past exam paper

October 27, 2018 | Author: David Le | Category: Pharmacokinetics, Pharmaceutical Drug, Earth & Life Sciences, Life Sciences, Pharmacy
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past exam paper Monash uni...


Faculty Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Pharmaceutical Sciences Unit Code: PAC3241

Semester Semester 1 Examination Examination 2012 2012 Time allowed: 3 hrs

Monash University 04209062

Semester One 2012 Examination Period Facul Facul ty of Pharmacy Pharmacy and Pharmaceutic al Scienc Sciences es EXAM CODES:

PAC 3241


Drug delivery, disposition and dynamics


3 hours writing time


10 minutes

THIS PAPER PAPER IS FOR FOR STUDENT STUDENTS S STUDYING STUDYING AT:( ti ck where wh ere appl ic able) Berwick Caulfield Parkville

Clayton Gippsland Other (specify)

Malaysia Peninsula

Off Campus Learning Enhancement Studies

Open Learning Sth Africa

During an exam, you must not have in your p ossession, a book, notes, paper, calculator, pencil case, mobile phone or other material/item which has not been authorised for the exam or specifically permitted as noted below. Any material or item on your desk, chair or person will be deemed to be in i n your yo ur possession. possessi on. You are a re reminded reminded that that possessi possession on of unautho unauthorised rised materi materials als in an exam is a discipline offence under Monash Statute 4.1. No examination papers are to be removed from the room.  AUTHORISED MATERIALS CALCULATORS NO YES Only scientific calculators with a "Monash University, Faculty of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences Approved" sticker attached are permitted in examinations for Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Science students. No graphic calculators will be permitted. OPEN BOOK


 NO



 NO

Candidates Candidates must com plete this section if r equired to write answers within t his paper


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Page 1 of 6

Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences Unit Code: PAC3241

Semester 1 Examination 2012 Time allowed: 3 hrs

Pharmacokinetic Equation Sheet (PAC3241)

Amount of drug in body = Volume of distribution x plasma (serum, or blood) drug con centration t½ = (0.693 x V)/CL

Examination continues over page

Page 2 of 6

Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences Unit Code: PAC3241

Semester 1 Examination 2012 Time allowed: 3 hrs

There are TWO SECTIONS in thi s exam. Secti on A i s to be answered in the exam book let provid ed. Section B i s to b e answered in the Multiple Choice Answer sheet. Sectio n A is worth 74 marks and Section B is worth 26 marks. Total mark is 100.  Answ er both s ections. Answ er AL L questi ons.

SECTION A There are 10 questions in this section. Answer ALL questions in the exam booklet pro vid ed. Answer a new question o n a new page. Marks assi gned to each questi on are as indicated.

QUESTION 1 Describe the rationale behind the following interactions and describe what advice you would provide to the patient and/or prescriber in these situations:

(a) Oral contraceptives and antibiotics (b) Phenytoin and valproate (c) Verapamil and digoxin (5+5+5 = 15 marks)

QUESTION 2  A patient has been routinely taking drug A for 2 years and exhibits steady state plasma concentrations. Drug A has an extraction ratio of 0.9 and exhibits a low degree of plasma protein binding (65%). The fraction of drug excreted unchanged in the urine is 0.05. What would you expect to occur to the following parameters if the patient was prescribed drug B (a drug which significantly displaces drug A from plasma proteins)? In your answer, you should state whether there is an increase, decrease or no change, and the reason for this.

a) b) c) d) e)

Hepatic clearance Renal clearance Total clearance Steady state concentration (total) Steady state concentration (unbound) (1+1+1+1+1= 5 marks)

Examination continu es over page

Page 3 of 6

Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences Unit Code: PAC3241

Semester 1 Examination 2012 Time allowed: 3 hrs

QUESTION 3 Following oral administration, the plasma concentration of drugs in pregnant women is generally lower relative to non-pregnant women. Describe the pharmacokinetic reasons as to why this phenomenon is often observed. (5 marks)

QUESTION 4 Describe how drug transporters contribute to the overall ability of the body to clear drugs from the systemic circulation. (5 marks)

QUESTION 5 Specify the characteristics of drugs that make them suitable for, or make them require, therapeutic drug monitoring. (3 marks)

QUESTION 6 Specify and briefly discuss the information that is required for interpretation of a measured plasma drug concentration when undertaking therapeutic drug monitoring. (7 marks)

QUESTION 7  A new anti-infective compound is to be formulated as an emulsion (5 mg/mL, 100 mL), suitable for intravenous administration. The compound is poorly water soluble ( 5) and freely lipid soluble (>100 mg/mL) in castor oil, soybean oil and peanut oil. a) Propose a suitable emulsion formulation outlining any excipients that you may need and explain why. b) Suggest a method of preparation and a reason for choosing this method. c) Discuss Four factors responsible for physical stability of emulsions. (4+2+8 =14 marks )

Examination continues over page

Page 4 of 6

Faculty of Pharmacy & Pharmaceutical Sciences Unit Code: PAC3241

Semester 1 Examination 2012 Time allowed: 3 hrs

QUESTION 8 Explain why addition of buffering or isotonicity adjusting salts can alter the stability of colloidal dispersions stabilized by electrical double layer approach. You may use diagrams as necessary. (8 marks) QUESTION 9 Compare formulation principles, advantages and disadvantages of homogenous and heterogeneous aerosols. (8 marks)

QUESTION 10 What are the advantages and disadvantages of the use of liposomes in drug delivery? (4 marks)



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