrol and the mobile crew. When patrol officers are observed stopping persons on the streets whose behavior is suspicious, determining them briefly by questioning and frisking them for concealed weapons, the action of the police heighten the effect of high visibility patrol. The method of frisking is to pat down the outer clothing of the suspect for any concealed weapon or contraband. Frisk is not a search because the officers do not insert his hand inside the pocket of the suspect. Instead, it is the suspect
himself who produce from his pocket, as required by the officer the object or article in question. Evolution of Communication Communication is the exchange of information between individuals, for example, by means of speaking, writing, or using a common system of signs or behavior. It is the act of giving or sending information. It refers to the transfer of thought or idea from one person to another. It is the process of sharing ideas, information, and messages with others in a particular time and place. Communication among animals Humans are not the only creatures that communicate; many other animals exchange signals and signs that help them find food, migrate, or reproduce. The 19th century biologist Charles Darwin showed that the ability of species to exchange information or signals about its environment is an important factor in its biological survival. Language while other animals use limited range of sounds or signals to communicate, humans have developed complex systems of language that are used to – ensure survival; express ideas and emotions; tell stories and remember the past; negotiate with one another. Oral language is a feature of every human society or culture. Symbols and Alphabets Most languages also have a written form. The oldest records of written language are about 5000 years old. However, written communication began much earlier in the form of drawings or marks made to indicate meaningful information about the nature world. The earliest artificially created visual images that have been discovered to date are paintings of bears, mammoths, wooly winos, and other Ice Age animals on cave walls near Avignon, France.
Perhaps the earliest forerunner of writing is a system of clay counting tokens used in the ancient with the Middle East. The tokens date from 8000 to 3000 BC and are shaped like discs, cones, spheres and other shapes. They were in clay containers marked with an early version of cuneiform writing, to indicate what tokens were inside. Cuneiform was one of the first forms of writing and was pictographic, with symbols representing objects. It developed as a written language in Assyria (an ancient Asian country in present day Iraq) from 3000 to 1000 BC.
The oldest known examples of script-style writing date from about 3000 BC. Papyrus sheets (a kind of early paper made from reeds) from about 2500 BC have been found in the Nile Delta in Egypt bearing written hieroglyphs, another pictographic-ideographic form of writing.
The Chinese writing system is called logographic because the full symbols, or characters, each represent a word. Cuneiform and Egyptian hieroglyph eventually incorporated phonetic elements. Interpersonal Communication A face-to-face at the same and in the same place daily communication. The most basic form of interpersonal communication is a dyad (an encounter or conversation between two people). Communicating well in a dyad requires good conversational skills. Communicators must know how to start and end the conversation, how to make themselves understood, how to respond to the partner’s statements, how to be sensitive to their partner’s concerns, how to take turns, and how to listen.
Interpersonal communication occurs with larger groups as well, such as when a speaker gives a talk to a large crowd. However the audience can respond in only limited ways (applause, nodding, whistles, boos, or silence).
History and Fundamental concepts of Police Communications Communication has always been a part of law enforcement. Since man’s existence on this earth, there has been a need for a system by which a man could warn his fellowman of existing or pending danger, or send him messages.
In primitive times, the pounding of hollow logs or the beating of animal skin drums was used to convey a message. Later man discovered that when he cut the tip from the horn of an animal and blew through it, the sound carried for quite a distance. We find its use mentioned throughout the Bible, and it was certainly the main warning instrument used in the “Hue and Cry” even into the twelfth century. In the Orient, the brass gong and finally the bell, became the warning instrument. In Western civilization, until very recently, the church bell, high in the steeple, not only called the people to church services, but warned the town or village of imminent dangers. The American Indian used smoke signals, bird calls and drums in his effort to communicate and send out warnings.
In the history of Anglo-American police patrol, the horn was replaced by the hand-bell and rattle, and then finally the metal whistle.
Semaphore systems (visual codes) of flags or flashing lights were employed to send messages over relatively short but difficult-to-cross distances, such as from hilltop to hilltop or between ships at sea. In the early 1790’s the French scientist and engineer Claude Chappe persuaded the French government to install a system of towers that used semaphore signals to send visual telegraphs along approved routes throughout the country. The system was copied in Great Britain and the United States. Some ancient societies, such as the Roman or Byzantine empires, expanded their territorial control far beyond their original boundaries, and traded with distant neighbors. To hold on to their far-flung territories, they needed two technologies that have remained closely tied ever since: transportation, and the ability to record information.
Police communications are the backbone of police tactics. Without proper communications, the modern police department would be lost. When police vehicles were first used, there were no radio communications as we know it today. The system of notifying patrol vehicles of emergencies and calls for service was handled by the installation of red lights at the major intersections of the town or city. When headquarters wanted to contact a police car, they would pull a switch that would send power to the red lights at the intersections. The next time the patrol car passed the intersection and saw the red light on, he would drive to headquarters for the assignment. When telephones became more common, the officer would call headquarters when he observed the light signal. When radios were first installed in police vehicles, they were usually just receivers and did not have transmitters for answering calls. The radio operator would broadcast the calls, and hope that it was received. A brief history of the development of police communication is as follows:
1877 – The Albany New York Police Department installed five telephones in the mayor’s office connected to precinct stations. This was only two years after Alexander Graham Bell developed the telephone, which indicates how quickly the
police saw the value of the telephone and how promptly it was utilized as a tool of law enforcement.
1880 – The Chicago Police Department installed the first “Police Call Box” on a city street. Only officers and “reputable citizens” were given keys to the booth. Before this time a signal box was used that would signal the emergency without voice communications. Detroit made such installations in 1884 and Indianapolis in 1895.
1883 – The Detroit, Michigan Police Department installed one police telephone. This was significant when one considers the fact that there were only seven telephones in the whole city at that time. In 1889 the department established a new division to handle communications. It was called the Police Signal Bureau. A code wheel was installed in the box so that when the beat man called in for his time check, it would register at headquarters with the proper signal for that call box. This insured that the beat officer was in fact at the location from which he claimed to be calling.
1916 – The New York Harbor Police installed spark transmitters so they could communicate with their police boats while they were patrolling the harbor. This also enabled them to communicate with other boats and ships in the harbor.
1923 – The Pennsylvania State Police installed point-to-point radio telegraph between their headquarters and various posts throughout the state.
1928 – On April 7, 1928, the world’s first workable police radio system went on the air. The Detroit Police Department went on the air as station W8FS. The transmitter was installed on Belle Isle in the Detroit River, and the receiver was installed in cruiser No.5. This was the climax of seven years of work and development under the direction of Police Commissioner William P. Rutledge. The major problems in making a radio receiver work reliably in a police car were receiver instability and lack of sensitivity. Added to this were problems involving red tape with the Federal Radio Commission (predecessor to the Federal Communications Commission).
By 1927 the prohibition era had seen the development of big time crime and the gangsters were making wide use of automobiles as “get-away cars.” The police were under great pressure to control the situation, but always arrived at the scene too late. Commissioner Rutledge then persuaded Robert L. Batts, a young radio technician and student at Purdue University, to come to Detroit and work on a radio receiver that would operate in a police car. It was through this effort that the first workable police radio setup was developed. 1929 – In September of 1929, the Cleveland Police Department went on the air with a few cars, and in December of the same year, Indianapolis became the third police department in the world to set up a workable police radio system.
1930 – The Michigan State Police became the first state police organization to go on the air in October of 1930. It proved very effective in apprehending bank robbers and other gangsters.
1931 – The first police motorcycle was equipped with a radio by the Indianapolis Police Department in September, 1931.
1933 – In March 1933, the Bayonne New Jersey Police Department went on the air with the first two-way, mobile police radio system. 1934 – By 1934 so many police departments had police radio systems that they were being used as inter-city communications for all types of general police messages and the Federal Communications Commission had to intervene and establish strict control on police radio communications, restricting non-emergency messages to wire communications. 1935 – Because the police departments did not understand the government restrictions, they (at first) refused to obey them and police radio men from all over the country banded together to form the APCO (Association of Police Communications Officers) recently changed to the (Association of Public-Safety Communications Officers)
1939 – Daniel E. Noble, of Connecticut State College, developed the first FM (Frequency Modulation) mobile two-way transmitters and receivers for the Connecticut State Police. This was to bring about a change in the whole mobile radio picture.
1940 – Motorola President, Paul Galvin, saw the value of FM over the AM for mobile police communications, and hired Dan Noble to develop two-way FM for Motorola Police Radio Sales. One of Noble’s first developments was the remarkable Differential Squelch Circuit which demonstrated greatly increased range in fringe areas.
1945 – The Federal Communications Commission allocated frequencies for FM, and it became the established system for police radio communications.
Today most departments have three-way radios where the patrol car in the field may not only carry on a two-way conversation with the base radio, but may also carry on the same type of conversation with other police vehicles in the field. ( Payton Patrol procedure) COMMUNICATION PROCESS An explanation of communication process begins with a basic problem- it cannot be examined as an isolated event. Communication is a process, and so it must be understood as the totality of several interdependent and dynamic elements. In the aggregate, communication may be defined as the process by which senders and receivers interact in given social contexts. Another understanding of this definition is that the process of communication requires that we examine the several elements that make up the process, encoding, transmission, medium, reception, decoding, and feedback. The word medium comes from the Latin word medius, meaning middle or between. It is a channel – such as a radio, book, or a telephone – is called medium; media is plural.
Encoding Experience cannot be transmitted as experience. In conveying an experience to another person, we do not relive that experience with that person. Even in the most scrupulous reproduction of an experience, every element cannot be duplicated. At the very least, the time period is altered, and intervening experiences have altered us as individuals. To convey an experience or idea to someone, we encode that experience into symbols. We use words or other verbal behaviors and gestures, or other nonverbal behaviors to convey the experience or idea. These symbols are our code; they stand for certain experiences; they are not experiences themselves. Transmission
Encoding involves only the decision to use a symbol for some concept. The element of transmission involves the translation of the encoded symbols into some behavior that another person can observe. The actual articulation (moving our lips, tongue, etc) of the symbol into verbal or nonverbal observable behavior is transmission.
Medium Communication must be conveyed through some channel or medium. Media for communication may be our sight, hearing, taste touch, or smell. Some other media are television, telephone, paper and pencil, and radio. The importance of the choice of the medium should not be minimized. All of us are aware of the difference between a message that our superior delivers personally and the one that is sent through a secretary or by a memo. The medium, like the chosen symbol, has an effect on the meaning that the listener eventually attaches to the message in the process of decoding. Reception For the receiver, the reception of the message is analogous to the sender’s transmission. The stimuli, the verbal and nonverbal symbols, reach the senses of the receiver and are conveyed to the brain for interpretation.
Decoding The process of interpretation occurs when the individual who has received the stimuli develops some meaning for the verbal and nonverbal symbols and decodes the stimuli. For the receiver, then, decoding is analogous to the process of encoding for the sender. These symbols are translated into some concept or experience of the receiver. Whether this receiver is familiar with the symbols, or whether interference such as any physical noise or physiological problem occurs. ( Swanson Police administration) Systems of Communication
Paper and Printing – the first lightweight medium was papyrus, an early form of paper used by the Egyptians that was made from grasses called reeds. Until the 1400s in Europe, all documents were handwritten. Copyists and editors called scribes recorded commercial transactions, legal decisions and pronouncements, and manuscript copies of religious books – many scribes were working in monasteries. In Asia, block printing had already been developed by Buddhist monks in China in
about the 8th century. A similar technique was later used in the 15 th century by Europeans to make illustrations for printed books.
An early version of movable type of printing was first developed in China around 1045, and was independently developed by Koreans in the 13 th century AD. In 1450, the German printer Johannes Gutenberg perfected the movable metal type and introduced the first reliable system of typesetting, a key invention in the development of printing. Postal Services – different societies have devised systems for transporting messages from place to place and from person to person. The earliest were couriertype services whereby messengers carried memorized or written messages from one person to another, and returned with the reply. The postal service was established in the United States in 1789.
The Telegraphy – it is the first electronic medium which sends and received electrical signals over long distance wires. Telegraph systems were immediately useful for businesses that needed to transmit messages quickly over long distances, such as newspapers and railroads.
The Telephone –it is a device that would transmit the human voice over wires instead of electrical clicks or other signals. The telephone network has also provided the electronic network for new computer-based systems like the: internet; facsimile transmissions; and world wide web.
The Radio – the earliest systems for sending electrical signals through the air via electromagnetic waves was called wireless and later radio.
The Television –it is the transmission of visual images by means of electromagnetic waves.
The Computers – the earliest computers were machines built to make repetitive numerical calculations that had previously been done by hand. Computer networks can carry and digital signals, including video images, sounds, graphics, animations, and text.
Channels of Communication:
A. Verbal Channels – one-on-one conversations, telephone conversations, radio dispatch, interviews, meetings, news conferences and speeches are the most common verbal channels of communication. B. Written Channels – includes notes, memos, letters, e-mails, faxes, reports, manuals, bulletins, policies and the like. Written communication has the advantage of being permanent but the disadvantage of being slower and usually more expensive. The disadvantage of written communication, however, is lack of immediate feedback. (Bennett & Hess Management and supervision in law enforcement) Barriers to Communication •
volume of information
tendency to say what we think others want to hear
prejudices (sender and/or receiver)
failure to select the best
strained sender-receiver relationships
Special Problems in Communicating •
Interference on the line
Communicating with those of the opposite gender
Communicating with the elderly
Communicating with non-english speaking
Communicating with those from a different culture
Communicating with individuals with disabilities or conditions affecting speech
Communicating with individuals who are mentally ill
Communicating with individuals who are mentally retarded or autistics.
The Police Radio Dispatcher – The radio dispatcher is the personnel in a police communication center or coordinating center tasked to receive and transmit radio messages. Before a policeman or civilian can become a radio dispatcher, he must be trained formally or through an OJT. The dispatcher is also called radio coordinator and radio operator.
Basic Qualifications of a radio dispatcher or operator •
Ability to speak clearly and distinctly at all times
Ability to reduce rambling and disconnected material into concise and accurate messages.
Ability to think and act promptly in emergencies.
Ability to analyze the situation accurately and to take an effective course of action.
Thorough understanding of the technical operation of his own system to allow intelligent reporting of equipment failures.
Physical and mental ability to work effectively under all conditions encountered.
Knowledge of the rules and regulations applying to dispatcher’s responsibilities.
Voice Qualities of Effective radio dispatcher •
Loudness or volume – depends on the size of the human voice box
Pitch or voice frequency – the level of the voice depends on the number of cycles per second emitted by the speaker(high pitch is not pleasant and clear in talking through mike.)
Timbre – the quality of a speech sound that comes from its tone rather than its pitch or volume.
Voice requirements of effective radio dispatcher
Alert – give impression of alertness, being enthusiastic and interested in the person calling.
Pleasant – create a pleasant office image with voice with a smile since pleasantness is contagious.
Natural – use simple straightforward language; avoid repetition of mechanical words or phrases; avoid technical terms and slang.
Distinct – speak clearly and distinctly; move the lips, tongue and jaw freely; talk directly to the telephone.
Expressive – a well modulated voice carries best over the mike; use normal tone of voice; not too loud nor too soft; vary the tones to bring out the meaning of sentences and add color vitality to what you say.
Administrative and operational communication net Most police communication centers operate in a two-stage manual process. When a call is made to the police department, the officer at a complaint desk position, first determines the need for police action, and then records the details on a card. The card is then routed to a dispatch console where the operator has control of one or more radio channels. In the smaller organizations, this is usually accomplished by handling the card from one person to another. In larger departments it is customary to use a conveyor belt system between the two positions.
The operator at the dispatch console then establishes radio contact with the patrol unit and relays the details of the complaint. The dispatcher also has the duty of maintaining a record of the status of the police vehicles under his control. If information is needed from the records division or from some computer source, the operator must then phone for this information. Techniques in radio communication Since communication over a police radio presents many problems, the following information is intended to better help the patrol officer in this endeavor.
A department can have can have some of the finest communications equipment in the country, but its use becomes greatly impaired if the officers in the field are not familiar with the proper use of the equipment, and do not adhere to the basic rules of radio procedure. The increasing population has resulted in an increase in crime and the need for “air time”. One of the best ways to insure the proper use of air time, is to follow the ABC’s of radio transmission.
The ABC’s of Radio transmission
(A) Accuracy. It is the correctness and truthfulness of what is being communicated. The major cause of inaccuracy is haste and impatience. The old saying that ”haste makes waste” certainly applies to police communications.
(B) Brevity. This means using few words. Due to the expanding volume of radio traffic, it is essential that there be no unnecessary or repetitious words in the transmission. The use of police code can help maintain brevity.
(C) Courtesy. It is necessary for rapid and efficient service. Courtesy begets courtesy. Anger begets anger. The courtesy in police communications is more of a form of respect than expressed words. It can be shown in the tone of voice. Clarity, the second C. It can be best obtained through two main areas: 1.
Semantics – the science of meanings as contrasted with phonetics, the science of sound. Proper semantics would be transference of thoughts or ideas between people through communication without a loss or perversion of the original meaning or intent. There are two ways to improve semantics. Learn through experience what the most common errors are; and think before talking.
2. Phonetics – is the science of sounds. It is the understanding of a communication through the proper sounding of words. There are three main areas of phonetics that hinder good police communications; radio interference and distortion; poor pronunciation; and similar sounding words and letters. Phonetics maybe improved through the following •
Not speaking too fast, or slovenly. Talk with the mouth open.
Use the phonetic alphabet when the word is likely to cause trouble. Unusual surnames should be spelled phonetically.
Use similes. This can be done by saying that something is like something else. i.e. wood as in firewood; green like grass.
Police telecommunication System
An answer to the problem of communications can in many cases be a switch to a computerized system. This will not only increase overall efficiency but can also save money when everything is taken into consideration. The major saving is in time, and time is money. With the shortage of qualified police officers, any device that can cut down on man hours is sorely needed. The modern automated system usually has about five components:
1. The complaint officer video terminal and keyboard. Here the complaint officer receives calls for police service and the information is typed on the keyboard. This information then goes to the computer. 2. The central mini-computer. First it records the information received from the complaint officer. This becomes the daily log. At the same instant the information is registered at the appropriate dispatch console. The computer which has all addresses by beat, will search the new address and will assign the proper beat area designation. The computer also lists the radio code, priority, message, time, case record number, and the availability and location of field units. 3. Time of day digital clock. This can record the time that the call was received, and dispatched and when the officer arrived at the scene and when he came back into service.
4. The computer storage file. This file is digital magnetic tape storage and is attached to the computer. It contains the daily log and can later provide various types of information for research and planning. 5. The command dispatch console. This console contains two TV type screens. One is the Video Data Terminal which shows all of the information about the request for service, including a case number, time of arrival, priority and radio code. The other is the Situation Display which shows an abbreviated case record number, a special color indicating priority, and a projected map that shows the availability and location of field units. With the knowledge gained by glancing at the map Situation Display, the dispatcher can then decide which unit to send to a particular incident. If he should desire more information about the call, he need only dial the computer, and all of the information would appear on his Video Data Terminal. THANK YOU,
GODBLESS, And good luck!!