Outdoor Classroom Lesson Plans

July 14, 2017 | Author: Margo Mills | Category: Experiment, Compost, Inquiry, Ecology, Hypothesis
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Chicago Foundation for Education

5/23/11 4:36 PM

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Click on the title below to view the entire lesson. Lessons with the ribbon indicate Character Education Bonus winners What is Character Education?

Teacher Information Amanda Dowd [email protected]

Name of School Hanson Park Elementary Lesson Information

Lesson Name Life Cycles: Butterflies Overview

Science

The goal of this project is to teach intermediate special education students with moderate and severe disabilities about the life cycle of butterflies. The approach is multi-sensory and uses a variety of hands-on materials and opportunities for authentic observation and interaction.

Special Education

Student Learning Objectives

Language Arts

Primary (Pre-K - 2nd) Middle Elementary (3rd - 5th) Upper Elementary (6th - 8th) High School (9th - 12th) Grant Program Small Grant 2008 Estimated Length of Project

This project is designed to teach special education students with moderate and severe disabilities about the life cycle of butterflies. Students will be exposed to a variety of materials which illustrate the life cycle of butterflies, including books and manipulatives. A butterfly nursery in the classroom will allow students to observe the development of butterflies in real time; it is recommended that activities and stories be repeated for reinforcement. The objectives are:

This unit can be completed over the course of several months.

• to identify a butterfly and its various stages of growth: egg, caterpillar, chrysalis, butterfly.

Illinois State Standards

• to look at pictures of, and listen/attend to stories about, butterflies in different stages of their life cycle.

11A: Know and apply the concepts, principles and processes of scientific inquiry. 12A: Know and apply concepts that explain how living things

• to sequence the stages of the life cycle of butterflies. • to observe butterflies in each stage of their

http://www.cfelessonplans.org/pages/lesson_search_results/148.php?id=884

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Chicago Foundation for Education

that explain how living things function, adapt and change. 12B: Know and apply concepts that describe how living things interact with each other and with their environment.

5/23/11 4:36 PM

development.

Supplies • Life Cycles Instant Learning Center

1A: Apply word analysis and vocabulary skills to comprehend selections.

• The Very Hungry Caterpillar hardcover book

1C: Comprehend a broad range of reading materials.

• Butterfly Life Cycle Pocket Chart Kit

4A: Listen effectively in formal and informal situations. 5B: Analyze and evaluate information acquired from various sources. Email to A Friend

• The Very Hungry Caterpillar storytelling kit

• Butterfly Nursery and caterpillars (mail-ordered) Activities 1. Life Cycles: Sequencing A. Using the Life Cycles Instant Learning Centers, model the sequencing of the life cycle of a butterfly for students. B. Give a brief explanation of each stage: i. The egg is laid by the butterfly. ii. The egg becomes a caterpillar. iii. The caterpillar wraps itself in a chrysalis and develops into a butterfly. iv. The butterfly breaks out of the chrysalis. C. Give each student an opportunity to use the materials to sequence the life cycle. For students with physical limitations, use hand-over-hand assistance and/or the most appropriate method of communication for that student (pointing, gesturing, etc). 2. Story: The Very Hungry Caterpillar, by Eric Carle A. Place the felt board on a desk or table and arrange students in a semicircle around it. B. Read the story aloud, using manipulatives with each page to help illustrate. Allow students the opportunity to touch the manipulatives and add them to the felt board as they see fit. 3. Sequencing Using the Pocket Chart Kit: A. Using the pocket chart and kit, place the materials on the chart one at a time, using the title card for word exposure. B. Identify each stage of growth, and allow students to place the appropriate materials on the chart. 4. Butterfly Nursery (Long-Term Activity) A. Allow students to examine the caterpillars. B. Place the caterpillars in the butterfly nursery. C. Check on the progress the caterpillars are making daily. D. Have students assist in feeding the caterpillars. E. Keep track of caterpillar growth on the bulletin board, using large illustrations to symbolize each stage. F. When butterflies hatch, plan a time to release them. G. Release the butterflies as a class.

http://www.cfelessonplans.org/pages/lesson_search_results/148.php?id=884

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Chicago Foundation for Education

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Extensions/Possible Modifications Visit a butterfly museum to observe and interact with the butterflies. Student Assessment 1. Identification: This assesses the students' ability to identify the different stages of butterfly growth. A. Show students an example of each stage of butterfly development. B. Ask the students to identify the stage by naming it or by pointing to it. 2. Sequencing: This assesses the students' ability to sequence the different stages of butterfly growth. A. Using growth stage manipulatives, have the students put the stages in order. B. Ask the students to name the stages, or say the names out loud, and have them point to correctly identify.

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Teacher’s Corner Lesson Plans Helping Teachers and Students Make the Most of their Outdoor Classroom www.evergreen.ca Bringing Nature to our Cities

Conducting an Ecological Inquiry Investigation Sandra McEwan Grade level: Grade 10 and 11. Provincial curriculum links: Ontario and Pan-Canadian. Subject: Science. Keywords: independent inquiry, research method, research design, ecology, variable, independent variable, dependent variable, control group, analysis, presentation, group work.

Description This lesson gives students the opportunity to develop skills of scientific inquiry, design and communication. Students will plan, conduct and analyze a scientific investigation for a question they have formulated on an observable and/or measurable ecological relationship, problem or idea in the school grounds.

Curriculum Framework This lesson is linked directly to the learning expectations described in the Ontario Curriculum for Grade 10 and 11 Science. The learning expectations are also broadly applicable to other Canadian curricula, including the Pan-Canadian Science Curriculum.

A: Ontario Curriculum Grade 10 Science, Academic (SNC 2D) Strand: Biology Specific Lesson Goals: Through investigations and applications of basic concepts: formulate scientific questions about observed ecological relationships, ideas, problems and issues (e.g., “What impact will supplying an excess of food for a particular organism have on an ecosystem?”); demonstrate the skills to plan and conduct an inquiry into ecological relationships, using instruments, apparatus, and materials safely and accurately, and controlling major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required;

Conducting an Ecological Inquiry Investigation

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select and integrate information from various sources including electronic and print resources, community resources and personally collected data to answer the questions chosen; analyze data and information and evaluate evidence and sources of information, identifying flaws such as errors and bias; select and use appropriate vocabulary and numeric, symbolic, graphic and linguistic modes of representation to communicate scientific ideas, plans, results, and conclusions (e.g., use terms such as biotic, abiotic, biomass, biome, ecosystem, chemical concentration and biodiversity when making presentations).

B: Grade 11 Biology, University Preparation (SBI 3U) Strand: Plants: Anatomy, Growth and Functions Specific Lesson Goals: design and carry out an experiment to determine the factors that affect the growth of a population of plants, identifying and controlling major variables.

C: Pan-Canadian Curriculum Knowledge: 331-7 describe how soil composition and fertility can be altered and how these changes could affect an ecosystem Skills: 212-1 identify questions to investigate that arise from practical problems and issues. 212-3 design an experiment identifying and controlling major variables. 212-4 state a prediction and a hypothesis based on available evidence and background information. 212-8 evaluate and select appropriate instruments for collecting evidence and appropriate processes for problem solving, inquiring, and decision making. 212-9 develop appropriate sampling procedures. 213-2 carry out procedures controlling the major variables and adapting or extending procedures where required. 213-3 use instruments effectively and accurately for collecting data. 213-5 compile and organize data, using appropriate formats and data treatments to facilitate interpretation of the data. 213-6 use library and electronic research tools to collect information on a given topic. Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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213-7 select and integrate information from various print and electronic sources or from several parts of the same source. 213-8 select and use apparatus and materials safely. 214-9 identify and apply criteria, including presence of bias, for evaluating evidence and sources of information. 214-10 identify and explain sources of errors and uncertainty in measurement and express results in a form that acknowledges the degree of uncertainty. 214-11 provide a statement that addresses the problem or answers the question investigated in light of the link between data and the conclusion. 214-12 explain how data support or refute the hypothesis or prediction. 215-2 select and use appropriate numeric, symbolic, graphical, and linguistic modes of representation to communicate ideas, plans, and results.

Preparation Preparation time: Approximately 25 minutes to collect materials, prepare student worksheets, read educator notes (provided) and review references/resources (as noted below). Length of lesson: Approximately 375 minutes for class discussions, scientific investigation and reporting. Resources required: Student worksheets. Other resources will depend on the inquiry being undertaken.

Procedure 1. Model the steps of a scientific inquiry investigation in the school ground using a sample researchable question. 2. Distinguish between a controlled experiment and a correlational study. 3. Review the terminology and guiding principles for the design and analysis of an experiment or investigation as summarized in the Educator Notes. 4. Organize students into research teams of two to four members. Assign tasks to each member (e.g., group leader, equipment manager, data collector, safety officer and on-task monitor). 5. Provide time for the teams to brainstorm topics to investigate and share ideas with the class. 6. Approve and sign off on each team’s study topic, research question, materials list and investigation design. Make sure students know that they need to have these approved (see Teacher Approval sheet, attached) before they can go ahead with the investigation. Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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7. Engage teams in the investigation and report write-up. NOTE: This lesson allows students to think independently and creatively when designing an investigation, but keep in mind that Grade 10 and 11 students will need quite a bit of direction. Check students’ progress periodically, and encourage them to check in with you to make sure they stay focused.

Discussion and Questions Provide a full class period for the research teams to analyze their data and to work on the report write-up. The report and presentation are due the following class. Facilitate a class discussion around the Analysis and Write-up requirements outlined on the student worksheet. Introduce these questions as well: 1. What is the significance of these inquiry results? That is, why do the results matter? Could they be applied to school ground maintenance or school ground gardening? 2. Do the results of these inquiries suggest the need for further research? Suggest research questions for future inquiries. 3. Why is it important to ensure that your inquiry could be replicated by another researcher? 4. Could you have conducted these inquiries in the classroom or laboratory, instead of outdoors? What would be the advantages and disadvantages of such an approach?

Student Evaluation Completion of written report Observations Peer and self-evaluation Presentation Rating Scale and Written Report Rating Scale (provided)

Enrichment and Extension Activities If time permits, teams may deliver a short (5-8 min.) oral presentation to their peers on their inquiry investigations. You may want to allow these presentations to take place outdoors, so that students can show where their study sites were.

Connections to the Outdoor Environment All inquiries should take place outdoors in the school grounds.

Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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Educator Notes In the most general sense, inquiry centers around the desire to answer a question or to know more about a situation. Scientific inquiry refers to the process of developing testable hypotheses and constructing understandings of real-world scientific ideas. This inquiry process involves the following basic steps: 1. identifying a worthwhile and researchable question 2. planning the investigation 3. executing the research plan 4. preparing the research report 5. assessing the inquiry process. Students should have prior knowledge of the scientific method and the scientific inquiry process. Students should be aware of the following terminology and principles for the design and analysis of an experiment or investigation: – Variable - any factor or condition that affects the results of a scientific investigation. – Controlled Variable - the factor or condition that affects the results of a scientific investigation. – Independent Variable - the factor or condition being tested. – Dependent Variable - the factor that responds to the change in the independent variable. Its response is measured as data. Two groups of subjects are used in most experiments. Design the experiment so all factors except the one being tested are kept the same for both groups: – The experimental group is the group being tested by having the independent variable changed. – The control group is the group in which the independent variable is not changed but treated as a controlled variable. Use the same type of subject for both the experimental and controlled groups. Be certain that each group is a representative sample and large enough to give validity to the results. The inquiry investigations may involve a controlled experiment in which one variable is changed, or a correlational study in which change in variables are compared. SAFETY NOTE: Consult your school board’s policy regarding safety precautions for outdoor excursions and plan your trip accordingly. Be aware of any students with allergies to insect bites and plants and ensure they carry the required medications. Students should wash their hands after handling soil, plants and equipment. Encourage students to wear sunscreen and appropriate clothing (e.g. hat, long-sleeved shirt) to minimize the damaging effects of sun exposure. Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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References Etheredge, S. and Rudnitsky, A. Introducing Students to Scientific Inquiry. How Do We Know What We Know? MA: Allyn and Bacon. 2003. Martin, R. et al. Teaching Science For All Children. Lessons for Constructing Understanding, (2nd Ed). MA: Allyn and Bacon. 2002.

Worksheets Student Worksheet In this scientific study, you will plan and conduct an investigation to answer a question that you have formulated on an observable and/or measurable ecological relationship, problem or idea in the school ground. You will prepare a formal report of your inquiry investigation.

Part 1: Before Going Outdoors 1. Decide on a study topic. Brainstorm a list of variables - that is, what differs from one area to another. Once you have a list of variables, work together to come up with several possible relationships among them. For example: Soil pH and tree species Soil temperature and depth profile Soil compaction and percolation rate Plant species and location/plant adaptations Species diversity and proximity to the parking lot Slope and species distribution or abundance Hours of sun per day and plant adaptation Foot traffic level and soil compaction 2. Research Question - Select one topic to investigate and write a research question. For example: What is the relationship between soil pH and tree species? How does soil temperature change with depth? Is there a relationship between soil compaction and percolation rate? Why do dandelions grow more abundantly on the south side of the school compared to the north side? How does species diversity change with proximity to the parking lot? What is the relationship between the slope of the ground and the distribution/abundance of species? Is there a relationship between the number of hours of sun exposure per day and plant adaptation? What effect does foot traffic have on soil compaction? Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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3. Background Research - Use the library, internet and other media to collect information on the topic to be investigated and the factors that might affect the design of the investigation. 4. Hypothesis - Make a hypothesis or testable prediction about the possible outcome of the investigation. 5. Materials and Equipment - List everything you need for the investigation. 6. Procedure - Design and record the step-by-step instructions. These instructions must be specific enough to allow others to repeat the investigation in exactly the same way each time. Specify the type of evidence or data to be collected. Set up any required data tables. 7. Ask your teacher to check your work before providing you with the necessary equipment to complete your investigation.

Part 2: Outdoors 1. Experiment - Select the study area(s) and conduct the investigation. 2. Results - Collect data in the form of observations and/or quantitative measurements. Use data tables to organize data as it is collected.

Part 3: Analysis and Write-Up 1. Analyze Data - Evaluate the data to identify patterns. When organizing data for analysis, use such visual tools as graphs, diagrams and flow charts. 2. Prepare Report - Your report should include the following sections: Introduction: describing your research question and your predictions or hypothesis. Use your background research to describe why the question is important, and the reasoning behind your hypothesis. In this section, indicate what was the independent variable and dependent variable, and list the controlled variables. Describe the experimental and control group. Equipment: provide a detailed list of required materials. Procedure: outline your research method, step by step. Include notes about advance preparation and safety. Results: include your ’raw’ data - that is, the data you recorded in the field as well as data analysis results (e.g. using graphs and charts). Remember to indicate your measurement units. Discussion: provide a detailed discussion of the inquiry, including your conclusions, as well as arguments to defend your conclusions and the merits of your hypothesis. Drawing on your background research, theorize how one variable might affect another. Comment on whether the research question or problem was testable, and whether the results strengthen your confidence of your hypothesis or, instead, require that the hypothesis be modified or discarded (a hypothesis is never proven to be true; it is just supported by a greater amount Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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of evidence). Are there any weaknesses in the design of the investigation? List those weaknesses. How would you change the design of the experiment to correct those weaknesses? Conclusion: summarize what was learned from the investigation

Conducting an Ecological Inquiry Investigation Research Summary and Teacher Approval Date: Group Members: Study Topic: Research Question: Materials List:

Investigation Design (briefly describe your research method):

Teacher Approval: Date:

Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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Inquiry Investigation: Written Report Rating Scale Date Submitted: Group Members: Topic: CRITERIA Title Introduction and Focus of Project

Materials and Equipment Procedure

Results

Analysis and Discussion

Creativity/ Originality Appearance

DESCRIPTION OF CRITERIA

GRADE C B A 2 3 4

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Valid safety notes are included; advanced preparation needs are noted; the procedures are clearly, concisely and sequentially written; variables are effectively controlled; measured a wide range of possible cause and result variables; tests duplicated; tests valid and reliable. Data is complete on which to base a thorough analysis; includes qualitative descriptions and quantitative data presented in tables and/or graphs and/or figures; includes repeat measurements and descriptions; measurements include SI units. A detailed discussion features data and arguments in defending all conclusions and about the merits of the predictions and hypothesis; the conclusions are logical; conclusions appropriately relate theory to evidence; the results and conclusions are addressed with conviction; related result variables are compared; describes possible cause and result variables; summarizes any concerns about how well designed the actual project was compared to the initial plans. This is an original, scientific inquiry investigation; displays creativity in design.

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Title is valid, concise and clearly identifies the problem/topic of the investigation. The introduction clearly and concisely describes the focus question/problem; the focus is novel; predictions and hypothesis are stated with logical reasoning; background research is summarized. A detailed list of required materials and equipment is provided.

Total

Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

E 5

/50 points

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Inquiry Investigation: Presentation Rating Scale Date: Presenters: Topic: CRITERIA Planning

Communication

Questioning Involvement

Creativity Style

and

Scholarship and Project Summary Overall Impression

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DESCRIPTION OF CRITERIA The presentation was clear and well organized; the sequence was logical and well timed; the introduction was interesting. Presenters were enthusiastic; ideas were expressed clearly and concisely; the use of English was excellent; AV aids were used effectively; a valid and professional discussion was generated. Clear, concise questions were asked, as deemed appropriate during the presentation. All group members participated in meaningful ways and the class was involved mentally and physically in the presentation and topic. The presentation exhibited a high level of creativity; relevance was stressed; presentation was elegant yet comprehensive, integration and unification were demonstrated. A mastery of the content of the project was exhibited; problem was posed; empirical tests and results and conclusions are summarized. The presentation was of high quality and left peers with a very positive impression.

Total

COMMENTS:

Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

FX 0

/35 points

ALEX Lesson Plan: Determining Percent of Seed Germination-Enhancing ma…hnical classroom and providing relevance in the mathematics classroom

5/23/11 4:32 PM

LoginHome Home | Add Bookmark | Print Friendly | Rate This Lesson Plan | Suggest a Variation Courses of Study Web You may save this lesson plan to your hard drive as an html file by selecting "File", then "Save Resources As" from your browser's pull down menu. The file name extension must be .html. Lesson Plans Search This lesson provided by: Personal Author: Anthony Pendergrass Workspace Professional System: Fort Payne City Learning School: Fort Payne High School Podcast Lesson Plan ID: 25208 Treasury ALEXville Title: Determining Percent of Seed Germination-Enhancing mathematics in the career/technical classroom and providing relevance in the mathematics classroom Overview/Annotation: In this project, students will conduct an experiment to determine the percentage of seed that will germinate in a given time frame. Students will produce charts and graphs to represent the results algebraically. Mathematics and career/technical students can participate in this lab experiment together, or the activity can be conducted separately in either classroom. The mathematics teacher will want to adapt the student handouts to provide additional emphasis on mathematics and to remove emphasis on the career/technical. This integrated lesson is the result of collaboration between Chip Blanton, an agriculture teacher, and Greg Pendergrass, a math teacher (Fort Payne HS). For information about using the eight step model for developing integrated projects developed by the Southern Regional Education Board, contact Leslie Carson at [email protected] For information about the project implementation, contact Chip Blanton ([email protected]) or Greg Pendergrass ([email protected]). http://alex.state.al.us/lesson_view.php?id=25208

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ALEX Lesson Plan: Determining Percent of Seed Germination-Enhancing ma…hnical classroom and providing relevance in the mathematics classroom

Content Standard(s):

AG(9-12) Horticulture MA(9-12) Algebra AFN(9-12) Agriscience MA1(9-12) Algebra I MA1(9-12) Algebra I MA1(9-12) Algebra I

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11. Describe methods of asexual and sexual plant propagation. 2. Analyze linear functions from their equations, slopes, and intercepts. 10. Determine characteristics and functions of plants. 2. Analyze linear functions from their equations for their characteristics, including slopes and intercepts. 13. Identify characteristics of a data set, including numerical or categorical and univariate or bivariate. 15. Calculate probabilities given data in lists or graphs.

Local/National Standards: Primary Learning Objective(s):

Instruction in this lesson should result in career/technical students achieving the following objectives: 1. Be able to discuss the importance of sexual propagation of plants. 2. Be able to describe the process of seed germination. 3. Be able to describe the factors involved in planting seeds for transplanting. 4. Be able to explain how to successfully direct seed outdoors. 5. Graphically represent data collected from the seed germination experiment and to represent the slope of a line through an equation. Instruction in mathematics students achieving the following: 1. Conducting an authentic experiment in which they which they use mathematics in a meaningful way. 2. Collect data, graphically represent the results and to write equations using the y-intercept.

Additional Learning Objective(s):

Students in both the career/technical and mathematics classrooms will prepare a report/essay which includes discussion of how they used mathematics to predict the amount of seeds they will need to plant to result in a full crop.

Approximate Duration of Greater than 120 Minutes the Lesson: Materials and Equipment:

Zip lock bags, large seeds from at least three different seed crop types, paper towels, water, and rubber bands Three cups per collaborative group, water, large seeds from at least three different seed crop types

Technology Resources Needed: http://alex.state.al.us/lesson_view.php?id=25208

Computer and Internet access Page 2 of 5

ALEX Lesson Plan: Determining Percent of Seed Germination-Enhancing ma…hnical classroom and providing relevance in the mathematics classroom

5/23/11 4:32 PM

Background/Preparation: Students will show mastery of basic skills related to pencil and paper graphing. They will need to understand independent and dependent variables as they relate to linear functions. The career/technical teacher may need the assistance of a mathematics colleague to develop appropriate ways to support career/technical students' math understandings. The mathematics teacher may need to collaborate with the career/technical teacher prior to beginning this project to ensure understanding of the importance of using mathematics in successful agribusiness. He/she will also need to adapt student handouts and assignments to emphasize the mathematics rather than career/technical. If the mathematics and career/technical classes will be working on this project together, it is important to create a master schedule detailing when the classes will be brought together and for how long. The two teachers will also need time to coordinate teaching duties. Procedures/Activities:

1.)Introduction of the unit:In the career/technical classroom, the teacher introduces this project lesson through a lecture/discussion of the importance of sexual propagation of plants, a description of the process of seed germination, the factors involved in planting seeds for transplanting and the process for successfully directing seed outdoors. The teacher will direct discussion to agribusiness and the importance of retaining seed viability when stored for several years and the importance of determining crop output based upon seed viability. Students will use two-column (Cornell) Notetaking during the lecture. In the mathematics classroom, after students learn about graphing and analyzing linear functions, the teacher will introduce the seed germination project by explaining how farmers make good business judgements using mathematics. The math teacher will then introduce the seed germination experiment which will require students to germinate seeds over a period of several days, collect data, graphically represent the data and then write an analysis for a farmer. 2.)Students conduct seed germination experiments: Provide students with the attached Student Project Outline. Explain expectations for conducting two experiments to determine percentage of germination by reviewing the Student Project Outline. Assign students to collaborative groups of three students. Students take the attached pre-assessment test to determine mathematics awareness related to the project. Students conduct the Rag-Doll test and the Alternative Seed Viability Test as described in the Project Outline. Instructions for the Rag-Doll test are found at the attached URL, "Seed Germination Testing." Instructions for the Alternative Seed Viability Test are included in the Student Project Outline. Students are reminded they must collect data and report it on the attached Data Collection Template and must, as a group, answer the questions following the template. (If the career/technical and mathematics classes are working on this

http://alex.state.al.us/lesson_view.php?id=25208

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ALEX Lesson Plan: Determining Percent of Seed Germination-Enhancing ma…hnical classroom and providing relevance in the mathematics classroom

5/23/11 4:32 PM

project together, it is important to ensure each three-member group has at least one math student and one career/technical student.) Attachments: Student Project Outline.doc, pretest.doc and Data Collection Template.doc. Article URL Provided. (Seed Germination Testing ("Rag-Doll" Test)) It is often important to determine the potential germination rate of seeds that have been held over from previous years. A fairly simple procedure can be conducted. Seeds that will not germinate in a "rag-doll" most likely will not germinate in the field. 3.)Math Lesson: After students have set up their experiments, the career/technical teacher provides a lesson on graphing and analyzing data. Students take notes using two-column/Cornell notetaking. The lesson provides students with a review of vocabulary they have learned (or will learn in Algebra I), including dependent and independent variables, table of values, x-axis, y-axis and coordinate or Cartesian plane. The teacher reviews how to determine percentage using examples found in the pre-assessment. The math lesson may be co-taught by a math colleague. (If the career/technical and mathematics classes are working together on this project,the math lesson may be taught to career/technical students within the peer groups.) 4.)Students complete data collection: Students complete the data collection over a seven day period. On day 3, students will need approximately 15 minutes to check results on the experiments. On day 6, students will need about 30 minutes to check on results of the rag-doll test and set up the alternative seed viability test. On the seventh day, time is provided for students to check results of both experiments, to create appropriate graphs and to analyze the data as a group. (NOTE: If the math and career/technical classes are working together on this project, the teachers will need to create a schedule detailing when math students will come to the career/technical classroom to check germination test results and to analyze data with their career/technical group members.) 5.)Students write data analysis report/essay: Either as homework or as a class assignment, each student writes a five paragraph report describing results of the two experiments, making recommendations to a farm owner about seed purchases and planting using stored seeds, and describing the reliability of each of the two tests for use in agribusiness planning. Students read the article at the provided URL to help form recommendations. (Test Your Seeds) In addition to making recommendations for seed planting, this article describes what a farmer needs to do if seed germination percentage falls below 70 percent. Attachments:**Some files will display in a new window. Others will prompt you to download. http://alex.state.al.us/lesson_view.php?id=25208

PreTest.doc studentprojectoutline.doc DataCollectionTemplate.doc

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ALEX Lesson Plan: Determining Percent of Seed Germination-Enhancing ma…hnical classroom and providing relevance in the mathematics classroom

Assessment Strategies:

Extension:

5/23/11 4:32 PM

Assessment Strategies: Pre-assessment, Data produced, Graphs, Report/essay, portfolio completion Post-assessment using preassessment questions.

The mathematics teacher will want to extend this lesson by including evaluation of slope resulting from data collected, intercepts and evaluation of linear functions that result.

Remediation:

Careful selection of collaborative groups can ensure students needing additional support receive peer tutoring. The teachers can also determine who might need extra support after seeing results of the pre-assessment.

Each area below is a direct link to general teaching strategies/classroom accommodations for students with identified learning and/or behavior problems such as: reading or math performance below grade level; test or classroom assignments/quizzes at a failing level; failure to complete assignments independently; difficulty with short-term memory, abstract concepts, staying on task, or following directions; poor peer interaction or temper tantrums, and other learning or behavior problems. Presentation of Material

Environment

Time Demands

Materials

Attention

Using Groups and Peers

Assisting the Reluctant Starter

Dealing with Inappropriate Behavior

Be sure to check the student's IEP for specific accommodations. Variations Submitted by ALEX Users: About Us · Terms of Use · Alabama Dept.of Education · Help · Site Map · Contact Us · Copyright © 2002-2011 Web Designer

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Teacher’s Corner Lesson Plans Helping Teachers and Students Make the Most of their Outdoor Classroom www.evergreen.ca Bringing Nature to our Cities

Give Me Back My School: A Back to Basics Approach to Ecological Restoration Andrea MacInnes and Sandra McEwan Grade level: Grade 9. Provincial curriculum links: Ontario. Subject: Geography. Keywords: Ecological footprint, ecological restoration, mapping, urban development, waste management, ecological pest management, mulching, composting, recycling.

Description This lesson is intended to help students learn about the geography of the area in which their school is situated, in order to create a successful ecological school ground. Students will analyze local soil, average weather patterns for their area, topography and local precipitation and temperature graphs in order to develop a feasible method of small-scale land reclamation. They must also decide upon the best types of vegetation to plant within their plot of land. Vegetation should ideally (but not necessarily) be native vegetation to the area/ecozone. This is an on-going, year long project that can be extended to students over a number of years. The project is intended to draw awareness to ecology, ecozones, waste management, ecological impact of each human on the land, urban growth and the cost/benefit of land reclamation.

Curriculum Framework Ontario Curriculum Geography of Canada, Grade 9, Academic (CGC 1D) Strand: Geographic Foundations: Space and Systems Specific Lesson Goals: demonstrate an understanding of how human activities (e.g., agricultural and urban development, waste management, parks development, forest harvesting, land reclamation) affect the environment; explain how the effects of urban growth (e.g., development on former farm lands, destruction of wildlife habitats, draining of marshes) alter the natural environment;

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research and report on ways of improving the balance between human needs and natural systems (e.g., recycling, river clean-ups, ecological restoration of local woodlots or school grounds, industrial initiatives to reduce pollution); analyse and evaluate the success, in environmental and economic terms, of local waste management methods.

Preparation Preparation time: You will need to get the approval of the principal for this project, therefore, notify as soon as possible. It is also important to plan your actions thoroughly; it may be a good idea to plan for this project over the summer so you will be ready by the commencement of the following school year. Length of lesson: This project should be conducted over the school year, depending on your resources. Resources required: Historical maps of the area (if possible) seeds of plants/trees/shrubs native to the area plant guides shovels rakes spades extra soil student worksheets

Procedure 1. Read the article “An Explanation of Ecological Footprints” at the following website: http://www.rbg.ca/cbcn/en/information/footprints/dglectures/footprint1.html, and answer the following questions: (a) In your own words, describe the term ”ecological footprint”. What information does this calculation provide? Why is this information significant? (b) Has calculating your ecological footprint made you more aware of your impact on the environment? In which ways? How can city planners or municipal governments use similar information to curb urban impact on the environment? (c) Outline at least 5 reasons why populations living in developing countries have a smaller ecological footprint. (d) Do you think the current methods of calculating one’s ecological footprint are reasonable? Are there any “holes” in the criteria used to assess a person’s ecological footprint?

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(e) How does an individual’s ecological footprint differ from their “earthshare”? Which is a better measure of the amount of land needed to support us? Explain your reasoning. 2. Consult with your school’s administration to ensure their support for your project. 3. Students should visit their local library or perhaps the city archives or the city planning office to locate any original maps of the area. This will provide you with additional insight as to how the land upon which your school is situated was originally used and/or managed. 4. Before you plan your landscape, consider what is already present in and around your intended area. Consider the following: (a) Water - are there any natural sources of water in the area? Do you want to create a source of water such as a small pond? (b) Food - are there existing plants, shrubs or trees that provide food (e.g. blueberries, apples)? Do you want to plant edible types of vegetation in your landscape? (c) Shelter - which areas in your landscape are shady? Sunny? Will your landscape, once it is established, provide sunny or shady areas? Are there areas where small animals may seek shelter for the winter? (d) Space - does your intended area provide spaces for students to sit and relax? How much space will you have to work with? 5. You should prepare enough garden implements (shovels, gloves, tools, etc) for your classroom. There will likely be insufficient tools available within the school, therefore, ask your students if they have any extra garden tools at home. You can also petition local nurseries, garden clubs or garden centres for tools. Garage sales or flea markets and second-hand shops may also be useful to you. 6. To keep track of garden tools, create a chart which will identify the group, the time they borrowed the tools and the time the tools were returned. Each group will be responsible for replacing missing garden tools. Groups should also keep a log of tools they borrow. Group Members

Garden Tools Borrowed

Time Borrowed

Time Returned

Teacher Approval

E.g. Group 1

Shovel, rake, bucket

10:10 am

11:10 am

(teacher’s signature)

7. With your class, consult plant guides for information on types of vegetation native to your ecozone, and specifically, to your area. You may also investigate via the internet Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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or by asking employees of local garden centres or members of garden clubs in your area. 8. Each group should prepare a scaled drawing of their planting area and the seeds/plants they intend to sow. This map should possess the following: a scale, a legend, a north arrow, a title and the names of each group member. This map can be drawn freehand or with the aid of a graphics program. Before their plans are approved, the group must present their ideas to the teacher. 9. All groups should schedule time before, during or after class where they are responsible for the maintenance of their area of the green space. 10. Decide, as a class how funds will be raised and the class budget for this project. Project outcomes are directly dependent on available funding. 11. Groups are given soil, seeds, water, garden tools and small pots. Each group is to plant and care for their own seedlings which will be used to create the green space in the spring. 12. To allow for optimal water drainage, loosen the soil in your garden once a week.

Discussion and Questions 1. As a class, discuss possible methods to reduce a person’s ecological footprint. Make sure that these methods are realistic. What is involved on a personal basis? What would be the government’s role in pursuing this goal? Is it likely that our government will be willing to devote a large portion of its budget toward achieving a “greener” society? 2. Investigate European cities that have already begun to reduce their impact on the environment while maintaining a high standard of living. What are some methods they have used? Can these methods be used in Canada as well? 3. What are the advantages to having a “green” school? In your answer, consider composting programs, rainwater collection programs, recycling programs as well as the beautification of the school ground. 4. How would you help reduce costs of school ground greening? 5. In which ways do you think your school green space helps to reduce your ecological footprint? Explain your answers. 6. How has urban growth affected the land, soil, plant life and natural waterways around the school? 7. What are the long-term benefits of creating a communal green space on the school grounds?

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Student Evaluation Completion of worksheets Observation Final results (success of planting operation, overall appearance, etc) Peer and self-evaluation

Enrichment and Extension Activities Organize a drive to collect hazardous material (paint cans, oil bottles, etc) and bring them to a cleanup station. Present findings to local MPP or local government. Poll the community to assess local interest in ongoing greening of school ground or woodlots, etc. Research and plant native grasses to replace the regular lawn around the school. Present proposed plans or established practices for your ecological school ground during a curriculum night. Organize fundraisers in the school community and in the local area to draw attention to your project and to increase funding.

Educator Notes Please note that a greening project of this scale requires a high level of commitment from the teacher, her or his colleagues, students, the principal and often the school board. Review the concept “Ecological Footprint” with your class. The ecological footprint is the area of biologically productive land and water area needed to supply the resources and assimilate the wastes generated by that population, using the prevailing technology. Have your students visit the following site to calculate their ecological footprint: http: //www.mec.ca/Apps/ecoCalc/ecoCalc.jsp?FOLDER%3C%3Efolder id=619029 Ecological school grounds are outdoor learning environments that teach ecological principles through the design of the school ground landscape. These landscapes can significantly enhance the look of your school ground and may also be used as a teaching tool. What you can do with your class: Create an “Edible Garden”, complete with edible flowers, herbs, berries, fruit or vegetables. Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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Create a landscape designed to attract certain types of native wildlife to the school (e.g. birds, butterflies, insects). Design a garden that is low maintenance and requires little, to no irrigation. Create a rock garden. Cutting costs is one of the most important aspects to the creation and maintenance of your landscape. Fertilization: Composting involves creating conditions to encourage the natural decomposition of plant matter in order to produce a mulch or a soil with a higher nutrient content. Composting will play an important part in the natural fertilization and the continued growth of your landscape. There are many different types of compost bins you can make or purchase. The key is to select the right type of composter for your needs. Investigate the different types of composters you require to achieve your set goals. Compost bins should be located out of the way of your work area (due to the odours created by decomposition). This spot should be easily reachable and should be large enough to allow students to work around it. A good compost bin should have a sufficient supply of air, water and composting material (e.g. grass clippings, dried twigs or plants, kitchen vegetable scraps, weeds). Note: do NOT place any milk products, meat scraps or bones into the composter; doing so will attract animals which may dig through the compost. Also, try to eliminate all diseased plant matter, for the disease may contaminate the compost soil. Research the types of materials that should and should not be composted BEFORE you begin this project. Irrigation: Your landscape, if composed entirely or almost entirely of native vegetation, should not require much irrigation. To collect water naturally, try purchasing or building a rain barrel with your class to save as much rainwater as possible. Wildlife: Attracting specific types of insects to your landscape will create a healthier garden, as the insects will help pollinate the plants. You may also want to build environmentally friendly birdfeeders to attract local species of birds to your landscape. A great way to collect material for composting is to place bins in the school cafeteria, in individual classrooms, or in designated areas to collect vegetable and fruit scraps. Be sure that all students are aware of the location of these bins and enforce the rule that ONLY plant matter can be disposed of in these bins. Inspect the soil quality and texture in your selected site. Soils differ greatly from area to area in their mineral content, pH and permeability to water, therefore, some soils may not be suitable for certain types of plants. You can purchase a soil testing kit to test for the presence of nitrogen, phosphorus, potassium in the soil, as well as the pH level. You may have to prepare the soil before planting by adding mulch, sand, loam, or extra earth to change the level of minerals present in the soil. Have students research the characteristics and ecological needs of species that are native to your ecozone. The information can be organized onto a chart during class. Students select the best possible types of vegetation for the landscape. Remember to consider costs in purchasing seeds/seedlings. Below is an example of a chart you can use to organize your plants Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

Give Me Back My School Name of Plant (common and Latin)

Type (grass / plant / shrub / tree)

e.g. Goldenrod

Plant

7

Perennial Type / of Soil Annual / Biennial

Sunlight

Bloom Period

Irrigation Height needs (cm)

Perennial

Full sun to partshade

Fall

Occasional 24 to 36 irrigacm tion

Welldrained

Buying young plants for your garden can be quite costly. Organizing a fundraiser to collect funds to start your project is one way to defray the cost of the plants. Another way to help stay within your budget is to have the students plant seeds during the late winter and grow the seedlings indoors before transplanting them outdoors in the Spring. This may help promote ownership among all students working on the project. One way to save money in the long run is to select plants that are perennial or biennial. Most flowers are in bloom during the summer months. If you want to feature blooming flowers in your landscape, consider selecting plants that bloom in early spring or during the fall months (Goldenrod, native sunflowers, native grasses, Aster or Helenium). Flowers or shrubs which continue to bloom in the fall months tend to be more resilient to drought and temperature change. Plants that seed themselves may end up producing a rather large number of seeds. Cosmos are a great example. Be sure that when weeding, you thin out the plants which have spread a bit too far into your landscape. If you choose to begin growing seedlings inside the school (or in a school greenhouse, if you are lucky enough to have one), try to start seedlings in a mixture of store-bought soil and soil from the area in which you intend to plant. The soil from the school ground already has microorganisms and nutrients native to the area which will help increase the biotic factor of the potting soil while adding to its fertility. There are many plants to choose from when creating a green space on the school property. When selecting plants, try to aim for those which are hardy to temperature, differing soil and water conditions and insects. You will want to attract as many “good bugs” as possible to your garden. These insects feed mainly on pests which attack your plants. Select plants that attract insects which, in turn, feed on pests in your garden. For example, butterfly milkweed is a beautiful addition to any garden, however, they usually attract aphids, which feed on young shoots and flower buds. “Good bugs” such as Ladybugs and Lacewings Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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habitually feed on aphids. To draw these beneficial insects to your landscape, try planting Dill, Fennel, Dandelion or Yarrow around your more vulnerable plants. With your class, review the elements of designing a landscape which is both functional and attractive. The landscape should be safe, it should provide shade and it should attract insects to pollinate flowers. The garden can be whimsical, inspiring and can also reflect the culture of the area around the school and of the students as well. Incorporate ecological principles in your landscape (i.e. integrating people, land, plants, animals, buildings and communities). Have your students interview the maintenance staff in the school to get their advice on the care and maintenance of the school grounds (e.g. irrigation, weeding, planting, pest removal). Be sure not to plant toxic vegetation such as Atropa Belladonna or Deadly Nightshade (the berries can be poisonous) and be on the lookout for invasive species such as purple loosestrife or poison ivy. When removing such plants, be sure to wear gloves and protect bare skin at all times. Try to remove invasive species before they begin to seed. Wash all garden tools immediately after use. The more people working on this project, the better! Search for volunteers from within the school and from the local community. Ask for help from all students, staff members, parents, members of garden clubs, local volunteer organizations or members of environmental groups. It is recommended that this investigation be started in the fall, as early as possible. SAFETY NOTE: Consult your school board’s policy regarding safety precautions for outdoor excursions and plan your trip accordingly. Be aware of any students with allergies to insect bites and plants and ensure they carry the required medications. Students should wash their hands after handling soil, plants and equipment. Encourage students to wear sunscreen and appropriate clothing (e.g. hat, long-sleeved shirt) to minimize the damaging effects of sun exposure.

References Wackernagel, Matheis and Rees, William. Our Ecological Footprint: Reducing Human Impact on the Earth. Philadelphia: New Society Publishers. 1996. For information on the ecological footprint of the average Canadian, visit: http:// www.rbg.ca/cbcn/en/information/footprints/dglectures/footprint1.html For information on how to calculate a personal ecological footprint, visit: http://www. mec.ca/Apps/ecoCalc/ecoCalc.jsp?FOLDER%3C%3Efolder id=619029 For information on Toronto’s ecological footprint, visit: http://www.city.toronto.on. ca/eia/footprint/index.htm For the article “An Explanation of Ecological Footprints”, visit: http://www.rbg.ca/ cbcn/en/information/footprints/dglectures/footprint1.html Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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For information on creating ecological schools, visit: http://www.ecoschools.com/ For excellent information on starting and maintaining a school garden, and on how to collect funds, visit: http://www3.sympatico.ca/gary.spears/Schoolgardens1.HTML For information on types of composters and methods to conserve rainwater, visit: http://www.composters.com/main.shtml For information on “Composting for Kids”, visit: http://aggie-horticulture.tamu.edu/ sustainable/slidesets/kidscompost/cover.html For information on how to create a butterfly garden, visit: http://www.ext.colostate. edu/pubs/insect/05504.html (Note, this is an American web site, featuring plant species common to the ecozone encompassing Colorado, USA. Select the appropriate plant species based on your ecozone. Try to use plants native to your area). For information and links to sites about butterfly gardens, visit: http://www.thebutterflysite. com/gardening.shtml For information on “good bugs”, visit: http://www.farmerfred.com/plants that attract benefi.html For information on how to create a wild garden, visit: http://www.wildaboutgardening. org/en/get started/section3/ For information about school ground greening and native plants, as well as lists of recommended species and information about funding opportunities, visit Evergreen’s web site at www.evergreen.ca, and link to the Learning Grounds home page.

Worksheets Student Worksheet Date: Group Members: In this investigation you will explore how to create a green space for your school which promotes education and reduces the school’s ecological footprint while at the same time, creates a safe and welcoming area for relaxation and recreation. 1. Draw a sketch of your area of the green space. Indicate the area in which you are to work with your group. List the plants you will be using and their intended location. 2. Explain your selection of vegetation. Why did you choose the plants you did and what is your goal for your area of the green space? 3. Use this chart to record your daily/weekly work in your area of the green space.

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Give Me Back My School Task

Day 1

10 Day 2

Day 3

Day 4

Day 5

Time worked (from..to) Weeding Irrigation Thinning Mulching Fertilization Transplanting 4. Use the following chart to indicate any problems you encounter in your area of the green space. Date

Plant Species

Location

Problem

e.g. June 15

e.g. wild roses

e.g. Left quadrat

e.g.Large Aphid infestation

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Recommendation Action Taken and Date e.g. Spray with insecticidal soap

e.g. Roses sprayed on June 16

Teacher’s Corner Lesson Plans Helping Teachers and Students Make the Most of their Outdoor Classroom www.evergreen.ca Bringing Nature to our Cities

School Resource Use Inventory Garth Chalmers and Sandra McEwan Grade level: Grade 11 and 12. Provincial curriculum links: Ontario. Subject: Geography. Keywords: Resource, renewable, non-renewable, alternative resource, conservation, consumption, alternative technology.

Description In this activity, students will examine the use of various resources by the school. Students will collect data regarding paper consumption, energy use, water use, material consumption and other resource use in order to investigate how much waste is created by the school. Students need to make observations at various times during the school day in order to attain a complete inventory of resource use. Furthermore, students will need to research some aspects of resource consumption to help make recommendations for school improvement.

Curriculum Framework This lesson is linked directly to the learning expectations described in the Ontario Curriculum for Grade 11 Physical Geography (CGF 3M) and Grade 12 Environment and Resource Management (CGR 4M). The learning expectations are also broadly applicable to other Canadian curricula.

A: Ontario Curriculum Grade 11 (CGF 3M) Strand: Human-Environment Interaction Specific Lesson Goals: evaluate the impact of human life on natural systems; Strand: Global Connections Specific Lesson Goals: analyze local, regional and global issues related to physical geography;

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Strand: Understanding and Managing Change Specific Lesson Goals: explain how human uses of the earth, including uses involving technology, cause change in natural systems; analyze local, regional issues related to physical geography.; Strand: Methods of Geographic Inquiry Specific Lesson Goals: use geographic skills, and methods, such as conducting field research to gather, analyze and synthesize ideas and information; use a variety of methods and technologies to communicate the results of geographic inquiry and analysis effectively.

B: Ontario Curriculum Grade 12 (CGR 4M) Strand: Human-Environment Interaction Specific Lesson Goals: demonstrate an understanding that humans are an integral part of an ecological system and that human activity has short and long term effects on the natural environment; analyze and evaluate interrelationships among the environment, the economy and society; analyze patterns of resource availability and use; Strand: Global Connections Specific Lesson Goals: analyze environment and resource management issues on a global scale; Strand: Understanding and Managing Change Specific Lesson Goals: evaluate a variety of ways to resolve environment and resource management concerns at local, regional, or global scales; Strand: Methods of Geographic Inquiry Specific Lesson Goals: use geographic methods, tools, and technologies to gather, analyze, synthesize, information on environment and resource management issues and concerns; Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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use a variety of methods and technologies to communicate the results of geographic inquiry in written, display and oral forms; produce a structured plan and conduct an independent inquiry that applies geographic knowledge, skills, methods, and technologies to a selected sustainability and resource management issue.

Preparation Preparation time: Approximately 20 minutes to prepare student worksheets, read educator notes (provided) and review references/resources (as noted below). Length of lesson: This activity can be completed in 75 to 150 minutes, or could be lengthened in order to get a more complete picture of the school’s resource use. Resources required: Activity worksheets

Procedure 1. Use Activity Sheet 1 to make a preliminary inventory of indoor and outdoor resources consumed at their school. 2. For the next five to ten periods, at the start of each period (or at some other specified time during the day), students will walk through the school and school grounds and record examples of resource wasting on Activity Sheet 2. 3. Research methods for reducing resource consumption and use this research to assess and evaluate how well the school is using current technology. Ask students to provide ideas for improved conservation of resources. The research will be recorded on Activity Sheet 3. 4. Students should be reminded to walk around the outside of the school in order to assess resource use outside, including: (a) effective use of shade trees and windbreaks to moderate indoor temperatures in summer and winter; (b) gasoline consumption by lawn mowers and other maintenance vehicles; (c) water use for turf grass irrigation; (d) pesticide and fertilizer application; (e) outdoor lighting, use of motion sensors etc. (f) presence or absence of composting systems (g) modes of travel to and from school (for students, staff and visitors). 5. Develop a series of recommendations for the school that would result in reduced or more efficient resource consumption.

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Discussion and Questions Research teams may share their ideas and recommendations in a whole class discussion at the end of the activity.

Student Evaluation Completion of worksheets Observation Peer and self-evaluation

Enrichment and Extension Activities In groups, or as a full class, research and develop a resource-use action plan, including an assessment of current resource use and wastage, as well as key recommendations for improvement. If you divide the class into groups, each group could be given a different focus (e.g.: energy use; school ground greening; transportation; paper use etc.). If possible, arrange to present the action plans to the school administrators.

Educator Notes Schools, like most businesses and organizations, must rely on a variety of resources in order to operate. Electricity, paper, water and numerous other natural resources are consumed daily at a school. In this activity, students will investigate resource consumption patterns at their school and develop a plan for improving or reducing that consumption. SAFETY NOTE: Consult your school board’s policy regarding safety precautions for outdoor excursions and plan your trip accordingly. Be aware of any students with allergies to insect bites and plants and ensure they carry the required medications. Students should wash their hands after handling soil, plants and equipment. Encourage students to wear sunscreen and appropriate clothing (e.g. hat, long-sleeved shirt) to minimize the damaging effects of sun exposure.

References For information on high efficiency windows, visit: http://www.bagelhole.org/article. php/Housing/338/ For information on reducing resource use in schools, visit: http://www.powerhousemuseum. com/ecotude/action article3.asp For information on renewable energy, visit: http://solstice.crest.org/ For a report about low flow toilets, visit: http://www.terrylove.com/crtoilet.htm Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

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Information about reducing household resource use, visit: http://www.thisoldhouse. com/toh/knowhow/bath/article/0,16417,213021,00.html For information on high efficiency lighting, visit: http://www.lrc.rpi.edu/researchtopics/ reducingBarriers/index.asp For information on energy conservation, visit: http://www.energystar.gov/ia/new homes/ features/HighELighting1-17-01.pdf

Worksheets Student Worksheet Date: Group Members: In this activity, you will examine various indoor and outdoor resource consumption patterns at your school and make recommendations for improving or reducing their consumption. 1: Inventory of Resource Consumption Resource Description of Usage Pattern at Outset 1.

2.

3.

4.

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School Resource Use Inventory

Resource

2: Resource Waste Description and Location of Waste

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School Resource Use Inventory

1.

7

3: Alternative Resources and Methods for Reducing Consumption Alternative Description, Pros and Cons Description: Pros: Cons: Source:

2.

Description: Pros: Cons: Source:

1.

4: Recommendations for Improved Resource Consumption Recommendation Proposed process of implementation Implementation Process:

2.

Approximate Cost: Implementation Process:

Approximate Cost: Teacher’s Corner — www.evergreen.ca

Leaf Collection Lesson -- Illinois State Museum

ISM Botany Introduction to Herbaria About the ISM Herbarium Illinois Prairie Plants Illinois Trees Herbarium Database Activities Credits

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ISM System :Leaf Collection Lesson

Creating a Leaf Collection and Classroom Herbarium Objective: Students will be able to identify and categorize leaves they collect from trees outdoors by consulting the Herbarium module's Photo Gallery, the Museum's Forest Module�s tree lists, field guides, and the links to tree identification sites; and be able to discuss how the form of a leaf reflects its adaptation to its environment. Grades: upper elementary to early high school, adjusting sophistication of labeling and identification. Time Required: field trip to collect leaves (playground, home, or field trip); pressing in a press or large book with tissue paper for a week; one class period for reading, sorting examples, online sources; taking turns on the computer making labels; one class period to organize and mount samples after pressing. Museumlink Web site: Forests of Illinois, Present Day, click on each type, then tree list Behind the Scenes, Botany, Collections ISM Herbarium Tree Specimens Other Web sites: Hillview School, Vernon, British Columbia's web site with tree identification section: http:// www.sd22.bc.ca/hillview/treeid.htm Virginia Tech's outreach web site on forestry; tree identification section: http://www.fw.vt.edu/dendro/ Forsite/Idtree.htm Familyeducation.com page on Flower and leaf press made from an old phone book: http:// www.familyeducation.com/article/0,1120,1-9891,00.html Materials: leaves collected on field trip or from neighborhood in plastic bag note paper and pencil old phone book, large dictionary or other leaf press paper towels or napkins in which to press leaves white card stock or construction paper

http://www.museum.state.il.us/ismdepts/botany/herbarium/LeafCollection_Lesson.html

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Leaf Collection Lesson -- Illinois State Museum

5/23/11 3:32 PM

white glue word processor printer or copier labels Procedure: Early Elementary students will: bring in a tree leaf collected from home or the class will collect from trees on the school grounds and talk about the trees (How do we know this is a tree? What are the parts of a tree?)(Teacher will identify leaves to prepare for discussion.) Participate in a teacher-led class discussion and identify of leaves based on their shapes. (Use aWeb site tree list and tree identification sites' illustrations listed in Web sites) Press the leaves in a large book or press. Glue the leaves on a piece of construction paper. Write the name of the tree on each sheet. Exhibit and review the types of trees found nearby that are in their class-room herbarium Middle School to High School students will: read pertinent information about deciduous forest of Illinois on Museumlink Forests of Illinois web site and other links, noting the format of the Herbarium specimen pages. collect leaves from trees on field trip or from neighborhood with permission of the owner (5 each). Note on paper the original location of each leaf, and how the leaves are attached to the branch (alternate or opposite). press leaves for one week at school between the pages of a leaf press made for the project. (Teacher will choose a few leaves for whole class discussion to summarize leaf identification procedure on web sites and use of vocabulary for students.) use the tree and leaf identification web sites and tree list section of Museumlink Forest site to identify their leaves and write down their characteristics. type up the descriptions of the identification on a word processor and print them on label paper mount each leaf onto card stock with dots of white glue (or use 1/4� non-acid framer�s tape) attach the appropriate label to each herbarium page exhibit the leaf collection for others to see keep the collection as a class herbarium. Assessment: Students should check their own and others� work for http://www.museum.state.il.us/ismdepts/botany/herbarium/LeafCollection_Lesson.html

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Leaf Collection Lesson -- Illinois State Museum

5/23/11 3:32 PM

accuracy of terminology and for completeness. A complete herbarium sheet should have name of leaf, name of person who collected it, location of collection, date of collection, and description of leaf and/or plant. Illinois Goals and Standards addressed: � Goal 12: Understand the fundamental concepts, principles, and interconnections of the life, physical, and earth/space sciences. � Standard 12.A: Know and apply concepts that explain how living things function, adapt, and change. � Early Elementary: 12.A.1b: Categorize living organisms using a variety of observable features. � Middle/Junior High: 12.A.3c: Compare and contrast how different forms and structures reflect different functions. Sample Herbarium Label Name of Tree: Sweet Gum Name of Collector: Amy Smith Location collected: 301. S. Main St., Alton,Illinois Date: Sept. 30, 2000 Characteristics of leaf: alternate, simple, star-shaped, toothed (serrate) Herbarium Specimen Number __________ Copyright © 2006 Illinois State Museum

Site Map | ISM Privacy Information | Kids Privacy | Web Accessibility | Webmaster| Illinois DNR

http://www.museum.state.il.us/ismdepts/botany/herbarium/LeafCollection_Lesson.html

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Making Connections

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Lesson Plans How High Is It Anyway?

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Primary Subject Area: Mathematics Grade Level: 9 - 10 Overview: This is an outdoor activity designed to be used after an Algebra or Geometry class has studied trigonometric ratios and angles of elevation/depression. The students will estimate the height of hard-to-measure objects like trees or buildings using a hypsometer and trigonometry.

Approximate Duration: 55 minutes Content Standards: Algebra In problem-solving investigations students demonstrate an understanding of concepts and processes that allow them to analyze, represent, and describe relationships among variable quantities and to apply algebraic methods to real-world situations. Measurement In problem-solving investigations, students demonstrate an understanding of the concepts, processes, and reallife applications of measurement. Geometry In problem-solving investigations, students demonstrate an understanding of geometric concepts and applications involving one-, two-, and three-dimensional geometry, and justify their findings. Patterns, Relations, and Functions In problem-solving investigations, students demonstrate an understanding of patterns, relations, and functions that represent and explain real-world situations.

Benchmarks: A-1-H demonstrating the ability to translate real-world situations (e.g., distance versus time relationships, population growth, growth functions for diseases, growth of minimum wage, auto insurance tables) into algebraic expressions, equations, and inequalities and vice versa; (1,2,4) M-4-H demonstrating the concept of measurement as it applies to real-world experiences. (1,2,3,4,5) G-2-H representing and solving problems using geometric models and the properties of those models (e.g., Pythagorean Theorem or formulas involving radius, diameter, and circumference); (1,2,3) http://mconn.doe.state.la.us/lessonplans.php?task=LP_view&lesson_id=30442&dispPage=11

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P-1-H modeling the concepts of variables, functions, and relations as they occur in the real world and using the appropriate notation and terminology; (1,3,4) P-3-H recognizing behavior of families of elementary functions, such as polynomial, trigonometric, and exponential functions, and, where appropriate, using graphing technologies to represent them; (3,4) P-5-H analyzing real-world relationships that can be modeled by elementary functions. (1,3,4)

Grade-Level Expectations (GLEs): Grade 9

22. Solve problems using indirect measurement (M-4-H) Grade 10

4. Use ratios and proportional reasoning to solve a variety of real-life problems including similar figures and scale drawings (N-6-H) (M-4-H) 8. Model and use trigonometric ratios to solve problems involving right triangles (N-6-H) (M-4-H)

12. Apply the Pythagorean theorem in both abstract and real-life settings (G-2-H) 18. Determine angle measures and side lengths of right and similar triangles using trigonometric ratios and properties of similarity, including congruence (M-4-H) (G-5-H) Interdisciplinary Connections: English/Language Arts : Standard 2 Students write competently for a variety of purposes and audiences. Agriscience/Agribusiness : Plant Systems AgEd/FFA students will understand the concepts and principles of plant science.

Educational Technology Standards: Explain and use advanced terminology, tools, and concepts associated with software applications, telecommunications, and emerging technologies. ( 1, 3 )

Objectives: 1. The learner 2. The learner 3. The learner 4. The learner 5. The learner

will find trigonometric ratios using right triangles. will solve problems using trigonometric ratios. will use trigonometry to solve problems involving angles of elevation or depression. will solve real-world application problems using trigonometry. will use a graphing calculator (TI-83) to solve problems involving trigonometry.

Lesson Materials and Resources: 1. Hypsometer 2. Measure Tape/Wheel 3. Scientific Calculator 4. PowerPoint Warm-Up Trig Applications 5. Teacher Dialog for Sample Problem 6. Find Your Complement Cards 7. Student Handout: How High Is It Anyway? 8. Grading Rubric

http://mconn.doe.state.la.us/lessonplans.php?task=LP_view&lesson_id=30442&dispPage=11

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Technology Tools and Materials: Hardware: Computer Calculator with Trigonometric Functions Software: Microsoft Office PowerPoint Websites: •Bizarre Stuff: Measuring the heights of trees home.houston.rr.com/molerat/tree.htm Other:

Background Information: This activity will be used after the students have studied trigonometric ratios in right triangles. The students must understand angle of elevation/depression. This lesson will reinforce the transfer of right triangle trigonometry to diagrams of real life objects. The students must be able to find complements of angles.

Lesson Procedures: Before the lesson: Using the instruction sheet provided, make a hypsometer for each pair of students. Select a tree and a building at your school for the activity. (In poor weather conditions, objects to be measured can be selected in locations where a covered walkway can be used for sighting the objects.) Lesson: 1. A Warm-up Slide Show is provided. It can be displayed on computer or copied for transparencies or handouts. 2. The teacher will walk through a sample problem with the students on the board or overhead. Students will use a scientific calculator to work the sample problem with the teacher. A sample problem with Teacher dialog is provided in Reproducible Materials section. 3. The students will be paired up for the activity using the "Find Your Complement" cards provided in Reproducible Materials section. 4. Each pair of students is given a hypsometer and tape measure or wheel measure. 5. Each student is given a Student Handout provided in Reproducible Materials section. 6. The class moves to the teacher selected tree and begins the activity. (The procedures are listed in steps on the Student Handout.) Steps: a) Partner measures distance from ground to your eye level: ___________. Now switch and you measure your partner's eye level height. b) Partner measures your distance from the tree. (write in Table A as distance 1) c) Without moving, have your partner report the hypsometer reading. Together find the angle of elevation to the top of the tree. **Remember that the angle of elevation is the complement of the hypsometer reading. (write both in Table A as angle 1) Now switch. You measure your partner's distance from the tree and find the hypsometer reading. Partners must use different distances. d) Step forward or back 10 to 20 paces and repeat step #2 and #3. (write in Table A as distance 2 and angle 2) e) Now, move to the building. Repeat the same procedure as you did with the tree. Measure distance 1 and find angle 1. Move forward or back 10 to 20 paces and repeat to find distance 2 and angle 2. Remember to switch and measure for your partner. 7. The students return to the classroom to complete the diagrams. The students will use the scientific calculator to find the height of the objects (page 2). After heights are determined, the students answer the writing portion of the Student Handout (page 3). 9. Each group returns the hypsometer and tape measure to the specified location. 10. Have a class share answers to discussion questions on Student Handout (page 3). 11. As an out-of class assignment, the students can search the Internet to discover interesting facts about "real" hypsometers. The students can research occupations that use hypsometers as a work tool as present this information to the class as an informal oral presentation.

http://mconn.doe.state.la.us/lessonplans.php?task=LP_view&lesson_id=30442&dispPage=11

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Assessment Procedures: The activity will be graded in three parts. 1. The accuracy of the diagrams, trig set-ups, and heights of the objects. 2. A rubric to assess the writing questions on page 3 of the student handout. 3. A rubric to assess the activities of the cooperative group.

Accommodations/Modifications: Handicapped students could be assisted in the handling of the tools and/or the reading of the measurements. Teacher will follow modifications as identified for 504/Special Education students. ----- written by Patricia Shuffield

Reproducible Materials: Sample Problem Find Your Complement Cards Rubric PowerPoint Warm-Up Trig Applications Student Handout Making a Hypsometer

Explorations and Extensions: Digitial Camera to Apply Ratio/Proportions to Determine Heights. Internet/Library Research on the Hypsometer Speaker from the Forestry Service Buildings of Historical Interest could be Measured during a Field Trip

Lesson Development Resources: Collins, William, et al. Algebra 1. New York: Glencoe, 1998. Drapeau, S. (n.d.). retrieved Apr 20, 2004, from http://www.cirpa-acpri.ca/english/2003conference. Brack, PhD, C. (1999). Techniques for measuring height of a standing tree. retrieved Apr 20, 2004, from http://sres.anu.edu.au/associated/mensuration/height.htm. Lofgren, K. (). Faustmann and the invention of das spiegel-hypsometer. 6:3. Retrieved Apr 20, 2004, from http://www.urbanfischer.de/journals/jfe/content/2000/e3.pdf

Reflections: The students enjoyed using the hypsometer. None of the students had ever heard of or seen that measuring tool. I made the hypsometers in preparation of the lesson. Next year, I will ask the students to make their own hypsometer. I think they will be even more excited about using a homemade tool.

Contact Information: Patricia Shuffield [email protected] Walker High School Additional Contacts: Jimmie Chandler [email protected] Live Oak High School Alice Didier [email protected] Live Oak High School Group: none http://mconn.doe.state.la.us/lessonplans.php?task=LP_view&lesson_id=30442&dispPage=11

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