Patho exam questions Chapter 15: 1._____ defects of the neural tube closure are most common. a. Posterior 2. A 10-year-old male presents with visual disturbances. CT scan reveals a tumor that is located near the optic chiasm. Which of the following tumors is most likely to occur? a. craniopharyngioma 3. A 10-year-old male sneaks into the meat freezer at the supermarket. Fearing he will get caught if he comes out he decides to stay in there or several hours until the store closes. While in the cooler his body is experiencing what? a. Ischemic tissue damage 4. a 15 year old male suffered diffuse brain injury after wrecking in an all terrain vehicle. He had momentary confusion and retrograde amnesia after 5 to 10 minutes. His injury can be categorized as: a. grade II 5. A 25-year-old female presents to her physician complaining of fever, headache, nuchal rigidity and decreased consciousness. She was previously treated for sinusitis. Which of the following is most likely the diagnosis? a. bacterial meningitis 6. a 30 year old white male recently suffered a cerebrovascular accident. Which of he following is the most likely factor that contributed to his stroke? a. diabetes 7. a 32 year old female suffers from severe brain damage following a motor vehicle accident. After rehab she noticed that her thought processes and goal oriented behavior were impaired. The area most likely responsible is the: a. prefrontal 8.a 39 year old male suffers a severe brain injury when he falls of a building while working. CT scan reveals that he has a basilar skull fracture. One major concern for this patient is: a. Meningeal infection 9. A 40-year-old male suffers from a head trauma that affects cranial nerve I. Which of the following symptoms would be expected? a. loss of sense of smell 10. A 51-year-old male is admitted to the neuro critical care unit with a severe closed head injury. All four extremities are in rigid extension, his forearm is hyperpronated, and his legs are in plantar extension. This condition is known as: a. decerebrate posturing 11. A 65-year-old female loses her balance while walking in the woods, causing her to fall and hit her head. She loses consciousness and is in a coma for 5 days. She is diagnosed as having diffuse brain injury. Which of the following would most likely occur in this patient? a. blunted affect
12. A 65-year-old male suffers a subarachnoid hemorrhage secondary to uncontrolled hypertension. He appears drowsy and confused with pronounced focal neurologic deficits. This condition is a grade: a. III 13. A 72-year-old male demonstrates left-sided weakness of upper and lower extremities. The symptoms disappear in 24 hours. He most likely experienced a(n): a. transient ischemic attack. 14. A 75-year-old female suffers a stroke and now has impaired comprehension and production of language. This condition is most likely caused by occlusion of the: a. middle cerebral artery. 15. A 75-year-old male experienced a lacunar stroke. This type of stroke is most often associated with: a. hypertension 16. A patient presents with altered respiratory patterns following head trauma. A lesion in which of the following areas would cause these symptoms? a. hindbrain 17. A teenage boy sustains a severe closed head injury following an ATV accident. He is in a state of deep sleep that requires vigorous stimulation to elicit eye opening. Which of the following describes his condition? a. stupor 18. An effect of b-1 receptor stimulation is: a. increase in the strength of myocardial contraction. 19. Cerebral edema is an accumulation of fluid in the: a. brain tissue 20. Myasthenia gravis results from: a. autoimmune injury at the neuromuscular junction. 21. Neurotransmitters interact with the postsynaptic membrane by binding to a: a. receptor 22. One location in which nociceptors can be found is the: a. skin 23. One risk factor for thrombotic stroke is: a. dehydration 24. The cause of multiple sclerosis (MS) seems to be an interaction between: a. autoimmunity and genetic susceptibility. 25. The most common primary CNS tumors in adults are: a. astrocytomas. 26. The outermost membrane surrounding the brain is the: a. dura matter 27. The pain threshold in children is: a. lower than adults Chapter 18 28. A 30-year-old male was diagnosed with hypothyroidism. Synthesis of which of the following would decrease in this patient?
a. Thyroid binding globulin 29. To adapt to high hormone concentrations, many target cells have the capacity for: a.down-regulation. 30. The releasing hormones that are made in the hypothalamus travel to the anterior pituitary via the: a. hypophysial portal system. 31. A 50-year-old female patient underwent surgery to remove a pituitary tumor. During surgery, the pituitary stalk was severed. Secretion of which of the following hormones would increase? a.PR 31. A 40-year-old male undergoes surgery for a parathyroid hormone-secreting tumor. Which of the following would be expected following surgery? a.Decreased calcium reabsorption in the kidney 32. Insulin has an effect on which of the following groups of electrolytes? a.Potassium, magnesium, phosphate 33. General causes of abnormal target cell responses include: a. abnormal receptor activity. 34. The most common cause of elevated levels of antidiuretic hormone (ADH) secretion is: a. cancer. 35. A severe consequence of syndrome of inappropriate ADH secretion (SIADH) is: a.neurologic damage. 36. The level of T3 in Graves disease is usually abnormally: a.high. 37.A problem associated with chronic hyperparathyroidism is: a. osteoporosis and pathologic fractures. 38. A 45-year-old female with Graves disease underwent surgical removal of her thyroid gland. During the postoperative period, her serum calcium was low. The most probable reason for her low serum calcium is: a.hypoparathyroidism caused by surgical injury to the parathyroid glands. 39. Both Cushing syndrome and Addison disease can manifest with elevated levels of: a. adrenocorticotropic hormone (ACTH). Ch 37 40. Which of the following molecules is not part of the bone matrix?
Elastin Fibers 41. Osteocalcin is a: a. Glycoprotein 42. Which of these structures are not present in compact bone? a.Trabeculae 43. Transchondral fractures are most prevalent in: a. adolescents 44. A 12-year-old female hurts her ankle while playing basketball. Tests reveal that she tore a ligament. This condition is known as a: a.sprain 45. A 36-year-old male complains of pain and weakness in the elbow. He reports that he is a warehouse worker and lifts boxes daily. MRI reveals inflammation of the tendon where it attaches to bone. This condition is called: a. epicondylitis 46. A 70-year-old female presents with a hip fracture. She is diagnosed with osteoporosis. This condition is caused by an increase in bone: a. resorption 47. A 70-year-old female presents with a hip fracture. She is diagnosed with osteoporosis. One factor that most likely contributed to her condition is: a. decreased estrogen levels. 48. A 56-year-old male was admitted to the hospital with a diagnosis of osteomalacia. History reveals that he takes anticonvulsants, underwent small bowel resection 3 years earlier, and suffers from chronic pancreatitis. What is the common link between these three factors and the development of osteomalacia? a.Vitamin D deficiency 49. A 70-year-old male presents with back pain, fever, and weight loss. He reports that he had a recent respiratory infection from which he thought he recovered. Tests revealed increased white blood cell count, and a diagnosis of endogenous osteomyelitis was made. The organisms causing this condition entered the bone through: a.blood capillaries 50. A 54-year-old male was recently diagnosed with osteoarthritis. Which of the following symptoms is he most likely experiencing? a.Joint pain
51. Fibromyalgia is a chronic musculoskeletal disorder characterized by:
a.diffuse pain, fatigue, and point tenderness 52. The pattern of bone destruction indicative of an aggressive malignant tumor is known as a: a.permeative pattern 53. Myeloma is a cancer that originates in which bone marrow cell? a.Plasma cell 54. A malignant tumor of skeletal muscle tissue origin is called: a.myofibrosarcoma 55. A 2-month-old female was diagnosed with developmental dysplasia of the hip. If left untreated, she may develop hip: a.dislocation 56. Polyarthritis is a type of juvenile arthritis in which: a.more than three joints are affected 57. A 5-year-old female was diagnosed with juvenile rheumatoid arthritis. The treatment option for this disease is: a. supportive
58. A 16-year-old male was recently diagnosed with osteosarcoma. The tumor is most likely present in the _____ of long bones. a. metaphyses