Outfitting Mooring Modifed PDF

May 23, 2018 | Author: Karim Moustafa Ahmed | Category: Crane (Machine), Ships, Water Transport, Shipping, Watercraft
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Outfitting  Presented By: Karim Moustafa Mohamed Ali Table of contents:

1) Mooring : 1.1 Purpose of mooring 1.2 Types of mooring systems 1.2.1 Fixed mooring system 1.2.2 Fleet mooring system

1.3   Mooring equipment  1.3.1 1.3.2 1.3.3 1.3.4

Fenders Pier fitting Deck fitting Ropes

1.4  Automated mooring systems 1.5 Static environmental forces

 2)  Anchors: Purpose of anchoring 2.2 Type of anchoring 2.3 Chains 2.4  Mechanism 2.1

 Windless


3 )Cranes : 3.1

Types of cranes

3.1.1 3.1.2 3.1.3 3.1.4 3.1.5

 Marine cranes Offshore cranes  Mobile cranes Shipyard cranes Floating cranes

3.2 Types of operation systems 3.2.1 3.2.2 3.2.3 3.2.4

 Manuel  Mechanical  Hydraulic  Electrical

4) Ventilation


1) Mooring 1.1

Propose of mooring: is to safely hold a unit in a certain position to accomplish a specific mission or purpose. Mooring is needed to safely protect the unit and life and public interests and to preserve the capabilities of the vessel and surrounding facilities. Ships mooring provide: i) Loading and unloading of cargo like bulk, oil, personnel, vessels and etc. ii) Maintenance and repair iii) Mission like floating dry-dock , towing , surveillance and etc



Types of mooring system: 1.2.1  fixed m ooring systems

Single Vessel Secured at Multiple Points: it  consist of two types Pier: Multiple tension lines are used to secure a vessel next to a pier/wharf and compliant fenders to keep the ships safe from the structure in case of high winds or waves .

Spud mooring : Multiple vertical structural steel

beams are used to secure the vessel, such as a floating dry-dock. This type of mooring is especially effective for construction barges temporarily working in shallow water. Spud moorings can be especially susceptible to dynamic processes.

4 Multiple Vessel Moorings : Opposite Sides of a Pier: Vessels can be placed adjacent to one another on opposite sides of a pier to provide some blockage of the environmental forces/moments on the downstream vessel. Multiple Vessels Next to One Another : Vessels can be placed adjacent to one another to provide significant blockage of the environmental forces/ moments on the downstream vessel


1.2.2  Fleet mooring system a. Vessel Secured at a Single Point i. By anchor

ii. Single Mooring Buoy 


b. Vessel Secured at Two Points

i. Bow Stern Mooring

c. Vessel Secured at Multiple Points

i. Med Mooring


ii. Spread Mooring

d. Multiple Vessel Moorings i. Nest



 Mooring equipment : size and type of mooring equipment are determined by size of vessel and type of operation required to be done

1.3.1  Fenders  purpose of fender : to protect the pier structure from the stresses forces and to protect it and to decrease the maintains required for the pier

type of fenders : i. rubber fender used for harbours, piers , wharfs and quays ii. Ships fenders used for working boats, tugs and small ships and may also be used for small wharfs

1.3.2  pier fitting 1. Single Bollard 


 2. Double Bollard ( double bitt )


 3. Cleat

1.3.3  Deck fitting



 Deck Machinery: its function is to handle and secure mooring lines .It consist of capstan head, related machinery and constant  tension winches. In the marine field it is usually uses the hydraulic system and/or two speed electrical systems (full and quarter).


 Capstan head

: is a warping head with a vertical axis used for 

handling mooring and other lines ( it is generally rotate in both direction )

   Related

machinery: it consist of winch motor with a horizontal

capstan which can handle the whole mooring lines and operation control. 

Constant tension: which mange the tension while loading /  unloading of cargo due to the change o f draft and the effect of  tidal rise and fall

. 13

ii.  Fairlead : are used to lead mooring lines around obstructions and   provide proper alignment with the gypsy heads.


 Many types like: 1. Panama fairlead


 2.  Multi-angle fairlead 

 3. Two-roller fairlead 

 4.  Pedestal fairlead 


1.3.4  Mooring lines ( Ropes ) : 

The size of mooring lines depends on size of ship, operation required to be done and size of equipment are used on board.  Types of lines (ropes) used on board are : 1) Nature fiber rope  2) Synthetic fiber ropes


 Automated Mooring Systems (AMS): By using vacuum and hydraulic instead of ropes the whole operation of mooring a ship is reduced to a simple press of a button.

  Advantages

of AMS : 1) Risk of injury to shore and personnel by mooring ropes eliminated. 2) Multiple redundancies of vacuum pads and inherent   fail safe features ensure a secure mooring even during power cuts or loss of control signals. 3) Fast attachment (typically > 12 sec) and quick  release. 16

4) Avoids delays while waiting for mooring teams to become available. 5) Only one operator required, based ashore or  onboard, to activate and remotely monitor (if  necessary) the mooring system. 6) Offers measurable reduction in rope costs, less abrasion to hull paintwork and reduces mechanical wear on shore fenders.


Static Environmental Forces (like winds, current  and tide): The principal forces acting on a moored vessel are generally caused by wind and current. However the mooring system has to be capable of withstanding any combination of forces resulting from the following : a) Wind  b) Current  c) off-quay hydrodynamic force and hydrodynamic interference from passing ships d) Ocean or long swell waves e) Waves caused by passing ships in narrow channels  f) Tidal rise and fall, and change in draught or trim due to cargo operations  Normally, if the mooring system is designed to accommodate the maximum wind and current forces, the reserve strength will be sufficient to resist other forces that may arise


1.5.1  Forces due to wind : wind forces acting on a ship can be divided  into two components longitudinal force acting parallel to the longitudinal axis of the ship and a transvers forces acting on the longitudinal axis and  tis will leads yawing moments.Wind forces on ship also varies depending on the exposed area of ship , if there is a head wind so it will only stick a small portion of the total exposed area of the ship so longitudinal forces are relatively small , if there is a beam wind so it will exposed to large area which leads to large transverse forces .  By compering these two forces we will find that the transverse  forces equal five times the longitudinal forces. When the wind hits the ship from an angle between a head and  beam so there will be a combination between transverse and  longitudinal forces since that the exposed area is between bow( or  stern ) and side of ship.

 And as shown in figure the combined force is smaller  than the transverse forces.



Current Force: the change in the current force depended on changes in the current velocity and direction of flow (like wind force), current   forces also complicated by significant effect of clearance beneath the keel as shown in figure


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