Pakistan Affairs Notes by Shakeel Babar

September 5, 2017 | Author: shakeel_pak | Category: Muhammad Ali Jinnah, Two Nation Theory, Mughal Empire, Hindu, Pakistan
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PAKISTAN AFFAIRS NOTES Contents PART 1 – REFORMERS & EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS ................................................. 2  EVOLUTION OF MUSLIM NATIONALISM ............................................................................ 2  MUSLIM REFORMERS .............................................................................................................. 4  EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS ................................................................................................ 9  THE IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN: TWO-NATION THEORY ............................................. 16  PART 2 – PRE PARTITION HISTORY ....................................................................................... 22  DECLINE OF MUGHAL RULE ............................................................................................... 22  SHIMLA DEPUTATION ............................................................................................................. 26  MUSLIM LEAGUE ..................................................................................................................... 29  THE LUCKNOW PACT .............................................................................................................. 33  KHILAFAT MOVEMENT ........................................................................................................... 41  NEHRU REPORT & QAID’S POINTS .................................................................................... 46  ALLAMA IQBAL’S PRESIDENTIAL ADDRESS AT ALLAHABAD ................................. 58  CONGRESS RULE IN THE PROVINCES ............................................................................ 62  PAKISTAN RESOLUTION ........................................................................................................ 66  CRIPPS MISSION ....................................................................................................................... 72  CABINET MISSION ................................................................................................................... 78  PART 3 – POST PARTITION PERIOD ....................................................................................... 87  INITIAL PROBLEMS FACED AFTER THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN ....................... 87  THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE QUAID-E-AZAM ............................................................ 92  C O N S T I T U T I O N A L I S S U E S ......................................................................................... 95  C O N S T I T U T I O N M A K I N G ( 1 9 4 7 - 5 6 )  .................................................................. 98  POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS ............................................................................................. 101  TRAGEDY OF EAST PAKISTAN .......................................................................................... 111  GEO-STRATEGIC IMPORTANCE OF PAKISTAN. .......................................................... 117 

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Arab traders’ honesty Kiring Noor, the first Indian national to embrace Islam Sarqafi, Governor of Oman under Hazrat Umer (634 – 644), invaded sea ports near Bombay without his permission

SINDH DAR UL ISLAM       

Gifts and women from Ceylon Pirates attack Al Malik bin Abdul Malik as a Ummayyad Caliph Hijaj Bin Yousaf Muhammad Bin Qasim  Syrian soldiers  Entered from Makran Raja Dahir killed near Mehran (Indus) in June 712 Rani Bai, Raja’s wife, challenged MBQ with 15,000 soldiers and defeated. She burnt herself


12 Dirham tax No social caste system Established Sadru Imam Al ajal for Islamic laws interpretation Suleman bin Abdul Malik called MBQ back and perished him in 715


MBQ  712 Mehmud Gahznavi – 2nd expediter – 17 attacks between 1000 to 1026 o Ghaznavid period ended in 1185 with death of Khusru Malik Ghuri period (1185 – 1192)  expanded to Bengal and Bihar Dehli Sultanate (1192 – 1526)  Muslim sufis Mughal era (1526 – 1857)  Muslims sufis Muslim sufis o Shaikh Ismail in Ghaznavi period o Ali Makhdom Hajveri came Lahore in 1035, Bahud Din Zakaria, Shaikh Fareed Dud Din, Khawaja Bukhtiar Kaki, Nazam Ud Din Olia, Mujadid Alaf Sani, Hazrat Shahi Wali Ullah , Muin ud Din Chishty


Cultural Influence o Caste system o Urdu and Hindi came into being o Islamic way of construction Religious Influence o Shankarachariya (Organizer of modern Hinduism) influenced by Islam o Ramananda, Ghuru Nanik and Chaitanya were Hindu prominent leaders influenced by Islam


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Bagti Movement  Started in 14th century  Objective to check the popularity of Islam  No difference between Ram and Raheem, Parn and Quran, Kasshi and Kahba  Bagt Kabir, Ramananda, Guru Nanak and Dadu were prominent leaders Din-E-Ilahi (1582)  Akbar introduced in desire to win the collaboration of Rajput chiefs  Marriages with Hindu girls  Elevation of Hindu to imp positions  Under Din e Elahi o Worship of sun o Jizya and pilgrimage tax abolished o Akbar as shadow of god on earth o Cow slaughter and Azan prohibited o No child named as Muhammad  Hazrat Mujadid Alaf Sani opposed Din e Elahi  Muslims lost their hegemony

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Sheikh Ahmad Sirhindi Father name  Sheikh Abdul Ahad Went to Delhi at age of 36 Disciple of Khawaja Baqi Billah

Social Conditions during his time      

Populace belief in Karamat Ulema refer to Jurisprudence rather than Quran Akbar’s anti Islamic look Hindu cultural domination Bakhti Movement Wahdat al Wajood theory

Mujadid’s efforts 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.


8. 9.

Jehad against Din-i-Ilahi Theory of Wahdat-ul-Sahood a. Countering Wahdat-ul-Wajood Refusal to prostate – society purification a. Jehangir imprisoned him in Gawaliar for three years Preaching in fort of Gawaliar Preparation of Disciples Maktaba-e-Imam-e-Rabbani a. Letters to important nobles and leaders b. Abdur Rahim, Khan e Azam Mirza Aziz, Mufti Sardar Jehan Books a. Isbat ul Nabuwwat b. Risla e Nabuwwat i. Need & importance of Prophethood c. Maktubat e Imam e Rabbai d. Toheed e Shaheedi i. Islamic philosophy Two nation theory a. First stone of two nation theory – first founder of Pakistan Influence over Jehangir – Khutba; Cow Slaughter;

Shaikh imprisoned   

Asaf Jah, Jehangeer’s PM Shaikh summoned No prostration jailed After 3 years of imprisonment, Jehangeer released him giving him 10000 rupees He stayed 3 years in Jehangeer courts

“When seen in the perspective of history, whether accepted by Sufis or not, it is in the rejection of monism that Sheikh’s claim for being the Mujadad of his age.” IH Qureshi “Sheikh Ahmad, an individual from Sirhind, rich in knowledge and vigorous in action. I associated him for few days and found marvelous things in his spiritual life. He will turn into a light which will illuminate the world.” Khawaja Bakhtiar Kaki quoted by S M Ikram

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Father of Modern Muslim India Real name Qutabuddin Born at Delhi son of Shah Abdur Rahim (Fatwa e Alamgeeri) – scholar of Fiqa and Islamic jurisprudence Got knowledge of Fiqah, Ahadith, Tafsir and Hikmat  completed study in 15 year of age Went to Arabia for higher education and came back in July 1732 He taught at Madrasa Rahimia for 12 years Aim  Revive the past glory of Muslims and purify the society inwardly

Conditions     

Incapable successor of Aurangzeb Un-Islamic trends, Muslim life honour property not secured, Shia-Suni conflicts, Marhats and Sikhs challengers





Religious work a. Translation of Holy Quran in Persian – 1738 b. Commentary on Hadith collection of Imam Muttah in Arabic and persian c. Urged Muslims to follow Holy prophet & abandon un-Islamic trends d. Trained students in different Islamic knowledge e. Recommended application of Ijtehad f. Initiated Tatbiq  liberal element g. Balance b/w four schools – h. Removed misunderstanding b/w Shai & Sunni – Khilafat-al-Khulafa Political work a. Marathas were threatening the Muslim empire b. Wrote letters to seek help from Muslim nobles against Sikhs  won over Najib ud Dola, Shuja ud Daula c. Ahmad Shah Abdali  defeated Sikhs at the Third battle of Panipat in 1761 Social work a. Strongly opposed integration of Islamic culture in Sons’ efforts subcontinent b. Concept of reorientation of Muslim society Quranic translation in i. Basic social justice Urdu by Rafiuddin and ii. Removing social inequalities Abdul Qadir iii. c. Concept of economy Shah Abdul Aziz waged i. Production of wealth Jehad ii. Consumption of wealth iii. Distribution of wealth iv. Exchange of wealth Literary work a. Izalat-al-Akifa b. Khalifa-al-Khulafa c. Al-Insaf-fi-Bayan-Sababa-al-Ikhtilaf d. Master piece of literature 1738 e. Commentary on Hadith Imam Muttah

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f. g. h.

Quranic translation in Persian Alfauz-ul-Qabir Fi-Usool-e-Tafseer Hujjat-ul-Balagha – about decay, Ijtehad, Mujjad and Ruler

“I was informed through Ilham that I would have to undertake this responsibility. The time has come when every injunction of the Sharia and instruction of Islam should be presented to the world in a rational manner.” Quoted by SM Ikram

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SYED AHMAD SHAHEED BARELVI (1786 – 1831)      

Inheretor of mantle of Shah Abdul Aziz Birth at Rai Barally in 1786 Father Shah Illam Ullah Inspired by Shah Abdul Aziz 1810 – joined Nawab Ameer Khan as Sawar 1818 – wrote Seerat-e-Mustaqeem

Condition  

Punjab ruled by Ranjit Singh who mutilated Muslims NWFP by Sikhs

Objective 

Purification of Muslim society and destruction of British power through armed struggle – Establishment of a state based on Islamic principles

Jehad Movement  

 

HQ at Nowshehra in Dec 1826 Battles 1. OKARA 1826 2. HAZRO 1827 3. Yar Muhammad Conspiracy  He joined Mujahideen in Pesh, force arouse to 80,000  Tried to poision Syed Ahmad  Killed by Mujahideen in 1829 4. BATTLE FOR PESHAWAR  Ranjit Singh saved Peshawar and gave to Sultan Muhammad 5. HAZARA II 1830  Sikh were attacked, Sultan M arrested Declaration of Khilafat (1830) 1. Sultan M pardoned & withdrew from Pesh BALAKOT BATTLE 1831 1. Sikh attacked, Syed Ahmad killed

Causes of Failure 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Western generals Vantura and Elite in Ranjit’s army – training & modern war strategy Outdated weapons of Mujahideen Financial sources of Ranjit Singh Misudnderstaning created by Ranjit Singh Ranjit attracted Pathans by bribing who did spy, revolt & slaughtered Mujahideen No support for poors – Zakat collection Islamic laws during war – compulsory girls & widow marriage Severe punishment Pathans were against Wahabisim

“The movement led by Brelvi was a precursor for later Muslim national movements of the subcontinent.” Dr. Sachin Sen

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FARAIZI MOVEMENT Wide scale ignorance of Muslims resulted in Hindu emergence in 19th century. Haji Shariat Ullah (1781 - 1840) Left for Arabia in 1799  influenced by MBA Wahab  started Faraizi Movement – stress on Faraiz when back  denied concept of Peer-Mureed  opposed Zamindar levied taxes  Harassed by them  left Najabari  Death in Faridpur Dudu Mian (Mohsan Ud Din Ahmad)  divided Bangal into circles and appointed Khalifa  opposed tax of Durga and land  Khas Mehal occupied on his direction  established his own state  harassed by Zamindars thorough false charges  died in Sep 1824

TITU MIR (1782-1831) Nisar Ali (Titu Mir) born in Bengal Visited Makkah in 1819 and influenced by Syed Ahmed Barelvi.  On arrival back, he started preaching He made a fort in Narkalberia, asked followers not to give beard tax (Kishan Rai) Kishan attacked but defeated  183 British army attacked Narkalberia and killed Titu Mir.

Organization: 1. 2.

Security of Peassantory – Lathibardar  Political branch Social Justice – Punchayat  Religious branch

Doctrine: 4 steps 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Tauba Fraiz Tuheed Ustaad Shagir instead of Peer Mureed Dar-ul-Arab

Khalafat System: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Ustaad Uprasta – Advisor to Ustaad Superintendent Khalifa – 10 G K Gaon Khalifa – 500 families

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EDUCATIONAL MOVEMENTS ALIGARH MOVEMENT The War of Independence 1857 ended in disaster for the Muslims. The British chose to believe that the Muslims were responsible for the anti-British uprising; therefore they made them the subject of ruthless punishments and merciless vengeance. The British had always looked upon the Muslims as their adversaries because they had ousted them from power. With the rebellion of 1857, this feeling was intensified and every attempt was made to ruin and suppress the Muslims forever. Their efforts resulted in the liquidation of the Mughal rule and the Sub-continent came directly under the British crown. After dislodging the Muslim rulers from the throne, the new rulers, the British, implemented a new educational policy with drastic changes. The policy banned Arabic, Persian and religious education in schools and made English not only the medium of instruction but also the official language in 1835. This spawned a negative attitude amongst the Muslims towards everything modern and western, and a disinclination to make use of the opportunities available under the new regime. This tendency, had it continued for long, would have proven disastrous for the Muslim community. Seeing this atmosphere of despair and despondency, Sir Syed launched his attempts to revive the spirit of progress within the Muslim community of India. He was convinced that the Muslims in their attempt to regenerate themselves, had failed to realize the fact that mankind had entered a very important phase of its existence, i.e., an era of science and learning. He knew that the realization of the very fact was the source of progress and prosperity for the British. Therefore, modern education became the pivot of his movement for regeneration of the Indian Muslims. He tried to transform the Muslim outlook from a medieval one to a modern one.

Sir Syed Ahmad Khan (17 Oct, 1817 – 27 Mar 1898)  

Got knowledge from Farid ud Din (maternal-grandfather – Ex Mughal PM) Got knowledge of Quran, Arabic, Persian, History, Maths and Medicine

Joined gov’t in 1839 – after father’s death – in a clerical job  1841 – promoted as Sub-Judge  1846 – transferred to Delhi  Chief judge in 1846  was offered an estate for services rendered to British during war 1857 but he rejected  1877 – member of imperial council  1886 – University of Edinburgh – LL.D degree 1888 – Knighthood Educational Aspect of Aligarh Movement Objective: 1. 2.

Modern education for Muslims to compete Hindus Cooperation with the British government


Schools  Muradabad (1859)  Ghazipur (1863) Scientific society at Gahazipur (1864)  (to translate modern work from English to urdu and Persian)  1866 – Society published Aligarh Gazette (to arouse sentiments of goodwill & friendship)  Muhammadan Educational Conference


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Established in 1866  held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques  Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members Muhammadan Educational Conference  Established in 1866  held public meetings, discussed modern education techniques  Nawab Mohsan al Malik, Vaqar ul Malik, Maulana Shibli and Maulana Hali as members

1869 – went to England, studied education system of Oxford & Cambridge 4. 5.

Anjuman-i-Taraqi-i-Musalmanan-i-Hind (1870)  to impart modern knowledge to Muslims Muhammadan Anglo-Oriental College On pattern of Oxford  Fund raising committee formed 24th May, 1874, MAO High school established  1877 – got status of college  western, eastern and Islamic education  1920 – status of University

Political Aspects of Aligarh Movement 1. 2.

 3. 4. 5. 6.

Muslims should avoid active politics Sir Syed wrote “Risala-i-Asbab-Baghawqat-i-Hind  Causes of WOI 1857 1. Non representation of Indian in legislative councils 2. Conversion of Indian into Christianity 3. Mismanagement of Indian army 4. Ill advised measure of gov’t Consequence: Indian membership in Act 1861 1866 – Sir Syed formed British India Association at Aligarh – to express grievances of Indians to gov’t wrote Loyal Muhammadans of India Indian Patriotic Association 1888 – forum for those who did not join Congress Muhammadan Political Association 1903 – Against Hindu Revivalist movements a. Arya Smaj – Hindustan 1977 b. B G Tilak – Cow Slaughter c. Shudhi d. Shangtahn -

Religious Services of Aligarh Movement 1. 2. 3.

Wrote “Essay on the Life of Muhammad & Rebattle” in response to William Muire’s objectionable remarks in “Life of Muhammad” Philosophical commentary “Tabaeen-al-Kalam” on bible – point out similarities Influenced by MBA Wahab and Shah Ismail Shaheed – having positive attitude towards religion

Social services of Aligarh Movement 1. 2. 3. 4.

“Tahzib-ul-Akhlaq”  criticized conservative way of life and advised to adopt new trend Established Orphanage houses Founded Anjuman-i-Tariki-i-Urdu  protecting Urdu Ahkam-i-Taham-i-Ahle-Kitab  Muslims can eat with Christians

Pioneer of two nation theory   

Advocate of Hindu Muslim unity Urdu Hindi controversy 1867 in Banaras, changed his views Shakespeare dialogue

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Features of Aligarh      

Western & Eastern Education Islamic Education Residential College European and Indian staff Non-Muslim students Loyalist Disposition

Aligarh Movement after Sir Syed’s death 1. 2. 3.

4. 5.

1889 – Sir Syed proposed a trustee bill  Sir Syed as Sec. of the trust & Syed Mahmud (son) as joint sec. After Sir Syed’s death (1898), Syed Mahmud as Sec.  was a weak manager  resigned Nawab Mohsin-ul-Mulk as new sec  devoted  deposited six lac Rs to gov’t  handled the conflict b/t two groups – Sahibzada Aftab Khan (in favor of European staff) & Muhammad Ali Johar  Died in 1907 Nwab Vaqar ul Malik took over tussle on European staff arouse  Nawab resigned in 1912 – health Nwab Muhammad Ishaq Khan  deposited 20 lac for status of University  1919- college student played role in Tehrik e Khilafat

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TEHRIK-I-DEOBAND (Apr 1866)    

  

Aligarh movement was cooperating with British Christians working to convert Muslims into Christianity Apr 1866 – Madrasah established at Deoband  2nd to Al Azhar Cairo Founder  Haji M. Abid floated the idea  Collection of fund  Managing committee – Maulana M Qasim , Maulana Fazl ur Rehman, Maulana Zulfiqar, Maulana M Yaqoob  Maulana Shabir A Usmani taught Maulana M Qasim first principal  worked devotedly  Madrasah came to known as “Qasim al Uloom I Deoband” Madrasah followed Madrasah I Rahimia (Shah wali Ullah’s father) and British education system Produced  Shah Abdur Rahim, Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi, Maulana Mehmood ul Hassan

Political Services of Deoband  

Jamiat Ulama I Islam Thanvi group  lead by Ashraf Ali Thanvi, Shabir Ahmad Usmani  Muslim league Jamiat-ul-Ulema-i-Hind  Madni group  lead by Maulana Hussain Madani, Mufti Kafayat Ullah influenced by Abu-ul-Kalam Azad  Congress

Educational Services of Deoband  

A great religious Madrasah  2nd to Al Azhar Principals  Maulana M Qasim (1880)  Rashid Ahmad Ganghoi  Sheikh ul Hind M. Mehmood Ul Hassan.

Deoband and Aligarh   

Policy towards British Political role of Muslims Emphasizing area of education

Rapprochement with Aligarh  

Jamiat-ul-Ansar (1906) at Deoband  Sahibzada Aftab A Khan attended the meeting  Swap of education – religious and western Jamiat-i-Milia (1920)

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Aligarh  acquisition of western education Deoband  religious education Need for balanced school Committee was formed in 1892  Nadva-tul-Ulema established in 1894  functioned in 1898 Founder  Maulana Abdul Ghafoor  Shibli Naumani and Mau. Abdul Haq chalked out a liberal program

Objective  

Promoting religious knowledge, moral uplift and social regeneration of Muslims, Work to remove secretarial differences British gov’t opposed the idea (Anthony MacDonal expressed it as a political institute)

Nadva-tul-Ulema & Shibli Nohmani     

Shibli influenced by Maulana M Farooq – opposing Sir Syed while his father influenced by Sir Syed Joined Aligarh as A Prof of Arabic in 1883  Impressed Sir Syed  Asset to Aligarh  some serious differences  Man of arrogance and sensitive  resigned in 1904 Associated with Nadva  used his expreince to bring reform  gave training in writing (Syed Suleman Nadvi, Abu-al-Kalam Aza) Established academy”Dar-ul-Musanifin” Differences arouse  resigned

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Sikh raj in Punjab  Muslims backwardness 250 Muslims established for educational guidance  influenced by Aligarh Founder  Khalifa Hameed-ud-Din first president  Dr. M Nazir & Munshi Abdur Rehim Muthi bar atta scheme for funding

Objective      

politically Establishing educational institute Counter Christian missionaries Orphanage houses Stable Muslim society Preserve Muslim culture Organize Muslims

Educational Services    

Established several primary schools on Aligarh pattern  15 schools by 1894 Madrasa tul Muslimin (Islamia High School Sheranwala Gate) in 1889 Islamia College for women Lahore in 1938 Islamia College Railway road, Islamia College civil lines, Islamia College cant, Hamayat I Islam Law College & Center for adult education Lahore

Political Services Students of Islamia College Railqway road  body guard of the Quaid  role in 1940 resolution  MSF led by Hamid Nizami

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Syed Hasan Afandi (President of Centeral Mohamadan Association of Karachi – influenced by Sir Syed) established  Hassan died in 1896  Wali Muhammad took over 1n 1943 – Board of the Madrasah decided to rename as Sindh Muslim College Quaid got education from this institute


Edward College (1888) was a Christian missionary  need for institute for Muslims  Sahibzada Abdul Qayum established Dar-Ul-Uloom-Islamia in 1902 Sahibzada Abdul Qayum established Funding committee in 1912  Dar-ul-Uloom raised to Islamia College Peshawar Qaid got education from this institute  Sahibzada called Sir Syed of NWFP Islamia College has major contribution in 1947 referendum

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THE IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN: TWO-NATION THEORY The ideology of Pakistan stems from the instinct of the Muslim community of South Asia to maintain their individuality by resisting all attempts by the Hindu society to absorb it. Muslims of South Asia believe that Islam and Hinduism are not only two religions, but also two social orders that have given birth to two distinct cultures with no similarities. The ideology of Pakistan took shape through an evolutionary process. Historical experience provided the base; with Sir Syed Ahmad Khan began the period of Muslim self-awakening; Allama Iqbal provided the philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction. It was due to the realization of Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. When they realized that their future in a 'Democratic India' dominated by Hindu majority was not safe; they put forward their demand for a separate state. As early as in the beginning of the 11th century, Al-Biruni observed that Hindus differed from the Muslims in all matters and habits. He further elaborated his argument by writing that the Hindus considered Muslims "Mlachha", or impure. And they forbid having any connection with them, be it intermarriage or any other bond of relationship. They even avoid sitting, eating and drinking with them, because they feel "polluted". The Ideology of Pakistan has its roots deep in history. The history of South Asia is largely a history of rivalry and conflict between the Hindus and Muslims of the region. Both communities have been living together in the same area since the early 8th century, since the advent of Islam in India. Yet, the two have failed to develop harmonious relations. In the beginning, one could find the Muslims and Hindus struggling for supremacy in the battlefield. Starting with the war between Muhammad bin Qasim and Raja Dahir in 712, armed conflicts between Hindus and Muslims run in thousands. Clashes between Mahmud of Ghazni and Jaypal, Muhammad Ghuri and Prithvi Raj, Babur and Rana Sanga and Aurangzeb and Shivaji are cases in point. When the Hindus of South Asia failed to establish Hindu Padshahi through force, they opted for back door conspiracies. Bhakti Movement, Akbar’s diversion.


A political ideology is a system of beliefs that explains and justifies a preferred political order, either existing or proposed and offers a strategy (Institution, processes, program) for its attainment.

An ideology offers an interpretation of the past, explanation of the present and a vision of the future

Ideology is a set of beliefs, values and ideals of a group and a nation. It is deeply ingrained in the social consciousness of the people.

It is a set of principles, a framework of action and guidance system that gives order and meaning to life and human action.

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When thinking of a nation or a social group is rejected.

An ideology emerges when people feel strongly that they are being mistreated under an existing order, when their status is threatened by fundamental changes occurring in the society, and when the prevailing ideology no longer satisfies them




Analysis of current situation


Creating new thinking


Legitimate – De-legitimate


Role of Leadership


It is a motivating force

It provides a common plate form. BASIS OF IDEOLOGY OF PAKISTAN

Based on ideals of Islam

Historical experience provided the base; Allama Iqbal gave it a philosophical explanation; Quaid-i-Azam translated it into a political reality; and the Constituent Assembly of Pakistan, by passing Objectives Resolution in March 1949, gave it legal sanction.

It was due to the realization of the Muslims of South Asia that they are different from the Hindus that they demanded separate electorates. However when they realized that their future in a ‘Democratic India’ dominated by Hindu majority was not safe, they changed their demand to a separate state.

Hindu British were exploiting Muslims in India. So Muslims adopted this ideology to save their identity and culture from total elimination.


Two-nation concept was based on Nationhood which was there long before Pak Ideology. Muslim Traders – Attackers – Rulers (Qutb Ud Din Abik, Ghaznavi) – Sufis (Al Hajveri, Sheikh Ahmad Serhandi) Based on fact that Muslims were separate nation having their own culture, civilization, customs, literature, religion and way of life. Despite living together for more than one thousand years, they continue to develop different cultures and traditions. Their eating habits, music, architecture and script, all are poles apart. The basis of the Muslim nationhood was neither territorial nor racial or linguistic or ethnic rather they were a nation because they belonged to the same faith, Islam. They demanded that the areas where they were in majority should be constituted into a sovereign state,

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   

  

wherein they could order their lives in accordance with the teachings of Holy Quran and Sunnah of Holy Prophet (PBUH). The Muslims were put into the backwardness with the help of Hindus. This was one of the outstanding motivations that paved the way to declare the separate identity of nationalism, the Muslim nationalism Due to British and Hindu exploitation they were forced to safe guard their national and relational identity. Sir Syed Ahmad Khan is pioneer of two nation theory. The Ali-Garh movement produced educated leadership who could protect the Muslims’ rights on the Western political lines. Two Nation Theory means that Pakistan should be a state where the Muslims should have an opportunity to live according to their faith and creed established on the Islamic principals. They should have all the resources at their disposal to enhance Islamic culture and civilization. There are two major nations in British India. The Muslims are not a community but a nation with a distinctive history, heritage, culture, civilization, and future aspirations. (All India Muslim League) The Muslims wanted to preserve and protect their distinct identity and advance their interests in India. They wanted to order their lives in accordance with their ideals and philosophy of life without being overwhelmed by an unsympathetic majority. Initially, they demanded safeguards, constitutional guarantees and a federal system of government with powers to the provinces for protection and advancement of their heritage, identity and interests. Later, they demanded a separate state when neither the British nor the Hindu majority community was willing to offer those guarantees and safeguards


British expansion had more deepening impact on Muslims as “The people who were important in history are no longer important” KK Aziz

Urdu Hindi controversy under Congress leadership in 1867 in Banars

Revivalist movements against Muslims – Bakhti, Deen e Elahi, Shuddi and Shanghtan movement

Hindu attitude – Partition of Bangal and its repeal

Political experience of Muslims under congress ministries in 1937-39


Enforcement of sovereignty of Allah Almighty a.

Quaid said “We do not demand Pakistan to acquire a piece of land, but we wanted a homeland where we could introduce Islamic principals”


Establishment of Islamic democracy a.

Quaid at Sibbi in 1948 “It is my firm belief that our salvation lied in following the golden rules of conduct as given by our great law giver, the prophet of Islam. Let us lay the foundation our democratic system on Islamic ideals and practices”


Revival of Muslim image and Identity


Protection of Muslim culture and civilization



Urdu Hindi controversy


Shuddi and Sanghtan Movements

Two Nation Theory

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Establishment of a balanced economic system a.

All highly courts and military positions were reserved for Hindus.


Agriculture and Industry was dominated by Hindus


Islamic system has the benefit for poor as well as rich – Zakat, Ushar PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY AND QUAID E AZAM

He changed the course of history. He was a real charismatic leader possessing a visionary leadership.

Gave practical shape to the ideology given by Sir Syed and Allama Iqbal

He started his political career in 1906 by joining the Indian National Congress. He was elected to the Legislative Council in 1909 and in 1913 he also joined the All India Muslim League (AIML). Now he was member of both the political parties.

Having disagreement with Gandhi on the issue of Swaraj (self-rule), complete freedom from the British and on using extra-constitutional means, Jinnah resigned from the Congress in 1920. His early efforts to promote Hindu-Muslim unity were materialized when THE LUCKNOW PACT (1916) was signed. The Hindus accepted the Muslim demands:


Separate Electorate


One-third Seats in Central Legislature


protection of minority rights

In the Nehru Report, the accepted Muslim rights were ignored. Jinnah retaliated forcefully by presenting 14 Points in 1929.

1935 onwards Quaid started emphasizing on separate identity of Muslim and a separate nation. Started mobilizing masses.

1937  there are only two parties in India said Nehro on performance of ML in elctions. Quaid said “Muslims are third party in India”

1939  “Muslim and Hindu are two nations. We are going to live as a nation and play a role as a nation.”

March 9, 1940  Quaid wrote his only article published in British media namely “Time and Tide”. He discussed 1.How Hindu and Muslims are separate nations? 2. What should be future of India and how Muslims can be accommodated well?

He emphasized on Islam as well as modern democracy, Social economic justice and rights of minorities.

“Pakistan was to be a modern democratic state that derived its ethical foundation from Islam where the source of guidance and inspiration for constitution making and governance is going to be Islam”

“It has been taken for granted mistakenly that Muslims are a minority, and of course we got used to it for such a long time that these settled notions sometimes difficult to remove. The

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Muslims are not a minority; the Muslims are a nation by every definition. By all canons of international law we are a nation.” 23rd March 1940 

““India is not a nation, nor a country. It is a sub continent of nationalities, Hindus and Muslims belong the two major nations. The Hindus and the Muslims belong to two different religion, philosophies. Social customs and literature. They belong to two different civilizations which are based mainly on conflicting ideas and conceptions. Their aspect on life and of life are different. It is quite clear that both derive their inspirations from different sources of history” 23rd March 1940

“We are a nation with our distinct culture and civilization, language and literature, art and architecture, sense of values and proportions, legal laws and moral codes, customs and calendars, history and traditions. In short we have our distinct outlook on life and of life By all canons of International law we are a separate nation.” 1942

The Muslims are nation by every right to establish their homeland” 1942

“We should base our democracy on the principals and concepts of Islam” Feb 1942

“Pakistan does not mean freedom and independence only, but the Islamic ideology as well which has to be preserved.” June 1945

“I cannot understand a section of people who deliberately want to create a mischief and make propaganda that the constitution of Pakistan will not be made on the basis of Shariat. Islamic principals today are as applicable to life as they were 1300 years ago.” Jan 25, 1948 Eid Milad Un Nabbi Karachi Bar Association PAKISTAN IDEOLOGY AND ALLAMA IQBAL

Men like Allama Iqbal are born but in centuries

His first public appearance was in 1899 at the annual session of Anjuman Himayat-i-Islam in Lahore when he presented the poem, Nala-i-Yatim.

At initial stages Dr Iqbal was a nationalist by ideas and his poetry contained verses like Tarana-i- Hind.

He wet Europe for higher education in 1905-08. Lived in England and got Phd from Munich University. He stayed in Hindenburg where he wrote poem Daraye Nekar key kenare.

Represented Muslims in second and third round table conferences in 1931 and 1932.

Gave the famous Allah Abad Address which late on provided base for Lahore resolution.

“I am fully convinced that Muslims of India will ultimately have to establish a separate homeland as they cannot live with Hindu in the United India.”

“Religion and politics are not distinct from each other”

“India is a continent of Human beings belonging to different religions. To base a constitution on the conception of homogenous India is to prepare her for civil war. I, therefore, demand the formation of a consolidated Muslim state in the best interest of the Muslims of India and Islam. The formation of consolidated North west Indian state appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims” Allaha Abad Address

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“I would like to see the Punjab, NWFP, Sind, Balochistan amalgamated into a single state as a self government within the British empire or without. This is the final destiny of the Muslims of N.W. India.” Allaha abad Address

“I have been a staunch advocate of putting an end to the religious distinction from the country. But now I believe that the protection of separate national identity is in the best interest of Muslims and Hindus. Since the Muslims are a separate nation with their separate cultural values and religious trends, and they want to have a system of their own linking, they should be allowed to live under such system” Allaha Abad Address

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DECLINE OF MUGHAL RULE The death of Alamgir in 1707 is generally regarded as the beginning of the gradual decline, and ultimately fall, of the once extensive, prosperous and powerful Mughal Empire. Although it took nearly 150 years before the House of Babur finally disappeared from the scene, the cracks that had appeared at Alamgir's death widened. His son Muazzam, who ruled from 1707 to 1712, succeeded Aurangzeb Alamgir. He took for himself the title of Bahadur Shah. He ruled for five years and momentarily revived the Mughal Empire. But the Marhatta's power increased and they became the unchallenged rulers of Deccan. In the province of Punjab, the Sikhs under Guru Govind Singh became a force to reckon with. One of the reasons that power centers kept springing up outside Delhi was the frequent change in the succession of Empires. Nearly 17 kings were crowned during the period spanning from 1707 to 1857. The weakened Mughal Empire invited havoc in the form of the Persian king Nadir Shah, in 1738-39. On his orders a general massacre of the citizens of Delhi was carried out, resulting in the death of 30,000 people. Another threat to the Mughal Empire came from the Afghans of Rohilkhand, lying northeast of Delhi. By the middle of 18th century, the Rohillas became independent of the Mughal rule. At the same time the Jats also raised their heads against the central rule. Taking advantage of this chaotic situation, the East India Company began strengthening its military capabilities. They conspired with Hindu traders and moneylenders against Nawab Sirajuddullah of Bengal to take over his principality. The Battle of Plassey of 1757 is considered a major breakthrough for the British in the Sub-continent. It paved the way for the company's rule in Bengal, and hence the whole of India ultimately came under the company's rule. In the 19th century, Muslims like Syed Ahmad Brailvi and Shah Ismail carried out Jihad against the Sikhs, as did Haider Ali and Tipu Sultan in Deccan against the British. However, they failed in their efforts to stop the downfall of the Muslim rule. The final crunch came after the war of 1857 when the Mughal rule officially came to an end and India came under the direct rule of the British crown.

The Mughal Empire reached its greatest extent in the time of Aurangzeb Alamgir, but it collapsed with dramatic suddenness within a few decades after his death. The Mughal Empire owes its decline and ultimate downfall to a combination of factors; firstly Aurangzeb's religious policy is regarded as a cause for the decline of the Mughal Empire as it led to disunity among the people. Although the policy did lead to weakening of the empire but the major cause of decline was the lack of worthy and competent successors after him. The character of Mughal kings had deteriorated over a period of time. The successive rulers after Aurangzeb were weak and lacked the character, motivation and commitment to rule the empire strongly. They had become ease loving and cowardly. They totally disregarded their state duties and were unable to detain the declining empire from its fall. The absence of any definite law of accession was another important factor. The war of successions not only led to bitterness, bloodshed, and loss of money and prestige of the empire over a period of time, but to its eventual fall. The degeneration of the rulers had also led to the moral degeneration of the nobility. Under the early Mughals, the nobles performed useful functions and distinguished themselves both in war and peace. But the elite under the later Mughals was more interested in worldly pursuit and self-enhancement. The nobles who had once been talented men with integrity, honesty, and loyalty, turned selfish and deceitful. Growth of hostile and rival clique in the court also undermined the strength of the government. Widespread corruption in the administration started and taking bribes became common.

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One of the most potent causes of the fall of the Mughal Empire was the deterioration and demoralization of the army. The military had not only become inefficient but also lacked in training, discipline and cohesion. The army was out-dated in regard to equipment. It consisted of contingents maintained by various nobles, which was the main source of Army's weakness. As the weakening of the nobles occurred, so did the army. This was because of the soldiers, instead of identifying and uniting as Mughal Indians, identified themselves with different ethnic groups like Persian, Afghans and Central Asians. The Mughals had no navy and only maintained small ships that were no match for the well-equipped ships of the foreign traders. It was this weakness that the French and the British used to their advantage, and were eventually able to establish their control over India. Another factor contributing to the decline was the financial position of the Mughals, which had become deplorable. The war of successions, rebellions and luxurious style of living had depleted the once enormous treasury and had led to financial bankruptcy. During the time of Aurangzeb, the Mughal Empire had expanded to reach its maximum size. This vast area had become impossible for one ruler to control and govern from one center. It was during the later Mughals that Deccan, Bengal, Bihar and Orrisa declared their independence. The raids by Nadir Shah, and repeated invasions of Ahmad Shah Abdali, resulted in further weakening of the empire. The already weakened empire faced further encroachment by the British and the French, which proved to be the last nail in the already drowning empire's coffin. The British and French, who had initially come as traders, took full advantage of the weakening empire and soon became masters of the whole of India.


Weak Successors of Aurangzeb a. All merry making and unable, except Bahadar Shah b. Left work to their Wazirs 2. Vastness of the Empire a. Aurangzeb empire – practically impossible b. Afghanistan to Asaam, Kashmir to Maysor c. Lack of effective means of communication 3. Absence of a Definite Law of Succession a. Akbar was only unopposed among 20 rulers b. "The sword was the grand arbiter of right and every son was prepared to try his fortune against his brothers." Erskine 4. Deterioration of Morality of Mughal Emperors a. Fond of wine and women 5. Degeneration of Nobility a. Degeneration into sects and costs – Iranian, Toranian and Indian 6. Deterioration of Army a. Abundance of wealth and comfort b. Loss of confidence c. Demoralization 7. Corrupt Administration a. Ministers, nobels and officers accepted bribes 8. Stoppage of Adventures from Persia, Afghanistan and Turkistan a. This provided a change for Army to be lazy 9. Invasions of Nadir Shah and Ahmed Shah Abdali a. Nadir Shah 1739 (looted for 57 days) b. Ahmad Shah Abdali 1754 – 67 (5 times) 10. Aurangzeb's Policy in Deccan

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a. Golkonda and Bijapur served as a check to Maraths before conquest 11. Absence of Naval Power a. British and Portuguese had strong naval power 12. Intellectual Bankruptcy a. 17th & 18th century European saw industrial revolution b. Mughals did not pay attention 13. Plight of the Common People and Peasants a. Bad economic conditions led to discontentment 14. Rise of Marathas a. Emergence of Maraths in 17th century b. 18th century they extended their influence to Delhi 15. Rise of Sikhs a. During the reign of Jahandar Shah (1712 – 13) and Farrukhsiyar (1713 – 19) 16. Rise of Hindus of Rajputana a. Rajput of Mewar and Marwar distressed by Aurangzeb 17. Outdated war equipment and tactics a. Failed to keep pace with modern developments b. Lack of modern weapons led the failure of battle of Plassy and Buxer 18. Advent of English East India Company a. Got trade access in Aurangzeb’s reign i. Portuguese - suppressed by Aurangzeb ii. British

WAR OF INDEPENDENCE By 1845, the British Empire had expanded from Bengal to Sindh, and all that remained free was Punjab. The Sikhs were ruling over Punjab and after the Second Sikh War in 1848, the British gained control over the Indus. The Koh-i-Noor diamond that Ranjit Singh had worn in his headdress now became a part of the crown jewels at Westminster. The War of Independence broke out in January and March 1857. The British army had recruited local Indians in their forces. These soldiers were issued cartridges greased with fat from tabooed animals. The soldiers refused to use these cartridges. In 1857, starting with an uprising in Meerut, soldiers in the British Army in Bengal launched a full-scale mutiny against the British. This mutiny spread swiftly across the Sub-continent. Initially, the Indian soldiers were able to push back the British forces. The British army was driven out of Delhi and the Indian soldiers took control of the city. Bahadur Shah Zafar, the last Mughal King, was compelled to lead the freedom fighters. In Bahadur Shah Zafar, the rebels found a symbol of freedom, but a mere symbol was all he was. Wanting to spend his days writing poetry, the man was in no way even a remnant of the glory of his forefathers. He proclaimed himself the Emperor of the whole of India. The civilians, citizens and other dignitaries took oath of allegiance to the Emperor. The Emperor issued his own coin and appointed his sons to key posts. The initial success of the freedom fighters gave a boost to the War of Independence. The Indian army captured the important towns of Haryana, Bihar and Mahdya Pardesh. However, the British forces at Meerut and Ambala put up a resolute resistance to the royal army and held them back for several months. The British proved to be a formidable foe with their superior weapons and better strategy. The freedom fighters badly lacked in adequate resources and their planning proved to be extremely brittle. The royal forces were finally defeated. The British army entered Delhi and the Mughal emperor Bahadur Shah Zafar went into hiding. The British quickly regained control of Delhi. They ransacked and destroyed the city. They took revenge in the most gruesome manner by killing innocent people indiscriminately. A wide scale massacre of the inhabitants of Delhi was carried out to avenge the killings of the British soldiers. The

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Mughal emperor was captured from his sanctuary, the tomb of Emperor Humayun. The emperor's sons were slaughtered in cold blood. Their bodies were beheaded and their heads were presented to the aging emperor in prison. Bahadur Shah was imprisoned in Rangoon, Myanmar, where he breathed his last. After the War of Independence in 1857, the British government assumed sovereignty over the lands of the British East India Company. The British control over the Sub-continent grew in the next 50 years and culminated in the British Raj. Queen Victoria's Indian realm continued to expand, until Hunza, the remote kingdom bordering China, fell into British hands in 1891, bringing the expansion to its zenith. The British delineated the frontier separating British India from Afghanistan in 1893. The resulting Durand Line cut straight through the tribal area of the Pathans. The British left the tribal areas to govern themselves under the supervision of British political agents. The British thus became masters of India, where for nearly 800 years Muslims had ruled. However, their attitude towards the Muslims was that of antipathy. According to Hunter, a prominent historian, "The Muslims of India are, and have been for many years, a source of chronic danger to the British power in India". The British attributed the war of 1857 to the Muslims alone. As a result, property belonging to Muslims was confiscated and they were denied employment opportunities everywhere in the army, revenue department, and judiciary. The British administrators deliberately followed a discriminatory policy against the Muslims, even in filling minor jobs. Advertisements inviting applications for government jobs specifically mentioned that Muslims would not be appointed. Hunter admits that the exclusion of the Muslims was so complete that in the government offices of Calcutta they could not accept a post higher than that of a porter, messenger, filler of inkpots and mender of pens. By a series of revenue and financial measures, the British smashed the political and social position of the Muslims. In the province of Bombay, the government appointed "Inam Commission" to inquire into the land grants of the Muslim times. The Commission took away 20,000 estates from the Muslims and thus ruined many families and institutions of the community. The Company's commercial policy eliminated the Muslims from internal and foreign trade. When the Europeans came to the Sub-continent, the Muslim merchants lost much of their commerce with foreign countries. But they maintained their hold on internal trade and their commercial activities extended to the Persian Gulf and the coastal territories of the Arabian Sea. During the Company's rule, the Muslim traders were pushed out of this area as well by the competition of the Company's traders who enjoyed many special concessions. The newly introduced English system of education had many drawbacks for the Muslims, mainly because it made no provisions for religious education. As a result, they stayed away from it. Thus, within a few years of loss of political power, the Muslims lost all avenues of employment, were dispossessed of their estates and deprived of the benefits of education. A highly cultured community turned into a backward and poor people. In their place British-educated Hindus began to occupy positions in governments offices formerly held by the Muslims.


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Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])



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Goal of ML   

“To protect religious and cultural identity of the Muslims of India” The founding session chaired by  Nawab Waqar ul Malik Seconded by  Maulana Zaffar Ali Khan and Hakeem Ajmal Khan

Change in Strategy 1913 Causes 1.

Annulment of Bengal partition

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2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Balkan war (Italy-Turkey) Libya Italy war Demolition of a Mosque at Khanpur Realization by both parties to achieve their same goal Role of Quaid

Updated Strategy 1. 2.

Self-government under the crown Good relations and cooperation with any organization working for same cause

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Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])



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4. Central and provincial government would be bound by the resolutions passed by their respective legislative councils unless there were vetoed by the GG. In the event of such a veto if the resolutions again passed after an interval of not less than one year, they would be put into effect notwithstanding the veto.

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KHILAFAT MOVEMENT *** Background: The Lucknow pact showed that it was possible for middle-class, English-educated Muslims and Hindus to arrive at an amicable settlement on Hindu-Muslim constitutional and political problems. This unity reached its climax during the Khilafat and the Non-Cooperation Movements.


Rowlett Act April 1919 a. Report by Sydney Rowlatt to counter terrorists b. Features i. Accused have to prove himself not guilty ii. No legal assistance to accused iii. No right to appeal iv. Prosecution can produce witness of a dead person c. Quaid resigned from Central Legislative Assembly


Jallianwala Bagh Tragedy a. Gandhi entrance in Punjab banned b. Protest on April 13, 1919 in Amritsar c. Gen. Dyre ordered fire  killed 379, injured 1200 in 10 minutes d. Britian imposed Martial Law in Amritsar, Lahore, Gujrat e. Hunter committee recommended forcibly retirement of Gen. Dyr

Introduction:    

Religio-political movement Extra territorial attachments based on Islam First movement which involved common man Showed Islam is mobilization force

Goals: 1. 2. 3.

Ottuman empire should be kept intact Territorial solidarity Control of holy places

Muslim Media: 1. 2. 3.

Zamindar – Zafar Ali Khan Comrade & Hamdard – Maulana M Ali Johar Al-Hilal – Maulana Abul Kalam Azad

Urging Force 1. 2.

Concept of Muslim Ummah Emotional attachments with institution of Khilafat

Why Cooperation 1.

To be one force against British

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2. 3.

Rowlett Act 1919 Jawalianwala Garden Tragedy Apr 1919

Events: 1. 2.





Khilafat Day  Oct 27, 1919 Khilafat Committee formed by Hakim Ajmal Khan & Dr. M A Ansari  July 1919 a. I. Khilafat Conference Delhi – Gandi & Nehru participated  Nov 1919 i. No participation in victory celebrations ii. Boycott of British goods iii. Non cooperation (on later stage) b. II. Khilafat Conference Amritsar  Dec 1919 i. Ali brothers came directly after being released. ii. M A Ansari delegation to Viceroy  Jan 1920 iii. Maulana M Ali Johar delegation to Lord George 1. Non-Cooperation Movement  May 1920 (Dec 1920 by Congress) by Mahatama Gandi a. 3 Hindu groups i. Cooperation on condition of “No Cow Slaughter” ii. Muslims would seek help from Afghanistan iii. Unconditional help to Muslims b. Program of Movement announced – 4 stages i. Titles awarded given up & Educational institutes boycotted ii. Resignations of civil government’s servants iii. Police and military to be quitted (later on ) iv. Refusal to pay taxes & Civil disobedience 2. Treaty of Sevres  Aug 1920 III. Khilafat Conference Karachi  July 1920 a. Loyality to Turksih Sultan b. Welcomed Attaturk’s efforts for expulsion of foreign forces Nagpur Session of Congress  Dec 1920 a. Working Committee approved Non-Cooperation movement b. Jinnah opposed and left the congress Hijrat Movement 1920 – 1921 a. Abul Kalam Azad and other Ulema declared India “Darul Herb” b. 18,000 Muslims migrated c. Initially Afghan welcomed but later on closed the borders d. Huge casualties of migrants occurred, some went to Russia End of Movement a. Moplah revolt  Aug 1921 i. Muslim tribe revolted against Hindu landlords b. Chora Chori (UP)  Feb 1922 i. 21 constables and 1 sub inspector were set on fire ii. Gandhi called of the movement on Feb 05, 1922 c. Developments in Turkey i. Mustafa Kamal appointed as Chief of the state by Grand National Assembly ii. Kamal Pasha won back Symarna from Greeks iii. Goarge gov’t collapsed iv. Treaty of Laussane singed v. Khilafat Abolished  Mar 1924

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First visit of the commission  Feb – Mar 1928 Second visit of the commission  Oct 1928 – mar 1929 Report published  May 1930

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Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])



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Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


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Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


Nehru Report Political background 

 

Simon commission appointed in November 1927. No Indians in it. Resentment in India Constitutional suggestions in air

Congress committee 

Moti Lal Nehru as head, Jawahar Lal Nehru as Secretary, 2 Muslims

Nehru Report 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

6. 7.

Parliamentary form of government (dominion) Residuary powers vested in centre No separate electorate No weightage to minorities Reservation of seats in low Muslim population provinces only 1/4 Muslims in central legislature Hindi as lingua franca – official language

Muslim reaction  

“This is the parting of ways.” – Jinnah Muslim Press in India

Quaid’s 14 Points Province: (5) 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Residuary powers vested in centre Provincial autonomy Sind to be separated from Bombay Reforms in NWFP and Baluchistan No change in central constitution without consent of provinces

Muslims: (6) 6. 7. 8.

Separate electorate 1/3 Muslims in central legislature Muslims’ share in services and local bodies 9. Safeguard to Muslim culture and religion 10. 1/3 members in each cabinet 11. No territorial redistribution in Punjab, Bengal and NWFP to effect Muslims Minorities: (3) 12. Effective representation of minorities 13. Religious liberty 14. 3/4 of a community’s votes to change laws effecting them Importance of 14 points 

The importance of these points can be judged by the fact that these points were presented in the Round Table Conference of 1930. As a result, these points became the demands of the Muslims and greatly influenced the Muslims thinking for the next two decades till the establishment of Pakistan in 1947.

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Decline of Muslim Ummah in general and Muslims of India in particular


Islam is a complete code of life. And Muslims are a nation.


There is no harmony between Muslims and Hindus in India.


A separate homeland for the Muslims of India comprising of Punjab, sindh, Balochistan and NWFP. a.

He Said “I would like to see the Punjab, North-West Frontier Provinces, Sindh and Balochistan into a single State. Self-Government within the British Empireor without the British Empire. The formation of the consolidated North-West Indian Muslim State appears to be the final destiny of the Muslims, at least of the North-West India.”

b. 4.

Two Nation Theory

Suggestions for the constitution. (He was against the central legislative assembly and wanted assembly of representative of federal States).


Muslim Representation in the British Indian Assembly shall be 1/3rd.

Hindu Reaction:

An editorial in daily Partab, Lahore wrote about Allama Muhammad Iqbal that he is a dangerous Muslim of North Western India.

In Daily Inqalab, Lahore a Hindu Columnist wrote “Iqbal Wanted to snatch the country of Hindus from them and to give it to the Muslims.

Muslims supported his ideas. News papers like Daily Hindu and Daily hamdam supported him and propagated his message and ideas through the Subcontinent. Iqbal earned the title of “Dreamer of Pakistan” for Himself.

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ROUND TABLE CONFERENCES [1930-33] *** Introduction: Lord Irwin invited the leaders of political parties of India. Objective: To formulate future constitution of India in the light of suggestions given by the Indian Leaders. Civil Disobedience Movement (April 1930):

 

It was launched by Gandhi because at that point he demanded implementation of Nehru report in Toto. The civil disobedience movement was declared illegal and Gandhi was arrested.

First Round Table Conference: (12 November 1930 to 19th January 1931) Muslim Leaders: following Muslim leaders participated.

    

Quaid-e-Azam. Sir Agha Khan Muhammad Ali Jauhur. Maulvi Fazl Haq. Sir Muhammad Shafi

Important decision made in conference: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Approval of federal system for India (Executive will be responsible to legislature). Fully representative government, responsible to provincial and federal legislature will be made. (Note: In Nehru report Hindu Wanted Strong Central Govt. while Muslims demanded for loose federation in Jinnah’s 14 Points). The princely states will also be supported. Sapru’s proposal of dominion status and abolition of diarchy in the provinces.

Deadlock: Deadlock occurred on the distribution of subjects in the federal system Gandhi Irwin Pact:

 

From 17-19 February 1931 talks were held between Gandhi and Irwin. An agreement was signed on 5th March 1931 between Gandhi and Irwin.

Why these Talks were held and Agreement was signed?

 

Because of the failure of civil disobedience movement. Government’s desire for congress participation in round table as congress was absent in first round table conference.

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Salient features of Gandhi Irwin Pact: 1. 2. 3.

The congress will call of civil disobedience. The congress will attend second round table conference. The government will withdraw all cases against congress and release prisoners.

The pact shows that the British government was anxious to bring the congress to round table conference. It was triumph of the congress and Indian Nationalism.

Second Round Table Conference ( 7 September 1931to 1st December 1931)

  

Gandhi was the sole representative of All India National Congress Allama Iqbal participated in 2nd round table conference because of the death of Maulana Muhammad Ali Jauhur. Allama Iqbal in his speech said in 2nd round table conference.

Two committees were formed i.e. 1. 2.

  

Conference on federal structure. Conference on Minorities.

Gandhi’s showed stubborn attitude to secure India as one nation. Gandhi claimed that he represented all India and dismissed all other Indian delegates as non-representatives. Hindu Muslim relations embittered. Communal problems Remained Unsolved

Quaid-e-Azam did not participate in second Round table conference and decided to remain aloof from the Indian politics and to practice as a professional lawyer in England. Communal Awards, August16, 1932.

Because of the deadlock over communal issues British government announced communal awards.

Communal representation of Muslims:

o o o

Jinnah’s demand for 1/3rd of the British seats in central legislature was accepted. Sindh was awarded the status of separate province. Principle of Wieghtage was applied (Muslim lost majority in Punjab, Sikh got advantage in Punjab, Europeans got advantage in Bengal because of principle of Wieghtage).

Communal Scheme for Non Muslim:

o o

Award declared untouchables as a minority and thus the Hindus depressed classes were given a number of special seats. And as result Separate electorates for scheduled class Hindus were approved.

Hindu Reaction:

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Gandhi took fast until death on account of accepting scheduled class Hindus as separate nation and giving them right of separate electorate. Dr. Ambedkar, leader of untouchable made an agreement to withdraw from the right of separate electorate under Poona Pact. Gandhi ended his fast. Third Round Table Conference/ Joint Select committee (17th November to 25th December 1932)

   

Quaid-e-Azam did not participate. Sir Agha khan participated. In third round table conference reports of various communities were scrutinized. It was decided to setup a federal legislature in India consisting of elected representatives of the British India and of the representatives of the state to be nominated by respective ruler.

The report of three round table conferences was published in a white paper in 1933 and later on it was discussed in the British parliament. As a resulted a bill was drafted which was approved and became Indian Act of 1935.

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CONGRESS RULE IN THE PROVINCES Elections 1937 Muslim League manifesto (i) 1935 Act is unworkable; (ii) ML would get maximum benefit out of it. The manifesto was same but two things; Urdu Language and separate electorates. “The manifestos show that there was not unbridgeable gape. Yet, there was no such a will.” “The League manifesto was clearly an offer for cooperation. Had the congress accepted the offer, the whole constitutional scene would have been different.” IH Qureshi

Provincial elections:

 706 out of 1771 seats (26/58 Muslim seats, so only 5% of Muslims)  102 out of 482 Muslim seats (26% Muslim votes)


Muslim League

CONGRESS RULE Congress refused to formed ministries till July 1937 on the basis of GG’s discretionary powers – in Muslims favor. The period of less than two and a half years, from July 1939 to October 1939, when congress ministries ruled eight of the eleven Indian provinces was extremely crucial in the history of Hindu Muslim relations.

A. Refusal to Form Coalition Government The Election results had strengthened this hope, for congress had not bothered to contest more than a small number fraction of Muslim seats and not won even a majority of that. Therefore, everyone looked forward to the formation of congress league coalition in all Hindu Majority provinces. The refusal of the Congress to cooperate belied all such hopes. In J u l y 1937, Congress formed governments in 6 provinces. In NWFP, Khudai Khidmatgar and Congress formed a coalition government. In the Muslim majority provinces, the Muslim League could not form the governments. The Muslim League desired to be in government in the U.P. but the Congress consented to a conditional support: 1. 2. 3.

Dissolve AIML Parliamentary Board AIML members not to function as a separate group AIML members to express allegiance to the Congress

Definitely the above-mentioned terms were a device to subvert the existence of the Muslim League. Therefore, no agreement was possible on this issue. Nehru told Chaudhary Khaliq uz Zaman in May 1937, “The Hindu Muslim question is confined to a few Muslim intellectuals, landlords and capitalists who were cooking up a problem which did not in fact exist in the mind of the masses.” “Nehru’s mistake lay in his attempt at killing Muslim nationalism with ridicule. Later events were to show the folly of his attitude, for it created nothing but bitterness and bad blood.” IH Qureshi

B. The Muslim Mass Contact Movement:

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Along with its refusal to share power with the Muslim League the Congress pursued anti-Muslim League policy in another direction as well. Its power among masses should be weakened and finally broken. Thus began the ambitious but short lived campaign. This philosophy was followed by Nehru’s statement that, “power was now crystallized in only two opposing ranks – Congress for Indian nationalism and British for imperialism. Other parties do not count.” Comment: Maulvi Abdul Hakeem, Punjab Moderate Muslims Association, warned Muslims against this and called it “conversion of Muslims”.

C. Dictatorship of the Congress The outstanding constitutional feature of the congress provincial government of the 1937-39 was that they did not conform to the kind of parliamentary gov’t envisaged in the Act. The congress provinces were not autonomous. Congress ministers were not allowed to act independently Sir Banirjee says, “Gandhi was a dictator by proxy, he did not rule directly but he was accepted as religious obligation.”

D. Policies o f the Congress Governments: (July 1937-Nov. 1939) First a l Congress governments in the provinces launched anti-Muslim drive basicaly to exclude the ML and other Muslim organizations from the government making process. The Congress leaders had come to know that the ML had got roots in the masses. They started ‘Muslim Mass Contact’ movement to defame the ML in their favour. They were making cultural and educational policies that promoted the Hindu culture and symbols in the name of Indian culture. They introduced Banda-Mataram anthem from Annandmath in the institutions and offices etc. The Hindi language was given top most importance in their policies. Wardha Educational Scheme was to convert Muslims into Hindus through primary educational literature. Projection of Hindu heroes like Gandhi and distortion of Muslim history became their moral creed. They folowed the policy of discrimination in services or new recruitment for jobs. In the UP, the provincial government had directed the local administration to consult the local congress leaders. The Congress ministries adopted overal negative and cruel atitude, especialy towards the Muslim activists. This unjust treatment compeled the Muslims to be disciplined in every sphere of life.

Muslim Response: The Muslims were w e l l aware of the theocratic inclination of the Hindu people. They arranged a close monitoring of the government. They publicized their policies and raised the issues. The mobilization of Muslims on these matters required keen probe to colect the origi n a l facts of the Hindu atrocities.

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1. The Pirpur Report: On March 28, 1938, the Council of ML appointed an eight-member commitee under the presidentship of Raja Syed Muhammad Mehdi of Pirpur that presented its report on, November 15, 1938. It tried to dig out the cruelties of the Congress ministries in seven provinces. The report took up the Congress support to the rival Muslim organizations, intimidation and threats to the proMuslim League people.

2. The Sharif Report, March 1939 The ML deputed Mr. Shareef with members to investigate the injustices under the dictatorial rule of the Hindus. This report mainly colected the facts, concentrating on i l treatment of the government with the Muslims in Bihar.

3. The Fazl-ul- Haq Report: (December 1939) A. K. Fazl-ul-Haq published a pamphlet entitled Muslim Sufferings Under the Rule of Congress and made many alarming revelations e.g. forbidding of Azan, atacks in mosques, noisy processions of the Hindu scoundrels, forbidding of the cow-slaughter etc. This pamphlet responded the indictments by the Congress on the Muslims. A l l the reports described the Congress government as an atempt to create ‘Hindu R a j ’ that wanted to overwhelm the Muslim culture and their identity. It was a rigorous threat to the Muslims’ interests.

Muslim League Activism: The Muslim League highlighted the issues and mobilized the Muslims to counter them adequately. I t reorganized the Muslim community to cope with the situation. The ML arranged its session at Lucknow in October 1937. Many prominent leaders like Fazlul Haq participated in the session while Sikander Hayat and Saadulah announced their support to the ML. The Muslim leaders shed a sharp criticism on the Congress policies. They protested against the reduction of status of Urdu and other Muslim related issues. They created realization, amongst the Muslims, of what can happen under the Congress rule and urged for serious thinking about the future political and constitutional arrangements. They unearthed the real objectives of the Congress and urged the need of unity among the Muslims under the banner of Muslim League. The Second World War (September 1939) proved blessing for the Muslims in a sense that the Congress Ministries resigned in November 1939. The Muslims observed Day of Deliverance on December 22, 1939.

Reorganization of Muslim League: The ML redefined its position during the World War II. They expressed their enthusiasm that no constitution to be enforced without the consent of the Muslims. They eradicated their organizational weaknesses and refined their objectives keeping the experiences of the Congress ministries.

Intellectual Commentary on Congress Rule and its impact

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Short term effect of these policies: 1. 2. 3.

It weakened the capacity of responsible government. In democracy it is public opinion which rules but in congress ministries it was vice versa. Provincial autonomy was nullified by the rule of the High command Totalitarian policies of congress made it impossible to negotiate. Totalitarianism produced arrogance which is opposed to give and take spirit.

Long term effects: 1. More aware minorities “The rise of congress, to power made the Muslims feel for the first time what it was to be in a minority. They had become acutely aware of the rising tide of Hindu rule, and that produced a consolidation of political opinion and organization in India.” Lothian in Asiatic Review “The Congress was the Indian counterpart of Nazi party in Germany.” Bonarjee, A Christian 2. Constitutional safeguards: a non-entity “The congress rule taught the minorities that administrative or even constitutional safeguards are no effective protection against an attitude of mind in the numerically dominant party which treats all other sections of opinion as politically-defeated antagonists.” I H Qureshi 3. Strengthened Muslim League’s power among masses The more aggressive became the tone of congress the greater grew the confidence of Muslim League. ML countered every argument of the congress;   

To the congress argument of communalism  narrating the hardships under congress “secular” rule Congress’s pledge to protect minorities  ML pointed to futility of constitutional safeguards Democracy and freedom  greater Muslim apprehension about Hindu domination

4. Paved the way towards separation Slowly but relentlessly the congress was forcing the Muslim of India into separation.” IH Qureshi 5. Communal Tensions “I foresaw that the result of the present congress party policy will be class bitterness, communal war and strengthening of the imperialistic hold as a consequence.” Quaid

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Prepared by Ahmed Shakeel Babar ([email protected])


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PART 3 – POST PARTITION PERIOD INITIAL PROBLEMS FACED AFTER THE CREATION OF PAKISTAN INTRODUCTION: Nehru told General Sir Frank Messervy in 1945, “his deliberate plan would be to allow Jinnah to have his Pakistan, end gradually makes things so impossible economically and otherwise for Pakistan that they have to come on their banded knees and asked to be allowed back to India. 1.


Background Representatives of Punjab Boundary Commission Pakistan


Justice Din Muhammad Justice Maher Chand Muhajan Justice Muhammad Munir

Justice Tej Singh

Representatives Bengal Boundary Commission Pakistan


Justice Abu Saleh

Justice C. C. Biswas

Muhammad Ikram

Justice B.K Mukarjee

Justice S.A Rehman Sir Cyril Radcliff was appointed as the chairman of both the boundary commissions. Both India and Pakistan were agreed to accept the decision of Radcliff in case of deadlock. As expected the representatives of India and Pakistan were unable to reach on an agreement and Radcliff announced his own decisions on 16th August 1947. Analysis of the Boundary Award The award was partial, unjust and unfair to Pakistan Radcliff Award Handed over Some of the Muslim Majority Areas that were Contiguous to the Boundary of Pakistan to India: These areas included. o o o o

Sub-district Sub-district Sub-district Sub-district

of of of of

Ajnala in Amritsar district Nakadar and Jullundur in Jullundur district Ferozepur and Zira in Ferozepur district Batala and Gurdaspur in Gurdaspur district

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Radcliff award, allotted sixty-two percent of the area of undivided Punjab to India, with fifty-five percent of the population.

Radcliff Award Paved the Way for the Accession of Kashmir with India: Gurdaspur was a district contiguous to Pakistan. Out of its four Sub-District Gurdaspur, Batala and shakergarh were the Muslim majority and Pathankot was a non-Muslim majority sub-district. At the time of partition the only rail and road communication between India and Kashmir was possible through the district of Gurdaspur, if Radcliff had only awarded the Hindu majority sub-district of Pathankot to India still it would not have had access to the state of Kashmir; by assigning two Muslim majority sub-district of Baal and Gurdaspur Radcliff provided India a link with Kashmir. In 1948 India entered its forces in Kashmir through Gurdaspur and annexed the state to India.

The Decision of the Punjab Boundary Commission Caused the Canal Water Dispute between India and Pakistan: Three rivers namely Indus, Jhelum and Chenab enter in Punjab from Kashmir whereas two rivers Ravi and Sutlej enter from Indian held Punjab. Radcliff drew the boundary line in such a way that it cut across the river and canals; making India and Pakistan upper and lower beneficiaries. Radcliff also handed over the Ferozepur (Sutlij) and Madupur (Ravi) head works to India.By giving the control over the river Ravi and Sutlej to India, Radcliff put the economical life of Pakistan in danger. It was not merely a theoretical possibility; it was proved by Indic by cutting off the water supply on 31st March 1948.

City of Calcutta Handed Over to India: Firstly large population of Calcutta consisted of schedule east Hindus that were with Muslim League. Secondly East Pakistan was separate from West Pakistan by more than one thousand miles and for the communication point of view the port of Calcutta was very important for Pakistan. Thirdly East Bengal produced the bulk of raw jute but mostly the jute factories were situated in Calcutta.

Boundary Award and Mountbatten's influence? On August 8, Mountbatten's private secretary sent a letter with a preliminary description of the Punjab boundary to Evan Jenkins, the governor of Punjab. This draft showed the Ferozepur area and its headworks going to Pakistan. When the final award was released, Ferozepur was assigned to India. Infuriated Pakistanis were sure that Nehru and Mountbatten had pressured Radcliff to change his line

Announcement of the Award was Delayed: The Award was to be announced on August 12, 1947 but it was mysteriously delayed till August 16, 1947.

Repercussion!  

India and Pakistan had no boundaries for the first two days of their existence. In some places both -Indian and Pakistani flags were raised.

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 

In some border regions whose destiny was uncertain Indian and Pakistani citizens were in the dilemma of not knowing which country they were in even on August 15. In some cases officials sent to work in territories that later became port of India or Pakistani. Many administrators joined the last-minute flow of refugees themselves, disrupting administrative system by leaving their posts empty.


 


To avoid spoiling the joyous celebration of independence by announcing news that would undoubtedly distress' both India and Pakistan. To overlook the British responsibility for the disorder that inevitably would follow the announcement.


Kashmir : Area of 84,471 square miles, 77% muslims, 4 million population in 1944. The most important state was Kashmir naturally connected with Pakistan. Its ruler was Hindu while population was Muslim. The population inclined towards Pakistan but the Hindu ruler declared to join India. The Kashmiri people revolt against the ruler in Poonch area and soon it became widespread. The ruler sought Indian support. India demanded accession. On October 27, 1947 Indian troops landed in Srinagar. The people continued their struggle for independence and India promised to finally settle the matter with reference to the people under the UN Resolutions. Hyderabad : Hyderabad was one of the richest Hindu Majority state covering 82000 sq miles of area, 260 million Revenue. Surrounded by Indian Territory. The state was situated in the south of India. Their rulers were Muslim who were called Nizam. Nizam wanted to maintain independent status for his state but as being Muslim he had desire to accede with Pakistan if ever need arose. Due to the important position of the state, Mountbatten the first governor general of India put pressure on Nizam to accede with India but Nizam refused to do so. On September 13, 1948 just two days after the death of Quaid-e-Azam Indian forces entered in Hyderabad and occupied it forcibly. Pakistan submitted a complaint in UNO against the illegal action of India which is still pending.

Junagadh: Junagadh was a small Hindu majority state covering 3337 sq miles of the area. It situated 300 miles down to the coast of Karachi Indian coast of Kathiawar. The Muslim rulers ruled the state. After independence the request for the accession with Pakistan by its rulers was accepted by the Quaid-e-Azam. Indian government reacted sharply and an economic blockade of the state of Junagardh was imposed that resulted in food shortage. By the end of October 1947 the rulers of the state of Junagadh were forced to leave the state. On 9th November 1947 the Indian army occupied the state. Pakistan took that matter in UNO where it is still pending.

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Hindus were angry over the division of the Subcontinent whereas Sikhs were unhappy over the loss of their religious places. Sikhs and Hindu armed with deadly weapons slaughter the man woman and even the small children. Condition in East Punjab was worse than anywhere else where rulers of the states of Alwar, Kapurthala, Patiala and Bharatpure played the most inhuman role in that human tragedy. Due to the communal violence millions of Indian Muslims leaving there property started migrating towards Pakistan. Apart from communal violence another reason for the migration of Muslims was their desire to live in a newly established Islamic state. The arrival of refugees created problem for both the countries but the issue was more serious in the nascent state of Pakistan that was already facing no of problems. It was estimated that only West Pakistani received 5.5 million refugees and one sixth of the entire population of West Pakistan consisted of refugees. It caused economic and administrative problems, as Pakistan did not have sufficient resources to provide food, shelter and medical aid to the growing no of refugees. Quaid-e-Azam moved his headquarter to Lahore to give special attention to this problem. Quaid-e-Azam relief fund was also created in which rich people were asked to donate. Temporary relief camps were also established. 4.


It had its origin in Radcliff Award which drew the boundary India and Pakistan in way that it cut across the rivers and canal making India the upper beneficiary and Pakistan the lower beneficiary, It also handed over the control over two important head works over river Ravi (Madhupure Head works) and Sutlej (Ferozpure Head works) to India. India proved it by stopping the flow of water in March 1948. Dispute was finally settled when an agreement called Indus Basin treaty. The treaty was signed between Ayub Khan the president of Pakistan and Nehru the Indian Prime Minister on September 19, 1962. According to that agreement India was allocated the use of two Eastern Rivers namely Ravi and Sutlej whereas three western Rivers Indus, Jehlum and Canab were given to Pakistan. To overcome the shortage of water World Bank, India and other friendly countries provided Pakistan financial assistance to construct two dams, five barrages and seven link canals. 5.


Military Assets: It was announced on July I, 1947 that Indian army assets would also be divided in ratio 65 to 35 in India's favour it was with reference of the communal balance present in the British Indian Army. Field Martial Auchinleck was appointed as incharge of the distribution of military assets. Whatever Pakistan received was nothing but scrap and out of order machines, broken weapons, unserviceable artillery and aircraft. There were 16 ordnance factories and all were located in India. Pakistan was given 60 million rupees towards its share in the ordnance factories. Later an ordnance factory was established in Wah. Pakistan received six Armour divisions to India's

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fourteen, eight artillery divisions to India's forty and eight infantry divisions to India's twenty one. Pakistan also received Staff College in Quetta and Service Corps College at Kakul, which latter became the Pakistan military Academy. Division of financial assets: At the time of division there was cash balance of 4 billion rupees in the reserve Bank of India Pakistan was to get 750 million however after the protest of Pakistan, India agreed to pay 200 million rupees. As the war between India and Pakistan had started on the issue of Kashmir India again stopped the rest of the amount by saying that Pakistan could use it to buy arms. After the protest from Pakistan and the threat of hunger strike by Gandhi, Nehru was forced to pay another 500 million rupees. However the remaining 50 million rupees are still not paid. 6.


Immediately after the establishment of Pakistan language controversy was started between East and West Pakistan when the members of the Constituent Assembly belonged to East Pakistan demanded that instead of Urdu, Bengali should be made national language of Pakistan. Liaqat Ali Khan then the Prime Minister of Pakistan refused to accept the demand, which created resentment among East Pakistan. Refusal of the demand ultimately transformed into a political movement. In March 1948 while addressing at Dhaka, Quaid-e-Azam declared, “Urdu and Urdu alone would be the national language of Pakistan". Advice of Quaid-e-Azam temporarily took the heart out of language movement but the issue was not settled. It exploded latter after the death of Quaid-e-Azam. 7.


At the time of partition N.W.F.P was controlled by the "red shirts" the ally of Congress. The Khan Brothers, Dr Khan Sahib and Abdul Ghaffar Khan, were their leaders. Despite the 1947 referendum in which the people of the region voted to join Pakistan, the leaders of the" red shirts" demanded union with Afghanistan or complete regional autonomy. The Afghan Government also supported the issue by saying that the "Pakhtoons" or pathans living in both Afghanistan and Pakistan belong to the same race and the "Pakhtoons" of Pakistan wanted to be the part of the union with Afghanistan called "Pakhtoonistan".



Despite of all the problems, Pakistan continued to march under the dynamic leadership of Quaide-Azam. Nobody can deny that in the early year predominant leadership of Quaid-e-Azam was a source of strength for Pakistan. Quaid-e-Azam died on 11th September 1948. After the death of Quaid-e-Azam though there were great leaders too, but unfortunately none of them was of the caliber of Quaid-e-Azam.

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THE ACHIEVEMENTS OF THE QUAID-E-AZAM Jinnah played an important role in establishing the new country in the world community. He lived only for a year after the creation of Pakistan but even then he did what an ordinary man can not achieve in whole life. In August 1947 few people expected Pakistan to survive as an independent nation and many Indian Politicians actually worked to make that survival even more difficult. Yet Thanks to his unflagging efforts Pakistan not only survived, but prospered. JINNAH AS A LEADER: Quaid-e-Azam Muhammad Ali Jinnah Held the post of Governor General. This Was intended to be a ceremonial position with few duties. The Governor-General was to be a figurehead acting as an inspiration to nation. The Quaid-e-Azam, however, took the role of chief executive in the new government. He chaired cabinet meetings and was the president of the constituent assembly. Jinnah struggled hard for establishing Pakistan on sound footing in all respect. He proved to the world that he is a real leader who has shown guidance to million Muslims of subcontinent. BUILDING AND STRENGTHENING THE NATION: The Quaid immediately set about dealing with those problems that Pakistan Faced after partition. 1.


3. 4.

He stressed the need for everyone in Pakistan to work together to creat the nation. He said people should not think of themselves as fpr example, Punjabi, or Bengali. Instead they should think, feel and act as Pakistanis and be proud of it. He toured all the areas of Pakistan to get across the message that “Everyone of us should think feel and act as a Pakistani and we should be proud of being Pakistani alone”. Quaid-e-Azam was as opposed to religious intolerance as he was to provincialism and racialism. Even after the movement of refugees Pakistan had millions of non Muslims and India had millions of Muslims. The Quaid called himself the “PROTECTOR GENERAL” of religious minorities and his advice was often sought by the non-Muslims. He was determined that Pakistan should be seen as a land of tolerance and said that Islamic ideas about justice and equality demanded that any non Muslims who chose to remain in Pakistan should be treated fairly, not prosecuted. To help the newly arrived refugees he set up a relief fund to rehabilitate them as quickly as possible. The people were quick to response with donation in cash and kind. To emphasize rule of Pakistan in the world community, the Quaid secured the membership of the country into the United Nations organization (UNO) in September 1947. This helped it gain recognition and support among the other nation of the world.

BUILDING A GOVERNMENT: The Quaid-e-Azam knew that there was a great deal of work to be done in establishing a governmental and administrative framework for Pakistan. No Problem Could be solved Unless the country had an administration that could take decisions about the problem and make sure that those decisions were carried out.

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Liaqat Ali Khan was appointed Prime Minister, and a cabinet was formed. A Constituent Assembly was set up. One of its tasks was to begin framing constitution for the new Pakistan.


Karachi became the capital of Pakistan and the central secretariat was set up to run the country. Those people with government experience who chose to move from India to Pakistan were brought to Karachi on special trains and airplanes.


The civil services were recognized. In order to run the administration smoothly the civil service rules were drafted.


The Quaid was determined that government officials should have the right attitude to their work. He informed them that they had to remember that they were the servants of the people, not the rulers of the country. It was therefore essential that they worked with national spirit. This was particularly important because the officials found that they had no office equipment, no furniture, and very little stationery. For many years the Pakistani civil service worked under extremely difficult conditions.

Building an Economy: 1.

As Pakistan was denied its full share of the wealth of the old british India and their was much work to do in converting Pakistan from an almost completely agricultural country to one with the degree of industrial development. An important step on this path came 1st July 1948 when the Quaid established the State bank of Pakistan, to help develop the economy.


In 1948 Jinnah’s Industrial policy statement made it clear that he, and the government, saw that it was important to set up industries in Pakistan, as quickly as possible.


The Quaid also reached a compromise with India in the Canal Water Dispute which ensured that Pakistan’s agriculture would not be denied precious water supplies. He also helped persuade the Indian government to hand over the agreed share of financial asserts from pre-partition India.

ESTABLISHING NATIONAL SECURITY: Although Pakistan had been given poor military equipment and it lacked senior cadre officer for the army, the Quaid worked to ensure that the new country was able to defend itself. 1.


The Pakistan Army needed more officer and the gaps were filled by offering temporary commissions and using British officers. He was determined that the army should know that its role was to be ‘the servant of people’ and warned it that ‘you do not make national policy’. The Quaid did not want to see Pakistan become a military dictatorship. Although Pakistan’s Army was ill equipped, the Quaid was not afraid to use it, and the army saw its first action in Kashmir. Despite being outnumbered and having inferior arms and ammunition, it stood up well and held its own in fighting.

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CONCLUSION: The Quaid died on 11 September 1948. Despite his failing health he had worked tirelessly to establish his new country. By the time of his death a new government and administration had been taken to unite the diverse people into single ‘Pakistani’ nation and the steps made in developing Pakistan’s economy. Equally significant was that by the end of 1948 the first fighting had taken place against troops from Pakistan’s great rival, India. As the English newspaper, the times wrote shortly after his death: ‘No succeeding Governor General can quite fill his place as FATHER OF NATION’ such was the greatness of Quaid. HAD THERE BEEN NO QUAID, THERE WOULD HAVE BRRN NO PAKISTAN:

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CONSTITUTIONAL ISSUES Constitution is a set of basic principles and framework for governance and exercise of political power and legal authority. It clarifies the scope of power, relationship among various institutions within the government and society. It has precedence over ordinary laws and cannot be changed like ordinary laws. The Government of India Act (1935) was modified and promulgated in the newly state of Pakistan. The elected members in the 1946 elections made the first Constituent Assembly that faced grievous circumstances. Major Issues The major issues, the first constituent assembly faced, were about: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Federalism Representation Separate or Joint Electorate The National Language Issue Parliamentary or Presidential system The Islamic or Secular State

1. Federalism There was consensus on federalism but yet there were many issues to be setled. The main was that Pakistan consisted of two territorial parts, East Pakistan (with more population, less territory but administratively one unit) and West Pakistan (administratively 4 units). Federalism is meant to accommodate such kind of diversity maintaining the unity of the state or country. 2. Division o f power: It was the most difficult question that how the power would be divided between Centre and the Provinces. The heritage of British rule gave the tradition of a Strong Centre. But the provinces were demanding more Autonomy and Provincial R i ghts. In the Interim Constitution and the 1956 Constitution tradition of strong centre continued. 3. Representation Representation a t the federal level was another conflicting issue because East Pakistan and West Pakistan were different in population and size. On the other hand there was diversity in Western part of Pakistan. The provinces of West Pakistan were also different in population and size. A l of them were sensitive to their representation and provincial autonomy. To have a Standard Formula for the representation of units and population the Constituent Assembly (CA) formed a Basic Principle Commitee (BPC) on March 12, 1949. The primary task of this commitee was to frame a set of basic principles for the future constitution of Pakistan.


First BPC Report:

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This commitee presented its first report on 28th September 1950. According to this report two houses of the parliament were proposed. The lower house was to be elected on the basis of POPULATION and the upper house was to be elected on the basis of equal representation for a l the provinces of Pakistan namely East Bengal, West Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan. Equal powers were proposed for the both Houses. No mention of National Language was made. East Benga l opposed this report and Liaqa t Ali Khan withdrew it.


Second BPC Report:

BPC presented its final report on 22nd December 1952. According to this report two Houses of the Parliament wil enjoy the equal status and powers. It proposed equal representation to East and West wing. This report also faced reaction in both the wings of Pakistan. The principle of parity was not appreciated in both East Pakistan and Punjab. c.

Muhammad A l i Bogra Formula:

Muhammad Ali Bogra immediately after assuming the office of the Prime Minister presented a formula to resolve the deadlock in constitution making. According to this formula Pakistan would have a bicameral legislature. In upper house there would be EQUAL representation to each of five units. In lower house population w i l be represented. In this way more representation was g iven to East Pakistan. Both wings would have equal strength in joint sessions of the two houses. :: Reaction to Bogra Formula I t was welcomed in both parts of the country. The principle of parity and representation of the population was appreciated. I t also solved the problem of national language by suggesting Urdu and Bengali both as national language. :: One Unit o f West Pakistan October 1955 One Unit of West Pakistan was established on 14th October 1955. The provinces of Punjab, Sindh, NWFP and Baluchistan would be amalgamated in one unit to establish parity between the two parts of the country. 4. Separate or Joint Electorate Separate electorate was adopted on the demand of Muslims in 1909 by the British Government. But the minorities did not favour this after independence. Religious elements supported this as a part of heritage. East: decided for Joint Electorate. West: Separate electorate.

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1957: Joint Electorate was adopted for a l Pakistan by the National Assembly. 5. The National Language Issue Pre-independence: Muslim elite a l over India adopted Urdu. In 1948 Jinnah declared that Urdu would be the national language but provinces could use their languages. Opposition against Urdu was there in East Bengal. This became more pronounced after the death of Jinnah as controversies erupted on constitution making. Language Movement started in East Pakistan February, 1952. There was a complaint about anti Bengali language atitude of the federal government. Twolanguage formula was adopted in 1954. Since 1973 Urdu was adopted as national language along with the support for development of regional languages. 6. Parliamentary or Presidential There was a consensus for parliamentary system. But there was a limited demand for presidential system. Supporters of Presidential system became dominant after the 1958 military takeover. The 1962 Constitution was a Presidential constitution. 6: The Islamic or Secular State From the very beginning of Pakistan Movement there was an agreement that the state w i l have close relationship with Islam. Muslims defined their national identity with reference to Islam and its heritage. Some opposition came from the Congress members of the Constituent Assembly, and a few secularists. There was a BROAD AGREEMENT that the state wil identify itself with Islam. The Constituent Assembly took time to define the precise relationship between the state and Islam.

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CONSTITUTION MAKING (1 947-56) Constitution is a basic document in the handling of domestic affairs. I t sets out the framework for governance and exercise of power. I t gives guiding lines of relationships among the federating units. Law making is always within its limits. The modified Government of India Act (1935) became the Interim Constitution of Pakistan in 1947. The Constituent Assembly (CA) was given the task of framing the Constitution. The first meeting of the CA was held on August 11, 1947 a t Karachi. In the lecture 17 we have discussed the constitutional issues that the CA had to deal with, mainly 6 major issues. Now we w i l discuss the stages of constitution making. The process began with the passing of the Objectives Resolution (Lecture 16) in which the Islamic and democratic values were adopted as grounds for the future constitution. The Basic Principles Commitee (BPC) consisting of 24 members was made to work for the constitutional powers. The various sub-commitees on Federal and provincial powers, Franchise, Judiciary, and Fundamental Rights started working. Board of Talimat-i-Islamia was also set up to seek advice on the religious maters.

First BPC Report, 1950 1: The Objectives Resolution to be included in the Constitution as the directive principles. 2: Legislature: Two houses of the parliament. Upper: (House of Units) Equal representation for the units Lower: (House of People) On the basis of Population. Both the Houses would enjoy the equal powers. 3: The Head of State elected by joint session would be for five years (Two terms only). President had discretionary and emergency, appointment and other powers. President was not answerable to anyone, might be a Muslim or non-Muslim, would be assisted by the Prime Minister (PM) and Cabinet that would be answerable to the CA. Parliament may impeach him by 2/3 majority. He was given the power to abrogate the constitution. 4: Cabinet responsible to both the Houses. 5: No mention of national language Criticism: This report was severely criticized throughout the country. It could not satisfy both the wings, East and West. The religious group objected that the report contained nothing about Islamisation. On the question of representation, the East Pakistan (EP) protested that their majority had been denied by the Report. They remarked that they were thrown into a permanent minority. The population of EP was slightl y larger than that of the West Pakistan (WP) but i t was treated as the s m a l provinces because both the Houses were given equal powers. So the domination of WP was intolerable for the East wing. The language issue proved subversive to the national solidarity. The Eastern Pakistanis condemned the proposal that made Urdu as official language.

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Second BPC Report, 1952 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Head of State would be Muslim and no change in powers. Equal representation to East and West wings: a. UH (Upper House) 60, 60 LH 200, 200 More powers were given to Lower House. Cabinet was made responsible to Lower House. I t was promised that law making would be in accordance with ISLAM. No law would be made in violation of Islamic principles. Advisory Board of five Islamic scholars was founded. Silent on national language.

Criticism: The politicians particularly from the Punjab deplored the Report because formation of the UH on the basis of representation was not acceptable. It was declared against the principle of federation. The WP favoured equality o n l y for Upper House. The political crisis removed Prime Minister Nazimuddin and atention diverted from the core issue.

Third Report: Muhammad A l i Formula October 1953    

The proposals were revised in the ligh t of the criticism and decided: Upper House: Equal representation to a l five units Lower House: More representation to Eastern part While in joint session, both wings had equal representation: East Pak

Upper House


Lower House


West Pak 40 135

-----------------------------Joint Session 



Decision by majority but i t must include 30 percent members from each zone.

Criticism: It suggested some difficult process but mostly it was widely acceptable. Two languages, Urdu and Bengali, were approved as official languages that injured the national unity as Quaid-i-Azam had wished Urdu as national language. This is important that after the Formula, the work began on constitution drafting because the deadlock was over. CA Dissolution

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In October 1954, GG (Governor General) dissolved the CA that was chalenged in the Sindh court by Maulvi Tamizuddin. The court declared the dissolution ile ga l but the Federal Court upheld the GG action but asked for seting up an elected CA. 2nd Constituent Assembly, June-July 1955 Ghulam Muhammad caled a Convention on May 10, 1955. A l its members were to be elected indirectly (by the provincial assemblies). In this way, the 2nd CA came into existence. One Unit Scheme, October 1955 The presence of different provinces in the WP had complicated the issue of the WP representation in the CA. It was handled by uniting a l the WP units into ONE (One Unit, October 30, 1955). Now both the parts had become two units and could be addressed equ a l y. Constitution-making One Unit scheme helped the task of constitution making to accomplish successfuly. The previous commitees report helped the new Assembly that completed its work and presented in the 2nd CA on January 9, 1956. It, with certain amendments, was approved on January 29, 1956 and enforced on March 23. With this Pakistan had become an Islamic Republic.

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POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1: First Eleven Years (1947-58) Pakistan won independence under extremely difficult conditions. The next task was seting up of a new state. There was no administrative structure. Riots, refugee’s problem and economic pressures were chalenging for the new state. Negative attitude from Indian government and war on Kashmir created problems in relations with India. The Government of India Act 1935 was adopted as the first Interim Constitution. Quaid-i-Azam Mohammad Ali Jinnah became the first Governor General (GG) of Pakistan and Liaquat Ali Khan, the first Prime Minister (PM). Governor Generals: M. A. Jinnah August


Sept. 1947-Sept. 1948


Kh. Nazimuddin

Sept. 1948-Oct 1951


Ghulam Mohammad

Oct. 1951-Oct. 1955


Iskander Mirza

Oct. 1955-March 1956



March 1956-Oct. 1958

Iskander Mirza Prime Ministers: 1.

Liaquat Ali Khan


Kh. Nazimuddin


Muhammad Ali Bogra

August 1947-Oct 1951 Oct. 1951-April 1953


April 1953-Oct 1954 Oct.


1954-August 1955

4. Ch. Muhammad Ali

August 1 955-Sept 1956

5. H.S. Suhrawardy

Sept. 1956-Oct 1957

6. I.I. Chundrigar

Oct. 1957-Dec 1957

7. Firoz Khan Noon

Dec. 1957-Oct. 1958

Major Issues  

Constitution-making Elections a t the provincial level o Punjab, NWFP 1951

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     

o Sindh 1953 1954 o East Benga l 1s t Constituent Assembly (CA) was dissolved and 2nd CA was constituted in 1955. One Unit Scheme October 1955 Economic management, Agriculture, Industrialization and Education was a question dealt in 1s t Five Year Plan. Political Instability was there. Weak and short-lived governments shattered the whole political system. Decline of Political Parties created bad name for politicians. Instability was also there a t the provincial level.

2: Second Phase (1958-69)

Martial Law remained imposed from October 1958 to June 1962. Constitutional Rule was restored on June 1962 and remained t i l l the 2nd Martial Law on March 1969. Ayub Khan took over as Chief Martial Law Administrator (CMLA) and the President. He got himself elected through referendum in 1960 and re-elected in January 1965 through presidential elections. Important Policy Measures Important Policy Measures taken by the Ayub government were:  

 

Administrative Reforms which included removal of unwanted officials, some 1662 in number. Restrictions on political activities. Political leaders were stopped from taking part in politics for 6 years on the charge of corruption and other charges under the law named EBDO. Economic planning was done for industrial development and green Revolution. Educational Reforms Constitution was introduced.

Downfall o f Ayub Khan: Indo-Pakistan war started and a t the end of war Tashkand Pact was signed with India. People were not satisfied with this pact. They also resented the election results of 1965. Fruits of economic development were not distributed a t masses level. Wealth of nation was concentrated in a few hands. This brought people to agitation and public demand resulted in resignation of the president.

AYUB ML AND MILITARY INTERVENTION (Oct 7, 1958 – Jun 8, 1962 – Nov 1968) Oct 1957, Iskandar Mirza dismissed Suharwardy appointed I.I Chandrigar as PM

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On December 16, 1957, Malik Feroz Khan Noon took over the office of Prime Minister from Chundrigar. President Iskander Mirza was distressed by the alliance of Suhrawardy and Noon. ML imposed on Oct 07, 1958. Ayub started his ML with wide support in the masses      

A proper constitution was needed Land reforms to eliminate landlords authority Refugees rehabilitation Educational and legal reforms Capital to be reconstructed Independence foreign policy


Many commissions were set up Smugglers and black marketer were rounded up 1. Elective Bodies Disqualification Order (EBDO) 2. Public Ordinance Disqualification Order

Economic Development   

Pushed industrialization program Significant increase in per capita income Well professional five-year plans

Land/ Agrarian Reforms  1.

2. 3. 4. 5.

Absentee lords exploited the poor Land Reform Commission Oct 1958 a. Reduction of land ceiling irrigated land to 500 acres and irrigated to 1000 acres b. Resumed land to offer to existing tenants Consolidation policy to exchange fragmented policy Mangal, Tarbela and Warsak dam established Extensive programs of tube wells Easy loans through Agricultural Development Corporation and Agricultural Bank

Industrial Reforms 

   

Gradual Liberalization of economy o Price mechanism o Incentive to traders Investment procedure simplified A bonus voucher scheme o Exporter of certain goods given import license equivalent to 30% of exports NIT established RCD – Iran, Pakistan, Turkey established

Constitutional / Political Reforms

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1959  Basic Democracy – system of local self government


BASIC DEMOCRACIES ORDER 1959 Functions 1. 2. 3. 4.

Administrative Developmental Local Self Government Constitutional

BD Organizations (4 tiers) 1.





Union Councils a. Composition 10 member elected by 10 constituencies of 1000 people each & Five nominated members with a paid secretary b. Functions  maintenance of roads, sanitation, water supply, local disputes c. Finance  UC could levy taxes & Ad hoc gov’t grant Tehsil Councils / Thana Council a. Composition  all the chairmen of UC and TC & officials and non officials nominated by DC  headed by Sub divisional Officer or Tehsildar b. Functions  coordination and discussion forum c. Finance  No taxation power, Gov,t adhoc grant (Municipal Committees could levy taxes) District Councils a. Composition  half elected members (by chairmen UC) and half nominated (service provider dept.)  DC as a chairman b. Function  coordination between service providers, coordination, develop schemes, review of progress, policy making c. Finance levy taxes – land, professional & Adhoc grants Divisional Councils a. Composition  elected members from MCs & elected from District councils, other half nominated b. Functions coordination, review progress c. Finance  no finance needed, ad hoc grant Muncipal Corporations a. Only for big cities like Lahore and Karachi

Constitutional Changes  

1962 Constitution 2 Change of Capital 3

Social Reforms 

Family Law ordinance 1961


  President said, “Democracy in Pakistan should be of a type that best suits the genius of the people.”   Promulgated on June 8, 1962  3  Federal Commission on Capital  2

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o Polygamy prohibited or in special circumstance with approval of first wife o To give divorce one must go through reconciliatory process of UCs Family planning policy o Population control o Family Planning centers Rehabilitation of Refugees o 9 million refuges o Appointed Gen. M Azam Khan as Rehabilitation Ministers

Education reforms 

 

Commission recommended o 3 years degree program o Primary education free o Middle compulsory Students agitated Gov’t withdrew 3 year degree program

Indo Pak war 1965  

Run of Kuch Kashmir

Tashkent Decleration (Jan 1966) DOWNFALL OF AYUB 

       

Economic policies o Widening the gap (disparity) o Diverting resources of east Pakistan o Sharp rise in Population growth o People demanded equal distribution of resources East Pak not happy on 1962 Constitution Preference of east Pak by international development institutions No health care and sanitation Labour union protests (Mar 1969) Tashkent declaration EBDO 4 Ayub family flagrant indulgence in corruption 5 ZA Bhutto launched PPP in Nov 1967


                                                             4 5

 Completion of ban on Dec 31st, 1966, politicians started agitating    Both sons left Army and established business companies  

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Ayub Khan handed over power to Army Chief Yahya Khan. He imposed Martial Law and 1962 Constitution was abrogated. He took some immediate steps:        

Removal of officers 303 Provinces Revived: March 30, 1970 Abolition of Parity Lega l Framework Order (LFO) as interim law issued in March 1970 which provided basic principles for: Constitution making Rules and regulations for elections Seats in the assemblies National Assembly 313 (300 plus 13 women seats) o For East Pak 162 plus 7 o West Pak 138 plus 6

General Elections General Elections were held in December 1970. Election Results were: Awami League

160 general seats

Pakistan People’s Party

81 general seats

Transfer of power became a major problem. Failure of dialogue for transfer of Power among three top leaders led to confrontation and military action on March 25, 1971. I t ultimately resulted in Civil war and alienation of East Pakistan. India played a very negative role. I t attacked on East Pakistan and India-Pakistan war started which ended with the separation of East Pakistan.


Z. A. Bhuto assumed power on December 20, 1971. First he became President of Pakistan and also the first civilian Chief Marshal Law Administrator. Major Policies The first task was the Constitution making. In 1972 Interim Constitution was adopted and then the Parliament of Pakistan unanimously adopted 1973 Constitution. The major policy of Mr. Bhuto was Nationalization. His government nationalized:

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   

Key industries like Iron & Steel, Basic metals, heavy engineering, heavy electrical, Motor Vehicles & Tractors, Heavy & Basic Chemicals, PetroChemicals, Cement, Gas, O i l Refinery etc. Life Insurance in 1972 Banks in 1974 Schools and Coleges in 1972. New University Ordinance was issued in 1973. Managing and sub-agencies were abolished.

Labour Policy A new Labour Policy was announced in which more rights and concessions were given to the working classes. Health Policy Under new Health Policy cheap medicine and facilities were promised to the masses. Administrative Reforms Administrative Reforms were introduced to eradicate corruption in the country. Hundreds of civil servants were removed on the charge of corruption. Problems o f Reforms: Reforms were good in outlook but as their results were not according to the expectations of the masses. Discontentment took the place of initial optimism. 1977 Elections and Agitation: As a result of elections of 1977 PPP won the elections. But joint opposition blamed a mass rigging in the election results. They demanded fresh elections. Bhuto i n i t i a l y was stubborn but later showed inclination to compromise but history has taken a U-turn. As he refused to negotiate the elected majority party in 1971, now opposition refused to compromise and took the case to the streets. Urban shopkeepers, businessmen, students, women and even the inteligentsia joined hands against the government. The result was the third Martial Law and end of democracy.

ISLAMIC SYMBOLISM DURING BHUTO RULE 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7. 8. 9.

Islamic provisions in Cons 1973 Ahmadis declared non – Muslim in 1974 OIC summit 1974 Red cross to red crescent Holy Quran in Hotels Ministry of religious affairs established Sponsored international conference on the life of Hazrat Muhammad (SAW) Visits of Imam e Kahba and Madina Friday declared as weekly holiday

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POLITICAL DEVELOPMENTS 1977-1985: Chief of Army Staff General Mohammad Zia-ul-Haq took over and imposed Martial Law. He suspended constitution. I t was the longest military Rule in the history of Pakistan. To justify his rule Zia-ul-Haq presented his Agenda about: 

Effective Administration

Islam isation

Return to Democracy

Major Policies: Zia-ul-Haq promised Elections first within 90 days, and then extended this period after the reforms. These reforms included:  

Accountability of the ousted regime; Restrictions imposed on political activities and press.

Islamisation: In his way of Islamisation of the system he introduced many steps for forging cooperation of some Islamic groups. He also introduced Constitutional and legal changes to emphasis on Islamic values in the society. He established:           

Shariat benches established in 1979; Federal Shariat Court was established in 1981; Introduced Islamic Punishments; Amputation of hands, Stoning to death and lashing etc; Interest free banking initiated in 1981 on the principle of profit & loss sharing; Zakat deducted on saving accounts & investments; Ushar was imposed on agricultural produce in 1983; New education Policy with Islamic character of sylabus along with Pakistan Studies and Islamiat compulsory for a l the classes up to graduation. Islamisation of Mass media; Prayers break was introduced in offices, and Mohaalah Salat Commitees were formed to observe the compliance of Prayer Ordinance; Pakistan Bat-ul-Mal was established.

Return to democracy In order to return to democracy Zia-ul-Haq took the folowing measure:

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     

Local Bodies elections, 1979. Referendum was held to elect Zia-ul-Haq as president for next five years on December 1984. Then he held elections on non-party basis on February 1985. New National Assembly (NA) was formed and a Civilian government was instaled. Revival of the Constitution Order March 1985 with most controversial 8th Constitutional Amendment was introduced. Withdrawal of martial law, Dec 30, 1985.

1985-1999 Civilian Rule Democracy was restored but no civilian government could complete its tenure of five years and became the victim of 58-2B of 8th amendment by virtue of that President can dissolve NA and dismiss the elected government. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Junejo March 1985-May 1988 Benazir Bhuto November 1988-Aug 1990 Nawaz Sharif October 1990-July 1993 Benazir Bhuto October 1993-November 1996 Nawaz Sharif February 1997-October 1999

Interim Prime Ministers appointed for holding fair elections were 1. 2. 3. 4.

Ghulam Mustafa Jatoi: August-November 1990 Bulkh Sher Mazari: April-May 1993 Dr. Moeen Qureshi: J u l y-October 1993 Malik Meraj Khalid: November 1996-February 1997

Civilian government adopted policies for the welfare and beterment of the people but their effects were compromised due to several reasons:    

Problem of keeping coalitions intact; Weak political parties, which weakened the government; Greater confrontation; Complaints of corruption and misuse of state resources.

1999-2002: In 1999 again Military Rule was imposed against the civilian government’s attempt to concentrate power in the office of Prime Minister. Nawaz government introduced political and constitutional changes to have a complete control on a l branches of the government. Nawaz government’s attempt to remove the Army Chief, while he was out of the country and returning from his visit to Sri Lanka, proved counterproductive. General Musharraf took over as the Chief Executive of the country and suspended the constitution. Martial law was not declared. No military courts were established. Political and press freedoms remained intact. Political Priorities:

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General Musharraf announced his Political Priorities: 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6. 7.

Rebuild national confidence and morale; Strengthening federation; Remove inter provincial disharmony; Revival of the economy and restoration of investor’s confidence; Improving Law and order situation and dispensation of Justice; Depoliticise the state institutions and devolution of power; Swift and across the board accountability.

General Musharraf designed the folowing policies to achieve these goals:   

Accountability and return of looted wealth of the state; Revival of the economy through increasing Foreign exchang reducing International debt burden through rescheduling; Poverty Reduction and social uplift.

General Musharraf introduced New Local Bodies System, delegation of the power to the district government In the process of Return to Democracy he held:   

Referendum, April 2002. Introduced Lega l Framework Order (LFO) 2002 Held General Elections of National And Provincial Assemblies Oct 2002.

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TRAGEDY OF EAST PAKISTAN The separation of East Pakistan was a great setback to Pakistan. By 1970, sentiments for national unity had weakened in East Pakistan to the extent that constant conflict between the two Wings dramatically erupted into mass civil disorder. This tragically resulted in the brutal and violent amputation of Pakistan's Eastern Wing. The physical separation of a thousand miles between the two wings without a common border, and being surrounded by Indian territory and influences, led to constant political, economic and social conflicts between the two wings; embittering relations bringing the country on the verge of collapse. As a result of the separation of its Eastern Wing, Pakistan's international credit was depleted and the military, being its most powerful institution, suffered a lot. To some, the very concept of Pakistan as the homeland for the Muslims in Southeast Asia no longer appeared valid. Trouble started right at the inception of Pakistan in 1947. Almost immediately, East Pakistan claimed that as their population (55 percent as compared to 45 percent in the West) was greater, they were in a majority. Democratically, the Federal Capital, therefore, should have been in Dhaka and not in Karachi. Since Karachi was the seat of the National Government; ministers, government officials and industrialists exerted immense influence on national and regional affairs, which brought them many benefits. But the East Pakistanis were unable to extract the same kind of advantages, as they were a thousand miles away from the Capital. Moreover, the Capital initially attracted wealthy industrialists, businessmen, administrators, doctors and other professionals who had fled from India. The location of the Capital, it was said, created great economic imbalance, uneven distribution of national wealth and privileges, and better jobs for the people of West Pakistan, because they were able to sway decisions in their own favor. Secondly, Bengalis resented the vast sums of foreign exchange earned from the sale of jute from East, which were being spent on defense. They questioned how the expenditure for the Kashmir cause would be justified, when it could otherwise have been productively used to build dams and barriers to control floods, eradicate poverty and illiteracy, and supply food and shelter for the evergrowing population in East Pakistan. Thirdly, the people of the East believed that it was sheer regional prejudice that all white-collar jobs were taken by West Pakistanis. Many mistakes were made early in the short history of Pakistan. There lived in East Pakistan about 15 million Hindus who, with the help of their fellow West Bengali Indians from across the border, were able to exploit East-West differences that emerged as a result of these mistakes. Grievances were exaggerated to foster anti-West Pakistani feelings that eventually created Bengali Nationalism and separatist tendencies. Bengali political leaders went around depicting the Central Government and West Pakistan as hostile exploiters. However, no effective efforts were made by the Government to check these anti-national trends. Awami League, formed in 1951, was headed by Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman. He had always been an ardent Bengali nationalist. He began to attract popular support from Bengalis in East Pakistan. He put forward his Six Points that demanded more autonomy for the Provinces in general, and East Pakistan in particular. He was arrested in April 1966, and soon released, only to be rearrested and imprisoned in June the same year. He languished in prison until February 1969.

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Being deeply aware of the explosive political situation in the country, the then Chief Martial Law Administrator, Yahya Khan, set in motion moves to transfer power to the elected representatives of the people, and announced that the general elections would be held on October 5, 1970. In all his election speeches, Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman reiterated his demand for implementation of his Six Points and provincial autonomy plans. The 1970 elections were postponed from October to December due to heavy floods that caused immense destruction and havoc in East Pakistan. The sheer enormity of the disaster attracted worldwide attention. This gave Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman a golden opportunity to have an international audience for his anti-West Pakistan feelings, which he accused of brutal callousness. The Awami League gained much sympathy and benefit out of this suffering, and Sheikh Mujib-urRahman and his people were portrayed on the international scene as victims of West Pakistan's indifference. In the general elections held in December 1970, the Awami League achieved an overwhelming victory. They captured 167 seats, the highest number in East Pakistan and overall. In the West, the Pakistan Peoples Party had won 85 seats. The way was now open to draw up a new Constitution. The Awami League, now overwhelmingly victors, stood firm on its Six Points plan and refused to compromise on that issue. The Peoples Party in the West maintained that the Six Points Program did not really permit a genuine federation. It was in fact a unique constitutional proposal that proposed a federation that had power only over defense and foreign policy. Efforts were made to start a constitutional dialogue and narrow the differences between the two Wings, but all in vain. Mujib-urRahman's adamant stand in support of his Six Points, and his proposal that East Pakistan should have a sovereign status independent of Pakistan, further aggravated the situation. Mujib-ur-Rahman launched a non-cooperation movement. The civil administration was totally paralyzed. All government and educational institutions were closed. People were asked not to pay any taxes. The transport system came to a standstill. Factories and shops were shut. All government activities between both the Wings ceased. The Awami League setup a parallel government. Gangs of local Awami League freedom fighters, known as Mukti Bahini, led violent demonstrations and howled racial and anti-West Pakistan slogans, inciting the people to more violence. Amidst these disturbances, Genaral Yahya decided to convene the National Assembly in March 1971. But Sheikh Mujib-urRahman unexpectedly put forward other demands such as the immediate lifting of Martial Law and power transfer to the elected representatives of the people, prior to the National Assembly session. Unfortunately, on March 23, the Republic Day of Pakistan, the Awami League declared "Resistance Day" and Bangladesh flags flew all over the Province. There was a great massacre. East Pakistan had reached a point of no return. To quash the armed rebellion of Awami League militants, the Pakistan Army struck

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Six points of Mujeeb-urRehman First enunciated on February 12, 1966, the six points are as below: 1. The Constitution should provide for a Federation of Pakistan in the true sense on the basis of the Lahore Resolution and for a parliamentary form of government based on the supremacy of a directly elected legislature on the basis of universal adult franchise. 2. The Federal Government shall deal with only two subjects; Defense and Foreign Affairs. All residuary subjects will be vested in the federating states. 3. There should be either two separate, freely convertible currencies for the two Wings, or one currency with two separate reserve banks to prevent inter-Wing flight of capital. 4. The power of taxation and revenue collection shall be vested in the federating units. The Federal Government will receive a share to meet its financial obligations. 5. End Economic disparities between the two Wings through a series of economic, fiscal, and legal reforms.


its first blow on March 27, 1971. Yahya Khan chose to use force to bring law and order in the country. In the meantime, India exploited Pakistan's dilemma to the full. It sought to wring full propaganda and strategic value for itself out of the Bengali suffering and misery. India launched an attack on East Pakistan on November 22, 1971. The use of modern Soviet missiles, geographical separation by a thousand miles lying across the hostile Indian territory, and the collusion of Mukti Bahini and the Indian Army, made Pakistan's military defeat in the East almost certain. On December 10, 1971, the first feeler for surrender in East Pakistan was conveyed to the United Nations. On December 17, 1971, a formal surrender was submitted and accepted. Forty five thousand troops and an almost equal number of civilians of West Pakistan were taken as prisoners of war.

The Hamood-ur-Rahman Commission Report [1971] In December 1971, within a week of replacing General Yahya as the President, Bhutto formed a commission headed by the Chief Justice of the Supreme Court, Justice Hamood-ur-Rahman. The Commission's responsibility was to ascertain the facts of the 1971 debacle. The commission interviewed 213 persons including General Yahya, Z. A. Bhutto, Chief of Air Force, Chief of Navy, senior commanders, and various political leaders. It submitted its first report in July 1972. Originally there were 12 copies of the Report. These were all destroyed; expect the one that was handed over to Z. A. Bhutto. Neither Bhutto, nor the Army which took over in 1977, made the Report public. Though the Report remained classified, its contents were presumably learned from various writings and memoirs of the military officers narrating their side of the story of what the Hamood-urRahman Inquiry Commission had to say. The report recommended public trials of the concerned officers responsible for the 1971 debacle. The inquiry was reopened in 1974. The Commission again interviewed 73 bureaucrats and top military officers and submitted its supplementary report in November 1974. It was this supplementary report that was presumably published by an Indian magazine in August 2000, and afterwards allowed to be published in the Pakistani press. Publicizing of the Report by the Indian media was not a surprise since it had come out at a time when there was international pressure mounting on India to resolve the Kashmir dispute. Immense human rights violations were being reported by international organizations such as Amnesty International and Asia Watch with reference to the role of Indian Security Forces in the Indian-held Kashmir. The publication of the Report was seen in Pakistan as an attempt by India to divert the world attention from its inhumane and unjustified actions in Kashmir. Volume I of the main report dealt with political background, international relations, and military aspects of the events of 1971. Volume I of the supplementary report discussed political events of 1971, military aspect, surrender in East Pakistan and the moral aspect. A large number of West Pakistanis and Biharis who were able to escape from East Pakistan told the Commission awful tales of the atrocities at the hands of the Awami League militants. It was revealed that many families of West Pakistani Officers and other ranks serving with East Bengal Units were subjected to inhuman treatment. Their erstwhile Bengali colleagues had butchered a large number of West Pakistani Officers. As the tales of slaughter reached West Pakistani soldiers of other Units, they reacted violently, and in the process of restoring the authority of the Central Government, committed severe excesses on the local Bengali population. The Report's findings accuse the Army of carrying out senseless and

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wanton arson, killings in the countryside, killing of intellectuals and professionals and burying them in mass graves, killing of Bengali Officers and soldiers on the pretence of quelling their rebellion, killing East Pakistani civilian officers, businessmen and industrialists, raping a large number of East Pakistani women as a deliberate act of revenge, retaliation and torture, and deliberate killing of members of the Hindu minority. Having dealt with the claim of General Niazi that he had no legal option but to surrender, the Commission proceeded to consider whether it was necessary for General Niazi to surrender, and whether he was justified in surrendering at that particular juncture, for most of the messages that emanated from the General Head Quarters were studiously ambiguous and designed. Secondly, General Farman Ali had suggested to him that instead of ordering surrender en masse, he should leave it to each Divisional Commander to surrender or not, according to his own circumstances. It was pointed out in the Report, that despite the assurances given by the Chief of Staff of the Indian Army and the terms of surrender, the killing of loyal East Pakistani population, West Pakistani civilians, and civil armed forces by the Mukti Bahini started in full swing soon after Army's surrender. It was maintained in the Report that the defeat suffered by the armed forces was not a result of military factors alone, but had been brought about as the cumulative result of political, international, moral and military factors. The political developments that took place between 1947 and 1971, including the effects of the two Martial Law periods, hastened the process of political and emotional isolation of East Pakistan from West Pakistan. The dismemberment of Pakistan was also accelerated by the role played by the two major political parties, Awami League and the Pakistan Peoples Party, in bringing about a situation that resulted in postponement of the National Assembly session, scheduled to be held at Dhaka on the March 3, 1971. The events occurring between March 1 and 25, 1971, when the Awami League had seized power from the Government, resulting in the military action of March 25, 1971, were deplorable. The Commission also touched upon the negotiations, which General Yahya Khan was pretending to hold during this period with Sheikh Mujib-ur-Rahman on the one hand, and political leaders from West Pakistan on the other. Although he never formally declared these negotiations to have failed, yet he secretly left Dhaka on the evening of March 25, 1971, leaving instructions behind for military action to be initiated as soon his plane landed at Karachi. The Commission declared that military action could not have been substitute for a political settlement, which was feasible once law and order had been restored within a matter of few weeks after the military action. No serious effort was made to start a political dialogue with the elected representatives of the people of East Pakistan. Instead fraudulent and useless measures were adopted. The use of excessive force during the military action had only served to alienate the sympathies of the people of East Pakistan. The arbitrary methods adopted by the Martial Law Administration in dealing with respectable citizens of East Pakistan and their sudden disappearances made the situation worse. The attitude of the Army authorities towards the Hindu minority also resulted in a large-scale exodus to India. Although General Yahya Khan was not totally unaware of the avowed intention of India to dismember Pakistan, he didn't realize the need for early political settlement with the political leaders of East Pakistan. There was wastage of considerable time during which the Indians mounted their training program for the Mukti Bahini and freely started guerillas raids into the Pakistan territory. Pakistan Army was almost unable to prevent infiltration of Mukti Bahini and Indian agents all along the borders of East Pakistan. In the presence of these two factors, the Pakistan Army was obviously fighting a losing battle from the very start. There had been a large exodus of people from East Pakistan to India, as a result of the military action. The results of Indian efforts to propagate this refugee problem on an international level cannot be undermined. The Indian propaganda was so forceful that all endeavors made by the military regime in Pakistan to defuse the situation proved to be futile and left the world unimpressed. The mutual assistance treaty signed between India and the U. S. S. R. in August 1971 further aggravated the situation.

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No rational explanation was available as to why General Yahya did not take the dispute to the Security Council immediately after the Indian invasion of East Pakistan on November 21, 1971. Nor was it possible to explain his refusal to accept the first Russian resolution, if indeed the situation in East Pakistan had become so critical that surrender was inevitable. The Army High Command did not carry out any in-depth study of the effect of these new factors, nor did it pay any attention to the growing disparity in war preparedness and capability between the armed forces of Pakistan and India as a result of the Indo-Soviet Treaty of August 1971. The traditional concept of defense adopted by the Pakistan Army that the defense of East Pakistan lays in West Pakistan was never implemented in a determined and effective manner. The concept remained valid, and if ever there was need to invoke this concept, it was on November 21, 1971, when Indian troops crossed the East Pakistan borders in naked aggression. Unfortunately, the delay in opening the Western front and the half-hearted and hesitant manner in which it was ultimately opened only helped in precipitating the catastrophe in East Pakistan. Besides, the detailed narrative of events, as given in the supplementary report, clearly shows that the planning was hopelessly defective. There was neither any plan at all for the defense of Dhaka, nor any concerted effort to stem the enemy onslaught with a Division or a Brigade battle at any stage. It was only when the General found himself gradually being surrounded by the enemy which had successfully reached Faridpur, Khulna, Daudkandi and Chandpur (the shortest route to Dhaka), that he began to make frantic efforts to get the troops back for the defense of Dhaka. The Report maintained that there was no actual order to surrender. In view of the desperate picture painted by the Commander Eastern Command, higher authorities gave him permission to surrender if he, in his judgment, thought it necessary. General Niazi could have opted not to surrender if he thought that he had the capability of defending Dhaka. On his own estimate, he had 26,400 men to hold out for another two weeks. The enemy would have taken a week to build up its forces and another week to reduce the fortress of Dhaka. But evidence showed that he had already lost the will to fight after December 7, 1971, when his major fortresses at Jessore and Brahmanbari had fallen. Detailed accounts of witnesses given to the Commission indicate that Lt-General Niazi had suffered a complete moral collapse during the closing phases of the war. It had been concluded that apart from the political, international and military factors, an important cause for defeat of the Pakistan Army was the lack of moral character and courage in the senior Army Commanders. The process of moral degeneration among the senior ranks of the armed forces was set in motion by their involvement in Martial Law duties in 1958. These tendencies were intensified when General Yahya Khan imposed Martial Law in the country once again in March 1969. A large number of senior army officers had not only indulged in large-scale acquisition of lands and houses and other commercial activities, but had also adopted highly immoral and lewd ways of life, which seriously affected their professional capabilities and their qualities of leadership. It appears that they had lost the will to fight and the ability to take vital and critical decisions required for the successful prosecution of the war. These remarks particularly applied to General Yahya Khan, his close associates, General Abdul Hamid Khan, Major General Khuda Dad Khan and Lt-General A. A. K. Niazi, apart from certain other officers. The Commission recommended that these grave allegations be dealt with seriously. The surrender in East Pakistan had been a tragic blow to the nation and had caused, not only dismemberment of Pakistan, but also shattered the image of Pakistan Army as an efficient and excellent fighting force. In the end it was hoped in the Report that the Nation would learn the necessary lessons from these tragic events, and that effective and early action will be taken in the light of the conclusions reached. The Hamood-ur-Rahman Commission Report is a valuable document. It was prepared with the explicit purpose of not repeating the various mistakes committed by the Army, General Yahya Khan and Z. A. Bhutto, which resulted in the separation of East Pakistan. Writings and memoirs disclose that apart from its inquiry into the 1971 crisis, it also makes thoughtful recommendations about the defense of the country as a whole.

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The Simla Agreement [1972] After the 1971 war, India held prisoner around 93,000 Pakistani troops and civilians. In Pakistan there was a growing demand to get these prisoners released with the result that a Summit Conference between Pakistani President, Zulfiqar Ali Bhutto and the Indian leader, Mrs. Gandhi, was held at Simla from June 28 to July 2, 1972. The two countries reached an agreement on July 2. The agreement contained the elements of an earlier Indian draft, but the wording was considerably modified. In particular the clause referring to the ceasefire line in Kashmir was rephrased as to make it acceptable to Pakistan. The broad features of this pact included that the principle and purpose of the charter of United Nations would govern the relations between the two countries. The two countries resolved to settle their differences by peaceful means through bilateral negotiations. The foremost conditions for understanding, good neighborly relations, and stable and lasting peace were laid that no country would interfere with the other country's internal matters on the basis of mutual respect for peace, security, territorial sovereignty, mutual friendship and equality. It was reiterated again in the agreement that efforts would be made to put an end, as far as possible, to all such disputes and differences that have been the cause of dissension between the two countries for the last 25 years. Both governments also agreed to take all steps within their power to prevent hostile propaganda directed against each other. In order to progressively restore and normalize relations between the two countries, it was agreed that steps would be taken to resume communications, postal service, and promote and facilitate travel by sea, land and air. Trade and cooperation in economic and other agreed fields would also be resumed. In order to initiate the process of durable peace, both the governments agreed that Indian and Pakistani forces would be withdrawn to their sides of the international border. The control line between Jammu and Kashmir would be the same as was on December 17, 1971. Both the countries would respect the international border and the withdrawal of the armies would be completed within 30 days of the implementation of the agreement. Leaders of both the countries agreed at Simla to meet again at a mutually agreed time so that representatives of both the countries could discuss more arrangements for durable peace, including matters relating to prisoners of war, local prisoners, final settlement of Jammu and Kashmir dispute and diplomatic relations. As a consequence of the clauses pertaining to the withdrawal of forces, Indian troops withdrew from the 5,139 sq. miles of Pakistani territory in Punjab and Sindh it had occupied during the war. Similarly, Pakistani troops withdrew from 69 sq. miles of territory in Punjab and Rajasthan. In Kashmir, India retained 480 sq. miles and Pakistan 52 sq. miles. Pakistan ratified the Simla Agreement on July 15 and India on August 3, after which the agreement came into effect on August 4, 1972

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Intro & Meaning Stephen Quote Geographic importance a. Junction b. China c. Cars d. Afghanistan e. Economic Blocs f. Gas pipelines g. Mountains Political importance a. US intersts – security and business b. Current political situation of the area Conclusion

Geo strategic means the importance of a country or a region as by virtue of its geographical location. Geo political is defined as, stressing the influence of geographic factors on the state power, international conduct and advantages it derives from its location. Stephen Cohn describes this importance “While history has been unkind to Pakistan, its geography has been its greatest benefit. It has resource rich area in the north-west, people rich in the north-east.” Pakistan is a junction of South Asia, West Asia and Central Asia, a way from resource efficient countries to resource deficient countries. The world is facing energy crisis and terrorism. Pakistan is a route for transportation, and a front line state against terrorism.

Geographical Importance: Bridge between South Asia and South West Asia; Iran and Afghanistan are energy abundant while India and China are lacking of. China finds way to Indian ocean and Arabian Sea through Korakaram. China with its fastest economic growth rate of 10%; is developing its southern provinces because its own port is 4500 km away from Sinkiang but Gawader is 2500 km away. Pakistan offers to CARs the shortest route of 2600 km as compared to Iran (4500 km) or Turkey (5000 km). land locked Afganistan now at the phase of Reconstruction, finds its ways through Pakistan..

Economic Blocs: SAARC, ASEAN, ECO. A link between them. Gawader port with its deep waters attracts the trade ships of China, CARs and South East Asian Countries Gas pipelines: 1. 2.

IPI: Iran is struggling to export its surplus gas and oil to eastern countries. Pakistan would get 400 million dollar annually if IPI gets success. Qatar Pakistan and Turkmenistan Pipeline project: highlights the position.

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Mountain Ranges: Himalayas, Hindu Kush in the North are plentiful in providing water and natural resources. Political importance: US interests in the regions to contain the Growing China, nuclear Iran, terrorist Afghanistan, and to benefit from the market of India. Security and Business are two main US interests in the region while Pakistan is playing a front line role against terrorism. Today the political scenario of the region is tinged with pre emption policy and US invasion of Iraq and Afghanistan, Iran’s nuclear program, India’s geopolitical muscles(new strategic deal with US) to gain the hegemony and to counter the ‘The Rise of China’ which has earned all the qualities to change unipolar world into Bipolar world. In all these issues, Pakistan is directly or indirectly involved, especially after Al Qaeda operations. The American think tanks have repeatedly accepted that war against terror could never be won without the help of Pakistan. Pakistan has rigorously fought, and ongoing military operation in Wazirstan is also targeting the suspected Taliban in the bordering area. Main threats to Pakistan: 1. 2. 3. 4.

Balochistan and Wazirstan conflicts are posing threats to any economic project like IPI gas pipeline. Negative role of India, US, Iran in this conflict ridden area. Kashmir is flash point, accelerating nuclear race in the South Asia. Instable governments in Pakistan have contributed in weakening the strong position.

Gwadar is located on the southwestern coast of Pakistan, close to the important Straits of Hormuz, through which more than 13 million bpd of oil passes. It is strategically located between three increasingly important regions of the world: the oil-rich Middle East, heavily populated South Asia and the economically emerging and resource-rich Central Asia.

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To the Chinese, Gwadar spells bad economics (constructed with $200 mn, now GOP is trasnfering cargo from Karachi to Gwadar at $40 per ton extra charges - Forex Pak. $ 2bn needed to connect it with Pak industrial cities and $30 million per kilometer to China – Gilgit Baltistan Bulliten), premature geostrategic confrontation with the United States and the prospect of becoming the target of a burgeoning local insurgency that just might be receiving covert support from Washington and New Delhi.

(Geo-Strategic and Economic Importance of Gwader Port) Background (Sino-Pak): Pakistan recognized China in 1951 and 1961 voted for restoration of Communist China’s rights in the UN. Sino Indian war 1962 culminated in close friendship; in 1963 an agreement on border was signed. Pakistan, during peak days of cold war (1970), facilitated visit of Henry Kissinger (US Foreign Secretary) to China. This led to Nixon’s visit to China which eased the rising tension between them. Initially Pak-China’s strategic partnership was driven by the mutual need to counter the Soviet Union and India. China supported Pakistan in its wars against India with military and economic assistance. China assisted in developing Pakistan’s Nuclear Program, enhanced trade and investment. Recent Developments:    

Treaty of Friendship and Cooperation signed in 2005  “Neither party will join any alliance which infringes upon the sovereignty, security ant territorial integrity.” China role in SCO and pak membership Trade: $ 6 bn in 2010 whereas likely to rise $ 10 bn by 2015 China invested $13 bn in Gwadar

Geo-Political Importance Of Gawadar 1. Dubai is the hub of business not only for Gulf but also for rest of the world including Europe, United States, Africa, China and Central Asian States, simultaneously. The gulf region is facing many political conflicts at the moment and huge disturbances in the current administrative structure are expected in the coming years. In such a scenario, a substitute of Dubai is essential to be located before the crisis hits the finances of millions. The substitute shall be a nearest point probably, to ensure continuous supply line of oil from Gulf to the outer world. Fortunately, Gawadar proves to be the nearest and infact more cost-effective substitute of Dubai, from many aspects. 2. China is emerging as a super economic power of the world in the recent years. Despite occupying a huge area of world's land, it doesn't have any port of hot waters, which can be used the whole year. Gawadar port is only on a distance of 2500 km from China and the port is working for the whole year because of the hot waters here. 3. The central Asian states, after the independence from USSR, are trying to develop their economies. These states are land locked and Karachi was expected to provide them the services through Afghanistan. For the purpose, a highway from Peshawar to Karachi was constructed but due to Afghan crisis, this line couldn't be established. The Afghan situation

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is till not clear, so, Gawadar being near to Iranian border will provide port facilities to Central Asia as well. Gwader- Strategic and Economic Interests of China: Arrival of US troops in Afghanistan- doorstep of China that it agreed to construct Gwader port in 2002 and funded $ 198 million, with 450 workers and technical assistance, while Pakistan shared $ 50 million for phase 1. Benefit to China: So Beijing will get considerable influence in the Persian Gulf, entrance to the Arabian Sea and Indian Ocean, while closely monitor US naval activity and US Indian maritime cooperation. The port will enable China to monitor its energy shipments (60% of its oil need) from the Persian Gulf, and energy imports from Central Asia. Having no blue water navy, China feels defenseless in the Persian Gulf. President Mushraf’s statement, “when needed the Chinese Navy could be in Gwader to give befitting replies to every one.” US, Iran, India: A report by Pentagon entitled ‘Energy Features in Asia’ states that Beijing has set up electronic spy posts at Gwader to monitor ship traffic. The Chinese presence in the Arabian Sea heightens India’s feeling of encirclement by China. Iran fears that the development of the port will undermine the value of its own ports as outlets to Central Asia’s exports. Benefits for Pakistan: 1. 2. 3.

The port will help integrate Pakistan into the Chinese economy by import and export through overland links that stretch across the Korakorum Highway. Gwader would inhibit India’s ability to blockade Pakistan and permit China to supply Pakistan by land and sea during war time. The Gwader area is rich in fisheries and the 600 km coastal line will boost fish export.

Importance of Gawadar 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.

Gwader lying to close to the oil rich Gulf States- could be a potential source of off-shore gas and oil reserves. Gwader as a trade Hub will enable the transfer of Central Asia’s vast energy to world markets, earning Pakistan transit charges and to investment. Afghanistan will become beneficiaries for international trade to get trasit fee to Central Asia. The oil supply during Iraq-Iran and Iraq-Kowait war was stopped; Gawadar is a best solution Cargo handling capacity of 100,000 tons

Conclusion Finally, Pakistan would have to work the completion of necessary infrastructure to support these plans; it needs effective diplomacy, economic stability with improved CenterProvince relationship. Balochistan continues to be crippled by violence with Baloch nationals protesting against the construction of the port supported by Indian elements.

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