OSYM PASSAGES 1 (oklu aç

July 16, 2017 | Author: Sinan Eker | Category: Sea, Mount Everest, Nuclear Power, Herbicide, Pesticide
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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

YDS 2000 (47-49) Some 130 million years ago, a spike-backed dinosaur walked heavily through the wilderness of what came to be Australia, and left its footprints as a gift for the future. They were the world’s best impressions of a dinosaur’s two-ton footfalls. When they were found seven years ago in a remote valley in northern Australia, they provided scientists with the first clear evidence that dinosaurs had lived in Australia. This discovery provided further evidence for the theory that Australia was once joined to a vast supercontinent that included what is now South America, Africa, India and Antarctica. 1.

Yaklaşık 130 milyon yıl önce, diken-sırtlı bir dinozor, Avustralya olacak olan vahşi doğanın içinde yavaş yavaş yürümüş ve ardında gelecek için bir hediye olarak ayak izlerini bırakmıştı. Bunlar bir dinozorun iki tonluk adımlarının dünyadaki en iyi izleriydi. Yedi yıl önce Kuzey Avustralya'da uzak bir vadide bulunduklarında, bilim adamlarına dinozorların Avustralya'da yaşamış olduğunun ilk açık kanıtını sağladılar. Bu keşif aynı zamanda Avustralya'nın şimdi Güney Amerika, Afrika, Hindistan ve Antarktika olan şeyi de / Antarktika'yı da ihtiva eden geniş bir süper kıtaya zamanında bitişik olduğuna ek kanıt sağladı.

It is clear from the passage that, millions of years ago, Australia ----. A) was undoubtedly the only suitable place in the world for the survival of dinosaurs B) was almost certainly not, as it is today, a separate continent C) was, for the first time, inhabited by a large variety of dinosaurs D) was for the most part a wilderness where no living being could survive E) with its geography and climate resembled South America and Africa

2.

The passage makes it clear that the dinosaur footprints discovered in Australia in recent years ----. A) are the same as those also found in South America, Africa, India and Antarctica B) have little attracted many a scientist interested in the distant past of the continent C) could only have been made by dinosaurs weighing a lot more than two tons D) are in surprisingly good condition although millions of years have passed since they were made [İDDİALI, superlative] E) have made scientists revise the most recent theories concerning dinosaurs

3.

One reason why the discovery in Australia of the dinosaur footprints is so important is that, ----. A) previously, no one knew for certain whether this country had ever been inhabited by dinosaurs [İDDİALI, first] B) contrary to the popular view, this continent had always been a vast wilderness C) until this discovery, nothing was known about the early climate of this continent D) presumably, they will provide clues for future geological changes in this continent E) up to this point, no one knew for sure that dinosaurs could weigh two tons

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

YDS 2000 (59-61) Reading on paper is so much a part of our lives that it is hard to imagine anything could ever replace the printed books we are used to. Before printed books came in, books had to be copied by hand; this was obviously a slow process and very expensive. Once Gutenberg had invented an economical way to make movable letters in the 15th century, it became possible to produce reading material quickly, comparatively cheaply and in large quantities. Since then, the printed word has become a permanent part of our everyday lives. So, how could anyone believe that sales of electronic books will equal those of paper books within a decade or so? Still, some people think that they will. 4.

Kâğıttan okumak yaşamlarımızın o kadar büyük bir parçası olmuştur ki, herhangi bir şeyin alışmış olduğumuz basılı kitapların gün olup da yerini alabileceğini hayal etmek (bile) güçtür. Basılı kitaplar ortaya çıkmadan önce, kitaplar elle çoğaltılmak zorundaydı. Bu açıkça belli ki yavaş bir süreçti ve pahalıydı. Gutenberg 15. yüzyılda hareketli harfler yapmanın ekonomik bir yolunu icat ettiğinde, okuma materyallerini hızlı, nispeten ucuz bir şekilde ve bol miktarlarda üretmek mümkün oldu. O zamandan beridir, basılı sözcükler günlük yaşamlarımızın daimi bir parçası haline geldi. Dolayısıyla, nasıl olup da herhangi birisi elektronik kitapların satışlarının on on-beş yıl içinde kâğıt kitapların satışlarına denk olacağına inanabilir ki? Ancak bazı insanlar bunun böyle olacağına inanıyorlar.

The passage puts forward the idea that, even though the printed book continues to be popular, ----. A) it will soon be completely replaced by the electronic book B) the electronic book may well be on its way in [ZITLIK] C) it is no longer as popular as it used to be D) fewer books are being sold than formerly E) compared with the electronic book, it is very expensive

5.

In this passage, the author suggests that, in spite of technological advances, some people ----. A) are dissatisfied at the rising prices of printed books B) still regard Gutenberg as the leading figure in book technology C) will be reluctant to give up the printed book and turn to the electronic one [SO THAT] D) find it difficult to buy the kind of book they are looking for E) realise that books published in our time are not as well-made as those in the past

6.

It is clear from the passage that Gutenberg’s invention of the printing press ----. A) was the only major technological advance in the 15th century B) did not have any noticeable effect upon the prices of books C) did not put an end to the practice of copying books by hand D) failed to spread the love of reading among ordinary people E) increased the speed at which books could be produced [SEBEP-SONUÇ] 2

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Yeni Gine dünyanın en tuhaf yaratıklarının bir kısmına ev sahipliği yapmaktadır. Örneğin, ağaçlarda yaşayan özel bir kanguru türü vardır. Aynı zamanda beş metre uzunluğunda kertenkeleler ve servis tabağı büyüklüğünde kelebekler de mevcuttur. Yeni Gine Teksas Eyaletinden pek de büyük olmayan bir adadır, ancak, örneğin kuzey Amerika’nın tamamında bulunabilecek kadar çok kuş türüne sahiptir. Bu kısmen adanın büyük oranda dünyanın geri kalanından izole olması gerçeği yüzündendir. Ama aynı zamanda tropik yağmur ormanlarından tutun da buzullara kadar değişen inanılmaz çeşitlilikte ekolojik özelliklere sahip olması gerçeğinden de kaynaklanır.

YDS 2001 (41-43) New Guinea is home to some of the world’s strangest creatures. For instance, there is a special species of kangaroo that lives in trees. There are also lizards that are five metres long, and butterflies that are as big as dinner plates. New Guinea is an island hardly any larger than the state of Texas, but it has as many bird species as are to be found, for example, in the whole of North America. This is partly due to the fact that it has largely remained isolated from the rest of the world. But it is also due to the fact that it has an incredible variety of ecological features, ranging from tropical rain forests to glaciers. 7.

We learn from the passage that New Guinea ----.

NOT: THE FACT THAT çevirilerinde THE FACT ifadesini yok saymak, yerleşik bir uygulamadır: Son iki cümle şöyle de çevirilebilirdi:

A) has actually fewer bird species than it formerly had B) is in many respects very similar to Texas [PASİF SORGU]

Bu kısmen adanın büyük oranda dünyanın geri kalanından izole olması yüzündendir. Ama aynı zamanda tropik yağmur ormanlarından tutun da buzullara kadar değişen inanılmaz çeşitlilikte ekolojik özelliklere sahip olmasından da kaynaklanır.

C) owes its characteristic physical features to glaciers D) is an island with a remarkable range of climatic features [SIRALI-MADDELİ; SEBEP] E) is gradually increasing its contacts with North America

8.

According to the passage, kangaroos that live in trees ----. A) are very commonly to be seen in rain forests everywhere B) are only on the increase in New Guinea C) are just one example of the odd creatures to be found in New Guinea [İDDİALI, superlative] D) are a threat to the bird population of New Guinea E) are considerably smaller than the average kangaroo

9.

The writer points out that one of the reasons why there are very many different kinds of birds in New Guinea is ----. A) that the climatic conditions of the island are suitable for rain forests B) the fact that many migrate there for the winter from North America C) that the island is a protected environment, and new species are constantly being taken there D) that this island has mostly been cut off from the rest of the world [SEBEP-SONUÇ] E) the fact that there is very little else of interest regarding wildlife

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Lovell Teleskobu dünyanın en eski ve en hassas radyo teleskobudur. Geniş ve karmaşık bir çelik yapı üzerinde çok yüksekte tutulan devasa bir beyaz çanaktan oluşur. Teleskop 10 milyar ışık yılı uzaklıktaki evrenden sinyalleri toplayabilir. Ve bu yüzden gerçekten olağanüstüdür. Ancak, onu taşıyan çelik yapının yaygın ve çok sıradan paslanmaya meyilli olmak gibi bir dezavantajı vardır. Bu şüphesiz düzenli olarak boyanmak zorunda olması demektir. Fakat bunu boyamak sıradan ve basit bir iş değildir. Boya yapan insanlara cankurtaranlık çalışmasını da içeren özel bir eğitim verilir. Boya yaparken adamlar halatlardan (sarkarak) çalışır, zira bu yüksekte çalışmanın en güvenli yolu olarak bulunmuş olan yöntemdir.

YDS 2002 (44-46) The Lovell Telescope is the world's oldest and most sensitive radio telescope. It consists of a giant white dish supported at a great height on a large and complicated structure of steel. The telescope can pick up signals in the universe that are 10 billion light years away. And so it is truly extraordinary. The steel structure that carries it, however, has the usual and very ordinary disadvantage of being liable to rust. This of course means that it has to be painted regularly. Painting this, however, is not an ordinary or a simple task. The men who do the painting are given a special training which includes rescue work. As they do the painting, the men work from ropes as this is the method which has been found to be the safest way of working at a height. 10. It is pointed out in the passage that the Lovell Telescope —. A) only picks up signals effectively when the angle of the dish is in line with them B) can pick up signals that are an immense distance away [İDDİALI, rakam] C) is no longer the world's most sensitive radio telescope [PASİF SORGU, tersi var] D) does not need to be supported at a great height in order to function efficiently E) is old and so less efficient than it used to be

11. It's clear from the passage that the steel structure supporting the Lovell Telescope —. A) should have been given a less complicated design B) turned out to be more expensive than had been estimated C) has to be replaced completely at regular intervals D) presents a serious maintenance problem [SEBEP-SONUÇ; ZORUNLULUK] E) has to be painted at least once a year

12. It is clear from the passage that the work of painting the steel structure of this telescope ---. A) requires special skills and is also comparatively dangerous B) is quite straightforward once the method has been learned C) requires the removal of the dish D) is relatively easy but extremely boring E) can be done by anyone who knows how to paint B, D ve E seçenekleri A seçeneğinin tersini söylüyor

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler In one part of the Nairobi National Park there is a nursery for baby elephants whose mothers have been killed. There are at least two African keepers for each baby elephant, and a strong feeling of love soon develops between them. The keepers spend all day out in the park with the young elephants, helping them to learn which foods are best to eat and to become confident among the sounds and smells of nature just as their natural mothers would have done. Each evening they return to the nursery. And, after a feed of milk, the young elephants settle down beside their favourite keepers and presently fall asleep.

YDS 2002 (50-52) In one part of the Nairobi National Park there is a nursery for baby elephants whose mothers have been killed. There are at least two African keepers for each baby elephant, and a strong feeling of love soon develops between them. The keepers spend all day out in the park with the young elephants, helping them to learn which foods are best to eat and to become confident among the sounds and smells of nature just as their natural mothers would have done. Each evening they return to the nursery. And, after a feed of milk, the young elephants settle down beside their favourite keepers and presently fall asleep.

PS: “,HELPING…” için lütfen YAPI ve KULLANIM notuna bakınız.

13. From the passage, it is quite obvious that the keepers described —.

Nairobi Milli parkının bir bölümünde anneleri öldürülmüş olan filler için bir bakımevi var. Her yavru fil için en az iki Afrikalı bakıcı mevcut ve aralarında kısa zamanda güçlü bir sevgi hissi gelişiyor. Bakıcılar bütün günlerini parkta yavru fillerle geçirmekteler, (ve) onların, tıpkı (yaşasalardı) annenlerinin yapacak olduğu gibi, hangi yiyecekleri yemenin en iyi olduğunu öğrenmelerine ve doğadaki sesler ve kokular arasında kendilerini güvende hissetmelerine yardımcı oluyorlar. Filler her akşam bakımevine dönüyorlar. Ve, sütle beslendikten sonra, yavru/genç filler en beğendikleri bakıcılarının yanına kıvrılıyor/çöküyor ve kısa zamanda uykuya dalıyorlar.

A) are responsible for all the nurseries throughout the Nairobi National Park B) are somewhat indifferent to the needs of the baby elephants C) are over-worked because they have to look after so many baby elephants D) actually know little about elephants and their environment E) have taken over the role of mother elephants for the baby elephants [BENZETME, GİZLİ KOŞUL]

14. We understand from the passage that, in this nursery, baby elephants —. A) are not only fed but also helped to adapt themselves to the natural environment B)

spend a good part of each day exploring the park by themselves

C) are looked after by keepers because the mother elephants have deserted them D) take a very long time to get used to their keepers and trust them E)

are rarely treated as well as they ought to be

15. One can conclude from the details given in the passage that the job the keepers do —. A)

is largely concerned with feeding and physical exercising

B)

is an easy one, but extremely boring

C) requires a period of thorough training in veterinary skills D) requires a deep understanding of the nature and needs of baby elephants E)

cannot compare at all with the way a mother elephant brings up her baby

Çekimli yüklemlerin altını çizersek: 5

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Koba Milli parkı civarındaki şempanzelerin davranışlarını inceleyen bir grup biyolog şaşırtıcı bir keşif yaptı. Nehir yataklarında artakalan küçük su birikintilerinde onların içmesi için müsait/mevcut bol miktarda su vardı, ama bu hayvanlar her zaman elleri veya çubuklar yardımıyla kendi su birikintilerini kazmayı tercih ediyorlardı. Sonuç olarak, içtikleri su kum vasıtasıyla süzülmüştü ve bu yüzden hareket etmeyen bir suda normalde bulunabilecek hastalık taşıyan maddelerin hiç birini taşımıyordu. Gerçekten de, şempanzeler temiz su içiyorlardı.

YDS 2002 (59-61) A group of biologists studying the habits of chimpanzees, around the Koba National Park, made a surprising discovery. There was plenty of water available for them in the pools left in river beds, but these animals always liked to dig their own pools by hand or with the help of sticks. As a result the water they drank had been filtered through the sand and so contained none of the disease-carrying substances normally to be found in water that is not moving. In fact, they were drinking clear water. 16. As it is pointed out in the passage, water —. A)

is responsible for more diseases than most people think

B)

must always be filtered through sand to make it drinkable

C)

is hard to find at certain times of the year

D)

that isn't moving is likely to contain harmful substances [RC]

E)

is of no importance to chimpanzees

17. It is clear from the passage that there was plenty of water readily available for the chimpanzees to drink —. A)

in the small pools formed in river beds [RC]

B)

in all areas of the Koba National Park

C)

but they preferred river water as it was always moving and so clean

D)

but sometimes this water made them ill

E)

though they had to be taught how to dig holes to get it

18. The research team of the passage was surprised to learn that the chimpanzees —. A)

never allowed anyone near their water pools

B)

could dig a hole in any part of the Koba National Park

C)

were very careful not to waste water

D)

had found a way of getting clean water [DUYGU]

E)

dug holes to get water if there was none left in the rivers

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Uzay kampları hızla genişleyen uzay keşfine ve insan doğasının böylesine derinden kökleşmiş bir özelliği olan bilinmeyenin büyüsüne kapılmaya bir karşılık/bir yanıttır. Çocukları uzay hakkında eğitmek için tasarlanmış olan uzay kampı projesinin doğuşu 1982 yılına uzanır. NASAnın desteği ile, kamplar eğlenceli bir atmosferde son uzay teknolojisi ve bilimi hakkında genç insanları eğitmeyi hedeflemektedir. Bunlar Amerika’nın en revaçta eğitim merkezleridir. Aya ilk insanlı uçuşu gerçekleştiren Satürn V roketinin babası olarak meşhur bilim adamı olan Dr. Werner von Braun uzay kampları fikrini ortaya atan ilk kişi idi.

YDS 2003 (58-60) Space camps are a response to the rapidly expanding discovery of space and to the fascination with the unknown which is such a deeply ingrained aspect of human nature. The birth of the space camp project, designed to educate young people about space, goes back to the year 1982. With the support of NASA, the camps aim to teach young people about the latest space technology and sciences in an entertaining atmosphere. They are America’s most popular educational centres. Dr Werner von Braun, the scientist celebrated as the father of the Saturn V rocket, which carried the first manned flight to the moon, was the first person to put forward the idea of space camps. 19. We understand from the passage that the main reason why space camps are set up is to ----. A) help improve NASA’s injured public image B) promote the scientific activities undertaken by NASA C) encourage young people to consider making a career for themselves in space sciences D) spread among young people Dr Werner von Braun’s theories concerning space E) give youngsters an opportunity to enjoy learning about space and related scientific activities [AMAÇ]

20. As it is pointed out in the passage ----. A) man’s knowledge of space grew immensely with the landing on the moon B) space camps were set up as soon as space exploration began C) the exploration of space has revealed nearly all the secrets of the universe D) man has always felt attracted to the unfamiliar and the unexplored, such as space [RC] E) the Saturn V rocket has been used for various purposes in the exploration of space

21. As is pointed out in the passage, the person who first suggested the establishment of space camps ----. A) was also responsible for sending the first astronauts to the moon [İDDİALI: FIRST ; [RC]] B) had himself always been fascinated by space C) was actually little known until the first moonlanding D) had been working for NASA since the early 1980s E) had always stressed that the education of young people should have a practical approach

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Güller parfümün en eski kaynağıdırlar. Antik belgeler bu kokunun en güçlü biçimi olan gül yağından bahsederler, ve İlyada adlı eserde Homeros Afrodit’İn Hektor’un ölü vücudunu gül yağı ile nasıl ovaladığını anlatır. Bu metinlerde gül yağı ile kastedilen şey, bizim bugün bu terimle kastettiğimiz şey değildir, çünkü Hipokrat’tan öğreniyoruz ki o gül taç yapraklarının kızgın zeytinyağına karıştırılması ile elde ediliyordu. Güllerden uçucu yağ/esans yağı elde etme/çıkarma metodu çok sonrasına kadar keşfedilmeyecekti. Uçucu yağların keşfine dair en hoş hikaye, hava bu güzel kokuyla dolsun diye, sarayının geniş bahçelerindeki kanallara damıtılmış gül yağı döktürdüğü söylenen Şah Cihangir’e (1569-1627) dairdir.

YDS 2003 (61-63) Roses are the oldest source of perfume. Ancient documents mention rose oil, which is the strongest form of this scent, and in The Iliad Homer relates how Aphrodite rubbed Hector’s dead body with rose oil. What was meant by rose oil in these texts was not what we mean by this term today, since we learn from Hippocrates that it was obtained by stirring rose petals into hot olive oil. The method of extracting essential oil of roses was not discovered until much later. The most delightful story told of the discovery of the essential oil relates to the Emperor Jihangir (1569-1627) who is said to have had distilled rose water poured into channels in the extensive garden of his palace so that the air was filled with this beautiful scent. 22. We learn from the passage that rose oil ----. A) as we know it today is the same as that mentioned in early texts [PASİF SORGU] B) was, according to Hippocrates, made by mixing rose petals into hot olive oil [NASIL] C) cannot be extracted with the use of olive oil D) is now unimportant in the perfume industry E) only became popular in the time of the Emperor Jihangir

23. It’s clear from the passage that the Emperor Jihangir ----. A) followed the method of Hippocrates in the making of rose oil B) helped to develop the process of distilling rose water C) extended his garden so that more roses could be grown D) learned about rose oil from his readings of Homer E) liked the luxury of filling his garden with rose scent [AMAÇ cümlesi, RC]

24. It is clear from the passage that the use of rose oil ----. A) began with the Emperor Jihangir B) was first introduced by Aphrodite C) was originally reserved for the dead D) goes back to mythological times and stories of gods and goddesses E) was restricted to the wealthy and the powerful

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Rönesans esnasında matbaanın icadı, kağıt üretiminin geliştirilmiş yöntemleri ile birlikte, bilginin hızlı yayılmasını mümkün kıldı. 1476 yılında, Londra'nın bir mahallesi olan Westminster'ta William Caxton İngiltere'nin ilk matbaasını kurdu. 1640 yılı itibariyle, bu matbaa ve diğerleri 26000den farklı eser ve edisyon basmışlardı. Matbaa ve artmış kitaplara erişim sayesinde, okuryazarlık arttı. Kaba hesaba göre 1530 itibariyle İngiltere nüfusunun yarısından fazlası okur yazardı.

YDS 2004 (68-60) The invention of the printing press during the Renaissance, together with improved methods of manufacturing paper, made possible the rapid spread of knowledge. In 1476, William Caxton set up England's first printing press at Westminster, a part of London. By 1640, that press and others had printed more than 26,000 different works and editions. With the printing press and the increased availability of books, literacy increased. It is estimated that by 1530 more than half the population of England was literate.

By 1640, that press and others had printed more than 26,000 different works and editions: 1640 yılına gelindiğinde, bu matbaa ve diğerleri 26000den farklı eser ve edisyon (zaten) basmışlardı.

28. We understand from the passage that paper production methods —.

A) had, prior to the introduction of the printing press, been relatively poor [ARA CÜMLE]

B) had, for many years, been a serious concern for Caxton C) improved rapidly around the year 1640 D) contributed to the reduction in the printing costs of books E) in Renaissance England were far ahead of those in other countries

29. It is pointed out in the passage that, during the Renaissance, more and more people —. A) began to settle in London, particularly in the neighbourhood of Westminster B) were setting up printing presses C) began to collect the early editions of the books printed by Caxton D) realized the need to improve methods of paper production E) began to read and write as more books were printed and easy to obtain [SEBEP-SONUÇ]

30. It is clear from the passage that from the time of Caxton to the mid-17th century —. A) there was no progress whatsoever in the techniques of printing B) most books were only popular for a few months C) a remarkable variety of books became available in England [İDDİALI rakam, tarih, karşılaştırma] D) England's population nearly doubled E) the number of literate people remained the same

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Yiyecek yetiştirmek toprağa çok pahalıya mal olmaktadır. İlk olarak, yiyecek yetiştirmek için tarla açarız, ki bu da her zaman yerel ekosistem ve yaban hayatında kayıplara yol açar. Daha sonra bu arazide bitki yetiştirir veya hayvan otlatırız. Her ekin kendinden alındığında, toprak besin maddelerini yitirir, dolayısıyla gübre tatbik edilir. Bazı gübreler taşar/akıp gider ve akarsuları kirletir. Bir kısım sürülmüş toprak da süzülüp gider, bu ise akarsuları bulanıklaştırır ve su bitki ve hayvanlarının büyümesini engeller. Ayrık otu ve zararlılara karşı ekinleri korumak için ot ilacı ve zararlı ilacı tatbik ederiz. Bu kimyasal maddeler de suyu ve, rüzgar her nereye taşırsa, oradaki havayı kirletir. Çoğu ot ilacı ve zararlı ilacı sadece ayrık otunu ve zararlıları öldürmekle kalmaz, aynı zamanda o bitki ve böcekleri yiyen yerel böcekleri ve hayvanları da öldürür.

YDS 2004 (55-57) Producing food costs the earth dearly. First of all, to grow food, we clear land, which always incurs losses of native ecosystems and wildlife. Then we plant crops or graze animals on the land. The soil loses nutrients as each crop is taken from it, so fertilizer is applied. Some fertilizer runs off, polluting the waterways. Some plowed soil runs off, which clouds the waterways and interferes with the growth of aquatic plants and animals. To protect crops against weeds and pests, we apply herbicides and pesticides. These chemicals also pollute the water and, wherever the wind carries them, the air. Most herbicides and pesticides kill not only weeds and pests, but also native insects, and animals that eat those plants and insects. 31. The main point made in the passage is that ----. A) we damage land in various ways in our efforts to grow crops for food [MADDELI, SIRALI ANLATI] B) it is possible to grow plenty of food without using any fertilizers C) the pollution caused by herbicides and pesticides can easily be overcome D) aquatic plants and animals are the ones that suffer most from the use of chemicals E) ecosystems worldwide are being seriously threatened with extinction

32. The author points out in the passage that the chemicals we use to grow food ----. A) do not as a general rule pollute either the water or the air B) ultimately cause serious soil loss C) are the same type of chemicals as herbicides and pesticides D) also support the wildlife in the region E) are both beneficial and harmful [ALSO]

33. It is pointed out in the passage that fertilizers are used —. A) only when the crops are overgrown by weeds B) since they help to restore ecosystems C) because they have almost no ill effect upon the environment D) to replace the nutrients that crops have taken out of the soil [AMAÇ, SEBEP] E) to protect crops from pests

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Dar tanımıyla, "fitness=zindelik" vücudun fiziksel aktiviteler yapmasına imkan veren özellikleri kastetmektedir. Bu özellikler eklemlerin esnekliğini, kalp kası da dahil olmak üzere kasların güç ve dayanıklılığı, ve sağlıklı bir vücut kompozisyonunu içerir. "Fitness"ın daha geniş bir tanımı ise, ani bir sıkıntıyla başa çıkabilecek yeter miktarda depo edilmiş enerji ile rutin fiziksel talepleri yerine getirebilme kabiliyetidir. Bu tanım “fitness”ın günlük yaşam ile nasıl bağlantılı olduğunu gösteriyor. Formda olmayan bir insana zor gelebilecek ağır bavulları taşımak, sıkışık bir pencereyi açmak veya dört kat merdiven tırmanmak gibi sıradan işler zinde bir birey için kolaydır. Bir diğer tanım ise vücudun baskıya, yani hem fiziksel hem de manevi baskılara dayanabilme gücüdür. Bu tanımlar birbirlerini yalanlamazlar; üçü de vücudun aynı mükemmel durumunu tasvir eder.

YDS 2004 (61-63) Narrowly defined, fitness refers to the characteristics that enable the body to perform physical activity. These characteristics include flexibility of the joints, strength and endurance of the muscles, including the heart muscle, and a healthy body composition. A broader definition of fitness is the ability to meet routine physical demands with enough reserve energy to rise to a sudden challenge. This definition shows how fitness relates to everyday life. Ordinary tasks such as carrying heavy suitcases, opening a stuck window, or climbing four flights of stairs, which might strain an unfit person, are easy for a fit person. Still another definition is the body's ability to withstand stress, meaning both physical and psychological stresses. These definitions do not contradict each other; all three describe the same wonderful condition of the body. 34. According to the passage, for people who are not fit, —. A) psychological depression is more or less inevitable B) the carrying out of various apparently ordinary tasks can be rather difficult C) the first thing to consider is a better diet D) recommendations on how to achieve fitness invariably have no appeal E) exercise is tiring and should be avoided

35. In the passage the writer ----. A) points out that everyday life presents many challenges that even the very fit cannot cope with B) attaches more importance to physical flexibility than to physical endurance C) gives three definitions of fitness that do not conflict with each other D) suggests that people routinely perform various tasks to maintain their fitness E) claims that physical fitness can easily be maintained

36. The idea of fitness put forward in the passage ----. A) seems rather outdated and controversial B) is complicated and contradictory C) seems to ignore the ability to withstand stress D) relates more to the sports enthusiasts than to ordinary people E) includes not only physical fitness, but also the psychological one

11

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Edmund Hillary ve taşıyıcı Tenzing Norgay Everest'e ilk çıkma şerefine nail olmuşlardı, ama onların başarısını mümkün kılan John Hunt idi. John Hunt mükemmel bir yönetici idi ve ayrıntıya büyük önem verirdi. Örneğin, her bir iaşe/istihkak kutusunun 29 konserve sardalye içermesi gerektiğini (bile) belirlemişti. Kısa zaman içinde dağcılıkta bir standart (haline gelecek) olan stratejisi bir tırmanıcılar ordusunu, özellikle malzemeleri her defasında biraz daha yukarıdaki kamplara taşıyarak sistematik bir şekilde dağa tırmanan hamalları gerektiriyordu. Hunt insan unsuruna da sistematik önem vermekteydi. "Everest alışılmadık derecede fedakarlık ve sabır ister" diye yazmıştı daha sonraları. "Bir iki kişinin bile yaptığı, gerek moral gerekse fiziksel başarısızlık, onun zorluklarına zorluk katacaktır." "Zirveye ulaşma arzusu" diye eklemişti "hem bireysel hem de kolektif olmalıdır." Şu son nokta önemliydi: bu devasa çabanın hedefi sadece iki dağcıyı zirveye teslim etmekti.

YDS 2005 (55-57) Edmund Hillary and the porter, Tenzing Norgay, got the glory for conquering Everest, but it was John Hunt who made their success possible. John Hunt was an excellent manager and paid great attention to detail. For instance, he specified that each box of rations contained 29 tins of sardines. His strategy, which was soon to become standard in mountaineering, called for an army of climbers, especially porters who would methodically move up the mountain, carrying supplies to ever higher camps. Hunt gave the human element systematic attention as well. Everest demands an “unusual degree of selflessness and patience”, he later wrote. “Failure, whether moral or physical, by even one or two people would add immensely to its difficulties.” “The desire to reach the top”, he added, “must be both individual and collective.” That last point was important: the goal of this huge effort was to deliver just two climbers to the summit. 37. It is clear from the passage that John Hunt ----. A) regarded the conquest of Everest as a team success [ALINTI, BİRİNİN KANAATİ] B) was a good mountaineer, but not a good organizer C) wanted to get to the top of Everest himself D) was involved in several disputes with various team members E) was largely concerned with the training of the porters 38. As we understand from the passage, the success of Edmund Hillary and Tenzing Norgay ----. A)

aroused a great deal of envy among the other team members B) gave rise to a lot of talk about how selfish they both were and how undeserving of the fame they achieved C) added to the fame that Hunt already enjoyed D) depended, to a very large extent, on the preparations planned and carried out by John Hunt [but GİRİŞİ, CLEFT SENTENCE] E) turned mountaineering into a fashionable sport worldwide

39. As it is pointed out in the passage, in the opinion of John Hunt, ----. A) B) C)

D) E)

the use of porters would contribute very little to the success of the expedition the food for the climbers was only of minor importance climbing Everest requires not only physical strength but also certain moral qualities [ALINTI] Hillary and Tenzing did not deserve the fame they had in mountaineering, the height of a mountain is of little importance

12

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler O gün rüzgar hafif ve serindi ve batıdan esiyordu, ve öğle vaktinde beraberinde parlak dalgalar üzerinde ufak bir tekne Sattins Limanına girdi. Hala epey uzaktayken, keskin gözlü bir delikanlı onu fark etti ve, tıpkı adadaki her çocuğun bildiği gibi, ada balıkçı filosunun kırk teknesinin her bir yelkenini tanıdığından, "yabancı bir tekne, yabancı bir tekne!" diye bağırarak cadde aşağı koştu. Issızlığın ortasındaki ada nadiren yabancı bir tekne tarafında ziyaret edilirdi, bu yüzden, tekne gelip vardığında, köyün yarısı onu karşılamak için oraya/limana inmişti. Balıkçılar tekneyi adalarına/eve doğru takip ediyorlar, ve hasbelkader karada bulunanlar kayalık tepeleri inip çıkarak limana doğru koşturuyorlardı.

YDS 2005 (70-72) The wind that day was light and fresh and came from the west, and with it at noon a little boat came quickly, over the bright waves, into Sattins Harbour. While it was still quite a distance away, a sharp-eyed boy spotted it and, since he knew, just as every child on the island knew, every sail of the forty boats of the island fishing fleet, he ran down the street calling out, “A foreign boat, a foreign boat!” The lonely island was rarely visited by a foreign boat, so, by the time the boat had arrived half the village was there to greet it. Fishermen were following it homewards, and those who happened to be inland, were climbing up and down the rocky hills, and hurrying towards the harbour.

40. Clearly, the island described in the passage ----. A)

is extremely fertile and can support a large population

B) is an isolated one, inhabited largely by fishermen and their families [ÖZELLİKLE HAPPEN TO ifadesi adanın genel olarak balıkçılardan oluştuğunu gösteriyor] C) is frequently visited by foreign boats D) has a community that is hostile to foreigners E)

is better suited to farming than to fishing

41. As we understand from the passage, the boy ----. A)

was the only child on the island who could recognize every boat in the fishing fleet

B)

wanted to be the first to see the boat at close quarters

C) was particularly interested in foreign boats D) knew that the boat that was coming in was foreign, because he didn’t recognize the sail [SEBEP-SONUÇ] E)

didn’t see the foreign boat until after it had entered the harbour

42. It is clear from the passage that the arrival of the foreign boat ----. A)

upset the islanders as they didn’t expect it so early

B)

caused a great deal of uneasiness, especially among the fishermen

C) aroused a great deal of excitement among the islanders [İDDİALI – half the village] D) surprised people since these were dangerous waters for sailors E)

aroused the curiosity of the children but was ignored by everyone else

13

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Filler geniş mesafeler boyunca iletişimi sürdürmek zorundalar. Doğu Afrika'nın ormanlarında veya geniş düzlüklerinde birbirlerini işitemeyecekleri bir mesafede olduklarında bile, sık sık aynı doğrultuda ilerledikleri farkedilir. Bazen patikaları üzerinde durup, ayaklarını bir aşağı bir yukarı hareket ettirdikleri görülür, bu da bazı bilim adamlarının fillerin ayaklarında hassas hücreler olduğuna inanmalarına yol açmaktadır. Böylesi hücreler onların, yerdeki düşük frekanstaki titreşimleri, yani 16 km'ya kadar gidebilen ses dalgalarını toplamalarına imkan veriyordur.

YDS 2006 (58 – 60) Elephants have to keep in touch across large distances. Even when they are out of hearing range of one another, in forests or the great plains of East Africa, they are often spotted moving in the same direction. Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down, which leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet. Such cells would enable them to pick up low frequency vibrations from the ground, waves that travel distances of up to 16 km.

NOT: İsimden sonra gelen virgüllü isim grupları aslında indirgenmiş "Relative Clause" lardır. Başlarına WHICH/WHO IS vb bir şey ekleyin.

43. We understand from the passage that, when elephants are a good distance apart, they ----. A)

become nervous and stamp their feet

B)

feel very insecure

Such cells would enable them to pick up low frequency vibrations from the ground, (which are) waves that travel distances of up to 16 km.

C) can still communicate with each other [WHEN]

Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down, WHICH leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet.

D) try many different ways of making contact with each other E)

“BU” veya “BU DURUM” anlamındaki tüm cümleyi kasteden WHICH:

feel exposed to attack

Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down. THIS leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet.

44. As it is clear from the passage, some scientists are of the opinion that ----. A)

the sensitive cells in the feet of elephants serve a wide variety of functions

B)

the power of elephants to communicate is very weak

Sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down, and THIS leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet. THAT sometimes they seem to stand still in their tracks and move their feet up and down leads some scientists to believe they have sensitive cells in their feet.

C) some elephants have adapted themselves well to the specific environmental conditions of East Africa D) it is not natural for elephants to move in the same direction E)

elephants have cells in their feet that are sensitive to vibrations [BİRİNİN KANAATİ – SOME; RC ARA CÜMLE]

45. According to the passage, one scientific assumption about elephants is that ----. A)

the forest lands and plains of East Africa is their ideal environment

B)

they can sense all levels of vibration equally well

C) the up-and-down movement of their feet is a means of communication D) their sense of hearing enables them to pick up sounds up to 16 km away E)

their whole body is covered with extremely sensitive cells

14

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

YDS 2006 (67 – 69)

Bilimi açıklamak genç bir BBC sunucusu olan Charlotte'a doğal geliyor gözüküyor. Charlotte, vahşi yaşama olan tutkusu televizyonda açıkça gözüktüğünden, hızla tam bir star haline geliyor. Ve kişilikçe de aynı şekilde tutkulu birisi. Nihayet onu BBC Vahşi Yaşam birimi için çalıştığı Bristol'de yakaladım. Çay ve bisküvi molasında son projesinden bahsetti, cevaplarını dillendirirken yumuşak konuşuyor ve zaman zamansa seyahatlerinde karşılaştığı hayvanların harikulade davranışlarına şaşırmış gözüküyordu. Açıkça belli ki, hayvanların birbirleriyle iletişim kurduğu son derece farklı yöntemleri araştıran Hayvanlarla Konuşmak adlı son projesinden keyif almaktaydı/memnundu.

Explaining science seems to come naturally to Charlotte, who is a young BBC presenter. She is rapidly becoming quite a star because her passion for wildlife shows vividly on TV. And she’s every bit as enthusiastic in person. I caught up with her in Bristol, where she works for the BBC’s Wildlife Unit. She talked about her latest project over tea and biscuits, speaking softly when reflecting on her answers and at times appearing astonished at the animals’ amazing behaviour which she confronted on her travels. She clearly enjoyed her latest project, Talking With Animals, which investigates the extremely different ways in which animals communicate with each other.

SEEM/APPEAR TO DO ST: -gibi gözükmek, … gözükmek “Explaining science seems to come naturally to Charlotte” için alternative çeviriler:

46. It is clear from the passage that Charlotte, ----. A) who is dedicated to her work, is extremely pleased with her new project

Gözüktüğü kadarıyla, bilimi açıklamak Charlotte'a doğal geliyor.

B)

Belli ki, bilimi açıklamak Charlotte'a doğal geliyor.

whose work with the BBC has only just started, is anxious to please her viewers

C) an established TV presenter, has only recently taken an interest in wildlife D) a newly-recruited BBC presenter, has been reluctant to accept wildlife programmes E)

whose programmes have generally been a success, has nevertheless received some harsh criticism

47. We understand from the passage that Charlotte’s current project ----. A)

involved a great deal of travel in harsh environments

B)

has been turned down by the BBC

C) is concerned with how animals manage to communicate with each other [RC ara cümle] D) does not interest her as much as some of her earlier ones did E)

concerns the variety of wildlife in the Bristol area

48. According to the passage, Charlotte’s rising fame as a TV presenter ----. A)

is not well-deserved though all of her projects have been very demanding

B)

has surprised everyone at the BBC

C) is largely due to the success of her project, Talking With Animals D) has aroused considerable jealousy among her colleagues E)

is due to her genuine love of wildlife as reflected through her programmes [SEBEPSONUÇ]

15

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Britanya kendi sanayi devriminden en önde gelen sanayi gücü olarak (ortaya) çıktı. Kömür madeni, çelik sanayisi ve mucitlerinin hayal gücü ve yetenekleri sayesinde, dünyadaki ilk ve en iyi makine sanayisini gerçekleştirdi. Tüm makine mühendisliği için en hayati hammadde olan çelik, onun sanayi gücünün en temeli idi ve böyle de kabul ve saygı gördü.

YDS 2006 (73-75) Britain emerged from her industrial revolution as the foremost industrial power in the world. Thanks to her coal mines, her steel industry and the vision and skill of her inventors, she developed the first and best machine industry in the world. Steel, the most essential raw material for all machine-engineering, was the very foundation of her industrial power and was recognized and regarded as such.

Steel, (which is) the most essential raw material for all machine-engineering,

49. It is clear from the passage that steel ----. A)

was rarely used in industry except in Britain

B)

had always been of secondary importance, compared with coal

C) was the most vital material for Britain’s industry [iddialı, superlative] D) was not valued, even in Britain, as an industrial material E)

was just one of several raw materials to gain importance during the industrial revolution

50. According to the passage, Britain’s industrial revolution ----. A)

has never been regarded as in any way remarkable

B)

was a slow process in comparison with what happened elsewhere

C) was absolutely confined to machineengineering D) transformed her into the most powerful industrialized country [iddialı – superlative] E)

was accompanied by a great deal of hardship

51. We understand from the passage that Britain became the leader in machine-engineering ----. A)

in spite of stiff competition from other industrialized countries

B) because of her natural resources and talented inventors [SEBEP-SONUÇ: thanks to] C) simply because of her vast reserves of coal D) even though she did not have a wellestablished steel industry E)

even though her natural resources were limited

16

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

YDS 2007 (55-57)

Nükleer enerjinin faydaları oldukça açıktır. İlk olarak, rüzgâr ve güneş enerjisinden farklı olarak, havaya bağlı değildir. İkinci olarak, kısa bir zamanda bol miktarda elektrik ürettiğinden, rüzgâr ve güneş enerjisinin yeterli olamayabileceği tüm şehir ve fabrika enerji ihtiyaçlarını karşılayabilir. Ayrıca, nükleer reaktörler atmosfere hiç karbondioksit salmazlar ve erişilmez yerlere inşa edilebilirler. Son olarak, hidrojenle çalışan yakıt hücreleri teknolojisinin aksine, nükleer enerji teknolojisi zaten geniş çaplı kullanılmaktadır.

The benefits of nuclear power are fairly clear. First, unlike wind and solar power, it does not depend on the weather. Second, since it produces a large amount of electricity in a short time, it can meet all the energy needs of cities and factories, for which wind and solar power may not be sufficient. In addition, nuclear reactors release no carbon dioxide into the atmosphere, and they can be built in inaccessible locations. Lastly, unlike the technology of hydrogen-powered fuel cells, the technology of nuclear power is already widely used.

It can meet all the energy needs of cities and factories, for which wind and solar power may not be sufficient. Parçalayıp iki cümle yapabiliriz:

52. It can be understood from the passage that nuclear power ----. A)

can only be produced under good weather conditions

B)

has more disadvantages than advantages

It can meet all the energy needs of cities and factories. Wind and solar power may not be sufficient for these energy needs.

C) produces electricity very slowly D) has several obvious advantages [MADDELİÇOKLU ANLATI] E)

produces gases harmful to the atmosphere

53. The passage points out that one benefit of nuclear reactors is that they ----. A)

can produce more electricity than will ever be needed

B) can be constructed in areas that are difficult to reach C) must be located in cities D) use new technology E)

pose no danger to their immediate surroundings

54. According to the passage, nuclear power is preferable to hydrogen power because ----. A)

nuclear power works well together with solar and wind power

B)

nuclear reactors are smaller than the plants which produce hydrogen

C) hydrogen power cannot be used for powering cities D) it has already been tried and tested [benzetme, benzetmeme – unlike] E)

hydrogen power is much more dangerous than nuclear power

17

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

YDS 2007 (58-60)

scientists ----.

Scientists have discovered that sunspots, that is, explosions on the sun’s surface, may cause certain species of whales to become trapped in the shallow waters of the North Sea. The radiation from sunspots may interfere with the Earth’s magnetic field, which the whales might be using to help them find their way in the oceans. Scientists think that this interference may confuse the whales so that, during their yearly migration from the Azores, they mistakenly go into the North Sea instead of the deeper waters of the Norwegian Sea, their traditional territory.

A)

have carried out much research to understand the impact of solar explosions upon life on Earth

B)

have always wondered about the routes whales take in the oceans for their yearly migration

C) finally seem to understand the reasons why some kinds of whales fail to get to the Norwegian Sea D) have overlooked the question of sunspots and their effects on the Earth’s magnetic field E)

now know for certain that the radiation from sunspots has an adverse effect on marine life in the oceans

57. It is clear from the passage that, traditionally, ---. 55. According to the passage, it is thought that, ----.

A)

the shallow waters of the North Sea have been a deadly trap for whales whales have always migrated from the Azores not only to the Norwegian Sea but also to the North Sea

A)

for their journeys in the oceans, some whales may depend, for direction, on the Earth’s magnetic field

B)

B)

whenever solar explosions take place, there occur serious environmental problems on Earth

C) scientists have been indifferent to solar explosions and their effects on the Earth’s magnetic field

C)

despite the vastness of the oceans, whales may have developed a very strong sense of direction

D) the waters around the Azores have been the main feeding ground for all species of whales

D)

contrary to the common view, there can be no relationship whatsoever between sunspots and the Earth’s magnetic field

E)

the North Sea provides better shelter and more food for all kinds of whales than the Norwegian Sea does

E)

the Norwegian Sea has been the ultimate destination for whales during their annual migrations

ŞİFAHİ ÇEVİRİ: Bilim adamları şunu keşfettiler ki güneş üzerindeki lekeler, yani, güneş patlamaları, bazı balina türlerinin Kuzey Deniz'inin sığ sularında sıkışıp kalmalarına yol açıyor olabilir. KİTABİ ÇEVİRİ: Bilim adamları güneş üzerindeki lekelerin, yani, güneş patlamalarının, bazı balina türlerinin Kuzey Deniz'inin sığ sularında sıkışıp kalmalarına yol açıyor olabileceğini keşfettiler. Güneş patlamalarından yayılan radyasyon, balinaların okyanuslarda yolarını bulmak için kullanıyor olduğu dünyanın manyetik alanını bozuyor olabilir. Bilim adamları şöyle düşünüyor: Bu bozulma/bu parazitler balinaların kafasını muhtemelen o kadar karıştırıyor ki, Azor'dan yaptıkları yıllık göçleri esnasında balinalar geleneksel bölgeleri olan Norveç Denizinin daha derin suları yerine, yanlışlıkla Kuzey Denizine gidiyorlar. NOT: "Scientists have discovered that clause" yapılarında çoğu zaman THAT ifadesini ŞUNU anlamında bir zamir ve metnin geri kalanını yeni bir cümle gibi düşünmek çeviriyi kolaylaştırmaktadır. "Scientists think that" gibi daha klişe ifadelerde de aynı yöntem denenebileceği gibi, bu ifadeler için "bilim adamlarına göre" gibi çok daha kolay alternatifler olduğu da unutulmamalı. YDS 2007 (61-63)

56. One understands from the passage that 18

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

Weather science is called meteorology. Historically, in the past, no such science existed. Besides, most people then felt that there was no need for it. They believed it had all been explained by Aristotle, the ancient Greek philosopher. For them, the teachings and writings of Aristotle had explained everything concerning the weather and there was no need for further explanation. However, some 100 years ago, people who wanted to learn more regarding the weather could not learn it in a university. But today, many people study the weather in universities throughout the world. The main laws have been established although there is still a lot we have to learn about meteorology.

B)

obviously paved the way for the worldwide popularity of meteorology as a field of study

D) was ignored by a great majority of people in the past, who in fact relied on their own observations of the weather E)

was considered to be sufficient and final by most people historically

60. One understands from the passage that people’s concern with meteorology ----. A) was part of a research interest which was fast becoming popular throughout the world

has been fully developed as a science

B) is a relatively recent science which needs to be further developed, although some progress has been made with regard to its essentials [beklenmedik zıtlık]

B) was so extensive that almost every university in the world attached great importance to its study C) relied solely on what the universities taught on the subject

C) has been seriously studied in universities since Aristotle’s time

D) was mostly personal, not based on a scientific study in a university

D) was of no interest to people before it began to be studied in universities E)

was fully studied in the universities in the past, and contributed enormously to the development of meteorology as a science

C) was regarded by universities in the past as the basis of meteorology

58. According to the passage, meteorology ----. A)

A)

E) was related to the fact that so many of them were farmers

took its main laws from Aristotle, whose understanding of the subject was largely theoretical

Hava ilmine meteoroloji denir. Tarihi olarak geçmişte böyle bir bilim dalı mevcut değildi. Üstelik, çoğu insan o zaman buna ihtiyaç olmadığını da düşünüyordu. Onlar havanın tamamen antik yunan filozofu Aristo tarafından açıklanmış olduğuna inanıyorlardı. Onlara göre, Aristo'nun öğreti ve eserleri havaya dair her şeyi açıklamıştı ve daha fazla açıklamaya gerek yoktu. Ancak yaklaşık 100 yıl önce, havaya dair daha fazla bir şeyler öğrenmek isteyen insanlar bunu üniversite de öğrenemezlerdi. Fakat bugün, pek çok insan dünyanın her yerindeki üniversitelerde meteoroloji okumaktalar. Her ne kadar meteoroloji hakkında öğrenmemiz gereken daha çok şey varsa da, ana ilkeler ortaya konulmuştur / ispatlanmıştır.

59. It is pointed out in the passage that what Aristotle had said about the weather ----. 19

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 62. One understands from the passage that, although many explorations of ancient ruins were made in Western Turkey in the nineteenth century, ----.

YDS 2007 (64-66) During the Ottoman period, a small but increasing number of European travellers began to explore and study the sites of ancient cities in Western Turkey. In this regard, the first systematic exploration was made in 1811 by Captain Beaufort of the British Royal Navy, who mapped the Mediterranean coast of Turkey and identified some of the ancient sites there. This was followed by a number of other archaeological expeditions, including Charles Fellows’s explorations, from 1838 to 1844, of the southwestern part of the country, called “Lycia” in antiquity. But the most exciting find was Heinrich Schliemann’s rediscovery of Troy in excavations that began in 1870. Since then, most of the ancient cities of Western Turkey have probably been unearthed and studied, at least to some extent. The more famous of them, such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis and Aphrodisias, are now the subjects of large-scale excavations and restorations that have recreated a fragmentary image of their former splendour.

A)

exploration and excavation there has not continued into the twentieth and twenty-first centuries

B)

Ephesus and Sardis, especially, have provided an extensive amount of data about life and society in antiquity

C) it was Heinrich Schliemann’s excavations of Troy that created the most interest [BUT cümleciği; İDDİALI – the most; Cleft Sentence] D) Lycia, as a region, has always attracted a great deal of attention from many travellers and archaeologists E)

only Pergamum and Aphrodisias give us a full picture of their magnificence in the past

63. It is pointed out in the passage that, despite extensive excavations and restorations, ----.

61. It is implied in the passage that the European explorations and studies of Western Turkey’s ancient sites made prior to the early nineteenth century ----.

B)

a very large part of Troy still needs to be further explored and unearthed

D) the ancient glory of such popularly known cities as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis and Aphrodisias has only been partially revealed

provided archaeologists with a great deal of information indispensable for their excavations

E)

C) mainly focused on the historically most important ones such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis and Aphrodisias

the cities such as Pergamum, Ephesus, Sardis and Aphrodisias are far from arousing a lasting interest in the public

Osmanlı dönemi boyunca, küçük ama gittikçe artan sayıda Avrupalı gezgin Batı Türkiye'deki antik şehir mekanlarını araştırmaya ve incelemeye başlamışlardı. Bu bağlamda ilk sistematik araştırma, Türkiye'nin Akdeniz kıyılarının haritasını çıkaran ve oradaki bazı antik mekanların neresi olduğunu tespit eden Britanya Kraliyet Donanmasından kaptan Beaufort tarafından, 1811 yılında yapıldı. Bunu bir sürü diğer arkeolojik sefer/araştırma takip etti, ki bunlar içerisinde antik çağlarda Likya diye isimlendirilen ülkenin güneybatı kısımlarının 1838'den 1844'e kadar Charles Fellow'ca yapılan keşif-incelemeleri de vardı. Ama en heyecan verici buluş 1870'lerde başlayan kazılarda Heinrich Schliemann'ın Truva'yı yeniden keşfiydi. O zamandan beridir, batı Türkiye'nin antik beldelerinin çoğu muhtemelen gün yüzünde çıkarıldı ve incelendi, en azından kısmen. Bunların daha meşhurları, söz gelimi Pergamon, Efes, Sardes, Afrodisias, şimdi geniş çaplı kazılara ve onların eski ihtişamlarının kısmî bir görüntüsünü yeniden yaratan restorasyonlara konudurlar.

D) were in fact essentially concerned with the search for the actual site of Troy E)

an extensive number of the ancient sites, including Troy, in Western Turkey, have not yet been unearthed

C) many of Lycia’s ancient cities are still buried under the ground and await digging out

A) had not been carried out according to a plan B)

A)

had a secret military purpose and, therefore, lacked any historical interest

20

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Yeni yılın üçüncü gününde, gazeteler gökyüzünde tuhaf şeylerin olmaya başladığını rapor etmeye başladı ve herkes heyecanlandı. "Bir gezegen çarpışması" diyerek bir Londra Gazetesi haberlere öncülük etmiş ve yabancı yeni bir gezegenin muhtemelen Neptün ile çarpışacağını ilan etmişti. Çeşitli diğer gazetelerin öncü yazarları konuyu genişletti. Sonuç olarak, 3 Ocak'ta dünya başkentlerinin çoğunda, her ne kadar muğlak da olsa, gökyüzünde yaklaşan bir vakaya dair bir beklenti oluştu; ve dünyanın her yerinde gece gün batımını takip ettikçe, binlerce insan gözlerini gökyüzüne çevirdi ve, beklentilerinin aksine, her zaman gördükleri biçimde eski bilindik yıldızlardan daha heyecan veren hiç bir şey görmedi.

YDS 2003 (67-69) On the third day of the new year newspapers began to report that strange things were starting to happen in the heavens, and everyone grew excited. ‘A Planetary Collision’, one London paper headed the news, and proclaimed that a strange new planet would probably collide with Neptune. The leader writers of various other newspapers enlarged upon the topic. As a result, in most of the capitals of the world, on January 3rd, there was an expectation, however vague, of some approaching phenomenon in the sky; and as the night followed the sunset round the globe, thousands of people turned their eyes skyward to see, contrary to what they had expected, nothing more exciting than the old familiar stars just as they had always been.

There was an expectation, however vague, of some approaching phenomenon in the sky. = However vague it was, there was an expectation of some approaching phenomenon in the sky.

25. As it is clear from the passage, all that anyone saw on the night of January 3rd was ----. A) the familiar stars shining with extraordinary brightness

Ara cümlelerin yerini değiştirmek, anlamayı kolaylaştırabilir:

B) the collision of Neptune with a new planet C) the usual night sky [BENZETME, KARŞILAŞTIRMA]

Thousands of people turned their eyes skyward to see, contrary to what they had expected, nothing more exciting than the old familiar stars just as they had always been.

D) an unknown planet passing close to Neptune

=

E) what they interpreted as the birth of a new planet

Thousands of people turned their eyes skyward, but contrary to what they had expected they saw nothing more exciting than the old familiar stars just as they had always been.

26. We understand from the passage that there was a great deal of excitement everywhere ----. A) because an unknown planet had been detected from various parts of the world B) as soon as the new planet approached Neptune C) even before the planetary collision took place D) when newspapers announced that a collision of two planets was to be expected [ZAMANA BAĞLI EYLEM; METINDE DUYGU] E) as many phenomena had been observed in the skies on January 3rd

27. One can conclude from the passage that the whole affair of planets colliding ----. A) aroused little interest among the people in the world B) was based on scientific facts and observations C) was all imaginary, and made up by the newspapers D) was apparently only of interest to the newspapers E) was the reason why so many people panicked

21

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 2.

KPSS 2002 (49-51) Many cities in developing countries suffer from overcrowding and pollution far more than those in the industrialized, developed parts of the world. Metropolitan authorities in developing countries must cope with environmental problems commonly associated with large human settlements – solid waste disposal, sewage treatment, and industrial pollution, as well as the socio-cultural impact of overcrowding and congestion. If facilities for a safe water supply, sewage treatment and disposal, and collection and disposal of solid waste exist at all in such cities, the systems are often inadequate. In part, this is because developing countries lack the necessary financial resources to provide essential urban services. In addition, many cities grew up so quickly that there was little forethought or time to develop a rational urban plan to accommodate the vast influx of rural poor draw to the city.

1.

We understand from the passage that, in developing countries, ----.

A)

facilities such as a safe water supply and sewage disposal are frequently unsatisfactory [IF CLAUSE]

B)

conditions rural areas are worse than those in urban areas

C) the only serious problems encountered in the cities are finance – based D) the attitude to overcrowding is different from that in the developed countries E)

the problems of urban conditions are being effectively dealt with

It is pointed out in the passage that, wherever there are large human settlement, ----. 3.

A) there are people who complain about the inefficiency of the urban services B) there will be overcrowding and pollution of roughly the same intensity

It is clear from the passage that one reason why conditions in the cities of developing countries are so bad is ----. A) the difficulty of convincing people of the need for urban planning

C) they will appear attractive to people in sparselypopulated rural areas

B) that the people there have on idea about the advantages of urban planning

D) the essential urban services are always insufficient even in developed countries

C) because people have grown so used to them they see no need to change them

E) there will be problems to solve, ranging from the physical and practical to the sociocultural [MADDELİ anlatı]

D) due to the fact that the metropolitan authorities are at a loss to know how to change them E) that, before there had even been time to think about urban development, these cities were already there [SEBEP-SONUÇ]

Gelişmekte olan ülkelerdeki pek çok şehir, dünyanın sanayileşmiş ve gelişmiş kısımlarındaki şehirlere göre kalabalık ve kirlilikten çok daha fazla muzdariptir. Büyükşehir yetkilileri aşırı kalabalıklaşma ve tıkanıklığın sosyo-kültürel etkilerinin yanı sıra, katı atık imhası, kanalizasyon arıtımı ve sanayi kirliliği, (gibi) genellikle kalabalık insan yerleşimlerine eşlik eden çevre problemleriyle başa çıkmak zorundadırlar. Temiz su sağlanması, kanalizasyon arıtım ve imhası ve katı atıkların toplanma ve imhası için tesisler bir şekilde varsa bile, sistemler ekseriyetle yeterli olmamaktadır. Bu kısmen gelişmekte olan ülkelerin temel kent hizmetlerini sağlayacak gerekli malî kaynaklardan yoksun olmalarından ötürüdür. Ayrıca, pek çok şehir o kadar hızla büyümüştü ki, şehre yönelmiş muazzam kırsal fakir istilasını barındıracak mantıklı bir kent planı geliştirmek için (yetmeyecek kadar) az öngörü veya zaman vardı.

22

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 5.

KPSS 2002 (52-54) Though forests are being consumed at great speed in developing countries for agricultural purposes, there is another side to the picture. Agricultural projects can include components that explicitly conserve natural forest or reforest lands where the trees have been cut down, and thus enhance agricultural production in a very cost-effective manner. A case in point is a World Bank– assisted irrigation project in Indonesia. To prevent deforestation of the watershed above the Dumoga Sulawesi irrigation works, the Dumoga National Park was established on 2,700 square kilometres. The cost was less than 1 per cent of the total project costs, and went mainly to establish and demarcate park boundaries, develop a management plan, hire personnel, and provide the necessary infrastructure and equipment. This relatively small investment protects sedimentation and maintenance costs, and water necessary for optimal nice production. The park also preserves much of the rich flora and fauna that are unique to the island of Sulawesi.

4.

The passage describes the making of the Dumoga National Park and emphasizes ----. A)

its main function is to preserve the rich flora and fauna of the region

B) that the cost making it was very small indeed C) now much time and planning and experience went into creation D) the uniqueness of the scheme E)

how difficult it was too persuade the authorities to agree to this part of the project

The passage makes the point that agricultural projects need not always bring about the destruction of forest land, ----. A)

especially when funding is no problem

B)

in particular when people have learned to value their flora and fauna

6.

C) and gives the example of an irrigation project in Indonesia D) even when rainfall is scarcely adequate E)

We understand from the passage that the Dumoga National Park serves a very useful function, ----. A)

even though the costs of its upkeep are proving higher than was expected

B)

though most people still refuse to admit it

C) though reforesting this area was a long slow process and extremely expensive

though maintenance costs are likely to be high

D) as it is the only part of the island that is forested E)

as it protects the Dumoga Sulawesi irrigation works immediately below it by reducing sedimentation

Ormanlar, zirai amaçlar için gelişmekte olan ülkelerde büyük bir hızda tüketilse de, bir de olayın diğer yönü var. Tarım projeleri, doğal ormanları açıkça koruyan veya ağaçların kesilmiş olduğu arazileri yeniden ağaçlandıran unsurları ihtiva edebilir, ve böylece zirai üretimi uygun maliyetli bir şekilde geliştirebilir. Uygun bir örnek Endonezya'da Dünya Bankası destekli bir sulama projesidir. Dumoga Sulawesi sulama tesislerinin üstündeki havzanın ormansızlaşmasını engellemek için, 2700 kilometrekarelik bir alan üzerinde Dumoga Milli Parkı kuruldu. Maliyet toplam proje maliyetlerinin yüzde birinden daha azdı ve bu da çoğunlukla park sınırlarını tesis ve işaretlenmesine, bir yönetim planı geliştirmeye, personel tutmaya ve gerekli altyapı ve ekipmanı temşn etmeye gitti. Bu nispeten küçük yatırım çökelti ve bakım maliyetlerinden korumakta ve optimal iyi üretim için gereken suyu muhafaza etmektedir. Park aynı zamanda Sulawesi adasına has olan zengin bitki örtüsü (flora) ve hayvan topluluğunun (fauna) da çoğunu korumaktadır.

23

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 9.

KPSS 2003 (49-52) Volcanic activity and erosion by wind and water have combined to create, over many thousands of years, a considerable number of extraordinary natural monuments in Turkey. Most famous of all their strange and startling creations are undoubtedly the rock pillars of Cappadocia and the great white travertines of Pamukkale. But Turkey has other enchanting natural formations which fascinate travellers as much as they do geologists. One such is to be seen on the Island of Orak off Foça on the Aegean coast. The rocks here are named after the Sirens mentioned in Homer's Odyssey, and were home to Mediterranean seals until recent years. At Karapınar in central Turkey, the eight-kilometre-long Lake Meke is another of nature's masterpieces. This is a volcanic lake which has formed in a main crater containing smaller volcano vents. Islands like red humps rising from the greenish water are the work of these now extinct secondary volcanoes. Then there is Yazılıkaya, in the province of Eskişehir, which has carved inscriptions in the still undeciphered Phrygian language. It is famed for its great rocks bearing carved Phrygian reliefs and the monument of King Midas.

7.

B)

are mostly to be found in coastal regions

are all unconnected with any historical event or figure

Volkanik hareketler ile rüzgar ve suyun oluşturduğu erozyon bir araya gelip binlerce yıl boyunca Türkiye'de ciddi miktarda sıradışı doğal abide yaratmıştır. Onların tuhaf ve şaşırtıcı eserlerinin en meşhurları şüphesiz Kapadokya'daki peri bacaları ve Pamukkale'nin büyük beyaz travertenleridir. Ama Türkiye'nin Jeologları olduğu kadar yolcuları/gezginleri da etkileyen diğer büyüleyici doğal oluşumları da var. Böyle bir tanesi Ege kıyısında Foça açıklarındaki Orak adasında görülebilir. Buradaki kayalara Homeros'un Odessa Destanında bahsedilen su perilerinin adları verilmiştir, ve (burası) yakın zamana kadar Akdeniz foklarına ev sahipliği yapmaktaydı. İç Anadolu'daki Karapınar'da, sekiz kilometre uzunluğundaki Meke Gölü de doğanın bir başka şaheseridir. Bu, daha küçük volkan bacalarını içeren bir ana krater içinde oluşmuştur. Yeşilimsi sudan yükselen kırmızı deve hörgüçlerini andıran adalar, şimdi sönmüş olan bu ikincil yanardağların eseridir. Bir de Eskişehir ilindeki Yazılıkaya var, ki burası hala çözülmemiş olan Frigya dilinde yazıtlara sahiptir. Yazılıkaya Frigya lisanında kazınmış rölyefleri taşıyan büyük kayaları ve Kral Midas abidesi ile meşhurdur.

C) have been particularly badly eroded by wind and rain D) help us to understand what is happening in the Phrygian reliefs there E)

are all related to some mythological event or personality

E)

We learn from the passage that the Phrygian inscriptions on the great rocks at Yazılıkaya ----.

are all related to King Midas

A)

D) are all referred to in Homer's Odyssey

give a purely factual account of the natural monuments of Turkey and their relative importance

B)

has only very recently been attracting any attention

C) are attractive to sightseers and geologists alike [KIYASLAMA]

D) explain, in geological terms, how these natural monuments came into being

are a particularly rare example of Phrygian writing

is the only lake in Turkey to have formed in a volcanic crater

10. The point is made in the passage that the various natural monuments of Turkey ----.

make people aware of the fact that Turkey's natural monuments need to be cared for better

A)

B)

E)

C) establish the historical importance of Turkey's natural monuments

8.

is of interest to geologists but the general appearance is very ordinary

D) together with its islands, was formed by successive volcanic action [SEBEP SONUÇ – the work of]

A) describe some of the monuments of Turkey created by natural forces so as to make them attractive [ANA FİKİR]

E)

A)

C) is in a constant state of change due to continued volcanic activity

The main aim of this passage is to ----.

B)

According to the passage, Lake Meke, in central Turkey, ----.

have so far not been decoded [RELATIVE CL]

24

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 13. According to the passage, several of the lessdeveloped countries ----.

KPSS 2003 (57-60) A large amount of natural resources is not sufficient to guarantee economic growth. A number of less-developed countries are fantastically rich in natural resources. However, they have not been overly successful in exploiting these resources. Natural resources must be converted to useful forms. For example, in the United States the Indians had many natural resources available to them, but they were unable to increase their standard of living or experience economic growth. People must devise the methods to convert natural resources into usable forms. Countries with similar natural resources vary in their ability to do this. In short, abundant natural resources are not sufficient in themselves. People are necessary to develop resources into useful things. Less-developed nations require this type of human resource before they are able to exploit the natural resources they possess.

A)

B) have an abundance of natural resources [İDDİALI – a number of, fantastically] C) have used up all their natural resources D) could achieve economic growth if only they had sufficient natural resources E)

living standards always rise when there is economic growth

in less-developed countries are being exploited by foreign countries

B)

are essential if a country is to have a sound economy

D) only become valuable when there are human resources to develop them [ŞART: necessary] E)

C) the exploitation of natural resources requires a large capital outlay D) the economic position of a country is directly related to its natural resources

have had an adverse effect on the development of many less-developed countries

Bol miktarda doğal kaynak ekonomik büyümeyi garanti etmeye yetmez. Bir sürü az gelişmiş ülke, doğal kaynaklarca son derece zengindir. Yine de bu kaynakları kullanmada çok başarılı olmamışlardır. Doğal kaynakların faydalı formlara dönüştürülmesi gerekmektedir. Örneğin, Amerika Birleşik Devletlerindeki Kızılderililer elleri altında pek çok doğal kaynağa sahiplerdi, ama yaşam standartlarını artıramadılar ve ekonomik kalkınma yaşayamadılar. İnsanlar doğal kaynakları faydalı formlara dönüştürecek yöntemler bulmalıdırlar. Benzer doğal kaynaklara sahip ülkeler, bunu yapma kabiliyetleri bakımından farklılık gösterirler. Kısaca, zengin doğal kaynaklar tek başlarına yetmezler: Kaynakları faydalı şeylere dönüştürmek için insanlara ihtiyaç vardır. Az gelişmiş topluluklar sahip oldukları doğal kaynaklardan istifade edebilmek için bu tip insan kaynağına muhtaçtırlar.

a country's natural resources should be used carefully as they are often very limited

12. We understand from the passage that the Indians in the US ----. A) failed to make use of the natural resources at their disposal [BEKLENMEYEN ZITLIK: but] B)

A)

C) are far more valuable than human resources

B) an abundance of natural resources in a country is not on its own sufficient to make that country rich

E)

are completely lacking in natural resources

14. It is emphasized in the passage that natural resources ----.

11. An important point made in the passage is that ----. A)

are already learning to exploit their natural resources

managed to achieve a reasonable standard of living though they had no natural resources

C) were envious of people with a better life-style

Countries with similar natural resources vary in their ability to do this.

D) wasted their natural resources and so remained poor

Countries which have similar natural resources vary in their ability to do this

E)

had no desire to change their life-style

25

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 17. The writer points out that, in order to benefit from physical activity ----.

KPSS 2004 (45-48) People don't have to run marathons to gain the health rewards of physical activity. Most experts agree that any physical activity, even moderate activity, provides health benefits. In fact, people who are extremely inactive can expect to get the greatest health benefits by taking part in regular, moderate-intensity, endurance-type activity. The authors of an extensive study on fitness and mortality concluded that "moderate levels of physical fitness that are attainable by most adults appear to be protective against early mortality". It makes sense, then, to encourage the least active people to participate in whatever activities they can readily perform since they may benefit most.

A)

one must, in the first place, enjoy good health

B)

we must all follow a fixed schedule which includes a variety of activities

C) some endurance-type activities are essential D) the change from inactivity to activity must be a gradual one E)

one doesn't have to perform strenuous or exhausting activities [NOT HAVE TO]

15. In this passage, the author is really speaking to people ----. A)

whose reasons for physical activity are varied

B)

who are experts in the problems related to physical activity

18. According to the results of a research work referred to in the passage, ----.

C) who are rarely involved in any sort of physical activity D) for whom physical activity is a prime aim in life E)

with whom he takes part in various physical activities

A)

the health benefits of long-distance running are enormous

B)

intense physical activity is usually harmful

C) adults should avoid all types of physical activity D) it seems that a reasonable amount of exercise leads to a longer life [SEBEP-SONUŞ; ALINTI (TIRNAK)] E)

16. The physical activity that the writer Is referring to in this passage ----.

İnsanlar fiziksel aktivitenin sağlık kazanımlarına erişmek için maraton koşmak zorunda değildir. Çoğu uzman herhangi bir fiziksel eylemin, hatta orta halli bir hareketin bile, sağlık faydalarını temin edeceğinde hemfikirdirler. İşin aslı, son derece hareketsiz olan insanlar, düzenli orta yoğunlukta dayanıklılık tipi aktiviteler yapmak suretiyle en büyük sağlık faydalarına erişmeyi ümit edebilirler. Spor ve ölüm üzerine yapılan kapsamlı bir çalışmanın yazarları şu sonuca gelmişlerdir: "Çoğu yetişkinin yapabileceği orta seviyelerde fiziksel spor, erken ölüme karşı koruyu gözükmektedir." O zaman, en hareketsiz insanları zorlanmadan yapabilecekleri hangi aktivite olursa olsun buna teşvik etmek, muazzam bir fayda sağlayabileceğinden, gayet akıllıcadır.

A) is an ordinary type of activity that doesn’t require much physical effort B)

is one that is suitable for adults only

C) should only be undertaken under expert guidance D) is specifically recommended for people of middle age E)

the same balanced programme of physical activity is suitable for everyone

benefits the young rather than the elderly

26

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 21. According to the passage, many of the health items on the market actually have an adverse effect upon the consumer, ----.

KPSS 2004 (49-52) More than ever before, people are now learning about nutrition as they watch television, read newspapers, turn the pages of magazines, talk with friends, and search the Internet. They want to know how best to take care of themselves. In some cases, they are seeking miracles: tricks to help them lose weight, foods to forestall aging and supplements to build muscles. People's heightened interest in nutrition and health translates into billions of dollars spent on services and products sold by both genuine and fraudulent businesses. While consumers who obtain genuine products can improve their health, those who are deceived by clever advertising may lose their health, their savings or both. Ironically, such deception in nutritional matters prevents people from attaining the health they seek by giving them false hope and delaying the implementation of effective strategies.

A)

which the manufacturers find very worrying

B)

but this is rarely made known to the public

C) but some do achieve the miracles they promise D) because they make one delay seeking proper medical advice [SEBEP SONUÇ: by doing ST] E)

but never of a serious nature

19. As is pointed out In the passage, in recent years ----. A)

people have been giving great importance to their health and always consult qualified doctors if there is a problem

B)

nutritional standards everywhere have risen noticeably

C) people know a lot more about nutrition but continue to eat what they know is bad for them D) a great deal of money is being spent on health aids and the results are always worth it E)

22. We understand from the passage that a great deal of money is being spent on special nutrition products ----.

people have become increasingly interested in nutrition and health

A)

though the media constantly insists that they are harmful

B) but the desired results are not always realized C) but it is the normal diet that is really important D) and the main aim is invariably to lose weight 20. The passage contains a warning that ----.

E)

A) many nutrition-related products make false claims about what they can achieve [those RC] B)

Televizyon seyrettikçe, gazeteleri okudukça, dergi sayfalarını karıştırdıkça , arkadaşlarıyla konuşup internette araştırma yaptıkça, insanlar beslenme hakkında eskiye kıyasla çok daha fazla şey öğreniyorlar. Kendilerine en iyi nasıl bakacaklarını öğrenmek istiyorlar. Bazı durumlarda, mucize peşinde koşuyorlar: kilo kaybetmelerine yardımcı olacak püf noktaları, yaşlanmayı engelleyici yiyecekler ve kas yapacak ek gıdalar (gibi). İnsanların beslenmeye ve sağlığa artan ilgisi hem gerçek hem de dolandırıcı iş dünyasının sattığı servis ve ürünlere harcanan milyarlarca dolara dönüşüyor. Gerçek ürünlere ulaşan müşteriler sağlıklarını geliştirirken, kurnaz reklamlarla kandırılanlar sağlıklarını, birikimlerini veya her ikisini birden yitirebiliyorlar. İşin tuhafı, beslenme konusundaki bu tür dolandırıcılıklar insanlara sahte umutlar vererek ve etkin stratejileri uygulamalarını geciktirerek aradıkları sağlığa kavuşmalarını engelliyor.

much information that can be obtained from the Internet is completely unreliable

C) too much interest in health actually has an adverse effect on one's health D) efforts to forestall aging have proved particularly dangerous E)

most of which are useless but at least none are harmful

there are more fraudulent health products and services than genuine ones

27

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 25. As it is pointed out in the passage, modern technology ----.

KPSS 2005 (49-52) People may be overweight, not because they eat too much, but because they spend too little energy. More than one - third of the overweight population report no physical activity at all during their leisure time. Some overweight people are so extraordinarily inactive that even when they eat less than thin people, they still have an energy surplus. Reducing their food intake further would be a threat to their health. Physical activity, then, is a necessary component of nutritional health. People must be physically active if they are to eat enough food to deliver all the nutrients they need without unhealthy weight gain. One hundred years ago, 30 per cent of the energy used in farm and factory work came from muscle power; today only 1 per cent does. Modern technology, resulting in such things as computers and washing - machines, has replaced physical activity at home, at work, and in transportation. Underactivity is probably the single most important contributor to overweight. And in most cases, television watching makes the biggest contribution to physical inactivity.

A)

may make our working hours less active but does not affect our leisure hours

B)

has more advantages than disadvantages

C) is, directly or indirectly, responsible for many of the overweight people in the world [SEBEP-SONUÇ: resulting in] D) has led to a greater reduction of physical activity at home than in the workplace E)

has revolutionized the work of the agricultural labourer but not of the factory worker

26. According to the passage, there are many factors contributing to modern-life underactivity, but the main one is ----. A)

23. One point emphasized in the passage concerning the problem of overweight is that ----.

driving to work instead of walking

B) watching television [İDDİALI: biggest; SEBEP-SONUÇ: contribution]

A)

it is threatening the lives and the happiness of a great many people

C) labour-saving devices in the home

B)

the best solution is to eat less

E)

D) the use of computers in offices fast - food services

C) it is by no means a modern phenomenon D) people need to be made more aware of how it can be overcome E)

İnsanlar, çok yedikleri için değil, çok az enerji harcadıkları için kilolu olabilirler. Kilolu nüfusun üçte birinden daha fazlası boş vakitleri boyunca hiç bir fiziksel aktivite yapmadıklarını belirtiyorlar. Bazı kilolu insanlar öylesine hareketsiz ki zayıf insanlardan daha az yediklerinde bile enerji fazlalıkları oluyor. Yiyecek alımlarını daha da azaltmak, (bu insanların) sağlıkları için bir tehdit olacaktır. O zaman fiziksel hareketlilik sağlıklı beslenmenin gerekli bir unsurudur. İnsanlar kilo kazanmadan ihtiyaçları olan tüm besinleri sağlayacak yeterlilikte yemek yemek istiyorlarsa, fiziksel olarak hareketli olmalıdırlar. Yüz yıl önce, çiftlik ve fabrikalarda kulanılan enerjinin yüzde 30’u kas gücünden geliyordu; bugün bu orada sadece yüzde 1. Bilgisayar ve bulaşık makinesi gibi şeylere yol açan günümüz teknolojisi ev, işyeri ve ulaşımda fiziksel hareketin yerini aldı. Hareketsizlik muhtemelen aşırı kilodaki en büyük tek etken. Ve çoğu durumda, televizyon seyretmek fiziksel hareketsizliğe en büyük gerekçeyi teşkil etmektedir.

it is usually the result of too little physical activity [SEBEP-SONUÇ- because; NOT BUT]

24. According to the passage, some overweight people ----. A)

rarely bother to turn the television on

B)

do not regard being overweight as a problem

C) are quite as physically active as the average person D) may actually eat less than thin people [KARŞILAŞTIRMA] E)

seem to enjoy excellent health

28

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPSS 2005 (57- 60)

camera-equipped mobile phones ----.

The conventional photography industry is facing difficult times now that digital cameras have come to the fore in all parts of the world. People with digital cameras take more picture than do those with conventional cameras, but make fewer prints. They tend to share pictures over the internet and get any prints they do want from their computers, instead of going to a photography shop for prints. Further, a new threat has now appeared: camera-equipped mobile phones. These could change the nature of photography entirely, because they make the sharing of digital photographs far easier. In all probability they will soon be quite the most popular form of camera.

A)

B) are going to bring radical changes to the field of photography [İDDİALI: entirely] C) will soon be able to produce photographs of higher quality D) will always be a luxury item E)

27. It is clear from the passage that people with digital cameras ----.

regard themselves as professional photographers

the photography industry has been enjoying a period of prosperity

C) no one ever bothers to print any photographs D) more and more people have started to use the internet E)

prints of the photographs can be made

the photographs it takes are of better quality

Alışıldık fotoğraf sanayisi dünyanın her yerinde dijital fotoğraf makineleri öne çıktığı için sıkıntılı zamanlar yaşıyor. Dijital fotoğraf makinesi olan insanlar, tipik fotoğraf makinesi olanlara kıyasla daha çok fotoğraf çekiyorlar, ama daha az çıktı alıyorlar. Onlar fotoğrafları internette paylaşmak ve, ta'b için bir fotoğrafçı dükkanına gitmek yerine, arzu ettikleri herhangi bir çıktıyı ise bilgisayarlarından almak eğilimindeler. Dahası, yeni bir tehdit baş gösterdi: kameralı cep telefonları. Bunlar fotoğrafçılığın doğasını tamamen değiştirebilir, zira dijital fotoğrafların paylaşımını çok daha kolay hale getirmekteler. Büyük ihtimalle, kısa zaman içinde en tercih edilen fotoğraf makinesi türü olacaklar.

28. We understand from the passage that, with the coming of digital cameras, ----.

B)

B)

E)

are not interested in camera-equipped mobile phones

photography has been made rather easy

it has a greater ability to store pictures

D) it can be operated more easily

D) take fewer photographs than one might expect

A)

A)

C) it makes the sharing of pictures much more practical [SEBEP: because; KARŞILAŞTIRMA: far easier]

C) can’t take better photographs than people with conventional cameras

E)

will soon be replaced by a much smaller camera

30. One advantage of a mobile phone camera over the regular digital camera is that ----.

A) do not need the services of the photography industry [KARŞILAŞTIRMA ; DEVRIK] B)

will only enjoy a short period of popularity

people are taking more photographs than before [KARŞILAŞTIRMA: more pictures than]

29. According to the passage, it seems likely that 29

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 33. It can be understood from the passage that 20th century technologies such as nuclear weapons ----.

KPSS 2006 (45-58) Unlike 20th-century technologies like nuclear weapons, which were self-limiting because they depended on rare and expensive materials, new technologies such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology and robotics are easily within the reach of individuals or small groups. With each of these new technologies, a sequence of small, harmless advances leads to an accumulation of great power, and at the same time, great danger. Individuals with knowledge of the technologies could use them to cause great damage to the human race or to the earth. Nanotechnology, for example, could create viruses that reproduce uncontrollably and cover the planet. Intelligent robots could make copies of themselves and eventually control our civilization. Accordingly, with new technology comes the new responsibility to use it to help, rather than harm, the human race and the planet.

A)

could easily have been controlled by a few individuals

B) were easy to control due to their reliance on costly resources that are difficult to obtain [RC] C) were easy to control since only the national governments had access to them D) were controlled by the national governments of a very few countries, and thus, were unlikely to prove dangerous E)

were far more likely to prove beneficial than harmful

31. We understand from the passage that the new technologies of the present century ----. A)

are not likely to bring any benefits, not even of a temporary nature

B)

will certainly put an end to life on the planet

34. It is made clear in the passage that new technologies such as genetic engineering, nanotechnology and robotics could prove dangerous ----.

C) pose a possible threat to society and the planet [SEBEP – SONUÇ: cause] D) are largely controlled by individuals and groups that want to destroy the planet

A)

even though those working on them are all fully aware of their responsibilities

E)

B)

since they are designed to harm not to help life on earth

are already showing signs of controlling our civilization

C) as they are already showing signs of getting out of control D) due to their easy accessibility by individuals or small groups E)

but nobody expects them to do so

32. It is clear from the passage that the writer ----. Az bulunur ve pahalı materyallere bağımlı oldukları için kendi kendini sınırlayan nükleer silahlar gibi 20. Yüzyıl teknolojilerinden farklı olarak, genetik mühendisliği, nano teknoloji ve robot bilimi gibi yeni teknolojiler bireylerin veya küçük grupların kolaylıkla erişimleri dâhilindedir. Bu yeni teknolojilerin her biriyle birlikte, bir dizi küçük (ve) zararsız gelişme, büyük bir gücün ve aynı zamanda, büyük bir tehlikenin birikmesine yol açar. Bu teknoloji bilgisine sahip olan insanlar, onu insan ırkına veya dünyaya büyük zarar vermek için kullanabilirler. Örneğin nano teknoloji kontrolsüz bir şekilde çoğalan ve gezegeni kaplayan virüsler yaratabilir. Akıllı robotlar kendi kopyalarını yapabilir ve sonunda medeniyetimizi ele geçirebilirler. Dolayısıyla, yeni teknolojiyle birlikte onu insan ırkına ve gezegene zarar vermekten ziyade yardımcı olmak için kullanmak (gibi bir) sorumluluk da gelir.

A) believes that individuals with access to the new technologies must use them responsibly [DEVRİK CÜMLE: comes the new responsibility] B)

is sure that only responsible individuals have so far been allowed access to the new technologies

C) is confident that individuals with access to the new technologies will definitely use them to help, rather than harm, the human race and the planet D) fears that all the individuals with access to the new technologies wish to harm the human race and the planet E)

is extremely optimistic about how the new technologies will be used

30

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 37. This passage is mainly concerned with ----.

KPSS 2006 (49 – 52)

A) how the wild orangutan has become extinct [ANA FİKİR SORGULAMASI]

For thousands of years the wild orangutan lived in rich tropical forests. The species has no natural enemy, but in the last three decades it has been driven to extinction. The main causes for this are miners, peasants and illegal loggers who have destroyed the orangutan’s habitat on the Indonesian islands of Sumatra and Borneo. More than half of these lowland forests were cut down during President Suharto’s autocratic reign, but the change to democracy in Indonesia in the late 1990s did nothing to stop the forest clearing. In addition, illegal hunters have killed more than 1,000 orangutan mothers per year, stealing their babies to sell on the black market. Because orangutans breed slowly, they could not reproduce quickly enough to counter these threats to their existence and so they died out.

B)

the difficult life of the miners and loggers on Sumatra and Borneo

C) how the lowland forests of Sumatra and Borneo are disappearing D) former Indonesian president Suharto’s autocratic reign E)

35. It is clear from the passage that despite the shift to a democratic government in Indonesia, ----.

the change to democracy in Indonesia in the late 1990s

38. We can understand from the passage that the primary reason for the disappearance of the orangutans is ----.

A)

the practice of selling baby orangutans on the black market increased

B)

the orangutans there began to have a better life

A)

illegal hunting by miners

C) the illegal hunting practices of the loggers were stopped

B)

the dictatorship of former President Suharto

D) the orangutans were moved to safety

C) the destruction of their forest habitat [RC; SEBEP SONUÇ; İDDİALI:main]

E)

D) the start of democracy in Indonesia

the forests there continued to be cut down [BEKLENMEYEN SONUÇ: but]

E)

Vahşi orangutan binlerce yıl boyunca zengin tropik ormanlarda yaşadı. Türün hiçbir tabii düşmanı yoktur ama son 30 yıldır hızla nesli tükenmekte. Bunun ana sebepleri orangutanın Endonezya’nın Sumatra ve Borneo adalarındaki yaşam alanının madenciler, köylüler ve kaçak ormancılarca tahrip edilmesidir. Bu alçak ovaların yarısından fazlası Başkan Suharto’nun despot iktidarı boyunca kesilmişti, ama 1990ların sonunda Endonezya’da demokrasiye geçiş (de) orman katliamını durduracak hiçbir şey yapmadı. Üstelik, kaçak avcılar her yıl 1000’den fazla orangutan annesini öldürmekte ve karaborsada satmak için bebeklerini çalmaktalar. Orangutanlar yavaş üredikleri için, varlıklarına yönelik bu tehditlere karşı koyabilecek hızda çoğalamadılar ve bu yüzden yok olup gittiler.

36. It is pointed out in the passage that the orangutans weren’t able to replace those that had died or been stolen because ----. A)

the government gave its support to the destruction of the forests

B) they could only reproduce very slowly [SEBEP-SONUÇ] C) the black market price for young orangutans was rising rapidly D) no one, anywhere, showed any interest in the fate of the orangutans E)

the fact that they have no natural enemy

illegal hunters had carried out their plan to kill all the orangutan females

31

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 41. In the passage, several alternatives that could be used to replace fossil fuels are discussed but ----.

KPSS 2006 (57 – 60) In recent years, scientists have come to an agreement that the Earth is warming mostly due to the emission of carbon dioxide from electrical power plants that burn coal, oil and natural gas. Discussions of alternatives to these fossil fuels generally include windmills, photovoltaics (panels which convert sunlight to electricity) and even hydrogen fuel. Although these technologies hold a great deal of promise for the long term, none of them provides an immediate solution to the problem of global warming. Even if these new technologies fulfill their potential at some time in the future, it is unclear whether they will meet the world’s energy needs. For this reason, nuclear power still remains the only really attractive alternative to fossil fuels.

B)

all are rejected for one reason or another

D) with one exception, it is not likely that they will ever be able to supply enough energy [EVEN IF] E)

they all present insurmountable technological problems

42. We learn from the passage that one important cause of global warming is ----.

A) is seen as a good alternative to fossil fuels because it could supply the world’s energy needs [SEBEP-SONUÇ: for this reason] is less attractive than fossil fuels as it is the main cause of global warming

A)

the sudden growth in the world’s energy needs

B)

the increasing use of photovoltaics to produce electricity

C) the production of electrical power from coal, oil and natural gas [SEBEP-SONUÇ: due to]

C) has a great future potential for clean energy production, but is not a practical solution at present

D) related to the closure of so many nuclear power plants

D) presently supplies the world with more than half its energy E)

all of them pose health problems

C) fossil fuels remain the best choice

39. According to the passage, nuclear power ----.

B)

A)

E)

the failure to recognize the potential of windpower

enjoys very little favour as it is so dangerous KİTABİ: Son yıllarda bilim adamları dünyanın daha çok kömür, petrol ve doğal gaz yakan elektrik güç santrallerinden yayılan karbondioksit salımı yüzünden ısınıyor olduğu konusunda bir uzlaşıya vardılar. ŞİFAHİ:

40. It is pointed out in the passage that although fossil fuels could be replaced by cleaner, safer alternatives to produce electricity ----. A)

Son yıllarda bilim adamları şu konuda hemfikir oldu: Dünya daha çok kömür, petrol ve doğal gaz yakan elektrik güç santrallerinden yayılan karbon dioksit salımı yüzünden ısınıyor.

the price of electricity would soar

B) this cannot be achieved in a short space of time [BEKLENMEYEN ZITLIK: although]

Bu fosil yakıtlara alternatifler genellikle yel-değirmenlerini, fotovoltaikleri (yani güneş ışığını elektriğe çeviren panelleri) ve hatta hidrojen yakıtını içermekte. Her ne kadar bu teknolojiler uzun vadede büyük umutlar vaat etse de, hiç biri küresel ısınmaya acil bir çözüm sağlamıyor. Bu yeni teknolojiler gelecekte herhangi bir zamanda potansiyellerini yerine getirseler bile, dünyanın enerji ihtiyaçlarını karşılayıp karşılamayacakları açık değil. Bundan dolayı, nükleer enerji fosil yakıtların hala tek gerçek cazip alternatifi olmaya devam ediyor.

C) these will certainly never be sufficient to meet the world’s energy needs D) all known possible alternatives are potentially dangerous E)

none of these alternatives has as yet been tested

32

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 45. It is pointed out in the passage that bald eagles were not a danger to the Channel Islands fox as ----.

KPSS 2007 (57 – 60) The Channel Islands fox is one of America’s most photogenic creatures – and one of its most endangered. As recently as 1994, scientists estimated that more than 1,500 of the tiny foxes lived on Santa Cruz Island, the biggest in the island chain which lies off the coast of Los Angeles. Today, however, only about 80 remain in the wild there. Island mammals, because they’re cut off from other environments, are particularly sensitive to disruptions in the balance of predators and prey, and it was a series of unrelated events on the northern Channel Islands that caused the present crisis. Scientists discovered in the mid-1990s that most of the foxes on the islands were being killed by golden eagles, which had previously been kept away by the presence of bald eagles, which feed mainly on fish and seal carcasses. But the bald eagle began to disappear in the 1950s, the victim of unintended poisoning by a nearby chemical factory. The factory had dumped pesticides into the Los Angeles sewer system, which empties into the ocean. The waste contaminated the marine wildlife which the bald eagles fed on, thus contaminating the bald eagles as well, and by 1960, bald eagles had vanished from the islands. The bald eagles’ disappearance left an opening for the golden eagles, and by the mid-1990s golden eagles had become the main predator of the Channel Islands fox.

A)

the foxes had learned ways to outsmart them

B)

the foxes lived in protected areas on the islands

C) the bald eagles had been driven away from the islands by golden eagles D) bald eagles had never inhabited the islands E)

46. We can understand from the passage that the dumping of pesticides into the Los Angeles sewer system ----. A)

C) had no effect whatsoever on the local sea animals D) caused the extinction of the foxes on the islands

43. We see from the passage that golden eagles ----. A) have not always been present on the Channel Islands frequently hunt together with bald eagles

D) are suffering due to their isolation from the mainland had disappeared from the Channel Islands by the mid-20th century

44. It is clear from the passage that the Channel Islands fox is in danger of disappearing altogether due mostly to ----. A)

the island chain’s nearness to Los Angeles

B)

a local reduction in the population of marine wildlife

C) the golden eagle, its main predator [İDDİALI: most of; İDDİALI:main predator] D) the presence of contaminated seal carcasses on the Channel Islands E)

did not affect the Channel Islands fox because of its relative isolation

Kanal Adaları tilkisi Amerika'nın en fotojenik yaratıklarından biridir - ve en çok yok olma tehlikesiyle karşı karşıya olanlardan da biridir. Daha 1994 yılında bilim adamları Los Angeles sahili açıklarında uzanan takımadalardan en büyüğü olan Santa Cruz Adasında en az 1500 adet mini tilkinin yaşadığını hesaplamışlardı. Ama bugün orada yaban hayatında ancak 80 kadarı geriye kalmıştır. Ada memelileri, diğer ortamlardan bağları kopuk olduğundan, av ve avcı dengesindeki bozulmalara karşı özellikle hassastırlar, ve mevcut krize yol açan şey kuzey kanal adalarında birbiriyle bağlantısı olmayan bir dizi olaydı. Bilim adamları 1990ların ortalarında ada tilkilerini çoğunun altın kartallarca öldürüldüğünü keşfettiler; bu kartallar daha önce, çoğunlukla balık ve fok leşiyle besleniyor olan kel kartalların varlığı sayesinde (adadan) uzakta tutulmaktaydı. Ama kel kartal komşu bir kimya fabrikasının kasıtlı olmayan zehirlemesinin bir kurbanı olarak 1950'lerde ortadan kaybolmaya başladı. Fabrika haşere-ilaçlarını okyanuslara dökülen Los Angeles kanalizasyon sistemine boşaltmıştı. Atık, kel kartalların beslendiği deniz yaban hayatına mikrop bulaştırmış, böylece kel kartallarını da hasta etmişti, ve 1960 itibariyle kel kartallar adadan (tamamen) yok olmuşlardı. Kel kartalların ortadan kalkması altın kartallar için bir açıklık bırakmış, ve 1990ların ortalarına gelindiğinde altın kartallar Kanal adaları tilkisinin baş avcısı haline gelmişti.

C) eat mostly fish and seal carcasses

E)

eventually killed off all the golden eagles in the area

B) indirectly led to a huge reduction in the local bald eagle population

E)

B)

foxes were not a large part of the bald eagles’ diet [RC]

the presence of bald eagles

33

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Nijerya sanayi kalkınmasını finanse etmek için büyük oranda ham petrol ihracatına bağımlıdır. Nijeryanın ihracatının değer bakımından % 90’ı ham petroldür. Mevcut üretim hızında (gidilirse), bilinen petrol yatakları ancak yüzyılın sonuna kadar yeterli olacaktır. Sanayileşme, petrol fiyatlarının dört kat artmasını takiben, 1973ten sonra artmış idi.1980lerin başında fiyatlar düştü ve Nijerya önemli miktarda gelir kaybetti. Petrol imalatı, 1974’te üretim 112 milyon tona ulaştığında zirve noktasına ulaşmıştı.

KPDS 1992 KASIM () Nigeria is heavily dependent on the export of crude oil to finance industrial development. 90% of Nigeria's exports by value are crude oil. At current production rates, known reserves are only sufficient until the end of the century. Industrialisation was boosted after I973, following the fourfold increase in oil prices. In the early 1980s prices fell, and Nigeria lost important income. Oil production peaked in 1974 when output reached 112 million tonnes. 1.

It is pointed out in the passage that the sharp rise in oil prices in 1973 ----. A)

had less effect on Nigeria’s economy than might have been expected

B) contributed greatly to industrial development in Nigeria C) coincided with a considerable fall in oil production D) provided Nigeria with a high revenue well into the late 1980s E)

2.

put a great deal of pressure on Nigeria’s oil reserves

It is understood from the passage that only a fraction of Nigeria exports ----. A) are goods other than crude oil B)

would be needed to support industrial development

C) were affected by the fall in oil prices in the 1980s D) were oil-related E)

3.

have benefited from price increases

According to the passage, so long as the current rate of oil production is maintained ----. A)

world oil prices are not expected to rise significantly

B)

Nigeria’s industrial development plans will soon be fully realised

C) Nigeria is likely to have no oil reserves left by the year 2000 D) Nigeria will continue to enjoy large revenues E)

the variety of goods exported from Nigeria will increase

34

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Bilgisayarların şu an sahip oldukları yüce statüye asla sahip olmamalıları lazımdı. Ne kadar büyüleyici ve paha biçilme olsalar da, en ileri olanları bile üç yaşındaki bir çocuktan daha düşük bir beyin gücüne sahiptir. Ama onlar puanlarını (mecaz: yani itibarlarını) tek yönlü düşünmek suretiyle gerçekleştirirler. Üç yaşındaki bir çocuk beynini sadece düşünmek için değil, (ama) aynı zamanda görmek, işitmek ve koşuşturmak gibi işler için de kullanır, ki bunlar inanılmaz hız ve gelişmiş elektromekanik veri transferleri gerektirir: Biz de elektrikle çalışmaktayız. Oysa bilgisayar sadece orada oturur ve aya uzay aracı gönderir veya dünya bankacılık sisteminin yeniden düzenler, bunlarsa çok daha kolaydır. İşte bu yüzden insanoğlunun robot hizmetçi rüyası daha çok uzaklarda.

KPDS 1992 KASIM () Computers should never have acquired the exalted status they now have. Fascinating and invaluable as they are, even the most advanced have less brain power than a three-year-old. They do, however, score on singlemindedness. The three-year-old uses his brain not only to think but also to do tasks like seeing, hearing and running about, which need incredibly rapid and sophisticated electro-mechanical interactions - we too run on electricity. But the computer just sits there and sends spacecraft to the moon or re-organises the world banking system, which is very much easier. That's why man’s dream of robot servants is still a long way off. 4.

The main point made by the passage is that the human brain ----. A)

is much inferior to any known computer

B) is infinitely more complex and powerful than any computer C) reaches its maximum efficiency at the age of three D) is not as complicated and mysterious as has usually been thought E)

5.

has been entirely reproduced in computer form

It is explained in the passage that the efficiency of the computer ----. A)

will soon make it possible for man to be served by robots

B)

depends on the speed with which the data are fed

C) can best be appreciated in the decision making positions D) is the result of its being concentrated on one task at a time E)

6.

depends upon sophisticated electromechanical interactions

The author feels that computers ----. A)

are becoming unaffordable as they get more advanced

B)

have contributed immensely to the improvement of living standards

C) have been unnecessarily overrated D) will be a major force behind all future progress E)

are capable of doing all the tasks the human brain performs even more efficiently

35

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Gerek insan yapımı gerek doğal pek çok madde insan ve çevreye zarar verebilir. Bunların bir kısmı çevreye atık su kanalları içinde ulaşır. Ancak bazı durumlarda emisyon sınırlamaları ve çevre kalite kontrolleri salınan miktarı azaltabilir. Ama diğer bazı maddeler bu şekilde kontrol edilemezler çünkü onlar (çevreye) sanayi atık kanalları içinde değil, kendilerini içeren ürünlerin kullanımı veya imhası vasıtasıyla salınırlar. Çoğu durumda bu maddeler eğer kendilerini içeren ürün düzgün bir şekilde kullanılır veya imha edilirse (çevreye) çok az verir veya hiç zarar vermezler. Bunların icabına bakmanın (en) doğru yolu, genellikle arz, kullanım veya imhası üzerinde denetlemeler yoluyladır.

KPDS 1992 KASIM () Many substances, whether man-made or natural, can cause harm to man or the environment. Some of these reach the environment in waste streams; however, emission limits and environmental quality standards can, in some instances, reduce the amounts released. But some other substances cannot be controlled in this way because they are released, not in industrial waste streams, but through the use or disposal of products which contain them. In many cases these substances pose little or no threat if the product containing them is used and disposed of properly. The right way to deal with them is usually through controls over their supply, use and disposal. 7.

According to the passage, the threat of certain substances to the environment ----. A)

is far less than that to man

B) could be reduced by enforcing emission limits and environmental controls C) has been unnecessarily overemphasised D) has to date been completely ignored E)

8.

can be eliminated by the use of industrial waste streams

The author points out that the danger posed to man by many substances ----. A)

is unrelated to environmental pollution

B)

is even greater than generally admitted

C) continues to grow despite constant control of disposal systems D) is solely due to the use of industrial waste streams E)

9.

arises from their misuse and wrong disposal [SEBEP-SONUÇ: through]

The passage is concerned with the question of ----. A) how the harmful effects of certain substances can be brought under control [ANA FİKİR] B)

why industrial waste streams have caused so much pollution

C) whether man made substances or natural ones cause more pollution D) what measures are to be taken against the supply of dangerous substances E)

who is responsible for taking the required measures

36

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Bugün dünyada her bir erkek, kadın ve çocuk için on iki buçuk akrelik arazi vardır. Ancak bu arazinin sadece üç buçuk akresi ekilip biçilebilmektedir. Dünya nüfusu 2000 yılı itibariyle altı milyara ulaşacak olursa, kişi başına sadece bir buçuk akre olacaktır (=kalacaktır). İşte insanoğlu (yapacak başka bir şey yok) yiyecek üretimini artırmaktadır. Bir bilim adamı daha iyi zirai yöntemler her tarafta kullanılsa dünyanın on milyar insanı destekleyebileceğini (=besleyebileceğini) söyledi. Yiyecek arzı bitki hastalıklarının kontrolü ve kurak (=çöl) arazilerin sulanması ile de artırılabilir. Bu ve diğer yöntemleri kullanmak suretiyle insanoğlu kendini ve etrafındakileri besleyebilir.

KPDS 1993 KASIM () There are twelve and a half acres of land for each man, woman, and child in the world today. However, only three and a half acres of this land can be cultivated. If the population of the world reaches six billion by the year 2000, there will be only one and a half acres for each person. Man just increases his production of food. One scientist has said that the world could support ten billion people if better agricultural methods were used everywhere. The supply of food can also be increased by the control of plant diseases, and by the irrigation of desert lands. By using these ways and others, man can feed himself and his fellow men. 10. The passage emphasises that the growth of the world population ----. A) makes food production a vital question B)

must not be allowed to continue at the present rate

C) is no longer a cause for international concern D) has now made it necessary to cultivate all the desert lands in the world E)

has jeopardised the farmlands in the world.

11. The writer suggests that, by the end of the century, the amount of the arable land available ----. A)

will be doubled in size through the irrigation of desert lands

B)

per person will drop to three and a half acres from twelve and a half

C) will be fully adequate for the support of a ten billion world population D) per person will fall from three and a half acres to one and a half E)

will continue to diminish and, hence, famine will be inevitable

12. According to the passage, the world food problem can be solved ----. A)

by a fair and even distribution of available arable land throughout the world

B)

only if new ways of overcoming plant diseases can be discovered

C) simply by cultivating desert lands in an efficient way D) so long as the population does not exceed ten billion at the most E)

if various effective measures are taken, such as the improvement of farming techniques

37

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Sanayi devriminin başlangıcından beri kirliliğe dair her zaman belirgin miktar bir endişe olsa da, bu daha çok nispeten kısıtlı sayıdaki duyarlı insanların ilgisini çekiyordu. Ama 1960lar boyunca büyük bir endişe artışı oldu, ki bu endişe artışı BM Stokholm Konferansının yaptığı çağrıyla/bildiriyle uluslararası yansıma da buldu. Artan kamu baskısına karşılık, çoğunlukla sanayi ülkelerinde olmak üzere önlemler alındı (harekete geçildi), her ne kadar bazen gönülsüz bir şekilde ve sanayinin ve hükümetlerin maliyete ilişkin pek çok uyarıyla birlikte yapılmış olsa da. Yine de, pek çok alanda memnuniyet verici bir ilerleme oldu.

KPDS 1993 KASIM () Though there has always been a certain amount of concern about pollution since the start of the Industrial Revolution, this was largely an interest of relatively limited numbers of concerned people. But during the 1960s there was a great upsurge of anxiety which was reflected internationally by the calling of the Stockholm UN Conference. In response to the rising public pressures, action has been taken mainly in the industrial countries, even though sometimes reluctantly and with many warnings from industry and governments about the costs. However, in many areas there has been a gratifying improvement. 13. The author points out that, to some extent, public awareness of pollution ----. A) dates back to the first years of the Industrial Revolution B)

emerged late in the process of industrialisation

C) first appeared in the 1960s D) was first voiced at the Stockholm UN conference E)

played a part in the rapid development of industry.

14. It is implied in the passage that both industry and governments have ----. A)

found ways of thwarting public pressures as regards pollution

B) not always been willing, mainly for economic reasons, to take action to prevent pollution C) come out in support of the policies recommended at the Stockholm UN conference D) constantly been in the forefront of pollution control policies since the 1960s E)

done more than was required of them in eliminating pollution.

15. According to the passage, in spite of the lack of cooperation from industry and governments ----. A)

the UN has introduced drastic measures to ensure the prevention of any further pollution

B)

the problem of pollution has now been fully solved worldwide

C) the costs of pollution control work have been less than was expected D) the prices of goods remained the same E)

some considerable progress has been made towards controlling pollution

38

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Şu an itibariyle neredeyse 10 yıldır, otomobil üretimi ciddi değişiklikler geçirmektedir. Temel sebep, başlangıçta Toyota tarafından geliştirilen, daha sonraysa diğer Japon araba üreticilerince tatbik edilen yeni üretim ve işletme tekniklerinin ortaya çıkmasıdır. Buna “lean” üretim denir. Bu, araba üretim sürecinde, Henry Ford’un yüzyılın başında ortaya koyduğu toplu/seri üretimden daha aşağı kalır bir devrim değildir. Gerçekten de lean üretim el işçiliği/zanaatı ve seri üretimin üstün yönlerini biraya getirir. Bu üretim tekniğinin hayati bir özelliği onun en yüksek verim, kalite ve esnekliğe, dizayndan tutun da montaja kadar tüm aktiviteler aynı mekânda gerçekleştiğinde ulaşmasıdır.

KPDS 1993 KASIM () For nearly a decade now, the manufacturing of automobiles has been undergoing radical changes. The principle cause is the introduction of new production and management techniques, originally engineered by Toyota and subsequently applied by other Japanese car manufacturers. This is called “lean” production. It implies no less a revolution in the process of car manufacturing than the mass production Henry Ford introduced at the beginning of the century. In fact, lean production combines the advantages of craft and mass production. A vital feature of this production technique is that it achieves its highest efficiency, quality and flexibility when all activities - from design to assembly - occur in the same area. 16. It is pointed out in the passage that; in the car industry, the traditional mass production techniques ----. A)

introduced by Ford were soon outdated

B)

are popular only in Japan

C) have contributed significantly to Japanese success in this area D) are beginning to fall out of favour E)

in fact require a higher degree of management efficiency.

17. The writer explains that, in lean production, ---. A)

Japanese, companies have followed Henry Ford's example

B)

there is less need for skilled workers

C) costs are kept to a minimum D) the techniques of mass production are no longer applicable E)

the best of mass and craft production come together.

18. According to the passage, lean production techniques work best ----. A)

in industries where specialised craftsmanship is not required

B)

not only in car manufacturing but also in other branches of machine production

C) in a country like Japan where the skilled work force is limited D) when the whole production process takes place in one place E)

if management procedures do not disrupt the manufacturing process

39

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Milyonlarca yıl önce oluştuğunda, dünya bir sıvı idi. Hala soğuyor ve sert kabuğun millerce altı hala sıcak. Ancak bazı yerlerde sıcaklık yüzeye daha yakın. Bu yerlere genellikle volkanik aktivite veya sıcak kükürt ılıcaları eşlik etmekte. Dünya kabuğunun derinlerine sondaj yaparak yüzeydekinden çok daha sıcak olan kayaçlara erişebiliriz. Bu kayalara temas edecek şekilde suyu aşağı pompalamak ve böylece üretilmiş buharı çıkarmak elektrik üretiminde kullanılan bir enerji kaynağıdır. Buna jeotermal enerji denir.

KPDS 1992 MAYIS () When it was formed many million years ago the earth was a liquid. It is still cooling and many miles below the hard crust is still hot. However, in some places the heat is closer to the surface. These places are associated with volcanic activity or hot sulphur springs. By drilling deep into the earth’s crust we can reach rocks that are much warmer than those at the surface. Pumping water down into contact with these rocks and extracting the steam so produced is a source of energy that can be used to produce electricity. It is called geothermal energy.

19. It is explained in the passage that under the hard surface of the earth there ----. A) exists a hot core which can be used as a source of energy B)

seems to be a great deal of volcanic activity which threatens life

C) is a hot liquid layer which has never been drilled D) could be a number of hot sulphur springs, the main cause of volcanic activity E)

has never been sufficient heat to melt rocks

20. According to the passage, geothermal energy ----. A)

has been used by man for millions of years

B)

can be produced both plentifully and cheaply

C) is a by-product of extensive volcanic activity D) is the result of the contact of water with the hot rocks below the earth’s surface E)

is recognised as the only form of energy that would never be exhausted

21. We can infer from the passage that the earth’s crust ----. A)

has completely stopped the process of cooling underneath

B)

is a constant source of geothermal energy

C) is not suitable for any kind of drilling D) is constantly warming and cooling due to volcanic activity E)

varies in thickness from place to place [KARŞILAŞTIRMA: closer; ZITLIK: however]

40

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Balıkçılık problemine döndüğümüzde, görüyoruz ki, BM deniz hukukuna dair toplu kararıyla, dünya devletleri/milletleri aşırı balık avcılığının tehlikelerini resmen tanıdıklarını göstermişlerdir. Devletler artık 200 millik özel ekonomik mıntıka veya özel balıkçılık mıntıkası tayin edebilmekte ve balık avcılığını sürdürülebilir bir seviyede tutabilmekteler. Gelişmekte olan ülkeler, balıkçılık kaynaklarını en iyi, yani, uzun vadede faydalı olacak şekilde işletme imkânı vaat eden bu yeni balıkçılık düzenlemesinden (hali hazırda) fayda sağlamaya başlamış gözüküyorlar.

KPDS 1992 MAYIS () When we turn to the problem of fishing, we see that through a UN Convention on the Law of the Sea, the world’s nations have indicated that they recognize the risks of over-fishing. Nations can now declare 200-mile exclusive economic zones and exclusive fishing zones and control the catch at a level that is sustainable. Developing nations seem to be beginning to benefit from the new fisheries regime which offers the promise of allowing them to manage fishing resources for optimum, that is long-term, benefits.

22. We can understand from the passage that the statutory measures taken by the UN, regarding fishing ----. A)

are unlikely to be abided by, at least not in the near future

B)

have had no beneficial impact on the situation

C) have been welcomed by all the member countries D) came into effect too late to be of any use whatsoever E)

have unfortunately served the interests of only the developed countries

23. One major benefit arising out of the 200-mile exclusive fishing zone is, as we understand from the passage, to ----. A)

ensure that an ever increasing quantity of fish shall be caught

B) keep under control the amount of fish caught C) exploit the marine resources through international cooperation D) help developing countries to improve their inefficient economies E)

prevent new fisheries from coming into being

24. It is stated in the passage that in the management of fisheries, ----. A)

no consideration should be given to the size of the catch

B)

one cannot plan ahead to the future

C) the introduction of restrictive measures should be avoided D) one should give importance to future rather than to present gains E)

the 200-mile zone policy can be ignored

41

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Geçen yıl Bangladeş’i vuran kasırgada ölen insanların gerçek sayısı muhtemelen asla bilinmeyecek. Saatte 145 mile ulaşan rüzgarlar, ülkenin alçakta uzanan güney doğu sahilini, tek bir noktada bölgeye doğru 20 fit yüksekliğinde bir su duvarını sürükleyerek, dokuz saat boyunca (çekiçle döver gibi) dövdü: Bölge dünyanın en kalabalık yerlerinden biriydi. Bu o ana kadar bölgede kaydedilmiş en şiddetli fırtına idi. Resmi haber ajansı 120.000 kurbanın ölümünün teyit edildiğini rapor etti, ama gerçek ölü sayısının çok daha yüksek olduğuna inanılıyor.

KPDS 1992 MAYIS () The exact number of people who died in the cyclone that struck Bangladesh last year will probably never be known. Winds reaching 145 miles per hour hammered the country’s low-lying south-eastern coast for nine hours, at one point driving a wall of water roughly 20 feet high across the area – one of the most densely populated places in the world. It was the strongest storm ever recorded in the region. The official news agency reported that 125.000 victims had been confirmed dead, but it was believed that the toll was actually much higher.

25. One can infer from the passage that one reason why so many lives were lost in the cyclone was because ----. A)

most of the population had no decent housing

B)

the Bangladesh government had failed to foresee such a disaster

C) the country had still not recovered from the previous similar cyclone D) it struck only a very narrow stretch of land E)

the area struck was one of the most overcrowded in the world

26. We can understand from the passage that the official figures given regarding the death toll ----. A) didn’t reflect the actual extent of the tragedy [kıyaslama; official / but actually] B)

overestimated the number of victims

C) were much higher than the authorities expected D) included only those drowned E)

exceeded the number of those who survived the disaster

27. The passage aims to impress on the reader ----. A)

the extent of suffering experienced by the people in Bangladesh

B) the magnitude of the cyclone’s destructive force C) the inadequacy of the relief work sent in D) the extent of poverty and misery in Bangladesh E)

the frequency with which such disasters hit the world

42

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Prefabrik inşaatın avantajları ikiye ayrılır: Daha hızlıdır, ve belirsizlikten kurtarır. İnşaat hızı bugünlerde yüksek arsa maliyetinden dolayı önemlidir: Böylesine pahalı bir malın kullanım dışı olduğu müddet minimuma indirilmelidir. Ve, kısmen veya tamamen prefabrik inşaat metotları işte zamandan kazandırır zira parçalar önceden fabrikada hazırlanır. Prefabrik inşaat belirsizliği ortadan kaldırır/giderir zira o tüm binanın davranışları bilinen ve test edilmiş olan standart parçalardan yapıldığı anlamına gelmektedir.

KPDS 1993 MAYIS () The practical advantages of prefabrication are twofold: It is quicker and it does away with uncertainty. Speed in building is important in these days because of the high cost of land: the time during which such an expensive commodity is out of use must be reduced to a minimum. And partly or wholly prefabricated methods of construction save time on the job because parts are prepared in the factory beforehand. Prefabrication does away with uncertainty because it means that the whole building is made of standard parts the behaviour of which is known and has been tested.

28. Since land is extremely valuable it is important that ----. A)

costs do not continue to rise

B)

the building materials should also be expensive

C) people should not disagree as to the advantages of prefabrication D) building costs be reduced to a minimum E)

it does not remain out of use for long

29. One advantage of using prefabricated parts is that ----. A)

fewer skilled workmen are required

B)

this method is much cheaper than standard methods

C) less land is required D) buildings can be put up much faster E)

there is more scope for experiment

30. When a building is constructed from standard parts that have been well tested ----. A)

there is no scope for originality

B)

the costs will naturally be excessively high

C) new methods of construction are overlooked D) one knows in advance that the result will be satisfactory E)

one is still not sure how they will behave in a particular situation

43

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler tutmak, dekontları/belgeleri basmak ve işlemleri kontrol etmek için kullanılırlar. Aynı zamanda polislerce kişisel kayıtları, parmak izlerini ve diğer ayrıntıları tutmak için kullanılırlar. Hızla gelişen robot ilmi alanında, bilgisayarlar artık operatörlerce yapılan manüel işlemleri kontrol etmek için kullanılıyorlar. Bunlar önceden araba üretiminde, dokumada ve diğer endüstrilerde insanlarca yapılan işleri de üstlenmekteler. Bilgisayarlar yapay uyduların kontrolünde, bilginin deşifre edilmesinde ve genel olarak iletişimde önemli rol oynamaktadır. Gittikçe daha tutarlı bir şekilde havayı tahmin etmede (de) kullanılmaktadırlar.

KPDS 1993 MAYIS (-) Computers can store vast amounts of information in a very small space and are used by the banks to keep accounts, print out statements and control transactions. They are also used by the police to keep personal records, fingerprints and other details. In the rapidly developing field of robotics, computers are now being used to control manual operations done by mechanics. These, too, are taking over work, previously done by people in the manufacture of cars, in weaving and in other industries. Computers play an important role in controlling artificial satellites, decoding information and communications generally. They are used to predict the weather with increasing accuracy. 31. One can conclude from the passage that ----. A) computers have become an indispensable part of our life [ANA FİKİR; SIRALI ANLATI, be used ifadelerine dikkat] B)

despite great advantages in computer techniques, they are not proving as useful as once was hoped

C) weather forecasts carried out by computers are not reliable at all D) robotics has long been a field of keen scientific interest for man E)

computerised banking has led to an increase in unemployment.

32. The author points out that ----. A)

industry is turning back to traditional methods of production

B)

the police use computers to make sure that their records are not tested

C) the principal use of computers is in space industry D) computers are too complex for everyday use E)

the use of robots, directed by computers, is becoming widespread in industry

33. The passage is not concerned with ----. A)

the application of computers in industry

B) how computers are manufactured C) the conservation of information by computers D) the role played by computers in crime detection E)

the use of computers in communications and the transfer of information

Bilgisayarlar muazzam miktarda bilgiyi çok küçük bir yerde depo edebilirler ve bankalar tarafından hesapları 44

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Yiyecek üretiminin küresel nüfus artışı ile başabaş gittiği ama (çoğunluğu Afrikalı) 55 ülkede kişi başına düştüğü mevcut konumdan ileriye bakarsak/bakınca, bu eğilim devam edecek gözüküyor. Çoğunluğu Afrikalı yaklaşık 30 ülke, nüfus artışını azaltmadıkça ve ziraat ve korumaya daha yüksek öncelik vermedikçe, ciddi problemler bekleyebilirler. Yüksek CO2 seviyelerine sahip daha sıcak ve daha nemli/sulak toprağın daha fazla yiyecek üretme kabiliyetine sahip olması ihtimaline rağmen, miktarlar çoğu fakir ülke için hala yetersiz olacaktır. Çoğu durumda, nüfus beklentileri bütün yerel arazi kaynaklarının besleyebileceğinden daha büyüktür.

KPDS 1993 MAYIS (-) Looking ahead from the present position where food production has kept ahead of population growth globally, but has fallen per capita in 55 (mainly African) countries, it would seem that these trends will continue. About 30 countries most of them African - can expect serious problems unless they reduce population growth and give higher priority to agriculture and conservation. Though a warmer, wetter earth with high CO2 levels is likely to be capable of producing more food, the amounts will still be inadequate for many poorer countries. In many cases, the population projections are greater than the entire local land resources can support. 34. Of all the countries in the world it is those in Africa ----. A)

which have taken the most drastic measures to prevent population growth

B) that are most threatened by food shortages [İDDİALI: mainly, most of] C) which are environmentally most at disadvantage D) that are most conscious of the need to preserve this environment E)

in which poverty has been greatly reduced through agricultural development

35. It is argued in the passage that ----. A)

changes in the world climate are increasing the problems of food production

B)

agricultural development will presently put an end to global food shortages

C) with the exception of African countries, the global production of food is adequate and likely to continue so D) the conservation of land resources is of minor importance E)

any effort must be made to prevent the CO2 level from rising

36. According to the passage it is anticipated that ----. A)

the per capita income in African countries will continue to increase

B)

food production will double in the years ahead

C) the present situation concerning population growth and population will soon improve D) all the African countries will soon solve all their population problems E)

unless serious measures are taken, the poor countries of the world will be faced with famine [KOŞUL: unless]

45

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler İlk çağlardan beri hayvanların eylemlerinin bilinçsiz olduğuna inanılır. Davranış, bu bakış açısına göre, neredeyse tamamen içgüdüden kaynaklanmaktadır. Eğer hayvanlar oldukça akıllı gözüken bir şekilde davranmışlarsa, bunu düşünmeksizin yapıyorlardır. “Hayvanlar bir şeyler bilebilir” diye devam ediyor bu sav, “ama bildiklerinin bilmezler.” Yoksa/Ya da biliyorlar mı? Son zamanlarda yapılan araştırma raporları hayvanlarda şaşırtıcı derinlikte bir zekâ (olduğunu) ileri sürmektedir. Henüz hiç kimse hayvan bilincinin varlığını “ispatlayamamış” olsa da, sunulan veriler en azından konunun düşünülmesi için karşı konulamaz/ikna edici bir dava oluşturmaktadır.

KPDS 1994 MAYIS () Since early times it has been assumed that the actions of animals are unconscious. Behaviour, in this view, stems almost exclusively from instinct. If animals behave in ways that seem pretty clever, they do so without thinking about it. Animals may know things, the argument goes, but they don't know that they know. Or do they know? Recent research reports suggest a startling depth of intelligence among animals. Although no one can yet 'prove' the existence of animal consciousness, the data offered make a compelling case for at least considering it.

“make compelling ST” aslında serbest çeviriye daha uygun bir ifadedir: Her latest book makes compelling reading. (=Son kitabını başlayınca insan elden bırakamıyor.)

37. It is pointed out in the passage that traditionally, animals are believed to ----. A)

behave not instinctively but logical

Dolayısıyla şu ifade kastedilene daha uygun olurdu:

B)

have an intelligence comparable with man’s

…, sunulan veriler insanın bu konuyu en azından gözden geçirmesini kaçınılmaz kılmaktadır.

C) imitate man in many ways D) act on instinct E)

know exactly what they are doing

38. It is pointed out in the passage that modern research forces one to consider ----. A)

why animals behave differently under different circumstances

B) the possibility of intelligence in animals C) the means by which animal behaviour can be improved D) how animals can be made to acquire new skills E)

animals to be the equal of man in intelligence

39. The passage makes it quite clear that, in the light of modern research, our traditional assumptions about animal behaviour ----. A)

have been totally disproved

B)

have been confirmed

C) have to be reconsidered D) were indeed based on scientific fact E)

should never have been questioned

46

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Cıva bir çok ilginç özelliğe ve çeşitli sanayi kullanımlarına sahiptir. Sıvı olarak kaldığı sıcaklık aralığı süresince sabit bir oranda genleşir. Bu özelliğinden dolayı ve cama yapışmadığı için, cıva sık sık termometrelerde kullanılır. Normal sıcaklıklarda çok yavaş buharlaşır ve bu yüzden uzun müddetliğine açık bir kapta bırakılabilir. Bu sebepten bir tür barometrede kullanılır. Cıva iyi bir elektrik iletkenidir ve kapalı/sızdırmaz/contalı elektrik düğmelerinde kullanılır. Cıva buharı içinden geçen bir elektrik akımı onun ışık saçmasına yol açar; bu yüzden; bazı lamba türlerinde kullanılır.

KPDS 1994 KASIM () Mercury has a number of interesting properties and a variety of industrial uses. It expands at a constant rate through the range of temperatures at which it is a liquid. Because of this property and because it does not cling to glass, mercury is often used in thermometers. At ordinary temperatures it evaporates very slowly and can thus be left in an open container for long periods of time. For this reason it is used in one type of barometer. Mercury is a good electrical conductor and is used in sealed electrical switches. An electric current passing through mercury vapour causes it to give off light; hence, it is used in certain kinds of lamps. 40. In the passage, it is pointed out that mercury ----. A)

never ceases to be a liquid

B)

is used primarily in the making of barometers

C) is of limited use since it is a poor conductor of electricity D) has certain special qualities that make it a very useful substance [ANA FİKİR, maddeli anlatı] E)

has certain unpleasant characteristics

41. Mercury is often used in thermometers ----. A)

because it never turns into a solid

B) since, so long as it is a liquid, it expands at a constant rate C) as it is unaffected by temperature change D) since it is attracted to glass E)

even though it shows a tendency to evaporate slowly even in an enclosed space.

42. Mercury vapour will give off light ----. A) when an electric current is passed through it B)

if left to evaporate slowly

C) but no use has been found for this property D) so it is a good conductor of electricity E)

and is commonly used to light up electrical switches

47

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 1994 KASIM () Yaşamın temeli olan protoplazma sürekli fiziksel ve kimyasal değişimler geçirmektedir. Bu yüzden yaşam bu devamlı oluşan değişimlerin sonucudur. Canlıların sınıflandırılabileceği iki büyük grup vardır: bitkiler ve hayvanlar. Hem bitkiler hem de hayvanlar alemi çok geniştir. Bu yüzden yaşam bilimini iki kapsamlı başlık altında, yani, bitkilerin incelenmesi (olan) botanic ve hayvanların incelenmesi (olan) zooloji adı altında görmek bir gelenek olmuştur. Her iki konu da çeşitli özel kısımlara ayrılmıştır.

Protoplasm, which is the fundamental basis of life, is constantly undergoing physical and chemical change. Life, therefore, is the resultant of these constantly occurring changes. There are two great groups into which living things may be classed: plants and animals. Both the plant and the animal kingdoms are very extensive. It is customary, therefore, to regard the science of life under two comprehensive heads, namely, botany which is the study of plants, and zoology which is the study of animals. Both subjects are subdivided into various specialised sections. 43. It is pointed out in the passage that life is the outcome of ----. A)

the interaction between plants and animals

B)

change from a physical to a chemical state of being

C) physical change taking place in the animal world D) the constant change, both physical and chemical, occurring in protoplasm E)

constant transformations in the plant world

44. It is understood from the passage that the science of botany ----. A)

is less specialised than that of zoology

B)

deals with a limited number of plants

C) is concerned with the plant world D) is a subsection of zoology E)

fundamentally concentrates on the study of protoplasm

45. The author points out that the study of living things, although carried out under various specialised headings, ----. A)

emphasises the importance of genre and species

B)

depends upon extensive field research

C) is mainly related to zoology D) takes physical rather than chemical changes into consideration E)

actually involves two basic fields of science

48

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Akdenizi ziyaret edenler her zaman onun bütünlüğünden etkilenirler. O heryerde aynıdır, zira burada ayrımın nüansları benzerliklerden daha az mühimdir. Ama bu birlik dağ ve deniz, deniz ve çöl ve deniz ve okyanus gibi agresif tezatın sonucudur. Bu bakımdan, Akdeniz gerek Orta Avrupa, gerek Asya platoları, gerekse Suriye ve Sahra Çöllerinden veya hatta Atlas Okyanusuundan çok farklıdır.

KPDS 1994 KASIM (-) Those who visit the Mediterranean are invariably impressed with its unity. Everywhere it is the same, for the shades of difference here is less important than the resemblances. Yet this unity is the result of aggressive contrast; sea and mountain, sea and desert, sea and ocean! In these respects the Mediterranean is very different from either central Europe, or high tablelands of Asia, the Syrian and Saharan deserts, or even the Atlantic Ocean. 46. What distinguishes the Mediterranean from the other parts of the world is ----. A)

that it is characterised by high tablelands

B)

the fact that the landscape varies greatly from part to part

C) that it is surrounded by vast deserts D) the combination of features, everywhere, is the same E)

that it is attracting more and more visitors

47. According to the passage, within the general unity of the Mediterranean ----. A)

the deserts of Syria and the Sahara have their special place

B)

the contrast between the sea and the desert is exceptional

C) one is also aware of startling contrast D) some people find a depressing monotony E)

there is very little that appeals to the eye

48. It is stressed in the passage that the Mediterranean ----. A)

extensively resembles the rest of the world

B)

is, in many ways, similar to central Europe

C) has an endless changing coastline D) is the most crowded part of the world E)

makes the same impression on all visitors to the area

49

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KPDS 1995 MAYIS ()

Bugün karşı karşıya olduğumuz tüm çevre problemleri içerisinde, küresel ısınma muhtemelen en yıkıcı etkilere sahip olacaktır. Bu etkilerle mücadele etmek için, zararlı gazların salımı azaltılmalıdır; bu amaçla, bol miktarlarda karbondioksit emen yağmur ormanlarının korunması gerekir. Küresel ısınma enerji verimliliğine ekstra bir önem kazandıracaktır, çünkü küresel ısınmanın kontrol edilmesi ister istemez fosil yakıtların kullanılmasının azaltılması demektir. En açıkça etkilenecek iki endüstri güç santralleri ve taşıt üreticileri olacaktır, ama enerji neredeyse ürettiğimiz, tasarladığımız veya yaptığımız her şey tarafından tüketildiği için, bu etkiler her yerde hissedilecektir.

Of all the environmental problems facing us today, global warming is likely to have the most devastating effects. In order to combat these, the emission of harmful gases must be reduced; for this purpose, the rainforests, which absorb carbon dioxide in vast quantities, must be protected. Global warming will place a premium on energy efficiency, for controlling global warming inescapably means reducing the burning of fossil fuels. The two industries that are most obviously going to be affected are the power suppliers and the vehicle manufacturers, but since energy is consumed by almost everything we manufacture, design or do, the effects will be felt everywhere.

49. It is emphasised in the passage that global warming seems to be ----. A)

easier to control than other environmental problems

B)

of less of a threat than formerly it used to be

C) the most terrible of the problems facing the environment D) one of the causes for the disappearance of the rainforests E)

reasonably under control in all parts of the world

50. The author explains that unless the burning of fossil fuels is radically reduced ----. A)

global warming cannot possibly be held in check

B)

they will soon be used up

C) traditional power supplies will not be adequate D) energy efficiency cannot be achieved E)

the effects will be far reaching and beyond our control

51. According to the passage, power supply and vehicle manufacturing ----. A)

are two industries that do not affect global warming

B)

rely heavily on fossil fuels

C) are environmentally less harmful than other industries D) have carried the problems of global warming everywhere E)

must be strictly controlled to prevent any further pollution

50

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Eşinin hatırasına kederli İmparator Şah Cihan tarafından yapılan Tac Mahal anıtmezarı nice imparatorluğun yükselişi ve düşüşüne karşın ayakta kalmış ve yağmacıları da kendine çekmiştir. Yıllar yılı, bu yağmacılar, girişinden gümüş kapıları, mermer duvarından kıymetli taşları ve mezarlarından altınları alıp gitmişlerdi. Ama bunlar modern kirlilik tehlikesi ile kıyaslandığında küçük tehditlerdi. Kömürle çalışan çelik dökümhanelerinden, termal enerji istasyonlarından, arabalardan ve Agra civarındaki sanayi mıntıkasında bulunan bir petrol rafinerisinden yayılan emisyonlar Tac mahal'in beyaz mermerini aşındırmakta ve sarartmaktadır.

KPDS 1995 MAYIS () Built by the disconsolate Emperor Shah Jahan in memory of his wife, the Taj Mahal mausoleum has survived the rise and fall of many empires and it attracted looters, too; over the years they carried away the silver doors from its gates, the precious stones from its marble wall: and the gold from its graves. But those were small threats compared with the modern danger of pollution. Emissions from the coal-fired steel foundries thermal power stations, cars and an oil refinery in the industrial belt around Agra are corroding and yellowing the Taj Mahal's white marble.

The Taj Mahal mausoleum has survived the rise and fall of many empires. 52. According to the passage, the Taj Mahal mausoleum ----. A)

is no longer richly decorated as it once used to be

B)

is not in need of any extensive restoration

Tac Mahal anıtmezarı nice imparatorluğun yükselişine ve düşüşüne şahitlik etmiştir.

C) has, on several occasions, been almost completely destroyed D) was built to be the tomb of the Emperor Shah, Jahan E)

was deliberately sited in an industrial area

53. At present, the main threat to the survival of the Taj Mahal is ----. A)

the lack of interest in the building

B)

small scale robbery

C) on-going looting D) industrial pollution E)

damaging effects of the climate in Agra

54. The passage is mainly concerned with ----. A)

the restoration work planned for the Taj Mahal

B)

the steadily worsening condition of the Taj Mahal mausoleum

C) measures taken to prevent robbery in the past D) the various kinds of industries in the Taj Mahal area E)

historic importance and value of the Taj Mahal mausoleum

51

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Beynin sol ve sağ yarı olarak ikiye bölünmüş olduğu gerçeği yeni bir keşif değildir. Kafatası ortadan kaldırıldığında, bu ayrım çıplak gözle görülebilir ve bütün hayvanlar alemindeki beyinlerin ortak bir özelliğidir. Bu ayrıma dair insanoğlunda ilginç olan şey her bir yarının özel işlevler geliştirmiş gözükmesidir: sol taraf bazı işlerde daha iyi, sağ taraf ise diğerlerinde daha iyi görünmekte. İşlevdeki en bariz ayrım şudur: Beynin sol yarısı sağ tarafından duyu alır ve sağ tarafı kontrol eder, ve (sol tarafı ise) tam tersi. Bunun sebepleri hala net değil. Bir sürü ilginç teoriye rağmen böylesi bir çapraz-geçişin bariz bir avantajı yoktur.

KPDS 1995 KASIM () The fact that the brain is divided into a left and a right half is not a new discovery. Once the skull is removed, the division is obvious to the naked eye, and it is a common feature of brains throughout the animal kingdom. What is interesting about this division in man is that each half seems to have developed specialised functions: the left side appearing to be better at some tasks and the right side better at others. The most obvious difference in functioning is that the left side of the brain receives sensations from and controls the right side of the body, and vice versa. The reasons for this are still unclear. Despite a number of interesting theories, there is no obvious advantage in such a crossover. 55. As the writer points out, it has long been known that ----. A)

damage to the left half of the brain produces far more serious defects

B)

the human brain, unlike that of other animals, has a very complicated structure

C) the right side of the brain has the same functions as the left side D) the left side of the brain works more efficiently than the right E)

in the animal world brains consist of two halves

56. We can understand from the text that, in man, each half of the brain ----. A)

is characterized by a crossover of innumerable nerves

B)

functions in full harmony with the other in all activities

C) performs certain specialised tasks D) controls the corresponding side of the body E)

can be removed without damage being caused to the other

57. The passage is mainly concerned with ----. A)

the recent history of brain studies

B)

how the body is controlled by the brain

C) the division of the brain into two halves and the way each half functions D) the reason why there is a crossover of nerves in the brain E)

how the sensations of the body are transmitted to the brain

52

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 1996 MAYIS () Today, the United States is in the grip of a second Industrial revolution. While the first, stretching from the 1870s to the 1970s, shifted the main sector of the American economy from agriculture to industry, the new revolution is shifting the economy away from traditional "smokestack" manufacturing industries to those based upon information, services and new technologies. It took the country decades to accommodate the cultural and social changes resulting from the first industrial revolution and it would be rashly optimistic to assume that Americans will not face serious stresses in coming to terms with the changes that are transforming the workplace today.

Bugün Amerika Birleşik Devletleri ikinci bir sanayi devriminin etkisindedir. 1870lerden 1970lere kadar süren ilki, Amerikan ekonomisinin ana sektörünü ziraattan sanayiye değiştirmiş iken, (bu) yeni devrim ekonomiyi geleneksel "bacalı" üretim sanayiden uzaklaştırıp, bilgi, hizmet ve yeni teknolojilere dayanan sanayiye dönüştürüyor. İlk sanayi devriminden kaynaklanan kültürel ve sosyal değişimlere uyum sağlaması ülkenin onlarca yılını almıştı, ve Amerikalıların bugün işyerlerini başka bir şekle dönüştüren değişimlerle uzlaşmada ciddi sıkıntılarla karşılaşmayacaklarını varsaymak fazlaca iyimser olur.

58. It is understood from the passage that the American economy ----. A) was, at the beginning, largely an agricultural one [İDDİALI: main] B)

was, from the start, based on heavy industry

C) has, over the years, undergone very little radical changes D) has recently entered a period of recession E)

has invariably kept a balance between agriculture and industry

A ve B seçenekleri arasındaki zıtlığa dikkat 59. The writer points out that the change in America from an agricultural to an industrial economy ----. A)

was bitterly opposed by a large segment of society

B)

was achieved in a very short period of time, actually only about two decades

C) made the use of information technologies indispensable D) brought with it many new cultural and social conditions which took years to resolve E)

brought little benefit to the country as a whole

60. The author is worried that the Americans ----. A) will find the second industrial revolution hard to cope with B)

are closing down heavy industry far too soon

C) don't pay adequate attention to conditions in the workplace D) may turn back to an agricultural economy E)

have already lost their control over manufacturing industries

Duygunun karıştığı metinler SUBJECTIVE ifadelerdir ve genelde sorgulanırlar

53

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Bilgisayarlara, bilgisayar programa dillerine, ve özellikle Fortran'a dair şimdiye kadar bir sürü kitap yazıldı. Fortran hakkında bir başka kitap üretmek, (mevzu) en yenisi olan Fortran IV bile olsa, muhtemelen çoğu kişiye mantıksız gözükecektir, ve ben, (yani) yazar, bu projeye biraz tereddütle başladım. Ama, işte bunu yapmak için bir kaç iyi sebep söylenebilir. Çoğu bilgisayar uzmanı kabul edecektir ki bilgisayar ve bilişim bilimi alanı akademik çevre için hızla bir disiplin haline gelmiştir ve bilgisayar programlama dillerinde hızlı değişimler gerçekleşmektedir. Bu iki gerçek de konunun sunumunda yeni bir yönün takip edilmesini gerektirmektedir.

KPDS 1996 MAYIS () A great many books have been written on computers, computer programming languages, particularly Fortran. To produce another book on Fortran, even the newest Fortran IV, probably seems unreasonable to most, and it is with mild trepidation that, I, the author, embark on this project. However, several good reasons can be stated for doing just that. Most computer professionals will agree that the field of computer and information science has quickly become a valid discipline for academia and that rapid changes are occurring in computer programming languages. Both of these facts demand that a new direction be taken in presenting the subject. 61. From the passage we understand that the writer is somewhat apprehensive in case ----. A)

computer sales should drop sharply

B)

developments in computer programming will become more and more costly

C) his book will be felt, by many people, to be superfluous D) computer programming should be taken over by professionals E)

programming languages should become far more complicated

Duygunun karıştığı metinler SUBJECTIVE ifadelerdir ve genelde sorgulanırlar 62. According to the passage, publications on computer technology ----. A)

are only concerned with Fortran computer programming

B) have already reached a very high number [İDDİALI: a great many] C) are brought out by academia for academia D) invariably cause a great deal of public reaction E)

are largely repetitive and very costly

63. The writer of this passage feels that his new book on Fortran is justified because ----. A)

computer science is a new science with little relevant literature

B)

computer professionals have not as yet recognised the changes taking place in computer science

C) it will boost the sale of computers throughout the world D) it introduces a new approach to computer programming languages [GEREKLİLİK: demand / SUBJUNCTIVE; GÖNDERME: these] E)

it will change the concept of computer science among academia

54

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Alışveriş merkezleri 1900'lerin başlarında Amerikan şehirlerini çevreleyen kenar mahallelerde ortaya çıkmıştı. O zamanın kenar mahalleleri daha çok konut için olma eğilimindeydi ve alışveriş için geleneksel şehir merkezlerine/çarşıya bağımlıydılar. İlk alışveriş merkezleri üç ayırt edilebilir özelliğe sahipti: Tek bir girişimci tarafından yapılan ve kiraya verilen bir sürü mağaza içeriyorlardı, genellikle önemli bir kavşakta bulunmaktaydılar ve bol miktarda ücretsiz ve cadde üzeri olmayan oto-park sağlamaktaydılar. Bu "alışveriş köyleri" kasaba alışveriş mıntıkalarını andırıyordu; hem son derece geleneksel olan mimarileri hem de kendilerini çevreleyen mahalleyle uyum içindeki genel planları itibariyle. Mağazalar caddeye bakardı, ve park alanları genellikle arkadaydı.

KPDS 1996 MAYIS () The shopping centre emerged in the early 1900s in the suburbs that encircled American cities. Suburbs of that time tended to be chiefly residential and to depend on the traditional city centres for shopping. The first suburban commercial centres had three identifiable features; they consisted of a number of stores built and leased by a single developer; they were usually situated at an important intersection, and they provided plenty of free, off-street parking. These "shopping villages" resembled smalltown shopping districts, both in their architecture, which was carefully traditional, and in their layout, which integrated them into the surrounding neighbourhood. The stores faced the street, and the parking lots were usually in the rear. 64. Before the introduction of shopping centres those living in the residential suburban areas ----. A) B) C) D) E)

were anxious to keep commercial activities there to a minimum usually preferred to go to nearby small towns in order to do their shopping found parking a great problem when they went downtown to shop had to go into the centre of the city to do their shopping felt that shopping facilities could not be integrated into such neighbourhoods

65. A popular site for the early shopping centres in the United States was ----. A) B)

C)

D) E)

the very heart of a big city with roads directly serving all the suburbs one near an important road junctions with enough space to provide adequate parking facilities [MADDELİ anlatı] the villages bordering on the suburbs of a town, since they too would benefit from the facilities a suitable point far away from two or three suburban areas one that was in the hands of a single developer and architect

66. The new "shopping villages" were reminiscent of small-town shopping areas ----. A)

B) C)

D) E)

since many architects felt these could hardly be integrated effectively into suburban conditions although the stores faced onto the parking lots, not the streets as regards both the architectural style and the arrangement of the buildings [BOTH… AND…] even though the architecture was very different as most developers wanted to bring something new into the commercial activities of the region 55

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Otobanın bazı özellikleri araba sürme zahmetini şüphesiz azaltıyor. Rampa ve virajlar ani fren ihtiyacını önleyecek şekilde özel olarak yapılmışlardır ve diğer yönden yaklaşan trafiğin olmaması kazaların en yaygın sebeplerinden birini ortadan kaldırmaktadır. Ama pek çok tehlike hala sürmektedir (ve bunlar) araçların yüksek hızları sayesinde daha da korkunç hale gelmişlerdir. Saatte yetmiş mil hızdaki bir kaza, sonuçları bakımından neredeyse kaçınılmaz olarak ürkünçtür. Arabada bir mekanik arıza veya lastik patlaması kontrol kaybına ve felakete yol açabilmektedir. Araba yola uygun olmalıdır ve lastik havaları ve lastik dişleri düzenli aralıklarla muayene edilmelidir.

KPDS 1996 KASIM () Certain features of the motorway undoubtedly ease the strain of driving. Gradients and bends are so controlled as to obviate the necessity of sharp braking, and the absence of traffic approaching from the other direction removes one of the commonest sources of accidents. Many dangers remain, however, made more terrible by the high speeds of vehicles. A collision at seventy miles an hour is almost inevitably appalling in its results. A mechanical defect in the car or a puncture can lead to loss of control and catastrophe. The car should be completely roadworthy and tyre pressures and treads need to be checked at regular intervals. 67. The passage emphasises ----. A)

that uneven tyre pressures and poor treads are the major cause of accidents

B)

the fact that speed limits on motorways should be reviewed

C) the high incidence of accidents on motorways in comparison with other roads D) both the advantage and the disadvantages of motorway E)

the fact that basically motorways are no different from other roads, only wider

68. As is pointed out in the passage, the design of motorways is such that ----. A) it should never be necessary to brake suddenly [AMAÇ: so as to] B)

catastrophes can always be averted so long as the car has no mechanical defect

C) a collision at seventy miles an hour is rarely fatal D) the dangers of driving are minimised but not the strain E)

it is difficult to estimate whether a vehicle really is roadworthy

69. One can understand from the passage that the majority of motorway accidents are catastrophic ----. A)

as they involve head on collisions

B) because they occur at high speeds [SEBEP: made…] C) as brake defects are the cause D) since they occur on gradients or bends E)

since the motorways themselves are not adequately policed and controlled

56

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Antarktika dünyadaki en uzak ve en son keşfedilen kıtadır, ama yine de dünya kara yüzeylerinin onda birini teşkil eder. Şimdiye kadar insanoğlunun yıkıcı zekâsının/maharetinin en kötüsünden kaçmıştır, ama bugün insanlığın doğal kaynaklara karşı doymak bilmez iştahı tarafından tehdit edilmektedir, ve sırf bilgi hatırına bilgi peşinde koşan bilim adamları için mükemmel laboratuar olarak hizmet eden bakir çevresini yitirme tehlikesinde gözükmektedir/olabilir.

KPDS 1996 KASIM () The Antarctic is the most remote continent in the world and the last to be discovered, but nevertheless constitutes about one tenth of the world’s land surface. So far it has escaped the worst of man’s destructive ingenuity but today it is threatened by man’s insatiable appetite for natural resources, and seems to be in danger of losing its pristine environment which serves as the perfect natural laboratory for scientists to pursue knowledge for its own sake. 70. The human qualities that are dwelt upon in this passage are mainly man’s ----. A)

concern for the environment and his determination to protect it

B)

devotion to knowledge and scientific experiment

C) concern for the underprivileged and his desire to open up new areas of natural resources for them D) respect for man and the whole created world E)

greed and the reckless way he spoils the world

71. We can understand from the passage that the Antarctic ----. A) is at present virtually unspoiled B)

is a very small and quite useless continent

C) has nothing to offer in the way of natural resources D) has suffered greatly from natural sources of destruction E)

has a climate so incompatible to man that it is safe from man

72. One can understand from the passage that the writer ----. A)

greatly admires man’s persistent search for fresh natural resources

B)

looks forward to the time when the world will benefit from the rich natural resources of the Antarctic

C) is opposed to all scientific projects concerning the Antarctic D) does not want to see the exploitation of the Antarctic by man [ÇIKARIM] E)

is rather scornful of those who pursue knowledge for its own sake

57

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Eğer iyi beslenmenin sırrı çeşitli yiyecekler tüketmek ise, o zaman sebzeler sağlıklı bir beslenmenin gerçekten köşe taşı olarak durmaktadırlar. Tüm yiyecekler içinde, en çok çeşitliliği onlar sunar. Elimizin altında gerçekten de yüzlerce çeşidi vardır ve dikkatli bitki ıslahı sayesinde, günümüz sebze hasadı devamlı büyüyor ve gelişiyor. Ayrıca, sebzeler besinlerle doludurlar. İyi sağlık için gerekli vitamin ve minerallerin neredeyse tamamını sağlarlar; bunların çoğu -özellikle patates ve kış kabağı gibi nişastalı olanlar- bizi enerjiyle donatan kompleks karbonhidratlar içerirler. Çoğu aynı zamanda besinsel lif sağlarlar, ve bir kısmı, örneğin lima bezelyesi veya patates, protein alımımıza önemli katkılar sağlayabilirler. Aynı zamanda sebzeler hiç kolesterol içermezler, çok az yağ içerirler veya hiç yağ içermezler ve kalorice düşüktürler. Besincilerin deyişiyle sebzeler "besin yoğun"durlar - yani besin depoları sağladıkları kalori miktarına göre nispeten yüksektir.

KPDS 1996 KASIM () If the key to good nutrition is consuming a variety of foods, then vegetables can truly stand as the cornerstone of a health diet. Of all foods, they offer the most diversity. There are literally hundreds of varieties available to us, and because of careful plant breeding, today’s vegetable harvest is continually being expanded and improved. In addition, vegetables are replete with nutrients. They supply nearly all of the vitamins and minerals required for good health, many of them – especially starchy vegetables like potatoes and winter squash - contain complex carbohydrates, which furnish us with energy. Most also provide dietary fiber, and a few, such as lima beans and potatoes, can contribute significantly to our protein intake. At the same time, vegetables contain no cholesterol, have little or no fat, and are low in calories. In nutritional parlance, vegetables are “nutrient dense” – that is, their store of nutrients is relatively high for the number of calories they supply. 73. It is emphasised in the passage that vegetables ----. A) B) C) D) E)

provide us with vitamins and minerals but not carbohydrates or proteins are a pleasant but unessential part of most people's diet are highly nutritious and at the same time low in calories have a surprisingly high calorie content cannot take the place of meat in our diet

74. The author points out that the kinds of vegetable at our disposal ----. A) are constantly increasing as new kinds are frequently being bred [SEBEP-SONUÇ] B) are deceptive as the nutrient content is invariably the same C) are unfortunately inadequate in most parts of the world D) are not sufficient to keep anyone in really good health E) have a dangerously high cholesterol content 75. We can understand from the passage that ----. A) B) C) D) E)

vegetables must be eaten in conjunction with foods rich in fats and minerals only a limited range of vitamins are to be found in vegetables potatoes are among the least valuable of the vegetables the starchy vegetables are a good source of energy only a small fraction of the nutrients we need for health can be derived from vegetables

58

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 1997 MAYIS () The unfavourable effects of cigarette smoking on the heart have frequently been described, but the exact basis for these effects has not been clarified. Some investigators believe nicotine to be culprit, and there has been some experimental work in animals indicating that large doses of nicotine in conjunction with cholesterol feeding and vitamin D could produce a disease of the arteries resembling that seen in humans. An alternative explanation has been offered by other scientists who have pointed to the possible role of carbon monoxide being inhaled with the cigarette smoking. 76.

It is pointed out in the passage that nicotine ----. A)

is considered by some to be one of the reasons why smoking has an adverse effect on the heart

B)

is the only harmful factor in relation to smoking

C) affects animals more seriously than humans D) has been established as more dangerous than carbon monoxide for smokers E)

has an adverse effect only upon the arteries

77. According to the passage, studies into the adverse effects of smoking ----. A)

have ruled out any relationship between smoking and cholesterol levels in humans

B)

have not been able to establish for certain whether or not carbon monoxide could be a factor

C) have so far not raised any controversial opinions D) have shown that vitamin D reduces nicotine in the body E)

indicate that nicotine and carbon monoxide may be only minor factors

78. The main concern of the passage is to ----. A)

describe certain experiments on animals relating to the effects of carbon monoxide

B)

emphasises the role nicotine and vitamin D play in the heart diseases

C) demonstrate that the adverse effects of smoking on the heart are still under debate D) compare the effects on the heart of nicotine and carbon monoxide E)

give an account of the research work concerning animal diseases

59

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 1997 MAYIS (-) Tarım kalkınma için hala en hayati alandır, öyle gözüküyor ki; en inatçı değişime direnç problemleri işte burada mevcuttur. Ziraatta tek başına bilimsel eğitimin tarım üretimi üzerinde herhangi bir belirgin etki yapmasının olası olmadığı iddia edilebilir. (veya olası olmadığını söylemek yanlış olmayacaktır). Tarımda meslek eğitimine yönelik herhangi bir girişim, bireysel çiftçinin üretimini artırması, tekniklerini geliştirmesi ve aktivite kapsamını artırması için anlamlı yapıda bir teşviğin var olmasını peşinen şart koşar. Böyle teşvik ve fırsatlar olmaksızın, zirai eğitimin çok az etkisi olabilecektir. (veya pek etkisi olmayacaktır)

Agriculture remains the most crucial area for development, here it seems that the most intractable problems of resistance to change exist. One may argue that scientific training in agriculture by itself is unlikely to have any marked impact on agricultural output. Any attempt at vocational training in agriculture presupposes that a meaningful structure of incentive exists for the individual farmer to increase his output, improve his techniques, and expand his range of activities. Without such incentives and opportunities, agricultural education can have little impact.

79. The author is of the opinion that improvements in the field of agriculture ----. A)

cannot be achieved through vocational training

B)

can easily be realised

C) have already led to good results D) are absolutely vital for productivity E)

have largely been confined to technology

80. We can understand from the passage that the agriculture community ----. A)

tends to disregard the problems of the individual farmer

B)

is eager for more vocational training

C) is fully aware of the long-term benefits of scientific training D) has already begun to benefit from the improved techniques E)

is not the one that welcomes change

81. The author concludes that vocational training in agriculture ----. A)

will be an effective way of eliminating resistance to change in society

B)

will provide farmers with a wide range of opportunities

C) will be futile unless it’s backed up with various incentives D) is regarded as a priority for social development E)

has often been underestimated by various authorities

60

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 1997 MAYIS () Kaplanlar 10 fit veya daha fazlasına kadar büyürler ve en büyük aslandan (bile) daha iri olabilirler. Muazzam güçleri vardır. Pençeleri ile tutarak avlarını kendilerine doğru çekerler/kavrarlar ve boğuşmayı bitirmek için kudretli çenelerinin parçalayıcı ısırığını kullanırlar. Çok iyi yüzerler ve sıcak günlerde su içinde oynaşırken sıklıkla görülebilirler, zira belli ki sıcaktan mağdur olmaktadırlar. Ama hava soğukken ıslak ve nemli bitki örtülerinden uzak dururlar. Tırmanabilirler fakat bu konuda leoparın kabiliyetine ulaş(a)mazlar. Tehlikeli kayalıklarda başarılı bir şekilde dolaşabilir ama genellikle yer seviyesinde kalmayı tercih ederler. Duyularla sanılabileceği kadar donatılmış değillerdir. Görünüşe bakılırsa avlanırken işitme duyularını kullanmaktadırlar. Görme duyuları sıra dışı bir şekilde gelişmiş/iyi değildir; avlarını hareket edinceye kadar fark etmedikleri görülür.

Tigers grow to lengths of ten feet or more and can be bigger than the largest lion. They have immense strength. They clutch their prey to them, holding on with their claws, and depend on the crushing bite of their powerful jaws to end the struggle. They swim very well and can often be seen splashing about in water on very hot days, since they apparently suffer from heat. When the air is chilly, however, they avoid wet or damp vegetation. They can climb, but do not approach the leopard’s ability in this. They can negotiate treacherous rocky areas but generally prefer to stay on level ground. They are not as well equipped with senses as one might expect. They apparently depend on their hearing while hunting. Their eyesight is not particularly good, they seem unable to spot prey until it moves.

82. It is clear from the passage that tigers ----. A)

rely on their huge claws alone to catch and kill their prey

B)

are the most skilful climbers of all wild animals

C) are sensitive to significant variations in temperature D) closely resemble lions as regards size, speed and strength E)

rely heavily upon their eyesight in locating and catching prey

83. As is mentioned in the passage, a flat terrain ----. A)

is usually the favoured habitats of the tiger

B)

rather than rocky cliffs gives tigers better opportunities for hiding

C) provides camouflage for leopards D) is usually wet, so tigers prefer higher levels E)

usually has thicker vegetation which shelters more prey

84. From the passage we learn that, contrary to what is generally thought ----. A)

once a prey starts to move a tiger can rarely catch it

B)

hearing is the least developed sense of the tiger

C) the leopard’s hunting ability is far behind that of the tiger D) rocky areas are invariably avoided by all wild animals E)

the tiger’s senses are not particularly well developed

61

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KPDS 1997 MAYIS (-)

KPDS 1997 KASIM ()

Scientists have long sought ways to define and measure human intelligence. And while theories of intelligence have grown more sophisticated since the 1800s when some believed mental abilities were determined by the size of a person’s head, researchers still do not agree about certain fundamental principles of human thought. They, therefore, continue to debate such basic questions as whether heredity or the environment is more important in forming intelligence.

In earlier centuries it was thought that a great continent must exist in the southern hemisphere, around the South Pole, to balance the known land masses in the north. Its real extent was better understood in the 18th century, particularly when Captain Cook sailed for the first time south of the Antarctic Circle and reached the edge of the icepack. A portion of the ice-covered continent was first sighted by Edward Bransfield in 1820. Explorers of several other nations also sighted portions of the coast-line in other quarters and wrote detailed accounts of their observations. However, in the light of these accounts, the first extensive exploration was made by Captain James Clarke Ross in 1841 when a great part of the Antarctic was discovered.

85. As we learn from the passage, the age-old controversy about whether intelligence depends upon heredity or the environment ----. A)

is now being ignored as it is seen to be fruitless

B)

was finally received in the 1800s

88. As we can understand from the passage, it was assumed many centuries ago that the large land mass around the North Pole ----.

C) has only recently become a subject for serious research

A)

seemed to be impenetrable and, hence, inexplorable.

B)

could not have a counterpart in the southern hemisphere.

D) does not seem to have ceased yet E)

C) had a regular and unchanging coastline.

was more sophisticated in the 19th century than it is today

D) must have been balanced by a similar extent of land mass around the South Pole. E)

86. According to the passage, in the early nineteenth century, some people held the view that a person’s mental capacity ----. A)

could never be changed

B)

depended upon the head size

C)

was purely heredity

89. It is pointed out in the passage that it was only with Captain Cook’s voyage in the 18th century that ----.

D) was completely shaped by the environment E)

would be reduced in size once the edge of the ice-pack began to melt.

A)

the first serious expedition into the interior of the Antarctic was launched

B)

a partially accurate assessment of the size of the Antarctic could be made.

C) people began to realise just how small the land mass here was.

was fundamental to his character

D) multi-national projects for the exploration of the Antarctic were put into effect. E)

87. One may conclude from the passage that a full understanding of the nature and the capacity of human intelligence ----. A)

can only be achieved by exceptionally sophisticated minds

B)

has finally been achieved by modern scientists

90. It is clear from the passage that, following various earlier reports concerning the Antarctic, ----.

C) is sure to be realised within the next few years D) is not likely to be achieved in the near future E)

the rich natural resources of the Antarctic became known to the outside world.

will emerge through theoretical rather than experimental studies

A)

Edward Bransfield joined the international project to study the ice-pack of the continent.

B)

many explorers were discouraged from undertaking any serious exploration there.

C) explorers from various countries began to compete with each other for the conquest of the continent. D) Captain Cook decided to undertake a second voyage of discovery in the area. E)

the first major, large-scale discovery of the continent was undertaken by James Clarke Ross in 1841.

KPDS 1997 KASIM () 62

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

Oceanography is the scientific study of the world’s oceans which cover over 70 percent of the earth’s surface. The beginnings of modern oceanography go back to the 1870s when, for the first time, wide ranging scientific observations and studies of the oceans were undertaken by British. Since then, oceanography has developed into a highly technical and interdisciplinary science which is now divided into several fields of study. These are biological oceanography, which deals with the study of the marine organisms and marine ecology, chemical oceanography, which is concerned with the composition of sea water, and physical oceanography, which studies ocean currents, tides, waves, and the role played by the oceans in climate and weather. Geological oceanography is also another branch of oceanography and is mainly concerned with the formation, composition and evaluation of the ocean basins. Oceanographic knowledge is essential to allow exploitation of the enormous food, mineral and energy resources of the oceans with minimum damage to the ocean environment.

very early times. The papyrus reeds of the Nile swamps served the ancient Egyptians for sheets upon which to inscribe their records. The Chinese and Japanese, centuries later, were using something more akin to modern paper in substance, an Asiatic paper-mulberry, yielding a smooth fibrous material, being utilised. With the spread of learning in Western Europe the necessity of a readier medium made itself felt, and paper began to be manufactured from pulped rags and other substances. Other papermaking staples were later introduced, such as linen cotton and wood-pulp. The chief raw material in the world paper industry now is wood-pulp, the main exporters being the timber-growing countries of Canada, Sweden and Finland. 94. We can understand from the passage that, throughout history, paper ----.

91. In the passage the writer does not dwell on ----. A) B) C) D) E)

the purpose and research concerns of biological oceanography. the history of oceanography studies, and the range of these studies how oceanographic studies can contribute to the improvement of shipping. the uses for us of the information provided by oceanographic studies about the oceans. what geological oceanography and chemical oceanography deal with.

A)

has played a vital role in the advancement of learning

B)

has been a major export item for Asian countries, and for China in particular

C)

has been produced from a wide range of materials

D)

has been valued as a means of communication more in the West than in the East

E)

has largely been used for documentation rather than for learning

95. It is obvious from the passage that today the wood-pulp needed for the manufacture of paper ----.

92. It is clear from the passage that, due to the complexity and variety of its research activities, oceanography ----.

A)

is largely provided by the countries which produce a great deal of timber

B)

is produced from a variety of substances other than timber

C) can only be produced economically with the aid of sophisticated technology

A) B)

cooperates with some of the other sciences focuses only on the discovery of the new energy resources in the oceans C) benefits extensively from the findings of biology. D) is rarely concerned with the problems of the ocean environment. E) has developed into a separate and independent discipline with no relationship with other sciences.

D) is normally made from raw materials locally available E)

can most readily be prepared from timber with a high fibrous content

96. The main concern of the passage is to ----.

93. We understood from the passage that over the last hundred years or so ----. A)

many wide ranging studies have been made of ocean currents and their effects on climate B) the oceans have been extensively exploited for food and mineral deposits C) British scientists have carried out extensive studies of the ocean basis D) scientists have been much concerned with the pollution of the ocean environment E) much progress has been made in the development of oceanography as a science

A)

explain why there has been so little change in the development of papermaking

B)

describe how the West learned the techniques of papermaking

C) account for the economic implications of the paper industry D) give a historical account of papermaking with emphasis on the main raw materials used E)

KPDS 1998 MAYIS () Paper has been known in one form or another from 63

alert the reader to the fact that very large amounts of timber are consumed in papermaking

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 1998 MAYIS ()

KPDS 1998 MAYIS (-)

The great expansion in energy demand over recent years has been met to a large extent by petroleum oil. The total world reserves of petroleum oil are still uncertain since large parts of the world are still not fully prospected. The cutback in oil production and the rise in the price of Middle Eastern oil following the 1973 Arab-Israeli war unleashed a worldwide energy crisis which affected the economies of consumer countries. One result of this crisis has been that Britain has increased its North Sea oil production and become the fifth largest oil producing country in the world.

In 1903 the United States signed a treaty with Panama, which gave the United States rights in perpetuity ever a 16 km wide strip of land extending across the narrowest part of Panama for the purpose of building and running a canal. The canal built, now known as the Panama Canal, connects the Atlantic and the Pacific Oceans and is just over 80 km long. Its depth varies from 12 to 26 meters. It is constructed above sea-level, with locks and has been available for commercial shipping since 3 August 1914. An agreement was reached in 1978 for the waterway to be turned over Panama by the end of the century. 100. According to the passage, with the 1978 agreement concerning the Panama Canal it was agreed that ----.

97. It is pointed out in the passage that, to meet its increasing energy needs, the world ----. A)

will have to develop new sources of energy in addition to petroleum oil

A)

shipping through the Canal would be jointly supervised by Panama and the United States

B)

has had to face a recurrent energy crisis

B)

the right to operate the Canal would rest with the United States for ever

C)

the Canal would revert to Panama at the end of the century

D)

the costs would be shared equally between Panama and the United States

E)

the Canal had to accept commercial shipping from all countries

C) has, in recent years, relied heavily on petroleum oil D) has had to rely more and more on British oil E)

is learning to depend upon a larger variety of energy sources

98. One can understand from the passage that further oil explorations ----. A)

would inevitably result in a drop in oil prices

B)

are unlikely to produce any positive results

101. We understand from the passage that the locks in the Panama Canal are essential ----.

C) should be carried out both in the Middle East and in the North Sea D) may cause new tensions in the Middle East E)

A)

as, for a canal, 80 kilometres is a very long stretch of waterway

B)

since the canal authorities need to be supervise shipping in the canal

C) lest enemy ships attempt to enter the Canal

could lead to the discovery of rich reserves of petroleum as yet untapped

D) even though the United States would have preferred not to build them E)

99. According to the passage, one result of the oil crisis caused by the Arab-Israeli war has been that ----. A)

the world has learned to reduce its energy consumption

B)

Britain has become one of the leading oil producers

102. As it is pointed out in the passage, the Panama Canal ----.

C) many new oil fields throughout the world have been prospected and brought into production

A)

will continue to be run jointly by Panama and the United States

B)

has continuously caused friction between the United States and Panama

C) has had an increasing volume of shipping since it was first opened

D) Britain has emerged as the largest exporter of petroleum oil in the world E)

because there is a difference between the level of the Canal and that of the sea

D) was constructed to connect the Atlantic and Pacific Oceans at their closest point

consumer countries have had to redefine their economic priorities

E)

has become the world’s busiest waterway for commercial shipping

KPDS 1998 MAYIS () 64

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

When there has been a serious disaster such as an earthquake or flooding, various relief efforts are rapidly put into effect. However, experience has shown that it is usually impractical to attempt mass immunisation immediately following a disaster and that, when attempted, it detracts from the overall relief effort without producing a discernible benefit. Effective immunisation requires prior planning, good systems of communication and transport, and access to the population at risk. These requirements cannot be met in the immediate post-disaster period. Efforts to achieve mass vaccination in the relief phase also drain whatever limited manpower, communication facilities, and transportation exist.

B)

the transport of relief workers to the area should be carefully planned

D) the distribution of food and medicine is the main activity of the relief phase E)

conditions are not favourable for the implementation of an efficient immunisation programme [ZORUNLULUK: require / SIRALI / ANA FİKİR]

105. We can understand from the passage that, if transport and communication facilities are inadequate, ----.

the most difficult to organise is the fair distribution of supplies

A) then relief efforts will be adversely affected B)

B) mass immunisation is not usually to be recommended [ZAMANA KOŞULLU EYLEM]

the population at risk has to be removed to a safer place

C) the problems facing relief workers will not be so obvious

C) communication facilities are among the most urgent measures to be taken

D) relief efforts have to be doubled to improve the situation

D) it is important to plan comprehensively the evacuation of the badly wounded E)

it is not often possible to have access to adequate communication facilities

C) untold benefits are to be derived from mass immunisation

103. It is pointed out in the passage that, as part of the relief work following a disaster, ----. A)

A)

E)

one of the priorities must be the resettlement of the displaced population

the amount of man power has to be increased by every means available

Deprem veya sel gibi ciddi bir felaket olduğunda, çeşitli kurtarma çabaları hızla uygulamaya konur. Ancak, tecrübeler göstermiştir ki bir felaketin hemen akabinde toplu aşılamaya girişmek genellikle pratik değildir ve teşebbüs edildiğinde gözle görülür bir fayda sağlamaksızın bütün kurtarma çalışmasının gücünü azaltır. Etkin aşılama, ön planlamayı, iyi iletişim ve ulaşım sistemlerini ve risk altındaki nüfusa erişimi gerektirir. Bu gereksinimler hemen felaket ardındaki dönemde karşılanamaz. Kurtarma safhasında toplu aşılama yapma çabaları aynı zamanda mevcut kısıtlı miktardaki herhangi insan gücü, iletişim olanakları ve ulaşımı da kurutacaktır.

104. We can understand from the passage that, in the main, in the aftermath of a disaster, ----. 65

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 107. The writer points out that, though most people expect life to be free of care and death easy, ----.

KPDS 1998 KASIM () All of us are born, all of us will die; but there is infinite variety in the nature and circumstances of these two events themselves and in what happens to our bodies and our minds in between. Some individuals, for example, are born without difficulty and grow uninterruptedly during childhood and adolescence, suffering at worst only minor infectious diseases and accidents. As adults, they reproduce their kind. They age gradually until, in extreme old age, they die peacefully without pain or discomfort. This is an idealised picture of how we would like things to be, rather than the reality that most people experience. Death comes to many of us, not when we are old, but during or before birth, in infancy, in adolescence, in early adulthood or in middle age.

A)

this is not likely to happen either in adolescence or in adulthood

B)

they have to strive hard to attain this idealised condition

C) this is, in fact, very rarely the case D) for many people a worthwhile life has more to it than this E)

this is seldom the case except in old age

108. In this passage the writer points out the disparity between ----.

106. One point made by the author in this passage is that we, as human beings, ----. A)

must face the fact that accidents in old age are inevitable

A)

the basically fortunate lives of the majority and the tragic experience of a small minority

B)

have all similar opportunities but use them differently

B)

what everyone expects of life and what he actually achieves in life

C) all enjoy a happy childhood and a healthy adolescence

C) the early happy years of our lives, and the later tragic ones

D) ought to take certain measures to avoid infectious diseases in childhood

D) the near ideal life experience of the few and the actual life experience of the majority [ANA FİKİR]

E)

have widely differing experiences of birth, life and death [İDDİALI: infinite]

E)

66

the happier middle years of a person’s life and the more trying later years

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Amazon dünyadaki en geniş/hacimli nehirdir. Dünya akarsularının neredeyse dörtte birini taşır ve Nil’den sonra ikinci en uzun nehirdir. Çoğunlukla kahverengi, acımsı, pirana ile dolu ve buz gibidir. Dar kollar ve ihtişamlı hızlardan muazzam düzlükler ve sükunete kadar değişiklik gösteren nehrin bir yakasından öteki yakasına varmak yarım günü alır. Yer yer, bir kilometreden daha kısa bir mesafede 40 metre kadar düşebilir / kota farkı gösterebilir. Dahası, derin kanyonlar ve çalkantılı sularının yarıp dik boğazlar içinden akar.

KPDS 1999 MAYIS () The Amazon is the largest river in the world. It carries about a quarter of the world's running water and is the second longest after the Nile. Much of it is brown, brackish, piranha-infested and bitterly cold. Ranging from narrow tributaries and raging rapids to stretches of prodigious width and calm, the river's banks can take half a day to reach. In parts, it can drop up to 40 metres in less than a kilometre. Furthermore, it runs through deep canyons and steep gorges that have been carved out by its turbulent waters.

109. We learn from the passage that, though the Amazon has the largest volume of water of any river in the world, ----. A) it is not the longest [İDDİALI: second] B)

it is in no parts particularly wide

C) there is very little topographical variety in its course D) it is seldom used for the transportation of goods E)

it is in most parts congested with mud and slime, hence slow-moving

110. It is pointed out in the passage that the waters of the Amazon ----. A)

shelter many species of exotic fish

B) are in parts muddy and not fresh C) form a chain of spectacular waterfalls D) are not suitable for the survival of piranha E)

flow calmly throughout its course

111. The passage largely deals with ----. A)

the differences and the similarities between the Amazon and the Nile

B)

the varying problems of navigation along the Amazon

C) the geological formation of the course of the Amazon D) the number and the size of the Amazon's many tributaries

E)

the size of the Amazon and its topographical and aquatic features [ANA FİKİR]

67

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 1999 MAYIS ()

KPDS 1999 MAYIS

Pollution is no respecter of national boundaries today. But environmental scientists can still be surprised by the distances that large quantities of industrial pollutants can sometimes be carried by winds. For instance, a group of chemists at the University of Washington in Seattle have been involved in a case study of such pollutants which reached the West Coast of America all the way from Asia. They are keen to understand how such an event could take place and to what extent it could have been forecast. In fact, back in March 1997, pollutants such as carbon-monoxide from Asia had been spotted as far across the Pacific Ocean as Hawaii. Thus, it seems increasingly likely that the West Coast of America is particularly exposed to pollution from Asia.

Everybody needs vitamins and minerals to remain healthy. The questions are, which ones, how much and when? And the answer is surprisingly simple: take XXX. Actually, the Department of Health has recognised 18 essential vitamins and mineral that we need on a daily basis. The daily amount required of these vitamins and minerals is termed the Recommended Daily Allowance (RDA). XXX meet this requirement and more. As a new vitamin complex, it contains these 18 essential vitamins and minerals, plus a total of no less than 31 other micro-nutrients, including the complete antioxidant group and folic acid. There is no more complete a multimineral-multivitamin on the market. So, because you don’t always eat as you should, it makes sense to take XXX. 115. One essential point made in the passage is that ----.

112. It is suggested in the passage that industrial pollution in our world today ----. A)

is largely concentrated in the Pacific Ocean

B)

is gradually being brought under full control

C) has been the main concern of scientists from the University of Washington

vitamins and minerals must always be taken in conjunction with other micro-nutrients

B)

the Recommended Daily Allowance of vitamins and minerals is actually not adequate

C) the Recommended Daily Allowance of vitamins and minerals should not be exceeded by a supplementary intake of other nutrients

D) can be predicted and the necessary measures taken E)

A)

D) micro-nutrients, such as folic acid, are an adequate substitute for the 18 basic vitamins and minerals

can travel amazing distances [İDDİALI: as far across as; DUYGU: surprised]

E) 113. It is pointed out in the passage that one of the issues the chemists from the University of Washington are seriously concerned with ----. A)

116. In the passage it is claimed that XXX ----.

is how to clean up the Pacific Ocean and save it from industrial pollutants

A) is the easiest way of getting an adequate supply of vitamins and other micro-nutrients daily

B) is whether it may be possible to foretell the movements of pollutants from Asia

B)

C) is whether it might be possible to change the course of industrial pollutants along the West Coast

has been strongly recommended by the Department of Health

C) is the only multimineral-multivitamin complex currently on sale

D) has been the measurement of carbon monoxide levels around Hawaii E)

a daily intake of vitamins and minerals is vital for good health [ZORUNLULUK: need]

D) is particularly effective if it is taken after meals

should be the prevention of the emission of pollutants along the West Coast of America

E)

is an aid to better eating habits

117. It is clear from the passage that, in taking vitamins and minerals, the basic problem one faces is to ----.

114. One can conclude from the passage that Asian industry appears to ----. A)

be in desperate need of reconstruction and relocation

A)

decide the quantity required in any given situation

B)

be doing all it can to prevent environmental pollution

B)

keep the correct balance between the two

C) avoid an excessive intake of the anti-oxidant group

C) be emitting more carbon-monoxide than any other industrial pollutant

D) determine the kind and the amount to be taken daily

D) pose a serious environmental threat to the West Coast of America E)

E)

follow a strict diet that includes them all

be a major competitor for the American industrial enterprises along the West Coast KPDS 1999 KASIM 68

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

Edison, one of the pioneers of modern technology, lacked formal education. His understanding of literature, art, history and philosophy was superficial. Also, despite the fact that he had invented the phonograph and founded a recording company, his musical taste was abominable. He is, therefore, sometimes regarded with disdain by academic scientists, who often forget that his ingenuity, inquiring spirit and tireless efforts contributed significantly to the development of modern technology.

118. We can understand from the passage that some scientists in the universities ----. A)

are oblivious of Edison's achievements and look down on him

B)

argue that modern technology owes everything to Edison

C)

have followed closely in Edison's footsteps and upgraded his inventions

D)

possess the same inquiring spirit as Edison did

E)

have no greater an appreciation of literature than did Edison

119. It is stressed in the passage that, with his creative talent, Edison ----. A)

became a favorite model for the scientists in the universities

B)

achieved great success in many disciplines

C)

was able to contribute enormously to the progress of modern technology

D)

exercised a lasting influence in the music world

E)

was able to put his formal education to pragmatic uses

120. This passage, while admitting some deficiencies in Edison, ----. A)

seeks to establish his moral integrity

B)

in fact stresses his achievements in the humanities

C)

finds nothing to criticize in his academic abilities

D)

suggests that he has been unjustly criticized by non-scientists

E)

actually focuses on the value of his work in technology [ANA FİKİR]

69

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler For many years after Mt. Everest had been shown to be the highest mountain in the world, political conditions in Nepal, lying south of the summit, and in Tibet to the North, prevented mountaineers from attending an ascent. At last in 1921 the Tibetan authorities gave permission, and the first expedition organised, as were all subsequent expeditions, by international joint committee, was sent out. This was primarily a reconnaissance. Besides mapping the Northern flank, it found a practicable route up to the mountain. By 1939, six further expeditions had climbed on the northern face. Some were hampered by bad weather, others by problems previously little known, such as the effect of high altitudes on the human body and spirit. Nevertheless, notable climbs were accomplished, though the summit was never reached.

KPDS 1999 KASIM Atmosphere is the gaseous envelope of the earth, and consists of a mixture of gases and water vapour. The variability of the latter is meteorologically of great importance. The ozone layer, which absorbs solar ultra-violet radiation, especially lethal to plant life, lies between 12 and 50 kilometres above the earth. The lower level of the atmosphere, up to a height of about 12 kilometres, is known as the troposphere, and it is in this region that nearly all weather phenomena occur. This is the region of most interest to the forecaster studying temperature, humidity, wind-speed and the movement of air masses.

124. It is pointed out in the passage that during the 1920s and 1930s ----.

121. According to the passage, the earth ----. A)

is exposed to the deadly effects of the dangerous gases and water vapour that surround it

A)

B)

is surrounded by gases in combination with water vapour

B) several attempts were made to climb Mt. Everest and learn more about it

C)

has an atmosphere which is comprised of extremely harmful gaseous substances

C) it was Nepal that made possible the various efforts to climb

D)

has a constant climate in spite of meteorological variations in the atmospheric gases

D) it was finally established that Mt. Everest was indeed the world’s highest peak

E)

E)

gives off a constant supply of water vapour into the atmosphere

the governments in the Everest area were invariably suspicious of the purpose of the climbing expeditions

climbers heading for Mt. Everest encountered almost no problems

125. We learn from the passage that the first Everest expedition ----.

122. As we learn from the passage, it is the plants of the earth that ----.

A)

was sponsored and encouraged by the Tibetan government established that high altitudes have a negative impact on the human body

A)

are most obviously affected by the meteorological changes in the atmosphere

B)

B)

benefit most from the water vapour in the atmosphere

C) aimed to explore the terrain and chart out a feasible route to the peak [İDDİALI: primarily]

C)

help to reduce the effects of solar radiation

D)

suffer most from the ultra-violet radiation of the sun [İDDİALI: especially / RC]

D) was greatly hampered by the adverse political conditions prevailing in Nepal and Tibet

E)

E)

contribute to the elimination of toxic gases in the atmosphere

undertaken by an international team failed to achieve its objectives

126. According to the passage, several expeditions had, by the end of the 1930s, attempted to climb Mt. Everest but ----.

123. We understand from the passage that the troposphere is of vital importance as regards the weather, ----.

A) none of them succeeded in reaching the top [İDDİALI: never]

A)

even though wind-speeds cannot be accurately measured here

B)

B)

as it accommodates the ozone layer

C) no suitable routes to the top could be found

C)

even though the atmospheric variability is not predictable

D) unfavourable weather conditions meant that no progress could be made at all

D)

since it prevents solar radiation from reaching the earth

E)

E)

because all the meteorological phenomena take place in this region [CLEFT SENTENCE]

none of them achieved any measure of success at all

only one or two of them were in any way successful

KPDS 2000 MAYIS Heat-waves, if the temperature is high enough,

KPDS 1999 KASIM 70

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above 40°0 for instance, lead to wilting, and even death in plant, because of structural damage to essential proteins. The problem is that plants react by closing their pores when, due to a serious heat-wave, they are subjected to water stress, so shutting down on transpiration and conserving water. Just as the body would overheat dangerously if it shut its pores to prevent sweating, so, in a plant, the shutting of the pores will cause permanent damage, if not death. Temperatures above -5°C can damage most plants if lasting for half an hour or more. High soil temperatures will also damage roots and prevent nutrient uptake.

stresine maruz kaldıklarında, gözeneklerini kapatmak, dolayısıyla terlemeyi durdurmak ve suyu muhafaza etmek şeklinde reaksiyon vermeleridir. TIPKI vücudun terlemeyi durdurmak için gözeneklerini kapatırsa tehlikeli bir şekilde aşırı ısınacağı GİBİ, (AYNI ŞEKİLDE) bir bitkide DE gözenekleri kapatmak, ölüme değilse bile, kalıcı zarara yol açacaktır. 45 derecenin üzerindeki sıcaklıklar, eğer yarım saat veya üzerinde devam ederse, çoğu bitkiye zarar verebilir. Yüksek toprak sıcaklıkları da köklere zarar verecek ve besin alımını engelleyecektir.

127. As we learn from the passage, a heat-wave can cause serious damage to plant life ----. A)

even if the essential proteins remain unharmed

B)

even when the temperature remains below 40°C

C) unless the soil temperature remains stable D) through harming the plant's essential proteins E)

especially if the soil is fertile

128. It is pointed out in the passage that the death of a plant in a heat-wave is due to ----. A)

a sudden loss of proteins which can occur within half an hour

B)

excessive transpiration in an effort to keep its temperature down

C) overheating in the plant following the closing of the little holes in its surface D) a structural deformation which cannot be detected easily E)

the plant's inability to conserve water in its cells

129. It is understood from the passage that, in extremely high temperatures, the roots of a plant ----. A) fail to supply the plant with adequate nutrients B)

dry out well before the leaves begin to wilt

C) store an adequate amount of nutrients to prolong plant life D) increase their nutrient intake in order to protect the plant E)

maintain their vitality so that they can function normally

Isı dalgaları, eğer sıcaklık yeterince yüksekse, mesela 40 derecenin üzerinde ise, temel proteinlere yapısal zararından ötürü bitkide solmaya ve hatta ölüme yol açar. Problem bitkilerin ciddi bir ısı dalgası yüzünden su 71

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KPDS 2000 MAYIS Pek çok ülkedeki, özellikle batı Avrupa ülkelerindeki şehirlerin göze çarpan bir özelliği, savaş boyunca mahvolmuş olan bina ve caddelerin, barış yeniden sağlanınca, eskiden olduğu şekliyle tıpatıp aynı şekilde yeniden inşa edilmeleridir. Muhiti aslına tam uygun bir şekilde yeniden yaratmak için muazzam çabalar gösterilmektedir. Bu sıradan insanların geçmişin geleneklerine ve kültürüne hangi boyutta önem verdiğini yansıtır. Ancak Japon şehirlerinde geleneğe böylesi bir saygının izi-emaresi pek gözükmez. Tokyo uç bir örneği temsil eder: bugünlerde bir caddenin veya çevrenin her yıl neredeyse tanınamayacak oranda değişmesi gayet sıradandır. Taşra kentlerde de, birkaç yıl şehirde olmamak neredeyse şehri tanınamayacak bir boyuta getirir.

A conspicuous feature of cities in many countries, in particular those of Western Europe, is that buildings and streets devastated during the war are, once peace is reinstated, rebuilt in exactly the same manner as they existed before. Enormous efforts are taken to recreate the environment with total fidelity. This reflects the extent to which ordinary people value the traditions and culture of the past. In Japanese cities, however, one sees little evidence of such respect for tradition. Tokyo presents an extreme example: it is quite common these days for the appearance of a street or quarter to change almost beyond recognition every year. In provincial cities as well, one often finds that an absence of several years has rendered a city almost unrecognisable. 130. It is emphasized in the passage that in Western Europe, in the post-war period ----. A)

people relished the chance to break with tradition and create a new style of city

B)

new style of architecture were favoured in the bigger cities

C) every effort was made to rebuild the cities in the pre-war style D) environmental concerns were usually disregarded in the reconstruction of cities E)

many countries were still doubtful about the permanence of the peace

131. According to the passage, unlike the Europeans, the Japanese ----. A)

take every opportunity to promote their traditions and culture

B)

reconstructed their cities in accordance with their cultural traditions

C) were reluctant to introduce any novelties into city planning D) paid considerable attention to environmental matters in rebuilding their cities E)

are, on the whole, indifferent to their past

132. With reference to Japanese, writer points out that ----. A) the cities are constantly undergoing massive changes in appearance B)

Tokyo is an extreme example of traditional designs in architecture

C) provincial cities have imitated Tokyo as regards city planning D) in major cities, the streets invariably follow a similar design E)

there is a strong European influence in city planning

72

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler great benefits of the Gulf Stream is that it ----.

KPDS 2000 MAYIS In its full force, the Gulf Stream, which begins in the Gulf of Mexico, carries warm water to a depth of up to 100 meters at rates of up to 8 kilometres an hour, and penetrates right up into the Arctic Circle to the north of Scandinavia, bearing with it a climate that makes life just about tolerable, even in the thick of the winter. The energy it carries in the form of heat is equivalent to 100 times the entire use of energy in human societies across the world or put another way, more than 27,000 times Britain's electricity generating capacity. In terms of temperature, the Gulf Stream heats the surface over a wide area by at least 5°C. Were the-Gulf Stream to fail, temperatures over northern Europe would fall by more than 10 centigrade degree during the winter months. Northern Europe would have a climate comparable to that of Siberia: just how it would support its current population is difficult to imagine.

A)

causes an average ten percent rise in temperature in Northern Europe throughout the winter

B)

provides a huge amount of electricity for the Northern Europe countries

C) warms up the whole of Scandinavia and Siberia in winter D) circles around Britain and then moves into the northern waters E)

carries warm waters nearly as far as the Arctic Circle

135. It is clear from the passage that ----. 133. This passage mainly deals with ----. A)

the adverse effects that Gulf Stream has on the wild life in Scandinavia

B)

how the Gulf Stream transforms the climate in the Arctic Circle

C) the question of whether man can benefit from the energy latent in the Gulf Stream

the energy to be derived from the Gulf Stream would theoretically barely meet the needs of the whole world

B)

the effects of the Gulf Stream are far more noticeable in the Arctic Circle than along the shores of Northern Europe

C) without the Gulf Stream, it would be almost impossible for Northern Europe to support its population [DEVRİK IF CLAUSE ve SONUCU]

D) the reasons why the climate of Scandinavia differs from that of Siberia E)

A)

D) the Gulf Stream brings with it disadvantages as well as advantages for the people of Northern Europe

the course, climatic effects and energy capacity of the Gulf Stream [ANA FİKİR]

E)

the Gulf Stream is indispensable if the people of Siberia are to survive

Tam güç halindeyken, Meksiko körfezinde başlayan Golfstrim saatte 8 kilometreye kadar varan bir hızda 100 metreye varan bir derinlikte sıcak su taşır ve kışın en zemheri anında bile yaşamı güç bela katlanabilir hale getiren bir iklimi yanında taşıyarak, doğrudan İskandinavya’nın kuzeyine Arktik Dönencesine girer. Taşıdığı enerji sıcaklık cinsinden tüm dünyada insan topluluklarının kullandığı tüm enerjinin 100 katına denktir, veya başka bir deyişle, Britanya’nın elektrik üretme kapasitesinin 27000 katından daha büyüktür. Sıcaklık cinsinden, Golfstrim geniş bir yüzeyi en azından beş derece ısıtır. Eğer Golfstrim başarısız olsaydı, Kuzey Avrupa sathındaki sıcaklıklar kış ayları boyunca 10 dereceden daha fazla düşerdi. Kuzey Avrupa Sibirya’nınkine benzeyen bir iklime sahip olurdu: (o zaman) Nasıl olurdu da mevcut nüfusunu ayakta tutardı hayalini kurmak bile güç.

134. As we understood from the passage, one of the 73

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 137. It is vividly described in the passage how, during World War II, the British government ---.

KPDS 2000 MAYIS Within a short time after the outbreak of the Second World War, Britain was without imports of many vital pharmaceuticals that had formerly come from Japan, Germany and the Far East. As a result, the first wartime government set up systematic research into the cultivation and medical use of herbs, By 1940, women's voluntary organisations had been drawn into a national campaign to gather wild herbs, Up and down the country, County Herb Committees were organised to oversee the gathering, drying, distillation and distribution of the medicinal herbs. Lay people were given brief locally-based training in how to recognise herbs, store and dry them. Farmers were given subsidies to farm certain naturally hard-to-find herbs, By 1943, every county had its herb committee and during the five years of the Second World War, over 750 tons of dried herbs were gathered and turned into medicines.

A)

banned the import of all kinds of pharmaceuticals from Germany, Japan and the Far East

B)

gave priority to the import of medicines

C) encouraged scientific research into improving the efficiency and variety of vital pharmaceuticals D) only gave subsidies to those farmers who were interested in growing herbs E)

took serious measures to ensure that the country should not be short of medicines

Çözüme katkı sağlamayan ek bilgi: E seçeneği SUBJUNCTIVE. Maddeli – sıralı anlatı

136. We learn from the passage that, before World War II, Britain ----. A)

rarely traded with Germany or the Far East

B)

traded primarily with Germany, Japan and the Far East

138. It is clear from the passage that, of the special arrangements made in Britain during the war, one was ----.

C) imported raw materials from Japan, Germany and the Far East and exported pharmaceuticals to them

A)

D) was largely dependent on Germany, Japan and the Far East for its pharmaceuticals E)

the reduction of imports from Germany and Japan

B) the setting up of local and national organisations to produce medicinal herbs

thought of exporting dried herbs for pharmaceutical purposes

C) the introduction of new agricultural policies to increase production in every sphere D) the launching of a national women's campaign for the distribution of medicines throughout the country E)

the training of local people in the production of herb-based medicines

İkinci Dünya Savaşının patlak vermesinden sonra kısa bir zaman içerisinde Britanya daha önceden Japonya, Almanya ve Uzak Doğu’dan gelen pek çok hayati ilaçtan yoksun kalmıştı. Sonuç olarak, ilk savaş zamanı hükümeti bitkilerin ekimi ve tıbbi kullanımına dair sistematik/düzenli bir araştırma kurdu. 1940 yılı itibariyle, kadınların gönüllü organizasyonları yabanî ot toplamak için ulusal bir kampanyaya sevk edildi / çekildi. Baştan aşağı bütün ülkede, tıbbi otların toplanması, kurutulması, damıtılması ve dağıtılmasını teftiş/icra için İl Bitki Komiteleri tesis edildi. Sıradan insanlara bitkileri nasıl tanıyacaklarına, depolayacaklarına ve kurutacaklarına dair kısa yerel merkezli eğitim verildi. Çiftçilere bazı doğal olarak bulunması zor bitkileri ekmeleri /tarımını yapmaları için teşvikler verildi. 1943 itibariyle, her ilin kendi bitki komitesi vardı ve ikinci dünya savaşının beş yılı boyunca 750 tondan daha fazla kurutulmuş bitki/ot toplanmış ve ilaca dönüştürülmüştü.

74

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KPDS 2000 KASIM 140. In the opinion of the writer, most of the wine journalists ----.

In the coming weeks, wine makers north of the equator will oversee the harvesting and fermenting of the first vintage of the millennium. But long before the finished product reaches the shelves before it even makes it out of the barrel, in some cases - samples will be offered to exporters and distributors. A select group of wine critics will also be given a taste. Most will record their impressions in the extravagant prose that wine journalists unfortunately love to use. Others will go one step further and assign numerical grades. These days a high score is more effective than mere praise. It can make a comparatively unknown wine into a highly desirable one that everyone is seeking to buy.

139. According to the passage, before the new season's wines even reach the shops, wine critics will have ----.

A)

dislike the practice of awarding wines numerical grades

B)

generally use too many exotic words and literary expressions

C)

have very little influence on the public's choice of wine

D)

are less influential than distributors in the business of buying and selling of wines

E)

should be consulted at all stages of the winemaking process

141. It is pointed out in the passage that the practice of awarding numerical grades to wines ----.

A)

tasted samples and described or graded them

A)

is not as reliable or satisfactory as the practice of describing wines

B)

suggested suitable prices for each type

B)

C)

bought up large quantities of what they think will sell well

is not at all popular among exporters and distributors

C)

has had a truly amazing effect on wine sales

D)

advised producers on the fermenting process for the next year's vintage

D)

means that little known wines never get a chance to be known

E)

compared their impressions with those of other wine critics

E)

is rapidly giving way to the system of verbal description

Önümüzdeki haftalarda, Ekvator’un juzeyindeki şarap imalatçıları milenyumun ilk bağbozumunun hasat ve fermantasyonunu yürütüyor olacak.Ama olmuş ürünler raflarda yerini almdan çok önce, hatta fıçılarından bile çıkarılmadan evvel, bazı durumlarda ihracatçılara ve dağıtıcılara numuneler ikram edilecek. (Ürün) bir grup seçkin şarap eleştirmenine de tattırılacak. Bunların çoğu izlenimlerini maalesef şarap gazetecilerinin kullanmaya aşık olduğu abartılı bir yazıyla kayda geçecekler. Diğerleri bir adım daha ileri gidecek ve rakam cinsinden punalar verecekler. Bugünlerde yüksek bir puan salt bir övgüden daha etkili. Nispeten bilinmeyen bir şarabı, herkesin almak için aradığı son derece arzu edilir bir şaraba dönüştürebiliyor.

75

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KPDS 2000 KASIM

information about the new Waterstone's bookshop, ----.

In theory, the multimedia age should be killing off bookshops. Who still has time to read books, what with surfing the Internet, viewing scores of new digital television channels, and putting in everlonger hours at work? And presumably those few people who do still read books will be buying them on the Internet. After all, Amazon, a bookseller, is the most cited example of a successful online retailer. So much for the theory. What about the practice? This week the largest bookshop in Britain opened up in the old Simpson's of Piccadilly in London. With 265,000 titles and 1.5 million books, the new branch of Waterstone's stretches over seven floors. A department store, which once sold everything from sushi to plus-fours, is now devoted entirely to one product - books. The new Waterstone's is almost next door to Hatchards, a mere five-storey bookshop, with a well-established clientele, and two smaller bookshops. It is also less than a mile from Borders, another huge bookstore in Oxford Street.

A)

together with the number and quality of the staff employed there

B)

including the exact postal address

C)

and the incredible variety of second hand books to be found there is given special emphasis

D)

but it is the original use of floor space that receives special attention

E)

including the fact that the premises once belonged to a department store that sold literally every type of goods

144. As if to emphasise his own surprise, the writer makes the point that the new Waterstone's bookshop ----.

142. The passage suggests that, in this world of technological advance one might, in theory, expect that ----.

A)

is designed and run like a department store

A)

Internet, among other things, would make book shops obsolete

B)

has deprived neighbouring bookshops of a lot of their trade

B)

Internet would prove a serious rival to television

C)

plans to open yet another branch in Oxford Street

C)

smaller bookshops would be brought up by larger ones

D)

is situated in a neighbourhood of well-established bookstores

D)

internet book retailers like Amazon would find few customers

E)

is not likely to attract many customers

E)

new digital television channels have little chance of success

143. In the passage, we are given a great deal of 76

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KPDS 2000 KASIM

KPDS 2000 KASIM

The seventeenth-century scientist Francis Bacon was the first to insist that science be methodically separated from values so as to make it truly 'neutral', or objective. In reality, he did nothing of the sort. His 'scientific knowledge', instead of being value-free, set out explicitly and purposefully to give humanity power over nature. 'Truth and utility are perfectly identical,' he wrote in his “Novum Organum”, and 'that which is most useful in practice is most correct in theory'. In effect, he merely replaced the old 'subjective' values of 'good' and 'evil' with the values of 'useful' and 'useless', or more precisely 'of contributing or not contributing to man's domination over or transformation of the natural world'. There were to be no limits to this transformation. His goal was explicitly stated. It was to 'achieve all things achievable'. At least he was honest enough to admit the fact. Modern science has followed Bacon's lead exactly, but does not admit it.

If a greater proportion of the food people eat were to be locally produced, this would be of great benefit to the farmer. A mix of local, regional, national, and international production would still be available; indeed, the goal would not be to put an end to the international trade in food, but to avoid transporting food thousands of miles when it could instead be produced next door. Such a shift would help revitalise rural economies ruined by the global economy. Less money would go into the hands of corporate middlemen, and far more would remain in the hands of farmers, This would especially be the case with the direct marketing of food via farmers' markets and farm stands and other forms of community supported agriculture. If farmers were not impelled to specialise their production in a few global commodities, the trend towards ever larger and more highly mechanised farms would slow down. Moreover, since small farms use a proportionally higher amount of human labour than mechanised inputs, a return to smaller farms would help bring back some of the 700.000 farm jobs the UK has lost during the last half-century of agricultural progress.

145. According to the author, the broad goals of modern scientists are identical with those of Bacon, ----.

148. It is pointed out in the passage that it would be to the advantage of the farmer and the rural economy at large if ----.

A)

except that they regard nothing as 'useless'

B)

only they avoid saying so

A)

C)

although Bacon never actually discussed goals

B)

D)

and even more ambitious

E)

but they consider him too subjective in his outlook

C) D)

146. It is argued in the passage that though Bacon was determined to make science objective and value-free, ----. A)

he know he was setting himself an impossible task

B)

this was impossible as truth and utility are inseparable

E)

149. According to the author, farms are growing larger and more highly mechanised ----. A) B) C) D)

C) he did not want man to have dominion over nature D) he was himself greatly influenced by the concepts of right and wrong E)

E)

he actually simply substituted one set of values for another

establish what was useful and what true

B)

overcome such subjective values as 'good' and 'evil'

A) as they result in unnecessarily high food prices B) since the quality of food they produce is poor C) because it has resulted in a great many farm labourers losing their jobs D) though he admits the quality of food they produce is high E) though this is what the owners of small farms want

C) protect the natural world and so preserve it D) give man power over nature so he could benefit from it E)

as this is the only sure way to make money out of farming as this is what the rural community wants since no one is willing to work on the land because imported foodstuffs are so much cheaper because farmers feel obliged to concentrate on a very few products for global markets

150. The author is opposed to the trend towards larger and mere highly mechanised farms ----.

147. We understand from the passage that Bacon regarded science as a means to ----. A)

people were to eat locally produced food more often the sale of farm products were in the hands of corporate middlemen the advantages of a global economy were better appreciated the practice of direct marketing of food at farmers' markets were forbidden the marketing of all food products were at a national or international level

keep the natural world unchanged and unspoilt

77

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Sığ tüneller veya kent alanları söz konusu olduğunda, dikkatli bir şekilde yerleştirilmiş sondaj delikleri sayesinde, zemin ve su durumlarının tabiatı/niteliği hakkında bir fikir edinmek mümkündür. Yüksek dağlar altında sondaj pahalı hale gelir, dolayısıyla jeolojik yorumlara itimat edilmesi gerekir. Katmanlar çok fazla değişiklik arz edeceğinden, sık sık sürprizlerle karşılaşılır ve bazen tek bir tünelde tekniklerin değişmesi mecbur olur. Severn demiryolu tünelinde (ki 4 mil 628 yarda uzunluğunda olup 1886'da tamamlanmıştır) beklenmedik bir şekilde büyük miktarda su ile karşılaşılmıştı ve (bu su) hala dışarı pompalanmaktadır.

KPDS 2001 MAYIS In the case of shallow tunnels or in urban areas it is often possible, by means of carefully sited boreholes, to gain an idea as to the nature of the ground and water conditions. Under high mountains boring becomes expensive so reliance has to be placed upon geological interpretations. As strata can vary so much, surprises are often met with and techniques sometimes have to change in a single tunnel. In the Severn railway tunnel (4 mls 628 yd long, completed in 1886) great quantities of water were unexpectedly encountered and are still being pumped out.

151. The writer explains that when a tunnel does not go deep underground, ----. A)

one can learn about the type of ground it is to pass through by means of strategically placed boreholes

B)

the type of strata it is to pass through is unimportant

C) it may prove unsuitable in urban areas D) the geological nature of the terrain does not, in general. have to be taken into consideration E)

the techniques used to excavate it vary very little

152. We understand from the passage that before any tunnel is opened ----. A)

an exact understanding of the nature of the rock strata around it must be gained

B)

samples of the ground through which It is to pass must always be taken

C) it is desirable to get an idea of the nature of the ground that is being tunnelled D) the area surrounding it should be drained of any underground water E)

the suitability of the site has to be test-blasted

153. It is pointed out in the passage that the geological interpretations made of the strata through which a tunnel is to go ----. A)

are based on samples of the ground taken from boreholes

B)

cannot detect underground waterways

C) are particularly relevant in urban areas D) are not always reliable E)

are especially useful if underground water is suspected

78

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KPDS 2001 MAYIS Translation renders knowledge mobile. The task of the scientific translator, no less than the literary translator, has been to create new texts, to multiply sources into new languages, and thereby to produce new "originals". Over time, translation itself has built a great scientific library, ever more enriched, and accessible. Although we may think of scientific translation as literal, mechanical work, this has never been the case. The reasons for this are complex, but have much to do with the lack of exact one-to-one correspondence among languages. Translating science always involves interpretation, the remaking of an original. If it did not, machine translation would have long ago rendered the scientific translator extinct.

154. According to the passage scientific translation, just like literary translation, ----. A)

requires a kind of rewriting of the original text

B)

should avoid the temptation of trying to interpret the original text

C) is becoming increasingly mechanised and making translators themselves redundant D) has actually played a very small part in the spread of knowledge E)

is presently being carried out into fewer and fewer languages

155. The writer stresses that the job of a scientific translator ----. A)

requires more technical knowledge than linguistic

B)

is far easier than that of the translation of literary texts

C) has been made much easier with the introduction of machine translation D) is actually far more creative than has generally been assumed E)

goes back farther in history than does that of the literary translator

156. As the writer suggests, an important obstacle that a scientific translator faces, is that ----. A)

new scientific texts are growing more and more complex in content

B)

very few people are interested in the translations of scienti1ic works

C) the machine translation of scientific texts has reached a high level of efficiency D) the work is mechanical and tedious that it offers almost no satisfaction E)

the exact translation of one language into another can almost never be achieved

79

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler Temizliğinden kuşkulanılan su kaynatılarak saf hale getirilebilir ve daha sonra su torbalarında veya toprak kaplarda soğutulabilir, (bu kaplarınsa) toz ve böceklerden korunması gerekir. Kaynatma mümkün olmadığında, içme suyu pek çok alanda klorlama ile mikroplardan yeterince arındırıalabilir; bir tablet halazon bir litre suya konur, 30 dakika beklenir. Askıda madde taşıyan suyun once süzülmesi gerekir. Yine de Afrika, Orta ve Uzak Doğu ve Güney Amerika’nın pek çok bölgesinde, oldukça tehlikeli bulaşıcı hastalık riski mevcuttur. Bu bölgelerde, nehir, göl ve kanal suları mikroplu olabilir ve su cilt ile temas ettiğinde hastalık kapılabilir.

KPDS 2001 MAYIS Water of doubtful purity for drinking can be rendered safe by boiling and then can be cooled in water bags or in earthenware containers, which must be protected from dust and flies. When boiling is not possible, drinking water can, in many areas, be adequately sterilised by chlorination; one tablet of halazone is added to one litre of water and allowed to stand for 30 minutes. Water containing suspended matter should be filtered first. There is, however, the danger of a particularly serious infectious disease in many regions of Africa, the Middle and Far East and South America. In these regions, the water of rivers, lakes and canal may be infected, and the disease is acquired when the water comes in contact with the skin.

İndirgenmiş Relative Clause Water containing suspended matter should be filtered first .

57. In this passage the writer points out that boiling ----. A)

is the only safe method of producing drinking water

B)

is commonly used in Africa and the less developed countries to purify water

Water which contains suspended matter should be filtered first .

C) is a reliable method of making impure water safe to drink D) will purify water but must not continue for more than 30 minutes E)

is one method of combating infectious diseases in third world countries

158. We learn from the passage that, when sterilisation of water is to be carried out by means of chlorination, ----. A)

It is important to make sure that the water is not affected

B) it must be preceded by filtration C) great care must be taken that no dust be allowed to get into the water D) the best containers for the job are earthenware one E)

the process should be followed by the boiling of the water

159. We understand from the passage that, in certain regions of the world, such as parts of Africa and Asia ----. A)

filtration is vital for the removal of suspended matter from the water

B)

river water may be so infected that boiling cannot purify it

C) people are cautioned not to use canal water because it is always infected D) Halazone tablets are frequently used to sterilise infected water E)

skin contact with infected water can cause the development of a highly infectious disease 80

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

KPDS 2001 KASIM

Although the idea of the skyscraper is modern, the inclination to build upward is not. The Great Pyramids, with their broad bases, reached heights unapproached for the next four millennia. But even the great Gothic cathedrals, crafted of bulky stone into an aesthetic of lightness and slenderness, are dwarfed by the steel and reinforced concrete structures of the 20th century. It was modern building materials that made the true skyscraper structurally possible, but it was the mechanical device of the elevator that made the skyscraper truly practical. Ironically, it is also the elevator that has had so much to do with limiting the height of most tall buildings to about 70 or 80 stories. Above that, elevator shafts occupy more than 25 percent of the volume of a tall building, and so the economics of renting out space argues against investing in greater height.

Although the idea of the skyscraper is modern, the inclination to build upward is not. The Great Pyramids, with their broad bases, reached heights unapproached for the next four millennia. But even the great Gothic cathedrals, crafted of bulky stone into an aesthetic of lightness and slenderness are dwarfed by the steel and reinforced concrete structures of the 20th century. It was modern building materials that made the true skyscraper structurally possible, but it was the mechanical device of the elevator that made the skyscraper truly practical. Ironically, it is also the elevator that has had so much to do with limiting the height of most tall buildings to about 70 or 80 stories. Above that, elevator shafts occupy more than 25 percent of the volume of a tall building, and so the economics of renting out space argues against investing in greater height.

Her ne kadar gökdelen fikri yeni bir fikir ise de, yukarı doğru bina yapma eğilimi (yeni bir eğilim) değildir. Büyük Piramitler, geniş temelleri sayesinde, müteakip dört bin yıl boyunca erişilmeyecek yüksekliklere ulaşmışlardı. Ama iri iri taşların el zanaatı ile hafiflik ve incelik içeren bir estetiğe dönüştürüldüğü Gotik katedraller bile 20. yüzyılın çelik ve betonarme yapıları karşısında küçücük kaldılar. Gerçek bir gökdeleni yapısal olarak mümkün kılan şey, modern inşa malzemeleriydi, ancak gökdeleni hakikaten gerçekçi kılan şey, mekanik bir cihaz olan asansördü. Ne tuhaftır, yine bu asansör, çoğu yüksek binanın 70-80 kat ile sınırlı olmasıyla da çokça bağlantılıydı. Bu yüksekliğin üstünde, asansör boşlukları binanın toplam hacminin yüzde 25’inden fazlasını işgal etmektedir, ve mekanı düzgün kullanma ekonomisi daha büyük yüksekliklere yatırıma karşı çıkmaktadır.

160. It is clear from the passage that the Great Pyramids ---. A)

are at least as spacious as the average modern skyscraper

B)

inspired the building of the great Gothic cathedrals

C)

were as tall as they were wide

D)

were designed on similar principles to the modern skyscraper

E)

had no rival, as regards height, for four thousand years

161. We understand from the passage that the construction of skyscrapers only became structurally feasible ----. A)

after such new building materials as reinforced concrete came into use

B)

once (he technique of broad foundations had been perfected

C)

after people had realized how much space could be gained by them

D)

for heights of 70 or 80 floors

E)

if aesthetic considerations were disregarded

162. It is explained in the passage that skyscrapers of above 70 or 80 floors are generally uneconomic ----. A)

as the price of installing fast elevators is excessive

B)

as elevator shafts have then to occupy too large a proportion of the volume of the building

C)

since the majority of people feel insecure above that height

D)

though in appearance they are most attractive

E)

even though the lower floors no longer need to be built on broad bases

81

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 164. We understand from the passage that once a forest has been removed from a slope, the rate of water runoff ----.

KPDS 2001 KASIM Land cleared of trees is exposed to erosion, which can be severe in deforested areas having slopes greater than 15 to 17 percent. If land is not disturbed any further and new growth becomes established, erosion may gradually subside. If, however, vegetation on the cutover land is continually removed by man or livestock, erosion will intensify, and environmental problems can be severe. When a forest is removed from a slope, the rate of water runoff is increased two to tenfold or more, depending on the degree of clearing, slope, and rainfall. All too often this leads to flooding of agricultural land in the lowlands. In Pakistan, for example, almost 2 million hectares of standing crops on the lowlands were destroyed by floodwater in 1973, and about 10,000 villages were wiped out. Since valuable soil is lost in floods, the quantity of the arable lands decreases. Alluvial silt deposited elsewhere is rarely usable enough to compensate for such losses.

A)

may be in itself' enough to prevent the establishment of new growth there

B)

will increase irrespective of the amount of rainfall

C)

will steadily increase even after new vegetation starts to establish

D)

will depend almost wholly on the gradient of the slope

E)

will increase and this is likely to cause flooding

165. According to the passage, flooding ----. 163. It is pointed out in the passage that deforestation ----.

A)

occurs in Pakistan regularly every year

B)

results in silt deposits which compensate for earth losses elsewhere

A)

and erosion are only very loosely connected

B)

is a matter that man can do nothing about

C)

is only a temporary disaster

C)

is particularly serious when it occurs on a slope

D)

leads to a reduction in the amount of land that can be farmed

D)

will stop once man has realized how serious its effects can be

E)

is a natural disaster that until recently has been largely overlooked

E)

has been practised more in Pakistan than elsewhere

Ağaçları kesilmiş olan araziler erozyona açıktır, (ve) bu (erozyon) yüzde 15 ilâ 17 dereceden daha büyük eğime sahip ormansız alanlarda daha şiddetli olabilmektedir. Eğer arazi daha fazla rahatsız edilmez ve yeni bitki büyümeleri gerçekleşirse, erozyon muhtemelen yavaş yavaş dinecektir. Ama eğer ağaçları kesilmiş arazideki bitki örtüsü insanoğlu ve besi hayvanları taarfından devamlı yok edilirse, erozyon yoğunlaşacak ve çevre problemleri şiddetli olabilecektir.

1.-3. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 82

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

cevaplayınız.

cevaplayınız. Bugün dünyada yaşadığı bilinen yaklaşık kırk farklı türde vahşi/yabani kedi vardır. Bunlar heybetli Sibirya kaplanından yaklaşık ev kedisi büyüklüğündeki pek çok küçük benekli türlere kadar ebat ebattırlar/ebatça değişiklik gösterirler. Kediler yeryüzünde geride kalan en etkin kara avcılarıdırlar. Kuvveti, hızı, sabrı, kamuflajı ve hatırı sayılır bireysel beceriyi üzerlerinde toplamışlardır. Tamamı iyi yüzer, çoğu büyük çeviklikle tırmanır, ve en azından kısa mesafeler için, çoğu şaşırtıcı bir hızla hareket edebilir. Afrika aslanı hücuma geçtiğinde, yaklaşık saatte kırk millik bir hıza ulaşabilir.

There are about forty distinct kinds of wild cats known to inhabit the earth today. They range in size from the mighty Siberian tiger to several little spotted species about the size of the average domestic cat. The cats are the most efficient land predators left on earth. They combine power, speed, patience, camouflage, and considerable individual skill. All swim well, most climb with great agility, and at least for short distances, most can move with amazing swiftness. The African lion can reach a speed of almost forty miles per hour when it charges. 1.

1.

A) pek çok büyüklük ve çeşitlilik göstermektedirler

It is stressed in the passage that wild cats in the world today ----.

B)

tamamıyla Afrika kıtasıyla sınırlıdırlar

A) show a remarkable range and variety

C) çevresel koşullardan ötürü hızla azalmaktadırlar

B)

D) şu anda sadece Sibirya ve Asya’nın geri kalanında bulunmaktadırlar

are completely confined to the African continent

E)

C) are rapidly on the decline due to environmental changes D) are now only to be located in Siberia and the rest of Asia E)

2.

Pasajda vurgulandığı üzere bugün dünyadaki yabani kediler ----

2.

seem to be losing the ability to climb trees

According to the passage, wild cats are noted for a number of distinct qualities ----. A)

of which their great strength is the most important

B)

which together make them physically superior to all other animals regardless of size

Pasaja göre, vahşi/yabani kediler birkaç bariz özellikleriyle bilinmektedirler ---A)

ki (bu özelliklerin) içinde en önemlisi muazzam güçleridir

B)

ki (bu özellikler)in hepsi kendilerini hangi büyüklükte olursa olsun tüm hayvanlara fiziksel olarak üstün yapmaktadır

C) ama koku alma duyuları gelişmemiştir D) ki (bu özellikler) içinde düşmandan gizlenme özelliği en önemli olandır E)

C) but their sense of smell is poor D) of which their ability to hide from the enemy is of first importance E)

ağaçlara tırmanma yeteneklerini kaybediyor gözükmekteler / olabilirler

2.

including their unmatchable efficiency in hunting

ki (buna) avcılıkta eşi benzeri olmayan yeterlilikleri de dahildir

Pasajda işaret edilmiştir ki çoğu yabani kedinin hareket ederken ulaşabildikleri hız ---A)

verimli bir görme yeteneğinin olmamasını telafi eder

B)

asla ölçülmemiştir

C) gerçekten de kayda değerdir 3.

It is pointed out in the passage that the speed with which most wild cats can move ----. A)

compensates for their lack of efficient sight

B)

has never been measured

D) ortalama ev kedisininkini geçmez E)

C) is truly remarkable D) doesn’t exceed that of the average domestic cat E)

helps them to survive in a hostile environment

1.-3. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 83

onlara düşmanlarla dolu bir ortamda hayatta kalmakları için yardımcı olur

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

GENEL HATIRLATMALAR ve ÇÖZÜM

GENELLEME - TANIM sorusu

Soru çözerken yapılan yanlışlar genellikle paragraf sorularını çözümde kullandığımız birkaç önemli noktanın ihmal edilmesinden kaynaklanmıştır:

There are about forty distinct kinds of wild cats known to inhabit the earth today. They range in size from the mighty Siberian tiger to several little spotted species about the size of the average domestic cat.

1-

İçlerinde ALL, ONLY, CONFINED TO, RESTRICTED TO, EXLUSIVE, MERELY, NEVER, THE BEST, THE FIRST gibi İDDİALI İFADEleri barındıran seçenekler metinde benzeri kuvvette bir ifade kullanmamışsa yanlıştır.

Wild cats in the world today show a remarkable range and variety 2. soru: İDDİALI İFADE sorusu

1. soruda B, C ve D,

The cats are the most efficient land predators left on earth.

2. soruda A, B ve D, 3. soruda ise B seçeneklerindeki altı çizili kelimelere bakın. 2-

Wild cats are noted for a number of distinct qualities including their unmatchable efficiency in hunting

Yukarıdaki ifadeler metinde geçerse, genelde oradan soru gelir; soru çıkmama ihtimali çok düşüktür.

3. soru: RAKAMI YAKLAŞIK İFADE

İkinci soruya kaynaklık eden metinde işaret ettiğim yere bakın. Orada kediler için “en iyi avcılar” denmiş. Elbette ki aşağıdaki sorulardan biri onu sorguluyor olacaktı. Çoğumuzun doğru cevap olarak seçtiği B seçeneğine gelince, bu kedileri dinozor veya timsahlardan bile (regardless of size) daha güçlü hale getirecektir ki metnin kastı katiyen bu değil. Yine seçilen D seçeneğinde sorun gizlenmeyi diğer becerilerinden daha ön plana çıkarması. Metinse bu beceriyi diğerierinin önüne koymamış. (Zaten aslanlar düşmandan gizlenmek için değil, avına fark edilmemek için gizleniyorlar.) 3-

Most can move with amazing swiftness. The African lion can reach a speed of almost forty miles per hour when it charges. The speed with which most wild cats can move is truly remarkable

Metinde sıralı olarak veya en uç noktaları gösterilmek suretiyle ifade edilen bir özellik, sık sık soruda GENELLEME yapılarak verilir. Birinci soruda bu özellik bariz olarak mevcut: Metin hayvanın 40 kadar çeşidi (kind) olup büyüklüklerinin (range in size) ise Sibirya kaplanından tutun da ta ev kedilerine kadar değişebilmekte olduğunu söylemiş. Cevap ise ikisini toparlayıp “pek çok büyüklük (range) ve çeşitlilik (variety) göstermektedirler” deyivermiş. Çoğu kişinin düştüğü üçüncü sorunun E seçeneğine gelince. HOSTILE tabiri düşmanlık belirtir. Kediler ise herhangi bir canlıya av olmadıklarından bu tabirin doğru olma şansı yok. Zaten metin bu hayvanların hızını düşmanlarından kaçmak için değil, avlarına saldırmak için kullanırken örneklemiş.

1. soru: 84

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

4.-6. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

cevaplayınız. İnşaat mühendisliği kendine özgü bir sıkıntısı teşkil eder zira inşaat mühendislerince tasarlanan veya inşa edilen neredeyse her yapı ve sistem eşsizdir. Bir yapı nadiren tam olarak bir diğerini kopya eder. Yapıların aynı gözüktüğü zamanlarda bile inşaat alanı gereksinimleri veya diğer faktörler genellikle değişikliklere yol acar. Baraj, köprü veya tünel gibi büyük yapılar önceki yapılardan önemli ölçüde farklı olabilirler. İnşaat mühendisleri, bu yüzden, her zaman yeni güçlüklerle başa çıkmaya hazır ve gönüllü olmalıdırlar.

Civil engineering offers a particular challenge because almost every structure or system that is designed and built by civil engineers is unique. One structure rarely duplicates another exactly. Even when structures seem to be identical, site requirements or other factors generally result in modifications. Large structures like dams, bridges, or tunnels may differ substantially from previous structures. The civil engineer must, therefore, always be ready and willing to meet1 new challenges. 4. 4.

It is argued in the passage that virtually no civil engineering work ----. A)

is substantially different from another

B)

can be completed without benefit of other branches of engineering

pasajda iddia edilmektedir ki neredeyse hiç bir inşaat mühendisliği çalışması ----. A)

bir diğerinden önemli oranda farklı değildir

B)

mühendisliğin diğer branşlarının yardımı olmaksızın tamamlanamaz

C) bir baraj/bent inşaatı kadar karmaşık/sıkıntılı olamaz

C) can be as complicated as the construction of a dam

D) bir diğeriyle tam olarak aynı değildir E)

mekan gereksinimlerinden etkilenmez

D) is exactly the same as any other E)

is affected by site requirements 5.

5.

According to the passage, since every site will have different requirements, ----. A)

Pasaja göre her mekân farklı gereksinimlere sahip olduğundan, ----. A)

her tür değişiklikten kaçınılmalıdır

B)

neredeyse her köprü ve baraj/set bir diğerinden farkıdır

modifications of all types should be avoided

B) almost every bridge or dam will be different from every other

C) inşaat mühendisliği işi muhtemelen tekdüzedir D) mekan gereksinimleri önemli değildir

C) the work of a civil engineer is likely to be monotonous

E)

bu her hangi bir sıkıntı teşkil etmez

D) site requirements are not important E)

this does not pose a challenge 6.

6.

Pasajdan anlaşılabilir ki: inşaat mühendisi ----. A)

tasarımda bir değişiklik yapma hususunda öyle kolay kolay ikna olunamaz

One can understand from the passage that the civil engineer----.

B)

her zaman geleneksel tasarımları sürdürür

A)

can rarely be persuaded to modify a design

C) ilgisini barajlar, köprüler veya tünellerle sınırlandırmıştır

B)

always keeps to traditional designs

D) diğer mühendislere kıyasla yeni fikirlere daha az açıktır

C) confines his interests to dams, bridges or tunnels

E)

D) is less open to new ideas in construction than other engineers E)

muhtemelen mekâna uygun hale getirmek için yapının ilk/özgün tasarımında değişiklik yapacaktır

is likely to have to modify the original design of a structure to suit the site

4.-6. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre GENEL HATIRLATMALAR ve ÇÖZÜM

1

meet: burada gereğini yerine getirmek, ihtiyacı karşılamak/gidermek anlamında kullanılmış (SATISFY)

85

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

1. Pasaj içinde bir karşılaştırma var ise (more than, as adj as, the most, equel to, superior/inferior to, subordinate/secondary to gibi comparison ifadeleri) buradan hemen hemen her defasında soru gelir. Dolayısıyla, a.

metinde böylesi bir ifade var ise, aşağıdaki sorulardan birinde sorulacaktır.

b.

seçenekler arasında böylesi bir ifade var ama metin tarafından desteklenmiyorsa seçenek yanlıştır.

5. soru yine bir sebep sonuç ifadesinden [RESULT IN] 6. soru metnin genelinden ama yine bir sebep sonuç cümlesinden [THEREFORE] elde etmek mümkün idi.

2. Soru çözülürken genellikle seçeneklere o kadar yoğunlaşılmakta ki, soru kökünde seçeneği tamamlayan ifade ihmal edilebilmektedir. Bu ise hayati sonuçlara mal olabilmektedir. Örneğin 4. soruda, soru kökünde yer alan altını çizdiğim NO ifadesi tüm seçenekleri negatif okutturacaktır bize. Ama bu sıklıkla dikkatlerden kaçmaktadır. 3. Metinde ALL, ONLY, CONFINED TO, RESTRICTED TO, EXLUSIVE, MERELY, NEVER, THE BEST, THE FIRST gibi iddialı bir niteleme kullanılmışsa a.

buradan soru gelir.

b.

metin tarafından desteklenmeyen böylesi bir ifade seçeneklerde yer alıyorsa, bu seçeneğin yanlış olması için genellikle yeterlidir

4. soru: almost every structure or system that is designed and built by civil engineers is unique virtually no civil engineering work is exactly the same as any other HİLE (seçenekler arası zıtlık): A seçeneği ile doğru cevap olan D seçeneği ifadelerinin motamot zıt olduğunu görüyorsunuz. Bu zıtlık bize çoğunlukla cevabın iki seçenekten birinde olduğunu gösterir 5. soru: site requirements or other factors generally result in modifications. Large structures like dams, bridges, or tunnels may differ substantially from previous structures since every site will have different requirements almost every bridge or dam will be different from every other 6. soru: “One can understand from the passage” tarzı ifadeler genellikle çıkarım sorularıdır ve metinde motamot karşılıkları olmayabilir. Ama metnin tamamı veya bir kısmı yorumlanarak bu ifade rahatlıkla elde edilebilir. The civil engineer must, therefore, always be ready and willing to meet new challenges. The civil engineer is likely to have to modify the original design of a structure to suit the site

4. soru bir sebep-sonuç cümlesinden elde edilmişti. [BECAUSE] 86

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

7.-9. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

7.-9. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Tüm enerji kaynaklarımız “doğal”dır; maddenin enerjiye ve enerjinin maddeye dönüştürülebileceğini ancak hiçbir şeyin [yoktan] yaratılamayacağını keşfetmiş durumdayız. [Bunların] birini ötekine görece bir kolaylıkla dönüştürebiliriz, fakat bütün kuvvetimiz doğal kaynakların kontrolüne dayanmaktadır, yani enerji veya yakıt asla insan yapımı değildir. Zaten rüzgar ve nehirlerde mevcuttur; yahut petrol veya kömürde olduğu gibi depo edilmiş olabilir.

All our sources of power are ‘natural’; we have found that matter can be turned into energy and energy into matter, but that nothing can be created. We can convert one into the other with relative ease, but all our power is based upon the control of natural sources, in the sense that the energy or fuel is never man-made. It already exists in the wind and in rivers; or it may be stored up as in oil or coal. 7.

7.

Pasajda vurgulanan önemli bir nokta şudur ki: ----. A)

doğa tek enerji kaynağımızdır

One important point emphasized in the passage is that ----.

B)

insan yapımı enerji çok daha ekonomiktir

A) nature is the only source of energy

C) enerji kaynakları son 20-30 yıldır2 çok savurganca kullanılmıştır

B)

man-made energy is more economical

D) dünyanın petrol rezervleri çok daha dikkatli kullanılmalı

C) energy sources have been used wastefully in recent decades

E)

D) the world’s oil reserves ought to be used more carefully E)

coal production should be increased to bridge the energy gap 8.

8.

enerji açığını kapamak için kömür üretimim artırılmalıdır

Pasaja göre, maddenin enerjiye ve enerjinin maddeye dönüştürülmesi ----.

A) According to the passage, the conversion of matter into energy and vice versa ----.

yeni enerji kaynakları bulunduğundan dolayı artık gerekli değildir

B)

ancak bizim yüzyılımızda mümkün hale gelmiştir

A)

will no longer be necessary as new energy sources are found

C) oldukça kolay bir işlemdir

B)

has been possible only in our century

D) katı madde söz konusu ise geçerlidir E)

C) is a fairly easy process

büyük oranda yeni teknolojilere bağlıdır

D) is possible only in the case of solid matter E)

depends to a great extent on new technologies

9.

9.

It is obvious from the passage that energy ----. A)

should be consumed more considerately

B)

cannot be stored for long

Pasajdan gayet açık ki enerji----. A)

çok daha düşünceli bir şekilde tüketilmelidir

B)

uzun müddetliğine depolanamaz

C) insan tarafından kolaylıkla yaratılabilir D) petrol ve kömür içinde rüzgar ve suya göre çok daha bol olarak mevcuttur / istif edilmiştir

C) can readily be created by man

E)

doğadaki pek çok kaynaktan elde edilir

D) is stored more abundantly in oil and coal than in wind and water E)

is derived from many different sources in nature

2

IN RECENT DECADES yerine kullanıldı. “SON BİRKAÇ ON YILDIR” tabiri lafzî çevirisidir ama Türkçede pek yaygın değil.

87

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

10.-12. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

cevaplayınız. Astronomi bilginlerine göre, aya uçuşların büyük başarısı ay yüzeyinden kayaların geriye getirilmesiydi. [Bu kayalar] meteorları saymazsak, dünyaya o zamana kadar ulasan ilk dünya-dışı materyaldi. Gözüken o ki ay kayaları ayın hemen hemen su ve organik maddeden yoksun ve dolayısıyla, tamamıyla yaşamsız bir dünya olduğunu gösteriyor. İşin doğrusu, 1600’lerden beridir bilim adamlarınca bunun böyle olduğundan [zaten] kuşkulanılıyordu, ancak en azından bakteri seviyesinde bir ilkel yaşamı mümkün kılabilecek iz miktarda / eser miktarda hava ve su [olabileceğine] dair umutlar vardı.

To astronomers, the great accomplishment of the flights to the moon was the bringing back of rocks from the lunar surface. It was the first extraterrestrial material ever to reach Earth, with the exception of meteorites. The lunar rocks seemed to show that the moon was virtually free of water and of organic material and was, therefore, a world utterly without life. In fact, this had been suspected by astronomers, since the 1600s; but there had been some hope of traces of air and water that might have made possible very primitive life at the bacterial level, if nothing more.

10. Yazarın da izah ettiği gibi, ay kayaları üzerine yapılan çalışmalar göstermiştir/doğrulamıştır ki ----. A) ay üzerinde hiç bir şekilde bir yaşam mevcut değildir

10. As the author explains, the study of lunar rocks has confirmed that ----.

B)

A) no life whatsoever exists on the moon B)

only very primitive form of life could have existed on the moon

sadece çok ilkel bir yaşam biçimi ayda oluşmuş olabilirdi / oluşmuş olabilir

C) ay gerçekte büyük bir meteordur

C) the moon is actually a large meteorite

D) bu kayaların bir kısmı bakteri atıkları taşımakatdır

D) some of them contain bacterial remains

E)

E)

ayda dünya dışı yaşama dair izler vardır

the moon has traces of extraterrestrial life 11. Pasaja göre, bir aralar --- umuluyordu. A)

ayda pek çok çeşitlilikte kaya olduğu

B) ayın ilkel bir yaşamı destekleyebileceği 11. According to the passage, it was once hoped that ----. A)

C) ay üzerindeki su miktarının gittikçe arttığı D) ay üzerinde bakteri seviyesinden daha üst yaşam biçimleri olduğu

there was a large variety of rocks on the moon

B) the moon capable of supporting primitive life

E)

ay yüzeyinin dünya yüzeyine benzediği

C) the amount of water on the moon was increasing D) there were higher forms of life on the moon than the bacterial ones (B’ye zıt cümle) E)

12. Pasajdan gözüktüğü kadarıyla, yedinci yüzyıldan beridir, ----.

the lunar surface was similar to that of the earth

man has ceased to be interested in the moon

B)

interest in the moon has been confined to the study of rocks

B)

aya ilgi sadece kaya çalışmaları ile sınırlı hale gelmiştir

D) ay üzerinde yaşamın var olduğu bir gerçek olarak kabul görmüştür E)

C) astronomers have had a reasonably correct understanding of the moon D) the existence of life on the moon has been accepted as a fact E)

insanoğlu ayla ilgilenmeyi kesmiştir

C) gökbilimciler ay hakkında nisbeten doğru bir anlayışa sahiptirler

12. It seems from the passage that, from the seventeenth century onwards, ----. A)

A)

a large amount of extraterrestrial material, excluding meteorites, has reached the earth

10.-12. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 88

meteoritler hariç pek çok dünya dışı materyal dünyaya ulaşmıştır

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

13.-15. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

cevaplayınız. Bizler sıcakkanlı hayvanlarız. İçimizdeki sıcaklık genellikle dışımızdaki sıcaklıktan daha yüksektir. Buradan yola çıkarak, tıpkı bir çaydanlık dolusu suyun etrafına ısı verirken soğuması gibi, insan vücudu da devamlı ısı kaybeder. Fakat, çaydanlığın tersine, soğuyup kalmaz, tüm bu vakit boyunca içeride bol miktarda taze ısı üretiliyordur. Vücut bir yandan ısı üretiyorken bir yandan da onun bir kısmını kaybediyordur. Isı kaybı çok hassas bir mekanizma ile denetlenmektedir. Vücut, etrafa ısı yaymaktayken aynı sıcaklıkta kalabilmesi bakımından, bir termostatı andırır.

We are warm-blooded animals. The temperature inside us is generally higher than the temperature outside us. It follows from this fact that, just as a kettle of hot water cools as it loses heat to the air around it, so the human body is continually losing heat. But, unlike the kettle, it does not cool down, for all the time fresh quantities of heat are being generated inside. The body is both making heat and losing some of it at the same time. The loss of heat is controlled by a very delicate mechanism. The body resembles a thermostat heater in that while it gives off heat it manages to remain at the same temperature.

13. Bu pasajda, vücut bir termostata benzetiliyor çünkü ----. 13. In this passage, the body is likened to a thermostat because ----.

A)

ısı kaybı ciddi hastalıklara yol açardı

B)

vücudun sıcaklığı her zaman dış sıcaklığa eşittir

A)

the loss of heat would cause serious diseases

C) vücut ısısının kontrolü önemli değildir

B)

the temperature of the body is always equal to the outside temperature

D) ısı kaybına rağmen sıcaklık sabit kalır E)

C) the control of the body heat is unimportant

vücut ısısı dış sıcaklıktan etkilenmez

D) the temperature remains constant in spite of heat loss E)

14. Okuma parçasında işaret edildiği gibi vücudun ısı kaybı ----.

the body heat is influenced by the outside temperature

14. It is pointed out in the passage that the body's loss of heat ----.

A)

insanoğlunun sıcak-kanlı olmadığı anlamına gelmektedir

B)

bir tehlike işareti olarak değerlendirilmelidir

C) kolay kolay kontrol edilemez

A)

means man is not warm-blooded

D) sadece çevreden etkilenir

B)

should be regarded as a danger signal

E)

taze sıcaklık üretmek suretiyle giderilir

C) cannot be controlled easily D) can only be affected by the environment E)

is compensated for by the generation of fresh heat

15. Okuma parçası ---- mekanizmayı/düzeneği açıklıyor.

B)

concerned with the generation of surplus heat

B)

ayrıntılı bir şekilde ısı kaybını engelleyen

D) bir çaydanlıktaki suyun sıcaklığını düzenleyen

A) which keeps the body at the same temperature which prevents loss of heat, in detail

vücudu aynı sıcaklıkta tutan

C) fazla ısı üretimi ile ilgili

15. The passage describes the mechanism ----.

A)

A)

E)

C) which regulates the temperature of the water in a kettle D) by which the temperature of the air remains stable

13.-15. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 89

(kendisi vasıtasıyla) hava sıcaklığının sabit kaldığı

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

16.-18. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

16.-18. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Genetics is the study of mechanisms of the hereditary process. Modern genetics began with the experiments of Gregor Mendel in 1865. He studied the inheritance of different factors in peas, and found that some traits were "dominant" and some "recessive", the "dominant" appearing in a ratio of very nearly three to one. Mendel's results were ignored for many years until their rediscovery at the beginning of the twentieth century.

Genetik, kalıtım işleminin mekanizmasını [inceleyen] bilim dalıdır. Modern genetik Gregor Mendel’in 1865 yılındaki deneyleri ile başlamıştır. Mendel bezelyelerdeki farklı etmenlerin kalıtımı üzerine çalışmış ve bazı özelliklerin “baskın” ve bazılarınınsa “çekinik” olduğunu, ve “baskın” olanların yaklaşık bire üç oranında gözüktüğünü bulmuştur. Mendel’in bulguları yirminci yüzyılın başlangıcında yeniden keşfedilinceye kadar yıllarca göz ardı edilmişti.

16. Parçaya göre, ----. 16. According to the passage, ----.

A)

Mendel’in deneylerinin sonuçları derhal uygulamaya kondu

B)

Mendel’in deneylerinin amacı daha çok ziraiydi

A)

the results of Mendel's experiments were immediately put into practice

B)

the purpose of Mendel's experiments was primarily agricultural

C) genetik esas itibariyle kalıtımla ilgilenmektedir

C) genetics is essentially concerned with heredity

D) modern genetik Mendel’in deneylerine çok az şey borçludur

D) modern genetics owes very little to Mendel's experiments

E)

E)

kalıtımın nasıl işlediği Mendel’den önce biliniyordu

the mechanics of heredity were known prior to Mendel 17. Açık bir şekilde, genetik alanında, ----. A)

bazı özelliklere gereğinden fazla önem verilmiştir

B)

20. yüzyılın çok az katkısı olmuştur

17. Clearly, in the field of genetics, ----. A) B)

certain traits have been given too much importance

C) Mendel’in denemeleri aşırı/yersiz ilgi çekmektedir

th

the 20 century has contributed very little

D) Mendel bir öncüdür

C) Mendel's experiments have received undue attention

E)

D) Mendel is the pioneer E)

yeni baskın ve çekinik özellikler biteviye keşfedilmektedir

new dominant and recessive traits are constantly being discovered 18. Mendel ---- keşfetti. A)

çekinik özelliklerin baskın olanlardan daha fazla olduğunu

B)

bezelyelerde, baskın türlerin bire üç oranında gözüktüğünü

18. Mendel discovered that ----. A)

recessive traits exceeded the dominant ones

B) in peas, dominant traits appear in a ratio of three to one

C) bezelyelerde özelliklerin neredeyse üçte birinin baskın olduğunu

C) in peas, nearly one-third of the traits were dominant

D) 1865 yılı itibariyle kalıtım teorisinin ikna edici bir surette ayrıntısıyla ortaya konduğunu

D) by 1865 the theory of heredity had been convincingly formulated E)

E)

genetics was becoming a popular science

90

genetiğin revaç gören bir bilim olmaya başladığını

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

19.-21. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

cevaplayınız. Jeologlar özellikle kayaların mineral içeriğiyle ilgilenirler. Bütün kayalar, çoğuna sanayide hammadde olarak ihtiyaç duyulan yahut kendilerini değerli veya faydalı yapan özelliklere sahip bir veya daha fazla sayıda mineral içerir. Örneğin altın değerlidir. Elmas hem değerli hem de faydalıdır. Kayaçlarda kömür de bulunur, genellikle yeraltında, ve modern yaşamda yakıt olarak hayati öneme sahiptir. Britanya kömürce zengindir, zira 300 milyon yıldan daha uzun bir zaman önce sık bir orman (örtüsüyle) kaplıydı. Kömür dünyanın kayaç yapısı içinde yavaş yavaş sıkıştırılıp-sertleşmiş ağaç ve diğer bitki kalıntılarından oluşmuştur.

Geologists are especially interested in the mineral content of rocks. All rocks consist of one or more minerals, many of which are needed as raw materials for industry or have properties which make them valuable or useful. Gold, for example, is valuable. Diamonds are both valuable and useful. Coal is also found in rocks, usually underground, and it is vitally important as fuel in modern life. Britain is rich in coal because it was covered in dense forest more than 300 million years ago. Coal is formed from the remains of trees and the other plants which have gradually been compressed and hardened in the rock structure of the earth.

19. Tüm kaya çeşitlerinde ----. 19. In all types of rocks ----.

A)

sertleşmiş ağaç kalıntıları bulabiliriz

B)

çeşit çeşit mineral yatakları bulunacaktır

A)

we can find the hardened remains of trees

C) en azından bir mineral çeşidi bulunacaktır

B)

a wide variety of mineral deposits is to be found

D) yakıt birikintileri bulmak olasıdır E)

C) at least one type of mineral is to be found

gözüktüğü kadarıyla faydasız yataklar/maden birikintileri vardır

D) one is likely to find fuel deposits E)

there are seemingly useless deposits

20. İşaret edildiği üzere kömür ----. 20. It is pointed out that coal ----.

A)

genellikle sıkı-ormanlık bölgelerde bulunur

B)

yakıt olarak önemini yitirmiş durumdadır

A)

is usually found in thickly-forested regions

C) Britanya’nın başlıca ihracatından biridir

B)

has lost its importance as a fuel

D) –ün oluşması milyonlarca yıl sürer

C) is one of Britain’s major exports

E)

sanayideki en vazgeçilmez materyaldir

D) takes millions of years to form E)

is the most indispensable material for industry

21. Parçaya göre, yer-bilimcilerin asıl ilgi alanlarından biri ----. 21. According to the passage, one of the major interests of geologists is to ----.

A)

dünyadaki toprak rezervlerini saptamaktır

B)

kömür yataklarında elmas imal etmektir

A)

determine the coal reserves in the earth

C) kayalardaki maden yataklarını araştırmaktır

B)

produce diamonds in coal deposits

D) değerli madenlerin özelliklerini incelemektir

C) explore mineral deposits in rocks

E)

D) study the properties of valuable minerals E)

decide which raw materials are useful in industry

19.-21. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre 91

hangi hammaddelerin sanayide önemli olduğuna karar vermektir

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

22.-24. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

22.-24. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

Long after the discovery of electricity, man found that he could use the great power to produce it. At first, he used natural waterfalls. Later, man began to build dams to generate hydroelectric power. Dams are immense structures which hold back the water of a river and form a lake behind. The water is let through under control and allowed to fall through pipes to the turbines below. The rushing water drives the turbines, and as they revolve, they spin electromagnets; these magnets generate electricity.

Elektriğin keşfinden çok sonra, insanoğlu onu üretmek için [bu] büyük gücü kullanabileceğini keşfetti. Başlangıçta, doğal şelaleleri kullandı. Daha sonra, insanlık hidroelektrik enerjisi elde etmek için barajlar/bentler yapmaya başladı. Baraj bentleri bir nehrin suyunu geride tutup ardında bir göl oluşturan devasa yapılardır. Su kontrol altında salınır ve borular aracılığı ile aşağıdaki türbinlere düşmesi sağlanır. Çağıldayan su türbinleri harekete geçirir, ve onlar döndükçe, elektromıknatısları döndürür; bu mıknatıslar ise elektrik üretirler.

22. Parçaya göre barajlar ----. 22. According to the passage, dams ----. A)

are primarily used to form lakes

B)

can be used to prevent flooding

Daha çok göl oluşturmak için kullanılırlar

B)

Sel taşkınlarını engellemek için kullanılabilir

C) ta ilk çağlara kadar uzanır D) elektrik keşfedilmeden çok önce oldukça kullanımdaydı

C) date back to very early times D) were in use well before electricity was discovered E)

A)

E)

hidro-elektrik enerji/güç üretiminde önemlidir

are important for the production of hydroelectric power [AMAÇ CÜMLESİ: to generate…] 23. Eloktro-mıknatıslar türbinlerce harekete geçirilince ----.

23. When electro-magnets are set in motion by turbines, ----.

A)

elektrik üretilir

B)

suyun borular vasıtasıyla aşağı düşmesi mümkün olur

A) electricity is generated

C) su geride tutulmalıdır

B)

D) hız derhal düşer

the water is allowed to fall through the pipes

E)

C) the water has to be held back

su gücü kontrol edilemez bir hal alır

D) the speed is immediately reduced E)

the water power becomes uncontrollable 24. Parçaya göre, elektrik ---- keşfedildi.

24. According to the passage, electricity was discovered ----. A)

after observing the immense power of water in natural waterfalls

suyun şelalelerdeki muazzam gücü gözlendikten sonra

B)

insanoğlu hidro-elektirik enerjiyi nasıl üreteceğini öğrenmeden çok önce

C) ilk barajlar kurulduktan kısa zaman sonra D) yapay ışık üretme ihtiyacı ortaya çıktığı için

B) long before man learned to generate hydroelectric power

E)

C) soon after the first dams were built D) because of the need to create artificial light E)

A)

as soon as he realised how much power there was in water

92

insanoğlu suda ne büyük bir güç olduğunu fark eder etmez

MHMT.MMGR

Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 26. We understand from the passage that one reason why some can be particularly troublesome is ----.

25-27. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Weeds are plants out of place, either as the wrong plant in cultivated ground, or as any plant where none should be. They can cause considerable financial loss through the cost of their control and the damage they do to crops. Plants which become really troublesome as weeds are those which persist despite man's efforts to control them. Such persistency is due to several factors of which perhaps the most important are prolific seed production, coupled with the often remarkably long periods of dormancy of the seed, and the ability of vegetative parts of some plants to survive mechanical damage and adverse conditions and to set up new plants. Weeds may be controlled by hand, by cultivation and other mechanical means, by biological means and by chemical weedkillers. Chemical weedkillers are widely used, either to give a total kill and suppress all vegetation or to control weeds selectively in crops.

because they appear where they are not wanted

B)

because very little effort is made to control them

B)

that they develop a resistance to chemical weedkillers

D) that they can become dormant when weedkillers are applied E)

because it is impossible to kill them

27. It is clear from the passage that some chemical weedkillers have been specially designed ----. A)

to rid the soil of all unwanted seed

B)

to prevent weeds from producing seeds

C) to destroy a weed's capacity to produce seeds that can lie dormant over long periods of time

C) as all weedkillers destroy the crops as well as the weeds

D) to destroy only unwanted vegetation [AMAÇ: to control weeds]

D) as they are all aggressive and able to resist man's efforts to control them E)

because they produce large quantities of seeds several times a year

C) because new plants can grow out of the damaged parts of a plant

25. The writer points out that weeds lead to considerable financial loss ----. A)

A)

E)

as the control of them is expensive and if they are left uncontrolled they harm crops

93

to sterilise the earth and prevent all forms of vegetation from appearing

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 26. Pasajdan anladığımız kadarıyla bazı yabani bitkilerin özellikle baş belası haline gelmesi nedenlerinden biri ----.

25-27. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Yabancı otlar kendi yerleri dışında bulunan bitkileridir; ya ekili yerdeki yanlış bitki ya da olmaması gereken yerdeki herhangi bir bitki şeklinde. Kontrol maliyetleri ve bitkiye verdikleri zarardan ötürü ciddi mâli kayıplara yol açmaları mümkündür. Yabancı bitki olarak gerçekten baş belası olan bitkiler, insanoğlunun kontrol çabalarına rağmen devamlılıklarını sürdüren bitkilerdir. Böylesi devamlılıklar birkaç etmen yüzündendir ki içlerinde belki de en önemlileri tohumun bayağı bayağı uzun süreli uyku / kuluçka / dormansi dönemi ile katmerlenmiş/ikiye katlanmış bol miktarda tohum üretimi ve bazı bitkilerin vejetatif kısımlarının mekanik zarar karşısında hayatta kalma ve yeni bitkiler üretebilme kabiliyetidir. Yabancı bitkiler elle, ekim-dikim suretiyle ve diğer mekanik yollarla, biyolojik yollar ve kimyevi yabancı ot ilaçlarıyla kontrol altına alınabilirler. Kimyasal ayrık otu ilaçları yaygın olarak ya bütün bir bitki örtüsünü öldürüp sindirmek için, ya da ekinler içinde seçici bir şekilde yabancı bitkileri kontrol altına almak için kullanılmaktadır.

A)

bir yılda birkaç kez büyük miktarlarda tohum üretmeleridir

B)

kimyevî bitki ilaçlarına karşı bir direnç geliştirmiş olmalarıdır

C) bir bitkinin zarar görmüş bir kısmından yeni bitkilerin üreyebilmesidir D) bitki ilaçları uygulandığında uyku haline / kuluçkaya geçmeleridir E)

onları öldürmenin imkansız olmasıdır

27. Parçadan belli olduğu üzere bazı kimyevî bitki ilaçları ---- özellikle tasarlanmıştır.

istenmeyen bir yerde ortaya çıktıklarından dolayı

B)

kendilerini kontrol için çok az çaba sarf edildiği için

B)

yabancı bitkilerin tohum üretimini engellemek için

D) sadece istenmeyen bitkileri yok etmek için E)

C) tüm bitki ilaçları yabancı otların yanı sıra ekinleri de yok ettiğinden D) tamamı saldırgan ve insanoğlunun kontrol çabalarına karşı koyma yeteneğine sahip olduğu için E)

toprağı tüm istenmeyen tohumlardan kurtarmak için

C) tohumların uzun müddet uyku/kuluçka halinde kalabilen tohumlar üretme kapasitesini yok etmek için

25. Yazar ----yabancı otların ciddi finansal kayıplara yol açtığını işaret ediyor. A)

A)

kendilerini kontrol altına almak masraflı ve başıboş bırakıldıklarında ekinlere zarar verdikleri için

94

toprağı sterilize etmek ve tüm bitki türlerinin ortaya çıkmasını engellemek için

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 29. We learn from the passage that the danger of ignition by friction or impact is greatly increased ----.

28-30. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. A typical explosives factory is divided into two parts: the "non-danger" and "danger" areas. The main business of the non-danger area lies in the manufacture of nitric and sulphuric acids for the nitration processes, including the recovery of these acids from the waste products of nitration. Other raw materials are also prepared in the nondanger area. The actual manufacture of explosives and their mixing and packing are carried out in the danger area, subject to rigorous safety measures. The main danger in manufacture is ignition by spark, friction or impact, the latter two being especially hazardous if the explosive is allowed to become contaminated with gritty material. Naked lights, steel tools or anything which might produce spark or flame are therefore excluded from the danger buildings. Each building has a "clean" floor which may be approached only in specially cleaned shoes, while the workers are provided with factory clothing to ensure that grit is not carried into the buildings.

A)

while the waste products of nitration are being extracted

B)

if the explosives is contaminated with nitric acid

C) after the explosives have been packaged D) if the manufacturing process is carried out in artificial light E)

if grit is present

30. It is pointed out in the passage that one of the safety measures taken in an explosives factory is ----.

28. We learn from the passage that, in the nondanger zone of a typical explosives factory ----. A) nitric and sulphuric acids are produced and various other raw materials are got ready

A)

the regular washing of the factory floors to keep them sterile

B)

B)

the education of the workers in fire - fighting procedures

the workers are provided with heavy factory clothing

C) the provision of special factory clothing for the workers in the danger area

C) the explosives are packaged and stored D) nothing that might produce a spark or a flame is permitted E)

D) to keep the manufacturing processes separate from the packaging and storing processes

the main waste products are the nitric and sulphuric acids

E)

95

the immediate removal of the explosives after packaging

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 29. Metinden öğrendiğimize göre ---- sürtünme veya darbe sayesinde tetiklenme/kıvılcımlanma tehlikesi büyük oranda artar.

28-30. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Tipik bir patlayıcı (malzemeler) fabrikası iki bölüme ayrılır: “Tehlikeli olmayan” ve “tehlikeli” alanlar. Tehlikeli olmayan bölümün temel işi nitrasyon üretimi için nitrik ve sülfürik asit imalatıdır, ki buna bu asitlerin atık nitrasyon ürünlerinden geri kazanımı da dahildir. Diğer hammaddeler de tehlikeli olmayan bölümde hazırlanır. Patlayıcıların gerçek üretimiyle, karıştırılması ve paketlenmesi (işlemleri) sert güvenlik önlemlerine maruz olan tehlikeli alanda gerçekleştirilmektedir. Üretimdeki ana sıkıntı kıvılcım, sürtünme veya darbenin yol açtığı patlamadır, son ikisi patlayıcı maddeye kumlu bir materyal karışmasına müsaade edildiğinde özellikle tehlikelidir. Dolayısıyla açık ateşler, çelik aletler ya da kıvılcım veya alev üretecek herhangi bir şey tehlikeli binalara sokulmamaktadır. Her binanın sadece özel olarak temizlenmiş ayakkabılarla yaklaşılacak “temiz” bir zemini vardır, diğer yandan binalara kum taşınmadığından emin olmak için çalışanlara özel fabrika kıyafetleri sağlanmaktadır.

A)

atık nitrasyon ürünler çıkarılırken

B)

eğer patlayıcılara nitrik asit bulaşmışsa

C) patlayıcılar paketlendikten sonra D) eğer üretim süreci yapay ışık altında gerçekleştirilirse E)

eğer kum mevcutsa

30. Metinde belirtildiğine göre bir patlayıcı madde fabrikasında alınan güvenlik önlemlerinden biri ----. 28. Metinden öğrendiğimize göre, tipik bir patlayıcı madde fabrikasının tehlikeli olmayan bölümünde ----. A) nitrik ve sülfürik asit üretilir ve diğer çeşitli hammadeler hazırlanır B)

the regular washing of the factory floors to keep them sterile

B)

the education of the workers in fire - fighting procedures

C) tehlikeli alandaki işçiler için özel fabrika kıyafetlerinin sağlanmasıdır

işçilere ağır fabrika kıyafetleri verilir

D) to keep the manufacturing processes separate from the packaging and storing processes

C) patlayıcılar paketlenir ve depolanır D) bir kıvılcım veya ateş üretebilecek hiçbir şeye müsaade edilmez E)

A)

E)

ana atık maddeler nitrik ve sülfirik asitlerdir

96

the immediate removal of the explosives after packaging

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 32. The author points out that the machine tools Joseph Whitworth produced ----.

31-33. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. The culmination of the classic age of the machine tool was the work of Joseph Whitworth. His preeminence lay not so much in any far-reaching innovations as in the quality and accuracy of the workmanship he was able to obtain. It was Whitworth who introduced the standard screw thread which was used in British engineering until 1948, and it was he who revolutionised standards of measurement. Indeed, the many measuring machines of the second half of the 19th century, though increasing the facility, did not greatly increase the accuracy Whitworth had attained. At the Great Exhibition of 1851 his planing, slotting, shaking, drilling, punching and shearing machines made him the outstanding machine-tool maker of the age.

B)

were all unnecessarily complicated

D) went unappreciated E)

have received more attention than they deserve

33. We understand from the passage that, in the field of measurement, ----.

will be remembered for the improvements he made to the first standard screw thread

B) was the most versatile and gifted machine tool maker of his age C) had only a few machine tools ready in time for the Great Exhibition of 1851

A)

British engineers were slow to appreciate accuracy

B)

Whitworth’s work was soon to be surpassed by far better quality tools

C) No new advances would be made until the middle of the 20th century

D) had brilliant ideas but was not a practical person E)

were soon replaced by new and better designs

C) were remarkable for their quality and precision

31. We understand from the passage that Joseph Whitworth ----. A)

A)

D) Whitworth achieved a remarkable degree of accuracy

invented nothing of lasting importance

E)

97

Whitworth's innovations attracted little attention

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 32. Yazarın belirttiği gibi, Joseph Whitworth’un ürettiği imalat makineleri ----.

31-33. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Klasik imalat makinelerinin zirvesi Joseph Whitworth’un eserleridir. Onun önemi/şöhreti herhangi geniş kapsamlı yeniliklerinden/icatlarından çok daha ziyade, ulaşabildiği ustalığın kalite ve hassasiyetinde/mükemmelliğinde gizlidir. 1948’e kadar Britanya mühendisliğinde standart olarak kullanılan vida dişini Whitworth icat etmişti ve ölçüm standartlarında devrimsel değişikler yapan da oydu. Gerçekten de, 19. yüzyılın ikinci yarısındaki pek çok ölçüm makinesi, kolaylık bakımından daha gelişmiş olsa da, Whitworth’un [çoktan] ulaştığı hassasiyeti/doğruluğu pek artırmamıştı. 1851 Büyük Sergisi’nde onun tesviye, yiv/delik açma, çırpma/sallama, delme, perçinleme ve kırpma/kesme makineleri kendisini çağın seçkin imalat makinesi üreticisi yapmıştı.

B)

–nin tamamı gereksiz yere karmaşıktı

D) takdir görmedi E)

hak ettiklerinden daha fazla dikkat çekmektedir

33. Metinden anladığımız kadarıyla, ölçüm alanında, ----

ilk standart vida dişine yaptığı iyileştirmelerle hatırlanacak

B) çağının en çok-yönlü ve yetenekli imalat makineleri üreticisiydi

A)

Britanyalı mühendisler hassasiyeti takdir etmede geç kalmışlardı

B)

Whitwork’un çalışmaları kısa zamanda çok daha kaliteli aletlerce geçildi

C) 20. yüzyılın ortalarına kadar hiçbir yeni gelişme yapılmayacaktı

C) 1851 Büyük Sergisi için sadece bir kaç imalat makinesini zamanında hazır etmişti

D) Whitworth kayda değer bir hassasiyete ulaşmıştı

D) harika fikirlere sahipti ama pratik bir insan değildi E)

–nin yerini kısa zamanda yeni ve daha iyi tasarımlar aldı

C) kalite ve hassasiyetleri ile dikkat çekiyorlardı

31. Metinden anladığımız kadarıyla Joseph Whitworth ----. A)

A)

E)

kalıcı öneme sahip hiç bir şey icat etmedi

98

Whitworth’un yenilikleri çok az ilgi çekmişti

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 35. We can understand from the passage that, around the beginning of the 20th century, bridge designers ----.

34-36. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Just as railway bridges were the great structural symbols of the 19th century, highway bridges became the engineering emblems of the 20th century. The invention of the automobile created an irresistible demand for paved roads and vehicular bridges throughout the developed world. The type of bridge needed for cars and trucks, however, is fundamentally different from that needed for locomotives. Most highway bridges carry lighter loads than railway bridges do, and their roadways can be sharply curved or steeply sloping. To meet these needs, many turn-of-thecentury bridge designers began working with a new building material: reinforced concrete, which has steel bars embedded in it. And the master of this new material was Swiss structural engineer Robert Maillart, who designed some of the most original and influential bridges of the modern era.

A)

were equally involved in the buildings of roads

B)

followed Robert Maillart's lead and concentrated on highway bridges

C) made highway bridges on the same design as railway bridges D) made some of the most spectacular bridges of the modern era E)

began to use a new building material, known as reinforced concrete

36. We understand from the passage that there was a great demand for highway bridges in the 20th century ----.

34. According to the passage, one important way in which highway bridges differ from railway bridges is that they ----.

A) as more and more cars came into use B)

A) are in constant use B) can have quite a sharp incline

so many railway bridges were turned into highway bridges

C) even though the designing and building of them was uninteresting work

C) have to carry heavier loads (demiryolunun özelliği) D) must be quite straight (tam zıt seçenek)

D) but railway bridges continued to attract the best designers

E) are comparatively short

E)

99

and structural engineers found they could not produce enough bridges

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 35. We can understand from the passage that, around the beginning of the 20th century, bridge designers ----.

34-36. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Tıpkı demiryolu köprülerinin 19. yüzyılın büyük yapı sembolleri olması gibi, otoyol köprüleri de 20. yüzyılın mühendisliklik amblemleri haline gelmiştir. Otomobilin icadı tüm gelişmiş ülkelerde asfaltlanmış yollar ve taşıt köprüleri için karşı konulmaz bir talep yaratmıştı. Ancak, araba ve kamyonlar için gereken köprü tipi, lokomotifler için gereken esas itibariyle farklıydı. Çoğu otoyol köprüsü demiryolu köprülerinin taşıdığından daha hafif yükler taşıyordu ve yolları keskin dönemeçli veya dik yokuşlu olabiliyordu. Bu ihtiyaçları karşılamak için, yüzyılın başındaki pek çok köprü tasarımcısı yeni bir inşa materyali ile, içine çelik çubukların gömüldüğü takviye beton ile, iş yapmaya başlamışlardı. Ve bu materyalin ustası, modern çağın çoğu orijinal ve etkili köprülerinin bir kısmını tasarlamış olan, İsviçreli yapı mühendisi Robert Maillart idi.

were equally involved in the buildings of roads

B)

followed Robert Maillart's lead and concentrated on highway bridges

C) made highway bridges on the same design as railway bridges D) made some of the most spectacular bridges of the modern era E)

began to use a new building material, known as reinforced concrete

36. We understand from the passage that there was a great demand for highway bridges in the 20th century ----.

34. According to the passage, one important way in which highway bridges differ from railway bridges is that they ----. A)

A)

A) as more and more cars came into use

are in constant use

B)

B) can have quite a sharp incline

so many railway bridges were turned into highway bridges

C) have to carry heavier loads (demiryolunun özelliği)

C) even though the designing and building of them was uninteresting work

D) must be quite straight (tam zıt seçenek)

D) but railway bridges continued to attract the best designers

E)

are comparatively short

E)

100

and structural engineers found they could not produce enough bridges

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 38. We learn from the passage that during an avalanche ----.

37-39. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

A) pieces of rock are likely to be carried down with the falling snow

Strictly speaking, the term "avalanche" should be restricted to falls of snow and ice in mountainous regions, but popular usage has extended its meaning to cover rock fails and landslips in all environments. The period of greatest danger from avalanches proper is during a thaw, when melt water makes a good lubricant for the snow and ice banked steeply against rock faces. The rising cloud of white dust, the vertical grooves and patches of bare rock formed by the scouring action, and the dull roar of the avalanche are all common features of mountains above the permanent snow line. Rock fragments may also be carried down, for the recurrent freezing and thawing of water lodged in joints and crevices of the rock forms a powerful agent of disintegration. The action is the same as that which leads to burst pipes. Freezing causes expansion of the water in the spaces of a joint and produces a pressure sufficient to break the rock.

B)

the falling snow and ice soon start to melt

C) there is absolute silence D) the falling snow is immediately followed by extensive rock falls E)

falling snow banks up steeply against the nearest rock face

39. The writer points out that the constant freezing and thawing of water in rock crevices ----. 37. The writer points out that most true avalanches ----. A)

consist of falling rock not of snow or ice

is what causes an avalanche

B)

is an unimportant detail

C) produces a smooth rock surface

B) occur when the snow has started to melt

D) causes a build-up of snow

C) occur when the snow has melted a little and then frozen hard again

E)

D) cause considerable disintegration of the rock surfaces they come in contact with E)

A)

rarely leave behind them a bare rock surface

101

will cause the rock to break up

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 38. Parçadan öğrendiğimize göre bir çığ müddetince ----.

37-39. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

A) kaya parçacıklarının düşen karla aşağı taşınması olasıdır

Tam doğrusunu söylemek gerekirse / İşin aslı / Kitabına uyacak olursak “çığ” terimi dağlık bölgelerdeki kar ve buz düşüşleri ile sınırlı kalmalı, fakat yaygın kullanım bu terimin anlamını tüm çevrelerdeki kaya düşüşleri ve toprak kaymalarını da kapsayacak şekilde genişletmiştir. Uygun çığlardan gelen en büyük tehlike dönemi, erimiş suyun kaya yüzeylerinde dik bir şekilde yığılmış kar ve buz için iyi bir kayganlaştırıcı olduğu bahar dönemindeki kar erimesidir. Yükselen beyaz toz bulutu, sürtünme eylemi ile oluşmuş çıplak kayaların dikey yarık ve yamaları ve çığın tok kükremesi, bunların hepsi, yaz kış karla kaplı dağların ortak özellikleridir. Kaya parçacıkları da aşağı taşınabiliyor, zira kayaların bağlantı yerlerinde ve çatlaklarında bulunan suyun tekrar ve tekrar donup-erimesi, parçalanma için muazzam bir etmen oluşturuyor. Olay boruların patlamasına yol açan olayın aynısıdır: Donma bağlantı yerlerindeki suyun genleşmesine yol açar ve kayayı parçalamaya yetecek bir basınç üretir.

B)

düşen kar ve buz kısa zaman içimde erimeye başlar

C) mutlak (bir) sessizlik vardır D) düşen karı hemen yoğun kaya düşüşleri takip eder E)

düşen karlar hemen en yakın kaya yüzeyinin karşısında dik bir şekilde yığın oluştururlar

39. Yazarın işaret ettiği gibi kaya çatlaklarındaki devamlı donma ve çözülme ---37. Yazarın çoğu gerçek çığın ---- işaret ediyor. A)

kar veya buz değil düşen kayaları içerdiğini

B) kar erimeye başladığında oluştuğunu

çığa yol açan şeydir

B)

önemsiz bir ayrıntıdır

C) pürüzsüz bir kaya yüzeyi oluşturur

C) kar biraz eriyip daha sonra yeniden semsert donduğunda oluştuğuna

D) karın yığılmasına neden olur E)

D) temasta olduğu kaya yüzeylerinden ciddi kopmalara yol açtığını E)

A)

hemen hemen hiç ardında çıplak bir kaya yüzeyi bırakmadığını

102

kayanın parçalanmasına yol açacaktır

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 41. We understand from the passage that the high landing speed of a large aircraft ----.

40-42. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız.

A) has been one of the determining factors in the design of brakes of large craft

Aircraft landing-wheel brakes are fitted to all sizes of aircraft for arresting motion after touch-down, for steering during taxiing by differential control of port and starboard brakes, and to hold the aircraft stationary while the engine is warmed-up or tested. Small aircraft have simple two-shoe internal expanding brakes manually operated and very similar to the standard road-vehicle brake, but the larger machines require poweroperated brakes using compressed air or hydraulic pressure from compressors or pumps driven by the engine. Besides being as light and compact as possible, landing-wheel brakes must remain effective and balanced during very high rates of energy dissipation due to the great weight of the aircraft and the very high landing speeds.

B)

C) only becomes a problem on poor runways D) has occasionally led to wheel-locking E)

40. It is clear from the passage that one of the functions of an aircraft's landing-wheel brakes is to ----. A)

opened the way to a more scientific study of friction

42. According to the passage, the braking system of small aircraft ----.

act as a substitute steering aid

A)

B) prevent the craft from moving during engine warm-up

differs little from that of larger aircraft

B) is not very different from that of ordinary cars and buses

C) keep the aircraft steady after touch - down

C) is both power - operated and manual

D) assist in the dissipation of energy on landing E)

is directly related to its weight

D) is specially designed for coping with high - speed landings

prevent the aircraft landing at very high speeds

E)

103

cannot be used to steer the craft after landing

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 42. According to the passage, the braking system of small aircraft ----.

40-42. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Uçak iniş-tekeri frenleri teker koyma-noktasından sonra hareketi tutmak, pistte ilerleme esnasında iskele ve sancak frenlerini diferansiyel vasıtasıyla kontrol ederek manevra yapmak ve motor ısıtılır veya test edilirken uçağı sabit tutmak için her ebattaki hava taşıtına yerleştirilmektedir. Küçük uçakların basit iki-patili, manüel çalışıp içerden açılan ve standart kara-taşıtı frenlerine çok benzeyen frenleri vardır, fakat daha büyük makineler motorun çalıştırdığı pompa veya kompresörlerden gelen sıkıştırılmış hava veya hidrolik basıncı kullanan motorlu frenlere muhtaçtırlar. Mümkün olduğunca hafif olmalı ve az yer kaplamalarının yanı sıra, iniş-takımı frenleri uçağın muazzam ağırlığı ve çok yüksek iniş hızlarından kaynaklanan çok yüksek oranlarda enerji dağılımı esnasında işlek/etkin ve dengeli de kalmalıdırlar.

act as a substitute steering aid

B)

prevent the craft from moving during engine warm-up

prevent the aircraft landing at very high speeds

41. We understand from the passage that the high landing speed of a large aircraft ----. has been one of the determining factors in the design of brakes of large craft

B)

is directly related to its weight

C) only becomes a problem on poor runways D) has occasionally led to wheel-locking E)

is not very different from that of ordinary cars and buses

E)

D) assist in the dissipation of energy on landing

A)

B)

D) is specially designed for coping with high - speed landings

C) keep the aircraft steady after touch - down

E)

differs little from that of larger aircraft

C) is both power - operated and manual

40. It is clear from the passage that one of the functions of an aircraft's landing-wheel brakes is to ----. A)

A)

opened the way to a more scientific study of friction

104

cannot be used to steer the craft after landing

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 44. The author points out that on mountainous lines the track capacity is improved by electrification ----.

43-45. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. The main advantages of electric traction on railways are that it is both pleasant and efficient. It brings the removal of a smoke nuisance from tunnels and from the vicinity of larger cities. Further, owing to high acceleration, it is possible to provide a more frequent and faster service on densely populated suburban lines. The track capacity is improved by electrification on mountainous lines because of increase of speed, both up and down the gradient, generally using electric forms of braking in the latter case. Some of the major electrification schemes of the world, for instance, those in Switzerland and Sweden, have been largely dictated by the desire to operate the railway system without dependence upon imported fuel.

B)

but upkeep expenses are high

D) though this is not the case in other locations E)

unless electric forms of braking are applied

45. Sweden and Switzerland, we are told, have some of the world’s major electrified railway systems ----.

A) include a cleaner environment and an improved performance

A)

since they have small populations and the electrified systems seemed adequate

B)

as they were determined to keep their mountain air unpolluted

can best be seen in Sweden an Switzerland

C) do not outweigh the problems involved D) have only recently become apparent E)

but the safety aspect is causing much concern

C) because it enables trains to go faster both up and down the line

43. As is pointed out in the passage, the benefits of electric railway traction ----.

B)

A)

C) as other railway systems were not practical in high altitudes

are confined to mountainous conditions

D) because they wanted to develop a railway system that did not rely on imported fuel E)

105

because the only safe braking system on a steep gradient is electric one

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 44. The author points out that on mountainous lines the track capacity is improved by electrification ----.

43-45. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Demiryolları üzerindeki elektrikli çekişin ana avantajları hem memnuniyet verici hem de randımanlı olmalarıdır. (Bu sistem) tünellerin ve büyük şehir çevrelerinin duman belasınından uzaklaşmasını sağlar. Dahası, yüksek hız sayesinde, yoğun nüfuslu kenar mahalle hatlarında daha sık ve daha hızlı bir hizmet sağlamak da mümkündür. Çekiş kapasitesi dağlık tren hatlarında elektrifikasyon ile artmış hız sayesinde, hem yokuş aşağı hem de yokuş yukarı, ki ikinci durumda genellikle elektrik biçimli frenleme kullanılır, daha iyi hale getirilmiştir. Dünyanın ana elektrifikasyon projelerinin bir kısmını, mesela İsviçre ve İsveç’tekileri, daha çok ithal edilmiş yakıta bağımlı olmaksızın tren yolu sistemini işletme arzusu belirlenmiştir.

include a cleaner environment and an improved performance

B)

can best be seen in Sweden an Switzerland

B)

but upkeep expenses are high

D) though this is not the case in other locations E)

unless electric forms of braking are applied

45. Sweden and Switzerland, we are told, have some of the world’s major electrified railway systems ----.

C) do not outweigh the problems involved

A)

since they have small populations and the electrified systems seemed adequate

B)

as they were determined to keep their mountain air unpolluted

C) as other railway systems were not practical in high altitudes

D) have only recently become apparent E)

but the safety aspect is causing much concern

C) because it enables trains to go faster both up and down the line

43. As is pointed out in the passage, the benefits of electric railway traction ----. A)

A)

D) because they wanted to develop a railway system that did not rely on imported fuel

are confined to mountainous conditions

E)

106

because the only safe braking system on a steep gradient is electric one

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 47. The author points out that there is a close link between exploration and botanical gardens ----.

46-48. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Botanic gardens may be regarded as having a threefold function: to please and educate the public; to carry out investigations regarding the economic value of native and foreign plant products and acclimatisation of plants; and to act as centres of information and scientific investigation in various fields of botany, such as anatomy, morphology and physiology, for which museums, libraries and laboratories are also needed. The search for drugs and spices particularly has tempted men from early times to explore all parts of the world and this has promoted a close link between exploration and botanic gardens. One well-known botanic garden is the Royal Botanic Garden at Edinburgh which was founded in 1670 by Robert Sibbald for the cultivation of medical plants. Since that date it has been removed to several different sites. It is now one of the major botanic gardens in Britain with an area of over 60 acres.

A)

as few native British plants are of use medicinally and many people now prefer natural medicines to chemical ones

B)

as many people are curious about the medicinal properties of various plants

C) because the desire to find new drugs and spices has long been a reason behind many exploratory expeditions D) since plants from foreign parts will only grow in the special conditions they are used to E)

46. We learn from the passage that one of the main functions of botanic garden is to ----.

though this is still a very new development

48. In this passage about botanical gardens, ----.

A)

send out explorers in search of new spices

A)

they are presented as a very pleasant luxury

B)

provide scientists with the means for carrying out investigations into botanical subjects

B)

the historical aspect is completely ignored

C) the problems of financing them are carefully considered

C) make more and more land suitable for cultivation

D) it is the functional aspect that is emphasised

D) encourage the production of natural medicines to replace chemical ones which sometimes have serious side-effects E)

E)

be economically self supporting and encourage young people to take an interest in gardens

107

the focus is on the rarer plants of foreign origin

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 47. The author points out that there is a close link between exploration and botanical gardens ----.

46-48. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Botanik bahçeler üç fonksiyona sahip olarak değerlendirilebilirler: halkı eğlendirmek ve eğitmek; yerli ve yabancı bitkisel ürünlerin ekonomik değeri ve bitkilerin iklime adapte edilmesi ile ilgili çalışmalar yapmak; botaniğin anatomi, morfoloji ve fizyoloji gibi çeşitli alanları için bilgi ve bilimsel araştırma merkezi olmak, ki bunun için ayrıca müzelere, kütüphanelere ve lâboratuarlara da ihtiyaç vardır. İlaç ve baharat arayışı özellikle insanoğlunu ilk çağlardan beri dünyanın her tarafını araştırmaya sevketmiş ve bu da keşif ve botanik bahçeler arasında sıkı bir irtibat sağlamıştır. Meşhur bir botanik bahçe 1670 yılında Edinburgh’da tıbbi ilaç yetiştirmek için Robert Sİbbalt tarafından kurulan Royal Botanic Garden / Kraliyet Botanik Bahçesi’dir. Bahçe o tarihten bu yana birkaç farklı yere taşınmıştır. Şimdi 60 acre’dan daha geniş bir araziyle Britanya'daki büyük botanik bahçelerden biridir.

A)

as few native British plants are of use medicinally and many people now prefer natural medicines to chemical ones

B)

as many people are curious about the medicinal properties of various plants

C) because the desire to find new drugs and spices has long been a reason behind many exploratory expeditions D) since plants from foreign parts will only grow in the special conditions they are used to E)

though this is still a very new development

46. We learn from the passage that one of the main functions of botanic garden is to ----. A)

send out explorers in search of new spices

B)

provide scientists with the means for carrying out investigations into botanical subjects

C) make more and more land suitable for cultivation

48. In this passage about botanical gardens, ----.

D) encourage the production of natural medicines to replace chemical ones which sometimes have serious side-effects E)

A)

they are presented as a very pleasant luxury

B)

the historical aspect is completely ignored

C) the problems of financing them are carefully considered

be economically self supporting and encourage young people to take an interest in gardens

D) it is the functional aspect that is emphasised E)

108

the focus is on the rarer plants of foreign origin

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 50. It is clear from the passage that, as in the case of "the problem of longitude", the Royal Society ----.

49-51. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. The Royal Society is the national academy of science for Great Britain and Northern Ireland but, unlike other national academies, is and always has been independent of state control; it is not maintained by grants from public funds and manages its own affairs. Since its foundation, however, kings, statesmen and government departments have regularly sought its advice on scientific matters; it has never hesitated to assist governments when convinced that the national interest called for scientific action. Within ten years of its foundation the society, at the invitation of Charles II and his ministers, grappled with problems of national food supply, arboriculture, naval architecture and navigation. Throughout the 18th century it worked with the admiralty on what was then called “the problem of the longitude” in the solution of which are associated the names of the astronomers Edmond Halley and Nevil Maskelyne, the chronometer maker John Harrison and the navigator James Cook. It found a cure for jail-fever and advised on the protection of ships of war against lightning; it organized a geodetic survey of the British Isles and appointed scientific personnel to several Arctic and Antarctic expedition.

A)

was obliged to advise the admiralty on procedures for the tests it was making

B)

can command specific knowledge from a variety of fields to assist in the solution of multidisciplinary problems

C)

often failed to come up with a solution to a specific problem

D)

would only accept short-term commissions as it felt that long-term ones threatened its independence

E)

avoided, whenever it was at all possible to do so involvement in schemes of national importance

51. We understand from the passage that a great many of the activities of the Royal Society ----. 49. According to the passage the Royal Society, though it is a national academy, ----. A)

is not dependent on the state for funds and so is free to act independently

B)

is only partly financed by grants from public funds

C)

has never worked directly for kings or government departments

D)

is mainly concerned with navigation and indeed all naval matters

E)

has often refused to act for the government in an advisory capacity

109

A)

are money-making schemes so that it can maintain its independence

B)

are purely theoretical and have no practical application

C)

are actually forced upon it by king or parliament though the members themselves do not like to admit this

D)

are truly national in character, being designed to benefit the people whether directly or indirectly

E)

amount to nothing more than recommending suitable people for specific situations

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 50. It is clear from the passage that, as in the case of "the problem of longitude", the Royal Society ----.

49-51. soruları aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Royal Society (Kraliyet Kurumu) Büyük Britanya ve Kuzey İrlanda’nın ulusal bilim akademisidir fakat, diğer ulusal akademilerin aksine, devlet kontrolünden bağımsızdır ve her zaman da böyle olmuştur; Kamu fonlarından gelen bağışlarla ayakta kalmaz ve kendi işlerini kendisi idare eder. Ancak kurulduğu günden beridir krallar, devlet adamları ve devlet kurumları düzenli olarak bilimsel meselelerde onun tavsiyesine başvuragelmişlerdir. (Kurum) ulusal çıkarın bilimsel bir eylem gerektirdiğine ikna olduğunda / emin olduğunda hükümetlere yardımda hiç tereddüt etmemiştir. Kuruluşunun ilk on yılı içerisinde, 2. Charles ve bakanlarının daveti üzerine ulusal yiyecek arzı, ağaç-dikimi/peyzaj, deniz mimarisi ve denizcilik gibi problemlerle uğraşmıştır. 18. yüzyıl boyunca (da) donanmayla o zamanlar “boylam problemi” denilen bir mesele üzerinde çalışmışlardır ki, bu problemin çözümünde gökbilimci Edmond Halley ve Nevil Maskelyne, kronometre imalatçısı John Harrison ve kaptan James Cook’ların isimleri geçmektedir. (Kurum) hapishane-humması için bir tedavi bulmuş, savaş gemilerinin yıldırıma karşı korunması dair tavsiyelerde bulunmuş, Britanya Adacıkları’nın jeodetik bir tetkikini organize etmiş ve Arktika ve Antartika’ya düzenlenen birkaç keşif seferine personel atamıştır.

A)

was obliged to advise the admiralty on procedures for the tests it was making

B)

can command specific knowledge from a variety of fields to assist in the solution of multidisciplinary problems

C)

often failed to come up with a solution to a specific problem

D)

would only accept short-term commissions as it felt that long-term ones threatened its independence

E)

avoided, whenever it was at all possible to do so involvement in schemes of national importance

51. We understand from the passage that a great many of the activities of the Royal Society ----. 49. According to the passage the Royal Society, though it is a national academy, ----.

A)

are money-making schemes so that it can maintain its independence

B)

are purely theoretical and have no practical application

C)

are actually forced upon it by king or parliament though the members themselves do not like to admit this

A)

is not dependent on the state for funds and so is free to act independently

B)

is only partly financed by grants from public funds

C)

has never worked directly for kings or government departments

D)

are truly national in character, being designed to benefit the people whether directly or indirectly

D)

is mainly concerned with navigation and indeed all naval matters

E)

amount to nothing more than recommending suitable people for specific situations

E)

has often refused to act for the government in an advisory capacity

110

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 53. It's clear from the passage that one reason why Britain grew so competent in anti-aircraft tactics was ----.

52. - 54. sorulan, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. The first flight by a power driven manned aeroplane took place in 1903 and its subsequent development as a military weapon was so rapid that all the belligerents entered World War I totally unprepared to defend themselves against it. The first bombing raids, however, compelled the consideration of anti-aircraft measures, and Britain, in particular, attacked by Zeppelin airships and Gotha aircraft was forced to develop a range of specialized anti-aircraft equipment which came to include guns, searchlights, sound-locators and predictors, giving it a qualitative ascendancy in this field retained until the end of World War II. Indeed the first night attack on London caused such public consternation that its gun defences had to be doubled within forty-eight hours and, though they hit few planes, their presence was of great psychological value.

52. We understand from the passage that the development of aircraft as a weapon of war was so rapid that at the start of World War I ----. A)

most cities had already been equipped with searchlights

B)

anti-aircraft procedures had already been formulated

C) D)

E)

A)

the fact that, prior to the war, she already had the ascendancy in this field

B)

the absolute necessity of defending herself from bombing raids

C)

because scientists realized that they had to keep ahead in this field or the country's moral would drop

D)

that a great deal of research into predictors had already been carried out

E)

that the noise made by the German Zeppelins was easy to recognize and locate

54. The passage emphasizes that, after the first night attack on London, ----.

no country had prepared itself to combat an air attack Britain had enough specialized anti-aircraft equipment to see her through to the end of the war it was only in Germany that measures had been taken to combat air attacks

111

A)

enemy aircraft were continually being shot down

B)

the moral of the people there remained high

C)

the value of manned aircraft in time of war was finally admitted

D)

the city's defence system was increased twofold within a couple of days

E)

it became increasingly difficult for enemy bombers to reach their targets

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 56. We understand from the passage that biotechnology has produced a tomato that stays fresh and firm much longer than the normal tomato, ----.

55. - 57. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. Scientists can now speed up the process of genetic change through biotechnology. Farmers need no longer wait patiently for breeding to yield improved crops and animals, nor must they even respect natural lines of reproduction among species. Laboratory scientists can now select desirable traits from any of a number of species and insert those traits into the genetic material of crops and animals. Among the new products of biotechnology are tomatoes that stay fresh much longer than the usual ones and so promise less waste and higher profits. Normally, tomatoes produce a protein that softens them after they have been picked. Scientists introduce into a tomato plant a gene that is a mirror image of the one that codes for the "softening" enzyme. This gene fastens itself to the RNA of the native gene and blocks its action. A vine-ripe tomato with this special gene rots more slowly than a normal tomato, allowing growers to harvest at the most flavourful and nutritious red stage. The tomatoes will still last much longer during shipping and marketing than regular tomatoes harvested when green.

55. As the passage points out, genetic change is not a new phenomenon, but ----. A)

formerly it was only achieved by careful breeding and was a long, slow process

B)

it has only recently been applied to plants

C)

A)

and can be left on the vine almost indefinitely

B)

but is far more expensive to produce

C)

because the "softening" enzyme of the normal tomato has been removed by genetic engineering

D)

especially if it is harvested when it is green

E)

by introducing a special gene that prevent the "softening" enzyme from functioning

57. One of the important advantages of the genetically engineered tomatoes as described in the passage is that ---A)

they contain a larger proportion of protein than the usual tomato

farmers have only just started to take an interest in it

B)

they are far more nutritious than the normal ones even when picked at the green stage

D)

its advantages have only just become obvious to farmers

C)

they can be picked when ripe and at their tastiest, and won't spoil in transport

E)

the success-rate of inserting a desired trait is not very high

D)

the gene used to prevent rotting is perfectly stable

E)

their appearance is far more attractive than that of other tomatoes

112

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 59. According to the passage, solar energy is not presently used on a large scale ----.

58 - 60. soruları, aşağıdaki parçaya göre cevaplayınız. To obtain power from the sun's rays is to use nuclear power developed at no expense in a laboratory 93 million miles away, for the radiant energy of the sun is maintained by nuclear transformation of chemical elements occurring in the sun's interior at temperatures of many million degrees, and at pressures of many million atmospheres. The resources of solar power are enormous. If 100 per cent efficiency could be secured in the transformation of radiant solar energy into mechanical work, a horsepower per square yard of ground surface would be available under cloudless skies. The expense of collecting solar energy still prevents its competition with the usual power sources .Yet, unless the vague promise of safe thermonuclear power from oceans becomes realized, solar power must supply the enormous and growing requirements of posterity within two centuries. Because the ground sources (coal, oil and uranium) as they near exhaustion will become more costly than solar power.

58. The writer of the passage regards the sun ----.

A)

since it could constitute a threat to the environment

B)

as even on cloudless days it cannot be made to yield a great deal of power

C)

even though it can be harnessed with 100 per cent efficiency

D)

since the harnessing of thermonuclear power from the oceans is felt to be more profitable

E)

because the expense of harnessing it is not economically viable

60. The passage contains a warning that ----.

A)

as both the largest and the cheapest source of power

A)

such ground sources of energy as coal and oil will be used up by the next generation

B)

as an inefficient source of energy as cloud prevents it from being effective

B)

solar energy could prove dangerous as it is a form of nuclear energy

C)

as offering little more in the way of energy for the future than thermonuclear power

C)

future ages may have no option but the sun's rays to meet their energy requirements

D)

as a far distant laboratory that produces nuclear power

D)

thermonuclear power from oceans could prove even more costly than solar power

E)

as a source of power too vast and dangerous to be tampered with or used

E)

the costs of harnessing solar power are not likely to be reduced

113

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 62. It is clear from the passage that, when a ship is being ordered the designer is often given a lot of freedom in the type of design, but he will expect to be told ----.

ÜDS FEN 2001 ARALIK The design of ships is governed by scientific principles and economic considerations but in practice it has many of the qualities of an art. The designer may be supplied with the precise and detailed requirements of an owner or he may receive only the barest outline of requirements such as the weight of cargo to be carried and the speed. The dimensions chosen and the main characteristics of the ship are governed by the trade in which the vessel is to compete. High-density cargoes such as iron ore require little cubic capacity; low-density cargoes such as bananas require vast cubic capacity. The ports which the vessel must enter may impose restrictions on length and draught. Passage through canals may restrict both draught and breadth. The nature of the cargo may determine the size of cargo holds and of the hatchways through which the cargo is loaded and unloaded. Available facilities at the ports to be entered affect the loading and unloading apparatus to be installed in the vessel.

61. We understand from the passage that the size of a ship ----. A)

needs to be large if it is to have high-density cargoes

B)

will reflect the type of goods to be carried

C)

is unimportant so long as it does not have to pass through canals

D)

has relatively little bearing upon its cost

E)

affects the system of loading and unloading of the cargo

A)

something about what it is to carry and how fast it is to travel

B)

the type of loading and unloading apparatus to install

C)

something about the route it will normally follow

D)

the exact dimensions that are required

E)

exactly how big the cargo holds should be

63. According to the passage, a great many factors have to be considered in the design of a ship ----.

114

A)

of which economic matters are the least important

B)

and no designer is prepared to accept just a simple outline of requirements

C)

but one of the least important is the cubic capacity needed for the cargo

D)

including regulations and conditions in the ports it will call in at

E)

in particular the relationship between length and breadth

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 65. The definition of erosion given in this passage ----.

ÜDS FEN 2001 ARALIK Erosion is regarded not merely as the physical removal of soil by water and wind, but rather as the deterioration of all the component parts of the habitat in which man and his crops and livestock have to exist. Since there is no conclusive evidence for any major climatic change in historic times to explain this deterioration, we must conclude that the eroding of the total environment has been due primarily to thoughtless destruction of the vegetative cover. This has led to deterioration of the microclimate above and below the surface, generally in the direction of a general drying out of the soil which has exposed it to erosive action of wind and rainfall of high intensity or frequency, and to the loss of organic matter in the soil, thus reducing its capacity to resist erosion by conserving the water that falls on the surface. If everything possible is done within the total environment to conserve the naturally planted or cultivated vegetation, this will also ensure optimal conservation of soil and water.

A)

is a strictly regional one

B)

disregards man's role in it

C) concentrates on flooding D) assumes that the process is inevitable E)

is a broad one

64. It is argued in the passage that the impoverishment of the world's habitat ----. A)

B)

66. It is pointed out in the passage that the loss of organic matter in the soil ----.

it is first and foremost due to man's irresponsible abuse of the vegetable cover of the earth is largely due to gradual changes in climate over long years

C) became inevitable as soon as agricultural and animal husbandry developed

A)

led to the destruction of the world's vegetative cover

B)

is a direct result of insufficient rain

C) is an irreversible process

D) cannot be remedied

D) has made the soil more susceptible to erosion

E)

E)

has been needlessly exaggerated

115

came about through over-planting which robbed the soil of nutrients

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 68. As it is pointed out in the passage, many experts are of the opinion that radioactive waste ----.

ÜDS FEN 2001 ARALIK The world's nuclear plants have accumulated vast stocks of highly radioactive waste. Worldwide, high-level waste is currently stored above ground, and no government has a clear policy on its eventual disposal. While most experts believe that burying the waste is the safest bet in the long term, the problem is finding sites that everyone can agree are geologically stable. Decaying radioactive isotopes release heat. As a result, high-level waste must be constantly cooled; otherwise, it becomes dangerously hot. This is why many experts want to store waste above ground until it has decayed and is cool enough to be stored safely in sealed repositories several hundreds of metres below ground. According to one recent theory, however, waste should be lowered down boreholes drilled to 4 kilometres. The trick is to exploit heat generated by the waste to fuse the surrounding rock and contain any leaking radioactivity.

has been satisfactorily dealt with by scientists in conjunction with governments

B)

is a problem that each government must decide on for its own country

should never be stored underground as it can not then be monitored

B)

should not be stored underground while the radioactive isotopes continue to let off substantial amounts of heat

C) does not require to be cooled when stored above ground D) cannot be safely disposed of anywhere and the problem of what to do with it intensifies as the amount increases E)

67. It is clear from the passage that the safe disposal of radioactive waste ----. A)

A)

can be safely left to cool down underground in sealed repositories

69. The passage describes a new method, still only a theoretical one, for the disposal of radioactive waste, ----. A)

which uses bore holes so that all sites are suitable

B)

at a depth considerably less than that normally recommended but the chosen site must meet certain geological requirements

C) remains a global problem of great magnitude D) is a problem that has not attracted enough attention

C) which, unfortunately, increases the time needed for cooling the waste before final disposal

E)

D) in which the radioactive isotopes are prevented from releasing heat

will in all likelihood soon be resolved, and a clear policy agreed on by concerned governments

E)

116

whereby the heat produced by that waste will serve to seal it safely into the rock under which it has been buried

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 71. It is emphasized if the passage that, until the 20th century ----.

ÜDS FEN 2001 ARALIK Sounds produced by continuous vibration tones are spreads waves of compression through the air. Where there is a solid boundary such as the walls of a room the sound waves are reflected so that the sounds within the room are prolonged beyond what they would be in the open. The sounds produced by the voice or by a musical instrument then reverberate through the room after the actual tone production has ceased. When the sound waves strike the walls, some of the sound energy travels on and is either absorbed in the material or may penetrate to the other side; but with the usual hard, unyielding walls of which most buildings are made, more than 90% of the sound energy is reflected back into the room at each impact, so that some time must elapse before all is spent. It is this reverberation which, in its excess, is the prime cause of the faulty acoustics of many pre 20th century buildings.

A)

the sounds produced by musical instruments could not be properly controlled

B)

there was among scientists, a great deal of controversy as regards the importance of reverberation

C) there was an unaccountable deficiency of reverberation in every major building D) good acoustics were absent in the majority of buildings E)

acoustics were a primary concern in the design of all buildings

72. It is explained in the passage that only a very small percentage of the sound waves ----.

70. We understand from the passage that reverberation ----. A)

is never taken into account in questions of acoustics

A)

can pass through a wall made of firm and resistant material

B)

is less obvious in an enclosed space

B)

does actually travel back towards its source at each impact

C) occurs within an enclosed space such as a room

C) can be accurately measured for acoustic purposes

D) is of equally short duration both indoors and outdoors E)

D) has a damaging effect upon the acoustics of a room

has duration equal to that of the tone production

E)

117

can last longer than the actual tone-production itself

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 74. It is clear from the passage that the immense coal deposits of the Ruhr ----.

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART The Rhine - Ruhr area became the greatest industrial region of Germany, because it had at its heart the great coal field of the Ruhr. Mining is now almost entirely northeast and westwards across the Rhine. The region contains the greater part of the German iron, steel and heavy engineering industries. The great integrated iron and steel plants mostly cluster on the Rhine waterway. Specialized steel plants and engineering works are more widespread. With a decline in coalmining and the dismantling after World War II of certain steel plants, some of the older Ruhr towns have diversified their industries considerably: vehicles, electrical goods and clothing are now being produced.

B)

C)

all the steel plants in the Ruhr area had to be closed down to avoid the pollution of the towns

have no equal anywhere else in Europe

75. The writer of the passage makes the point that the major part of the iron and steel industry of Germany ----. A)

has basically remained unchanged during the last hundred years

B)

has come into being since World War II

C) is the major source of the country's prosperity D) no longer depends on coal as its main source of power

the electrical industry throughout the Ruhr area of German became economically as important as the steel industry itself

E)

have been almost completely used up by the iron and steel industry

E)

new types of industry , such as textiles and car manufacturing, replaced the former steel industry in certain parts of the Ruhr area

the towns in the Ruhr area rapidly achieved a high level of prosperity through improvements in the steel industry

B)

D) were once regarded as inexhaustible even in the face of such intense mining.

the increase in coal production gave a new impetus to the steel industry in the towns of the Ruhr area

D)

have had adverse effect upon the older towns of the area

C) turned the Rhine - Rohr into Germany's major industrial area

73. It is pointed out in the passage that, following World War II ----. A)

A)

E)

118

is located on either side of the Rhine

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART

Post war radar has been developed for an enormous range of uses from police radar speed traps to the ballistic missile early warning systems. At sea it is used on ships of all sizes from the super tankers down to pleasure craft, and the air it guards military and civilian aircraft against collisions. It is even used to keep track of the orbital junkyard created by innumerable space launches. Radar found an unexpected use in astronomy and space navigation. Radar signals were bounced off the moon in 1946 and reflections were obtained from Venus and the sun in the late 1950s. Subsequently, radar maps were made of the moon and Venus - not that such long ranges are essential for radar maps to prove themselves useful. For example, satellite-borne radar aimed at the earth has actually led to the discovery of previously unknown remnants of a Mayan canal drainage system in Central America.

A contraption that automatically fits deer with a pesticide impregnated collar is helping to tackle the menace of Lyme disease, which is usually spread among people by ticks that live on the deer. This disease is now one of the fastest spreading infectious diseases in the US and can be fatal. Trapping and treating every deer in a forest with pesticides isn't easy, so a machine has been designed to do it. The animals are lured to a feeding tray where have to place their heads in a V-shaped through to get to the food. The machine keeps an open pesticide impregnated collar at the ready, drooping next to the trough where the deer will put its neck. As the animal takes the food, its neck presses down on a switch that triggers a spring- loaded arm. This propels one end of the open collar over the neck where it meets the other end. The two ends join using Velcro, so within seconds of the animal's arrival the collar is complete. 79. The passage is about a special collar for deer which ----.

76. It is clear from the passage that following World War II ----.

A) keeps them tick-free and safe from Lyme disease

A) the uses of radar in many fields have expanded vastly B)

B) is impregnated with a poison that kills the ticks on the deer

space exploration has been one of the few areas of technology not to benefit from radar

C) replaces the older system of spraying them with pesticides

C) the exploration of space has been made possible through the use of radar

D) is part of a research project to keep track of their movements

D) the construction of super tankers has increased considerably E)

E) has been designed to keep a check on their eating habits.

radar has been replaced by other navigational devices

80. We understand from the passage that Lyme disease ----.

77. According to the passage, one of the interesting uses of radar ----.

A) is carried and spread by ticks which live on deer

A)

was the early warning against ballistic missiles in World War II

B) is one of the rarer of the infectious diseases

B)

has been to locate and demolish the orbital junkyard

D) is rapidly on the decline in the US

C) has killed a great many deer in the US E) affects deer more than any other animal

C) has been its contribution towards archaeological finds

81. We understand from the passage that the collars are fitted to the deer ----.

D) has been to determine speed ranges for various vehicles E)

A) while their heads are firmly held in a V- shaped trough

was to guide combat aircraft towards their targets during World War II

B) as fast as possible because the deer dislike the process

78. We understand from the passage that radar signals ----. A)

cannot provide accurate maps of the terrain of the earth

B)

have sometimes proved unreliable

C) while they feed and the process only lasts seconds D) with a mechanism that has to be man-operated E) before they are allowed near the food

C) can control the movements of satellites D) are adversely affected by space launches E)

can travel enormous distances through space

119

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 83. It is pointed out in the passage that energy consumption in industrial countries would be reduced ----.

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART Transport represents 22 per cent of total energy consumption in industrialized countries, mainly in the form of automobiles. Although this is the fastest growth sector in such countries, the rate of increase in road transport energy demand has slowed in most developed countries since the late 1960s. This has reflected both improved vehicle efficiency and a slowing down in the level of acquisition of automobiles by households. These developments have encouraged hopes that saturation levels may operate at lower levels than sometimes projected. In developing countries, transport represents 14 per cent of total energy consumption but the number of automobiles is approximately 20/1000 people, compared to 600/1000 people industrialized countries. In attention to strictly technical improvements that can be made to automobiles and trucks, there is another important area of action which could help in the solution of the problems, namely, system operation. In this category, there is a variety of actions that could be performed more efficiently such as transporting passengers and freight by other means, such as bus and rail that would result in lower energy consumption and therefore, lower emissions.

A) to the level of that in the developing countries if the number of cars per household were reduced B) if alternative energy sources could be found for buses and cars C) if the governments took appropriate action D) if more people were to make use of public transport E) significantly, if certain simple measures were put into effect

84. The writer of the passage feels that one hopeful sign relating to the energy consumption factor is ----.

82. It is clear from the passage that transport requirements in the industrial countries ----. A) are increasing faster than ever before

A) the growing concern about the pollution caused by car emissions

B) account for a large proportion the energy consumed

B) that the technical improvements introduced by the car industry have led to cleaner emissions

C) will be easier to meet as vehicle efficiency improves

C) the unexpected drop in car sales

D) are being reviewed with the aim of meeting them with greater efficiency

D) the trend to send goods by train not by lorry

E) will continue to rise at roughly the same rate

E) that the number of cars per household is not increasing as fast as formerly

120

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 86. It's clear from the passage that the scheme to produce more electrical power from renewable resources ----.

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART Britain has a target to deliver 10 per cent of its electrical power from renewable resources by 2010. And despite what one might hear from some quarters, superb natural and technical resources already exist that could make this possible. All that is lacking is the political will; but at present, the government seems reluctant to take any positive action. At present "new" renewables, such as landfill gas, wind, solar, wave power and smallscale hydropower contribute around one per cent to the UK's electrical generating capacity. Generating power from landfill gas is already fully economic; but has limited scope for growth as the country moves away from land filling waste. Energy recovery from waste is highly controversial and also limited in capacity. So, if Britain is to meet her interim target of five per cent by 2003 and 10 per cent by 2010, she must look to other renewables for growth.

A) has aroused very little interest among scientists and economists B) gives priority to the use of landfill gas rather than to any of the natural elements C) is regarded, by the British public as technically and economically unsuitable D) will probably never even reach its interim target on account of the expenses involved E) needs government support if it is to be implemented

87. We understand from the passage that at present, almost all of Britain's electricity ----.

85. The passage contains a warning for Britain that ----. A) if she is to produce more electricity, she has to make huge investments in renewable resources

A) is generated from non-renewable resources

B) if she fails to meet her 2003 interim target for electrical power production, industry could come to a standstill.

C) could be provided through natural renewable resources

B) is targeted to be produced from various renewable resources

D) is being economically produced from landfill gas

C) in order to reach her electricity target, she will have to find other renewable resources

E) is being produced uneconomically, and this has aroused the concern of the government

D) since renewable resources are never costeffective, she must develop new technologies E) although land filling is a feasible technology, it is highly likely to arouse a great deal of public opposition

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 89. We understand from the passage that ----.

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART

A) the snowline is only apparent after a heavy fall of snow

Glaciers originate in areas that lie above the limit of prominent snow. Thus in tropical climates glaciers are only to be found at very great heights, whereas in polar regions they flow into the sea. The largest glaciers are found in regions receiving the heaviest snowfall. The great glaciers of the Himalayas lie in the path of the monsoon, which deposits on them the full measure of its vast water vapour content. The largest glacierized areas after Antarctica are in Greenland, North America, and in central and south central Asia. It has been estimated that the volume of the world's glaciers and ice sheets exceeds 11,000,000 cubic miles which, if returned to the oceans, would raise the sea - level by some 200 ft, submerging all existing seaports and much land besides.

B) the size of a glacier is, in part, dependent on the amount of snowfall in a region C) glaciers cannot be found in tropical regions D) the monsoon has no effect at all in the formation of glaciers in the Himalayas E) the volume of glaciers in the world is rapidly decreasing

90. From the figures given in the last part of the passage we can infer that ----.

88. In the passage the contrast is made between ----. A) the benefits and the dangers of glaciers

A) the glaciers around the world are rapidly melting

B) the size of glaciers in the Himalayas and in Antarctica

B) all towns close to the sea are under immediate threat

C) the glaciers on the snowline and those at great heights

C) the amount of water held by the glaciers really is enormous

D) the location of glaciers in the tropics and in arctic regions

D) the oceans around the world have been rising steadily for some time

E) the climatic effects of glaciers in different parts of the world

E) it will be impossible to prevent flooding if the glaciers continue to meet at this rate

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 92. According to the passage, the construction of the world's large dams ----.

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART The report, Dams and Development, which has been recently published, provides stark evidence that the world's 45,000 large dams which block over half of the world's rivers, have been failed experiments. They have failed to produce as much electricity and water, or control as much flood damage, as their backers claim. They regularly suffer huge cost-overruns and time delays. They have made up to 80 million people homeless, and their benefits have largely gone to the urban welloff not the rural poor they displace. Moreover, their effects on ecosystems have been disastrous.

A) has been indirectly responsible for the pollution of rivers B) has led to a huge increase in electrical production C) has been to the advantage of rural communities rather than urban ones D) has forced millions of people to abandon their homes E) has often caused fierce controversy between the backers and opponents.

91. It is pointed out in the passage that the large dams of the world today ----.

93. It is clear that the facts given in this passage about dams ----.

A) have not given the benefits expected of them B) were primarily built to prevent flooding

A) relate to only a small proportion of the world's dams

C) have proved more cost-effective than originally anticipated

B) give a balanced picture of their success and failures

D) have contributed greatly to environmental improvement

C) make no reference at all to their impact upon the environment

E) play a major part in the economic success of individual countries.

D) overlook the huge expense that was entailed in constructing them E) are derived from a recent report on the subject

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 95. According to the passage, with the aid of instruments placed on the ocean floor, ----.

ÜDS Fen 2002 MART Our understanding of submarine volcanic eruptions has improved substantially in the past decade owing to the recent ability to remotely detect such events and to respond rabidly with brief surveys and sampling at the eruption site. But these data are necessarily limited to observations after the event. In contrast, the 1998 eruption of the Axial volcano on the Juan de Fuce ridge was monitored by on site sea-floor instruments. One of these instruments, which measured bottom pressure, was overrun and entrapped by the 1998 lava flow. The data recorded by this discovered. The data recorded by this instrument reveal the duration, character and effusion rate of an eruption on a mid-ocean ridge.

A) a great deal of information correcting the eruption of the Axial volcano was obtained B) a lot of data have been collected concerning oceanic eruptions throughout the world C) it is now possible to anticipate when volcanic eruptions are going to take place D) scientists can now watch the volcanic activities at an eruption site while they are actually happening E) we have come to understand the part played by bottom pressure during a volcanic eruption

94. According to the passage, it is only within the last ten years or so that

96. We can conclude from the passage that the study of submarine volcanic activity ----.

A) the studies made of the Axial volcano have given rise to a great deal of controversy

A) is concerned more with the duration of an eruption than with its other aspects

B) scientists have realized how important under ocean volcanic activity is

B) has so far made very likely progress C) has focused primarily upon the Axial volcano ever since 1998

C) it has been possible to monitor volcanic eruptions under the sea

D) has been greatly improved by early detection of such activity

D) the effusions rate of the Axial volcano has increased noticeably

E) is frequently made more difficult due to the sudden uncontrolled flow/ of lava.

E) the geological causes of volcanic activity under the sea have been major scientific concern.

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 78. The writer of the passage argues that contemporary scientific research ----

Kpds Kasım 2002 (76 -80) In modern times, it was perhaps the "gentleman scientists" of the nineteenth century who came closest to a genuinely objective form of scientific research. These privileged amateurs enjoyed a financial independence which most scientists today cannot have, and which enabled them to satisfy their scientific curiosity without the need to please patrons. With the growth of scientific research after World War II, science has become an expensive occupation. Many scientists today look back upon the 1960s as a golden age of modern-day science, when research was mainly funded by the taxpayer, and scientific enquiry was seen by governments to be part of the public good, and worth paying for. Today, the situation is very different. "Academic freedom" is now often little more than an illusion for most scientists working at universities or in publicly-funded research institutes. Moreover, science is now largely dominated by the interests of the industrial world, and hence, hardly deserves the name "science".

A) is, to a large extent, controlled by the interests of industry B) finds its best milieu within the universities C) is advancing at an incredibly fast rate D) offers one of the most exciting and stimulating of careers E) is far more concerned with theory than with any practical application

79. The writer of the passage regards the "gentleman scientists" of the nineteenth century as privileged because ----. A) the choice of field was rapidly expanding B) there were plenty of patrons willing to finance them C) they were unrestricted by financial pressures D) scientific research was still in its early stages and it was easy to discover something new E) they were always well-rewarded for their efforts

76. According to the passage, the major difference between the "gentleman scientists" and present day ones ----.

80. The phrase "part of the public good" (line 14-15) in effect means ----.

A) has frequently been ignored by governments and universities

A) deserving of a good public

B) is that the former were free to research as they chose, while the latter are not

B) setting good standards for society C) ensuring a better future for society

C) has become a highly controversial issue in university circles

D) beneficial to society E) recognized by the general public as being good

D) is not nearly so obvious as some people believe it to be E) the former were less objective in their research methods than the latter are

77. The writer points out that in the 1960s ---A) research activities were largely carried out under the sponsorship of industry B) scientists believed that they were entering upon a golden age C) academic freedom was already a thing of the past D) scientists carried out their research activities at the public expense E) scientific research largely concentrated on meeting the needs of war

125

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 8.

Kpds Kasım 2002 (76 -80) Some people believe that meat consumption contributes to famine and depletes the Earth's natural resources. Indeed, it is often argued that cows and sheep require pasturage that could be better used to grow grain for starving millions in poor countries. Additionally, claims are made that raising livestock requires more water than raising plants foods. But both these argument are illogical. As for the pasturage argument, this ignores the fact that a large portion of the Earth's dry land is unsuited to cultivation. For instance, desert and mountainous areas are not suitable for cultivation, but are suitable for animal grazing. However, modern commercial farming methods prefer to raise animals in an enclosed space feeding them on grains and soybeans. Unfortunately, the bulk of commercial livestock is not range-fed but stall-fed. Stall-fed animals do not ingest grasses and shrubs (like they should) but are fed on unnatural array of grains and soybeans, which could be eaten by humans. The argument here, then, is not that eating meat depletes the Earth's resources, but that commercial farming methods do. Such methods subject livestock to deplorable living conditions where infections, antibiotics and synthetic hormones are common. These all lead to an unhealthy animal and, by extension, to unhealthy food product. 6.

Contrary to what is often argued, the passage points out that ----. A) synthetic hormones can be used to improve the quality of meat B) underdeveloped countries need to adopt modern farming methods in order to overcome famine C) grazing for sheep and cows needs to be upgraded so as to increase meat production D) the famine in the world is not directly related to the consumption of meat E) a very extensive part of the earth's surface is ideally suitable for the cultivation of crops

9.

The writer attacks present day commercial farming methods ----. A) but admits that there is a higher production rate than there was with earlier • methods B) though the end product is extremely healthy C) and claims that they are responsible for depleting the natural resources of the world

One important point made in this passage is that ----.

D) though it ensures that there is sufficient food for everyone

A) desert and mountainous regions should be developed as amble land for cultivation

E) because, among other things, it makes no effort to cultivate dry, mountainous regions

B) the way livestock is raised on modern farms involves various health hazards C) more encouragement should be given to the application of modern farming technologies D) meat production in the developed world needs to be increased to combat famine E) every measure must be taken to conserve the Earth's natural resources

10. By the "pasturage argument" (line 9) is meant the argument that ----. A) the land used for animal grazing ought to be cultivated and used to grow grain

7.

One argument that is clearly opposed in the passage ----.

B) livestock should be stalled on grains and not allowed to graze freely

A) concerns the value of antibiotics in the raising of healthy livestock

C) cultivated land ought to be turned into pasturage D) only cattle that are allowed to graze freely produce good meat

B) concerns the introduction of soybeans as the basic feed for livestock

E) dry mountainous areas could be watered and turned into good pasturage

C) is related to the inadequate methods employed in the prevention of famine D) is that livestock need water as much as plants do E) is that land used for pasturage should be utilized for the cultivation crops

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 13. One point that receives a lot of attention in the passage is ----.

Kpds Kasım 2002 (91-95) Fast-food is such a pervasive part of American life that it has become synonymous with American culture. Fast-food was born in America and it has now swollen into a $106-billion industry. America exports fast-food worldwide, and its attendant corporate culture has probably been more influential and done more to destroy local food economies and cultural diversity than any government propaganda program could hope to accomplish. No corner of the earth is safe from its presence and no aspect of life is unaffected. Fastfood is now found in shopping malls, airports, hospitals, gas stations, stadiums, on trains, and increasingly, in schools. There are 23,000 restaurants in one chain alone, and another 2,000 are being opened every year. Its effect has been the same on the millions of people it feeds daily and on the people it employs. Fast-food culture has changed how we work, from its assembly-line kitchens filled with robotic frying machines to the trite phrases spoken to customers by its poorly paid part-time workforce. In the United States, more than 57 per cent of the population eat meals away from home on any given day and they spend more money on fast-food than they do on higher education, personal computers, or even on new cars.

A) the fact that fast-food is now more popular outside the US than it is inside B) the fact that fast-food meets our dietary needs C) the consideration the fast-food companies show to their employees D) the far-reaching effects of the fast-food industry E) the idea that in such places as gas stations and trains fast-food is actually the only practical kind of food

14. The writer of the passage clearly regrets the fact that ----. A) the fast-food companies cannot afford to pay even their part-time workers adequate salaries B) the growth of the fast-food industry has now come to a halt

11. This passage on American's fast-food industry ----.

C) there are still more traditional restaurants than fast-food ones

A) shows convincingly that it is falling into disfavor

D) the fast-food industry cannot retain the high standards with which it started

B) is clearly written by someone who loves good food

E) local and traditional styles of food are being pushed off the market

C) concentrates on negative aspects D) gives a rational account of why it grew so fast E) reveals the support it received from government propaganda

15. The assertion at the end of the passage that Americans spend more money on fast-food than they do on higher education ----.

12. The word "swollen" in line 4 ----. A) emphasizes the speed at which the industry has grown

A) is a criticism of the amount of money spent on fast-food by Americans

B) suggests that the growth is excessive and unhealthy

B) suggests that Americans are greedy for good food

C) has very positive connotations

C) means that 57 percent of the American population has very little money left over when it has paid for its food

D) draws attention to the inevitability of the growth of the industry E) implies that the industry will continue to grow on steadily

D) is an indication that higher education in the US is not expensive E) is, in the light of the rest of the passage, a gross exaggeration

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 18. The writer of this passage draws our attention to ----.

Kpds Kasım 2002 (96-100) Even though there have been truly significant advances in modern medicine, health problems still abound and cause untold misery. Although heart disease and cancer were rare at the beginning of the 20th century, today these two diseases strike with increasing frequency, in spite of billions of dollars in research to combat them, and in spite of tremendous advances in diagnostic and surgical techniques. In America, one person in three suffers from allergies, one in ten has ulcers and one in five is mentally ill. Every year, a quarter of a million infants are born with a birth defect and undergo expensive surgery, or are hidden away in institutions. Other degenerative diseases such as arthritis, multiple sclerosis, diabetes, and chronic fatigue afflict a significant majority of Americans. Further learning disabilities make life miserable for seven million young people and their parents. These diseases were extremely rare only a generation or two ago. Today, chronic illness afflicts nearly half of all Americans and causes three out of four deaths in the United States.

A)

the fact that it is young people who are the most affected by degenerative diseases

B)

the paradox that medicine today has improved remarkably, but more and more people are suffering from various diseases

C) the commonly-held view that cancer will, in a few decades, be completely eradicated D) the argument that good health depends upon a healthy diet and early diagnosis E)

the possibility that it is mental rather than physical health that is going to be the major problem of the future in the US

19. The passage stresses that ill-health gives rise to a great deal of misery ----.

16. One point that is stressed in the passage about the American people is that ----. A) they are less liable to degenerative diseases than most other peoples

A)

which is not confined to the patient alone

B)

which is largely associated with pain

B) the rate of infant mortality among them is rising rapidly

C) especially in the case of chronic illness D) even before an accurate diagnosis has been made

C) there is an alarming lack of communication between parents and their children

E)

D) the incidence of cancer among them is slowly being reduced due to medical advances

especially when the symptoms are severe

E) in one way or another, a very large proportion of them have health problems

17. According to the passage, cancer and heart diseases are on the increase ----.

20. In line 15-16 of the passage the term "significant majority" refers to ----.

A) and most of the cures have serious side-effects B) due to problems of diagnosis which for the present seem insurmountable

A)

an articulate majority

B)

a statistically small majority

C) since research so far carried out in these fields has been quite inadequate

C) a large and important majority D) a rapidly increasing majority

D) even though a great deal of money is being spent on research into them

E)

E) but very little is being done by the authorities to combat them

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an unexpected but continuing majority

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 23. According to the passage, even though there were six Apollo missions to the moon roughly thirty years ago, —.

Kpds Mayıs 2003 (86 -90) Scientists who study Earth's moon have two big regrets about the six Apollo missions that landed a dozen astronauts on the lunar surface between 1969 and 1972. The biggest regret, of course, is that the missions ended so abruptly, with so much of the moon still unexplored. But researchers also lament that the great triumph of Apollo led to a popular misconception: because astronauts have visited the moon, there is no compelling reason to go back. In the 1990s, however, two probes that orbited the moon raised new questions about Earth's airless satellite. One stunning discovery was strong evidence of water ice in the perpetually shadowed areas near the moon's poles. Because scientists believe that comets deposited water and organic compounds on both Earth and its moon, well-preserved ice at the lunar poles could yield clues to the origins of life.

A)

none of them could claim to be successful

B)

man's knowledge of the moon has not increased at all

C) a very large proportion of the lunar surface remains to date unexamined D) it was only the lunar poles that were explored fully E)

21. The point made in the passage is that it may be possible to —.

the idea of sending astronauts back to the moon seems even more farfetched than formerly

24. As we understand from the passage, a great many people —.

A) come to a better understanding of comets through the study of the moon

A)

B) learn more about the beginnings of life from the ice at the moon's poles

believe lunar missions should continue indefinitely

B)

C) resume Apollo missions as there is evidence of water on the moon

regard the Apollo missions as a scientific breakthrough

C) are sure the moon cannot support life

D) identify the origin of the organic compounds found on the moon

D) feel that the very fact that man has landed on the moon is enough

E) have a full knowledge of the moon without sending any more astronauts there

E)

regard scientific investigations of the moon as unfeasible

22. As is pointed out in the passage, one significant outcome of the lunar probes in the 1990s was ----. A) B)

the staggering finding of evidence of water on the moon

25. A major point made in the passage is that —.

the focussing of scientific attention on the comets

C) the resumption of lunar missions

A)

comets hold the secrets of the origins of life in the universe

B)

the six Apollo missions to the moon were a great scientific success

D) the realization that life is possible on the moon E)

C) the chances of finding water on the moon are very slim

the realization that there were great similarities between earth and moon

D) the probes of the 1990s demonstrated that the lunar landings should has continued E)

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scientists are agreed that there is nothing further to learn about the moon

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 28. As we learn from the passage, a specialist in firesafety —.

Kpds Mayıs 2003 (91 -95) The US National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) will soon be testing a controversial theory about the collapse of the World Trade Center towers. According to an analysis by a leading fire-safety expert, had the fire-proofing insulation on the towers' steel structures been thicker, the towers would have survived longer and might even have remained standing after they were hit by the hijacked planes. The work is being seized on by lawyers representing victims' families and insurance companies. If confirmed, it could also lead to changes in building codes. NIST is responsible for drawing up the final report on the towers' collapses and recommending if any changes are needed. It is widely accepted that the collapses were caused by the failure of the buildings' steel structure as it was weakened by the heat of the fires.

A)

puts the blame for the collapse of the towers on the thin fire-proofing insulation

B)

is to blame for negligence as regards the burning of the twin towers

C) has been cooperating with the victims' lawyers to start legal procedures D) has been commissioned to prepare a report on the collapse of the towers E)

should have been aware of the structural weakness of the towers and given due warning

26. As it is pointed out in the passage, it is commonly recognized that the main cause for the collapse of the twin towers —. A)

will only be understood after the release of a detailed report by NIST

B)

can never be established beyond doubt

29. As is pointed out in the passage, the inadequacy of the fire-proofing insulation of the towers —. A)

C) was the weakening of the steel structure due to the heat of the fire

has been accepted by NIST as the main cause of the collapse

B)

has aroused a great deal of legal attention

D) was not f-o much due to the heat of the fires as to the force of the impact of the hijacked planes

C) is less important than the weakness of the steel structure as the cause of the collapse

E)

D) had long been recognized by fire-safety experts as the weakest point in their construction

is of special interest to insurance companies

E)

has never been considered by any serious body

27. It is clear from the passage that —. A)

the strength or the steel structure of the towers had been questioned when the designs we/e drawn up

B)

NIST has already made a thorough study of the collapse of the towers

30. According to the passage, if the tower collapse theory concerning the fire-proofing insulation proves to be true, —.

C) the reason for the sudden collapse of the two towers is still under debate

A)

this will have, even so, no direct bearing on the fight against terrorism

D) the structure of the twin towers was in many respects well below standard

B)

the victims' families will get no compensation

E)

C) this will free NIST from all blame

the hijacked planes hit the weakest parts of the twin towers

D) then lawyers will have no grounds for objections E)

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then NIST will probably introduce new building regulations

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler A) was originally proposed by Sheikh Zayed al Nahya of the United Arab Emirates

Kpds Kasım 2003 (86-90) The Sahara desert takes up most of Egypt's land, so overcrowding is a huge problem. Sixty-two million people live squeezed together into the six million fertile acres along the Nile delta and narrow river valley - just five per cent of the total area of Egypt. Between 12 and 15 million people live in Cairo alone. Until recently, it was impractical and dangerous to even consider moving into the southern desert, where temperatures regularly rise above 50 C and water is scarce and can only be reached using carefully placed irrigation wells. But in the last 20 years a "New Valley" has slowly been taking shape. Towns with industrial centres, tourist areas and spacious apartment blocks are being constructed, factories are springing up. The main development making this possible is the construction of the vast Sheikh Zayed canal, also known as the Toshka canal. Named for Sheikh Zayed al Nahya, president of the United Arab Emirates, which is financially backing the project, the canal is part of the irrigation scheme dreamed up by the Egyptian government to make it possible for people to move away from the traffic, pollution and bustle of Cairo. If a "second Nile" cuts through the desert and water is distributed to surrounding land, people and crops can thrive there as they do around the existing Nile. The area is becoming known as the New Valley.

B) has already started to transform the economic potential of Egypt C) is primarily an agricultural one, and industrial activity is not provided for D) is very near to completion and large numbers of people have already moved in E) is proving far more problematic than was originally foreseen

34. It is clearly stated in the passage that almost the whole of Egypt's population ----, A) lives along the Nile Valley and its delta B) wants to move into the New Valley C) is engaged in agricultural activities rather than in industrial ones D) holds Sheikh Zayed al Nahya in great esteem E) is dubious about the outcome of the New Valley project

31. We understand from the passage that the canal under construction ----. A)

is designed to meet the water needs of Cairo and other cities

B)

constitutes just a portion of a massive irrigation project

C) will bring fertility to the whole of the Sahara D) will irrigate only 5% of the total area of Egypt E)

35. It is pointed out in the passage that the irrigation project for the New Valley ----.

passes through an overcrowded part of the country

A) has received a mixed reaction from the general public B) is going to cost the Egyptian government vast sums of money C) has primarily been designed to case the overcrowding in Cairo 32. As it is pointed out in the passage, one of the benefits of the New Valley will be that ----.

D) will enable Egypt to recover from its chronic economic recession

A) Egypt will change from an agricultural country into a fully industrial one

E) will make the inhospitable desert far more easily accessible

B) Egypt can at last start a tourist industry C) the overcrowding in Cairo and the Nile delta area will be reduced D) the hot, dry desert climate of Egypt will be rapidly modified E) it will set an example for the developed world to invest in desert projects 33. We can conclude from the passage that the New Valley project, which has been underway for roughly two decades, ----. 131

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 38. As the passage points out, a space shuttle requires oxygen ----.

KPDS Kasım 2003 (96 – 100) The space shuttle and its rockets are huge - some 4.5 million pounds at lift-off. About 85 per cent of that weight is fuel. Since it is designed to work in a vacuum, the shuttle must carry not only fuel but the oxygen to burn it. Because this is an inefficient way to go, NASA engineers have recently tested an engine that gets some of its oxygen on the run. This should reduce takeoff weights by half. A spacecraft equipped with this engine would take off like a rocket. But within minutes, incoming air would begin to supplement liquid oxygen. Once the spacecraft reaches a speed of 1,500 miles per hour - twice the speed of sound - the liquid oxygen would shut off completely and the engine would burn fuel mixed with air. Consequently the craft would accelerate to about ten times the speed of sound. When the air got too thin for the engine to breathe, the ship would shift back to rocket mode to punch its way into space.

A) only when it is travelling within the atmosphere B) if it is to attain very high speeds C) but only in its liquid form D) in order to burn the fuel E) in quite small quantities except at lift-off

39. The point is made in the passage that the reason for developing the new engine is to ----.

36. According to the passage, a new rocket engine is presently being developed to ----.

A) reduce the time it takes the shuttle to exceed the speed of sound

A) reach previously unimagined speeds B) make space travel more comfortable and feasible

B) double the speed at which the shuttle travels

C) halve the weight of a space shuttle at lift-off

C) economize on the use of liquid oxygen

D) enable NASA to remain in the forefront of space exploration

D) eliminate the need for liquid oxygen and thus cut down on the shuttle's weight

E) reduce the physical effects of the atmosphere on the shuttle

E) allow the shuttle to function in a vacuum

37. We learn from the passage that in the usual space shuttle, the weight ----.

40. It is clear from the passage that, - once there is not sufficient air to burn the fuel, then ----.

A) makes high speeds impossible

A) the speed of the shuttle increases to over ten times the speed of sound

B) consists very largely of fuel C) does not pose any serious problem

B) the engine reverts back to using the liquid oxygen aboard the shuttle

D) of the liquid oxygen is enormous

C) the engine starts to increase the speed of the shuttle

E) of the rockets is insignificant

D) it is impossible for the shuttle to accelerate any further E) the rocket can no longer function efficiently

132

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 43. According to the passage, when one crow plans to steal food from another one, ----

Kpds Mayıs 2004 (76 – 80) Behavioural biologist Jane Atkinson and her colleagues have been studying the subtleties of how crows steal food from one another. Atkinson had been watching the birds at the beach as they fed on fish, clams and other small animals in the intertidal zone. She noticed that if a crow had found a particularly large meal that couldn't be eaten in a single gulp, another crow would often come by and try to steal the food away. Food theft is fairly common in the bird world, so the crows' thievery wasn't unexpected. What really intrigued Atkinson was that the birds employed two different tactics to take the food. In some instances, the thieving bird would take an aggressive approach – typically involving some chasing or physical contact, such as pecking in other exchanges, however, the thief would use a more passive method: merely approaching the other bird secretively and stealing the food without any commotion at all. What the team wanted to know was: how did these tactics fit into the group foraging practices of the crows?

it will sometimes approach quite openly and boldly

44. We understand from the passage that so long as a crow ----.

C) related to the crows' foraging practices

A)

can swallow its food at one gulp, it will encounter no challenge

B)

can find food easily, it will not steal from another crow

C) can get food by stealing, it won't look elsewhere for it

D) whether the nature of the food affected the degree of attempted theft

D) has eaten well, it is unlikely to try to steal food

E) whether the stealing practices of crows differed from those of other birds

E)

42. It is clear from the passage that the research team was not surprised that the crows were trying to steal from each other common ----

since there was a scarcity of food at the time

it will invariably try to do so in the first place without being seen

E)

B) why the crows chose to steal

B)

B)

D) this is a sure sign that both crows are really hungry

A) whether the crows' stealing practices were instinctive or acquired

because this is a practice among birds

this is really a means of establishing its superiority

C) there will inevitably be a fight between the two

41. According to the passage, the question that interested the research team was ----.

A)

A)

is able to steal food without fighting, this is the method it will favour

45. It is clear from the passage that Jane Atkinson and her colleagues ---A)

knew much more about crows than about any other type of bird.

B)

are specialist in bird behaviour

C) though crows don't steal food as often as other birds do

C) are only interested in the eating habits of birds

D) but it was surprised at their rate of success

D) are particularly interested in the different types of food that crows like to eat

E)

but the bitterness of the fight came as a surprise

E)

133

are impressed by the similarity between stealing practices of ail bird species

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 48. We understand from the passage that the sighting of earthquake lights ----.

Kpds Mayıs 2004 (91 – 95) Throughout history, eyewitnesses have reported orange glows, fireballs or flashes in the days before and during an earthquake. It was in 1968, however, that the first photographs of “earthquake lights" were taken during a series of earthquakes in Japan. Some showed red streaks across the sky. Others looked like a low blue dawn from a distance. in 1999, floating bails of light in the sky were broadcast on Turkish television, reportedly filmed the night before the devastating earthquake of 7.4 on the Richter scale that killed many thousand people in the Marmara region of Turkey. Mysterious or not, repeated sightings of earthquake lights confirm their existence. it has to be said that earthquake lights are a fairly wellknown phenomenon, but we don't know what they mean, or what causes them. Seismologists have struggled far years to find a reliable earthquake predictor. Could the lights hold the key?

A)

has led to a great deal of confused and contradictory reporting among seismologists

B)

first occurred in Japan

C) is a fairly recent phenomenon in Japan D) has attracted virtually no scientific attention from seismologists E)

goes back a very long way in time

49. It is pointed out in the passage that the photographic recording of earthquake lights ----.

46. In the passage, the writer wonders whether ----. A)

earthquakes lights might help in the prediction of earthquakes

A)

was made for the first time less than half a century ago

B)

the orange glows supposedly sighted before an earthquake were actually seen

B)

was only done with great success during the Marmara earthquake

C) the photographs taken of earthquake lights in Japan are of any scientific use

C) is what finally convinced people of their existence

D) earthquakes cause the lights, or whether the lights cause the earthquakes E)

D) is widely regarded as a visual deception E)

the devastation caused by the Marmara earthquake could have been prevented

50. The writer of the passage seems to be confident that ----.

47. The passage emphasizes the fact that the Marmara earthquake ----. A)

was televised as it was happening

B)

was followed by strange lights in the sky

A)

seismology is advancing rapidly through the study of earthquakes lights

B)

future earthquakes will be reliably predicted by means of earthquake lights

C) was indeed a catastrophic one

C) C)earthquake lights have frequently been observed and even filmed

D) greatly puzzled seismologists E)

E-has always been a major concern for seismologists

took everyone, seismologists included, by surprise

D) the mystery of earthquake lights can never be resolved E)

134

the appearance of fireballs and flashes in the sky are a sure sign of an approaching earthquake

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 53. The writer recognizes the fact that engineering ----.

Kpds Mayıs 2004 (96 – 100) Much has been said and written about the declining numbers of and disappointing lack of diversity among American college students majoring in engineering. Among the factors cited to explain this phenomenon are the lack of exposure of high school students to the very idea of engineering and the fact that many have insufficient mathematics and science background to gain entrance to engineering school, even if they do identify the profession as a possible career. This is unfortunate, for the ideas of engineering should be integrated into the curricula not only of high schools but also of middle and primary schools. Our children are being done a disservice by not being exposed properly throughout their education to engineering activities identified as such. After all, even pre-school children have the prerequisites in their play for appreciating exactly what engineering is: design. Indeed, design is everywhere around them throughout their school day, even in their before-school and after-school activities. It need only be pointed out to them that they are designing something, and therefore being engineers of sorts, in virtually everything that they do.

children should be involved in engineering activities at an early age

B)

many children are being unfairly directed into a career in engineering

is becoming less and less popular as a field of study among university students

B)

is only suitable for highly intelligent students

C) is a complicated subject only suitable for really mature students D) has become one of the most popular fields of study at American universities E)

requires many years of training prior to qualification

54. Among the reasons given in the passage for the decline in the numbers of engineering students is that ----.

51. The writer of the passage feels strongly that ----. A)

A)

A)

the American schools still follow out-dated curricula

B)

university entrance requirements are far too demanding

C) it is generally recognized as one of the most difficult of all the courses D) engineering in the US is not considered to be a competitive field of study E)

C) the mathematics and science courses in schools need to be modernized

many of them fail to acquire an adequate knowledge of mathematics and science at high schools

D) university engineering courses ought to be upgraded E)

the education of pre-school children is being given too much importance 55. According to the passage, all school programmes ----.

52. The writer points out chat children can, at a very early age ----.

A)

should be designed to make students aware of the engineering practices and principles ought to give priority to the sciences

A)

be encouraged to take part in after-school activities

B)

B)

develop an interest in scientific matters

C) must encourage children to make creative designs

C) make up their minds to study engineering at university

D) seem to put the emphasis on the need to diversify learning

D) learn something about the basis of engineering, which is design E)

E)

be influenced by their school environment

135

overlook the fact that all children are different

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 58. It is clear from the passage that Cuvier ----.

Kpds Kasım 2004 (81 – 85) By the early 19th century the eminent French zoologist Georges Cuvier believed he had found rock-solid evidence for the biblical great flood. While studying the geological strata around Paris, Cuvier found that fossils of sea creatures in one ancient layer of chalk were overlaid by those of land creatures. Then, just as abruptly, the layer above contained sea creatures again, with the top layer showing evidence of a vast and rapid inundation around present-day Paris. Cuvier regarded these sudden changes in the fossil record as evidence for sudden catastrophes which devastated life on Earth, of which the great flood was just the most recent example. Cuvier's discoveries, published in 1812, won support from a large number of eminent scientists such as the geologist Sir James Hall. However, there were a few who were deeply sceptical, pointing out that the evidence of a global flood was far from conclusive. Most sceptical of all were the followers of the Scottish geologist James Hutton. In 1795, he had published a two-volume text based on the view that the slow, steady processes that shape our planet today, such as erosion, were also crucially important in the distant past.

A)

adopted an indifferent attitude towards the attacks of his critics

B)

was greatly influenced by Hutton's theory concerning the Earth's formation

C) was particularly interested in marine fossils and concentrated on them for research purposes D) interpreted his fossil discoveries as indications of major catastrophes similar to the great flood E)

had devoted years of research to establishing that the biblical great flood had actually occurred

59. According to the passage, Cuvier's critics ----. A)

were extremely jealous of his discoveries near Paris

B)

felt that there was insufficient geological evidence to confirm that the biblical great flood ever had occurred

56. We learn from the passage that many scientists ----. A)

gave full support to Cuvier's view that the great flood had actually taken place

C) regarded erosion as only a minor geological process

B)

were not at all impressed by Cuvier's discoveries in the Paris area

D) were also equally opposed to the views expressed by Hutton E)

C) followed up Cuvier's excavations of marine fossils D) were, like Cuvier, engaged in a search for evidence of the great flood E)

certainly believed there had been a global flood but did not regard his discoveries as scientifically important

ceased to be sceptical of the great flood once Sir James Hall had given his support to Cuvier

60. As we learn from the passage, Hutton's theory was that ----.

57. It is pointed out in the passage that in the course of excavations near Paris Cuvier ----. A)

slowly came to recognize the geological significance of the biblical great flood

B)

was particularly surprised that there were chalk formations in the area

long-term geological change, such as erosion, had been of paramount importance in the Earth's history

B)

erosion was the single most important cause of geological change on Earth

C) some geological processes, such as erosion, were relatively recent in the history of the Earth D) our planet had been subjected to countless catastrophes in the distant past

C) was slow to recognize the geological importance of marine fossils

E)

D) grew interested in the fossils of sea creatures only after he came across a second layer E)

A)

discovered alternating layers of fossils relating to sea and land creatures

136

the formation of our planet was the outcome of different processes in different places

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 63. As we can see from the passage, the writer is careful ----

Kpds Kasım 2004 (86 – 90) No child is too young to play and therefore to engage in engineering, even though it is of a primitive kind. We all did so as children ourselves when we devised our own toys and games and sometimes even imaginary friends to enjoy them with us. The idea of playfulness is embedded in engineering through the concepts of invention and design. Not that engineering is trivial; rather, the heart of the activity is to give imagination its freedom to dream and turn those dreams into reality. Children do experience the essence of engineering in their earliest activities, yet there is seldom any recognition that this is the case. They may hear the word "engineer" only in connection with railroad locomotives and have no idea that their playful activity could become a lifelong profession. Engineers themselves are understandably reluctant to equate their professional activity with mere child's play. After all, they studied long and hard to master complicated knowledge of atoms and molecules, stresses and strains, heat and power, current and voltages, bits and bytes. They manipulate equations, not blocks. They use computers for serious modelling and calculation, not for fun and games. They design and build real towers and bridges that test the limits of reliability and safety, not toy ones that totter and fall down with little consequence.

A)

not to exaggerate the importance of creative play to a child

B)

to list all areas that are of concern to an engineer

C) to show how slowly a child's mental capacity develops D) not to offend engineers by his comparison E)

to avoid using technical terminology in the passage

64. It is suggested in the passage that children ---A)

are not aware of the fact that in their games they are involved in some kind of engineering activity

B)

should be constantly encouraged to play games that involve engineering techniques

C) love to imitate the activities that go on around them D) are incapable of imaginative thinking E)

have a primitive perception of life

61. The main point the writer is making in this passage is that ----. A)

man has practised engineering ever since primitive times

B)

some children are born to be engineers

C) children and engineers both have the capacity to imagine and create

65. According to the passage, what children and engineers have in common are ----

D) reliability and safety are minor details for the professional engineer E)

any engineering fault in design or calculation does have serious consequences

A)

reliability and safety

B)

experience and knowledge

C) invention and design D) modelling and calculation E)

62. One point stressed in the passage is that professional engineering ---A)

is very different from all other scientific activities

B)

requires more imagination than technical knowledge and calculation

C) makes little use of theoretical knowledge D) gives priority to design rather than to invention E)

covers a vast field of involved or intricate subjects of wide scope

137

recognition and reality

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 68. By the phrase "mass customization", as it is used in the passage, is meant the production of goods ----.

Kpds Mayıs 2005 (76 – 80) For two decades after World War II, mass production reigned supreme. Mass-production techniques pushed companies into standardized products, long product life cycles, and rigid manufacturing, emphasizing efficiency and low cost over flexibility. Special orders cost more. But today's consumers are very choosy. They want quality, value and products specially tailored to their needs, but always at the lowest possible price. For now mass customization has come to the fore. Mass customization uses information technology to produce and deliver products and services designed to fit the specifications of individual customers. Companies can customize products in quantities as small as one with the same speed and low cost as mass-production methods. Mass-customization systems use information taken from the customer to control the flow of goods.

has now regained its previous popularity

B)

was the leading method of production in the twenty years or so that followed World War II

in very large quantities and for general use

B)

to meet standardized specifications which will please everyone

C) at high speed regardless of cost D) designed to have a long life E)

A)

are encouraged to buy ready-made goods available in the shops

B)

are pleased far more easily than customers were in the past

C) do not attach much importance to production methods D) specify what they want and insist on getting it

C) can easily be adapted to meet the needs of individual customers

E)

D) can be very profitable because of the wide appeal of its goods E)

designed to meet the specific needs of individual customers

69. According to the passage, present-day customers ----.

66. We learn from the passage that mass production ----. A)

A)

rarely distinguish between standardized and non-standardized goods

gives priority to quality and longevity in the goods produced but ignores aesthetic qualities

70. The point is made in the passage that mass customization ----. 67. We learn from the passage that one of the characteristics of mass production is ----. A)

the need to please every customer

B)

a disregard for flexibility

is no more costly and no more time-consuming than mass production

B)

is a system that dates back to the end of World War 11

C) has actually never been as popular as mass production

C) a disregard for cost-effectiveness D) to take into consideration the specifications given by individual customers E)

A)

D) is primarily concerned with efficiency but overlooks quality

the rescheduling of production as the need arises

E)

138

does not attach much importance to flexibility

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 73. lt is clear from the passage that Mandelbrot ---.

Kpds Mayıs 2005 (81 – 85) Before the Polish-born French-American mathematician Benoit Mandelbrot made his mark on the world, scientists liked to forget about the imperfections and irregularities of nature. The study of perfect squares, triangles and planes had dominated their field for over 2,000 years, since the Greek geometer Euclid wrote maths' oldest treatise "Elements" and provided us with the tools to measure these flawlessly smooth shapes. Early question about how to measure the real shape of a tree, a coastline or anything with a rough edge could not be tackled by Euclidean geometry and had therefore been ignored. But Mandelbrot changed all this when he invented fractal geometry, which enables us to measure roughness. "My whole career has been one long, ardent pursuit of the concept of roughness", he says. "The roughness of clusters in the physics of disorder, of turbulent flows, of exotic noises, of chaotic dynamical systems, of the distribution of galaxies, of coastlines, of stock-price charts and of mathematical constructions."

mathematics followed the lead of Euclid and concentrated on regular shapes

B)

everyone felt that Euclidean geometry was inadequate

only began to work on the concept of roughness at a later stage in his career

B)

finds the concept of roughness immensely exciting, and apparent in widely different areas

C) worked on the concept of roughness because he wanted to prove that Euclid's theories were contradictory D) didn’t discover fractal geometry but worked to extend its uses E)

has still to convince the scientific world of the value of fractal geometry

74. One point made in the passage is that Euclidean geometry ----.

71. It is clear from the passage that, before Mandelbrot's concepts attracted the attention of the scientific world, ----. A)

A)

A)

has led to a better appreciation of the irregularities in nature

B)

has had to be modified in the light of new discoveries

C) has been shown to be invalid D) is not universally applicable E)

doesn't deserve the respect it has enjoyed for 2,000 years

C) scientists relied on Euclidean geometry to measure trees and exotic noises D) Mandelbrot almost lost confidence in the concept of roughness E)

Mandelbrot was careful to limit the scope of his studies into roughness

75. According to the passage, fractal geometry ----. 72. According to the passage, Euclidean geometry can, in a way, be regarded as having had a negative effect upon the development of mathematics because it ----.

A)

makes possible the measurement of anything with a rough edge

B)

is actually, as regards method, very similar to Euclidean geometry

A)

can be neither substantiated nor disproved

C) is merely an extension of Euclidean geometry

B)

is too involved with measurement

D) is well on the way to replacing Euclidean geometry entirely

C) makes the investigation of roughness impossible

E)

D) is far too comprehensive E)

is just one of several remarkable innovations propounded by Mandelbrot

put forward the concept of roughness

Kpds Mayıs 2005 (96-100) 139

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler

Why does sea water taste salty? It is a question that has been asked by countless people down the ages. And the answer seems straightforward: rain constantly erodes the surface of the Earth, washing a mix of natural chemicals into rivers and thence into the sea. The most water-soluble and abundant of these just happen to taste salty. All very simple. Or is it? After all, erosion has been taking place for millions of years, dumping ever more of these salty compounds into the sea, yet the concentration is still far below the saturation level. So the real mystery is not why the sea tastes salty, but why it isn't utterly packed with salt, and as lifeless as the Dead Sea. Here is another curious thing about our planet. Its atmosphere has existed for billions of years, and yet it still contains a mix of highly reactive gases like oxygen and methane. Why haven't they settled down into a boring unreactive atmosphere like that of Mars or Venus?

why do certain natural elements taste salty?

B)

how much salt is there in the sea

it is dangerous to interfere with the balance of nature

B)

everything in the universe has an explanation

C) many of the facts about various planets are exceedingly boring D) all the seas in the world will eventually be like the Dead Sea E)

what may seem simple and straightforward may actually not be so

79. It is clear from the passage that writer often wonders about why ----.

76. According to the passage, the most important and fascinating question about salt and the sea is: ----? A)

A)

A)

certain gases are not highly reactive

B)

there is no end to the chemicals that are carried into the sea

C) the world is as it is

C) how does the salt get to the sea

D) people are not attracted to the Dead Sea

D) when will the salt in the sea reach saturation level

E)

E)

the atmosphere of Mars is similar to that of Venus

why isn't the sea more salty

80. The phrase "just happen to" supports the writer's view of the world as a place ----.

77. One point made in the passage is that unanswered questions about the world and the universe ----. A)

will, at some point in the future, be answered in a satisfactory manner

B)

are now very few in number

A)

where many phenomena remain inexplicable

B)

where everything goes according to a master plan

C) where most occurrences have a logical explanation

C) are unimportant and can be ignored

D) of continuous and relentless change

D) help to highlight the mysteries of the world

E)

E)

are only of interest to scientists

78. One aim of the writer in this passage is to make people realize that ----. 140

of little interest to anyone who is interested in science

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 83. According to the passage, one of the devastating consequences following a super-eruption would be ----.

Kpds Kasım 2005 (81 – 85) One of the greatest natural catastrophes the world will ever see could be little more than a decade away. The film Supervolcano traces the evolution of an enormous volcanic eruption - one that not only wipes out several states of America but that threatens the entire planet. But is such an eruption really possible? Well, supervolcanoes certainly aren't fiction. They're a normal part of the way the Earth works and occur perhaps every 50,000 years. Every statistic associated with a supereruption is always wildly over-exaggerated. Molten magma is blasted out at a rate 140 times greater than the flow of water over the Victoria-Falls. Ash and gas are thrown more than 50km upwards to the edge of space before falling over one percent of the Earth's surface. Enough ash would pile up on the ground to bury Britain under a blanket 4m thick. Further, devastating winds carrying burning gas and red hot ash would scour the land surface over an area of 10,000 square kilometers. Worst of all, a super-eruption is followed by a dramatic fall in global temperatures, leading to years and years of bitter cold known as a volcanic winter.

gives a convincing and credible account of an imminent super-eruption

B)

has attracted a great deal of attention in the scientific world

a very long period of excessive cold on earth

E)

A)

super-eruptions really do occur at long but fairly regular intervals

B)

no part of the US could possibly survive a supereruption

C) Britain would be the first region of the planet to be buried under the ashes of a super-eruption D) A volcanic winter, following a super-eruption, would wipe out life on earth E)

presents a futuristic account of the effects of a volcanic super-eruption

urges the general public to go and see the film

B)

is primarily concerned with the measures needed to contain a super-eruption

there is no likelihood of a super-eruption happening in the near future

85. According to the passage, the destruction caused by a volcanic super-eruption ----.

82. In this dramatic account of the film Supervolcano, the writer ----. A)

a dramatic increase of heat on earth, the result of burning gas

84. The writer seems convinced that ----.

D) focuses on the horrors of a volcanic winter

A)

could lead to the break-up of the entire planet .

B)

could be contained, if not prevented

C) would be on an unimaginably huge scale D) would result largely from the flow of molten magma

C) essentially deals with the causes of a supereruption

E)

D) also includes certain specific details E)

B)

D) the drying-up of all water sources on earth

C) has aroused little interest among the general public

E)

the complete destruction of America and Britain

C) that deep layers of volcanic ash would cover the whole surface of the planet

81. We understand from the passage that the film Supervolcano ----. A)

A)

is obsessed with the idea that the end of the world is very near

141

can only be guessed at as one has never occurred

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 88. According to Professor Rawson in the passage, China ----.

Kpds Kasım 2005 (96 – 100) The discovery of an ancient tomb in modern China is so commonplace that it often annoys as much as excites, because it can delay construction for months or even years. So when archeologists were called in fast May to check structures discovered during the expansion of a bonemeal factory in a southern suburb of Beijing, they weren't expecting to find anything of great interest. To the archeologists' surprise, the structures were the remains of two traditional domed tombs, each over a thousand years old. One was flooded and badly damaged, but the other "contained beautifullypreserved wall frescoes from the 10th century. "It's only recently that the Chinese have been publishing artifacts from ancient tombs, and it's unusual to see them in the Western press," says Dr Jessica Rawson, Professor of Oriental Art and Archeology at Oxford University.

show archeologists a great deal of respect

B)

are very proud of their ancient archeological heritage

has only recently emerged as an area of interest for archeologists

B)

has only just started to publish art objects for the West

C) is noted for its ancient domed tombs with frescoes D) continues to be very secretive about its archeological finds E)

86. We learn from the passage that the Chinese ----. A)

A)

has the finest frescoes anywhere in the world

89. We understand from the passage that only one of the tombs unearthed during extension work at a factory in Beijing ----. A)

attracted the attention of Dr Rawson

C) are very skilled in the art of frescoes

B)

had a domed roof which was undamaged

D) often have mixed feelings when an ancient tomb is discovered

C) could be dated back to the 10th century

E)

E)

D) revealed frescoes in excellent condition

used to prefer tombs without domes to those with domes

87. It is clear from the passage that in China today the progress of a construction work ----. A)

is very often hindered by the unexpected discovery of ancient tombs

B)

is frequently supervised by archeologists

90. The passage points out that the archeologists who were called in ----.

C) is liable to be delayed for a variety of reasons D) depends, to a certain extent, on weather conditions E)

caused a delay in the project

A)

were not impressed by the frescoes on the walls of one of the tombs

B)

weren't expecting to discover tombs of such great value in a suburb of Beijing

C) made ancient tombs their specialty D) had published extensively in the western press

often runs parallel with archeological excavations

E)

142

were annoyed by the discovery of two ancient tombs in Beijing

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 93. The point is made in the passage that aesthetic principles ----.

Kpds Mayıs 2006 (76 – 80) Engineering is akin to writing or painting in that it is a creative endeavor that begins in the mind’s eye and proceeds into new frontiers of thought and action, where it does not so much find as make new things. Just as the poet starts with a blank sheet of paper and the artist with a blank canvas, so the engineer today begins with a blank computer screen. Until the outlines of a design are set down, however tentatively, there can be no appeal to science or to critical analysis to judge or test the design. Scientific, rhetorical or aesthetic principles may be called on to inspire, refine and finish a design, but creative things do not come of applying the principles alone. Without the sketch of a thing or a diagram of a process, scientific facts and laws are of little use to engineers. Science may be the theater, but engineering is the action on the stage.

B)

B)

he tends to lose interest in it

E)

92. We understand from the passage that, for the engineer, scientific laws ----.

he must start to examine it for flaws and then remove them

95. According to the writer of the passage, each act of creativity ----.

C) are a constant factor all through the creative process of design

A)

necessitates the crossing of frontiers and entry into unknown regions

B)

is dependent upon a storehouse of closely related knowledge

C) arises almost equally out of thought and inspiration and knowledge

D) play an important role only when it comes to finalizing certain details E)

the creative process is complete

D) aesthetic principles may help him to intensify and complete it

establish the fact that it is the engineers’ scientific knowledge that makes him creative

are only relevant in details concerning safety

A)

C) he should wait a while before transcribing it onto a blank sheet of paper

D) show that literary creativity is superior to the painter’s creativity

B)

can infuse life into an ill-conceived poem

94. It can be inferred from the passage that, once a poet has achieved the basic core of his poem, ----.

stress the creative and constructive aspects of an engineer’s work

only have a role to play after a design has taken some sort of form

are central to the very best works of art

E)

show how many different types of creativity there are

A)

B)

D) cannot be taught or learnt

C) compare and contrast the way poets and painters work

E)

have no place in an engineer’s design

C) and creativity are two very different things

91. The writer’s main aim in this passage is to ----. A)

A)

D) has some bearing on other acts of creativity

are rarely applicable at any stage in his projects

E)

143

in one sphere of endeavour has its counterpart in another

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 98. According to the passage, Lewis Island ----.

Kpds Mayıs 2006 (91 – 95) The natives of the Lewis Island know wind – sometimes too well. Every winter the Atlantic gales come blasting across the northern tip of Scotland’s Outer Hebrides. The wind hardly slows down even after striking land; in the island’s marshy interior, gusts regularly exceed 160kph. Everyone stays indoors but the sheep. Tourists arrive in summer, lured by mild temperatures and unspoiled countryside; even so, there’s rarely a calm day. “The weather here is changeable”, says Nigel Scott, spokesman for the local government. “But the wind is constant”. The brutal climate could finally be Lewis’s salvation. The place has been growing poorer and more desolate for generations, as young people seek sunnier prospects elsewhere. But now the energy industry has discovered the storm-swept island. The multinationals AMEC and British Energy are talking about plans to erect some 300 outsize wind turbines across a few thousand hectares of moorland. If the 500 million-pound project goes through, the array will be Europe’s largest wind farm, capable of churning out roughly 1 per cent of Britain’s total electrical needs – and generating some badly needed jobs and cash for the people of Lewis.

attracts visitors as nature there has remained unspoiled

B)

enjoys a warm, wind-free climate

suffers more than any other island in Scotland’s Outer Hebrides from Atlantic gales

E)

A)

maintenance costs due to the gale force winds could cause financial failure

B)

the young people will want to leave their much loved island

C) there will be a shortage of land for the sheep to graze on D) other windswept coastlines throughout Europe will probably follow suit E)

can offer its inhabitants even less in the way of a livelihood than it can in the winter

have been looking forward to the establishment of a wind farm on their island

B)

have been leaving the island intent on finding a better way of life elsewhere

these will provide Britain with roughly of 1 per cent of her total electrical needs

100. According to the passage, if the proposed wind farm is set up on Lewis, ----.

97. It’s clear from the passage that for a long time now the young people of Lewis ----. A)

has an aging population that regards the windfarm scheme with distrust

99. If the energy industry carries out the project described in the passage and sets up 300 wind turbines on Lewis, ----.

D) has little to offer its inhabitants by way of a living other than fishing

A)

this could make the island unattractive to summer visitors

B)

the idea could spread rapidly to neighbouring islands

C) this will open up much needed employment opportunities for the islanders

C) have realized that the island’s most valuable asset is its climate

D) it will only function efficiently in the winter months

D) have been reluctant to leave the island on a permanent basis E)

B)

D) may one day be home to Europe’s largest wind farm

C) is one of the most attractive of the islands that make up the Outer Hebrides

E)

has the climate and conditions favourable to agriculture

C) will undergo many important changes unless a wind farm is established there

96. We understand from the passage that, in summer, the island of Lewis ----. A)

A)

E)

feel no sympathy for the old traditions and ways of life of the island

144

the costs will be shared equally by AMEC and British Energy

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 103. As we learn from the passage, occult practices in our time ----.

Kpds Kasım 2006 (76 – 80) Unlike the older forms of occultism, such as magic and astrology, organized occultism is a modern phenomenon. Few of the various organized occult movements have existed for more than 150 years; some were formed as a belated countermovement to the Enlightenment, when people began to follow rational schools of thought. Today’s occult views are based on the idea that there are events within nature, as well as within one’s spiritual life, which seem mysterious and cannot be explained by science. Examples include extrasensory perceptions such as telepathy and telekinesis, and haunted places or people. Believers maintain that these phenomena stem from unknown powers that can often be accessed only by some people with special abilities.

A)

are particularly widespread among people who follow rational schools of thought

B)

have mostly focused on the mysteries of telepathy and telekinesis

C) essentially stem from the occult movements of the past D) are concerned with phenomena which are thought to be scientifically inexplicable E)

101. We understand from the passage that adherents of occultism claim that certain people ----.

seem to benefit from science in explaining natural phenomena

104. It is implied in the passage that magic and astrology ----.

A)

have extraordinary talents that allow them to have contact with the unknown

A)

have failed as occult practices in explaining extrasensory perceptions

B)

practise magic and explain events by means of astrological signs

B)

are forms of occultism which can be traced back into the past

C) were the pioneers of the anti-Enlightenment movements in the eighteenth and nineteenth centuries

C) lost their significance with the rise of rationalism during the Enlightenment

D) can tell us what places are haunted and why

D) did not exist as occult practices prior to the Enlightenment

E)

can teach others what extrasensory perceptions are

E)

102. According to the passage, some of the organized occult movements in the past came into being ----. A) B)

105. It is obvious from the passage that occultism ----.

as a result of various magical and astrological practices since people in the past were seriously concerned about their extrasensory perceptions

C) because the public was not satisfied with scientific explanations of events in nature

A)

contributes enormously to a more comprehensive understanding of nature

B)

has gained far more popularity in modern times than in the past

C) is an unscientific practice that doesn’t rely on rationality

D) due to the assumption that many phenomena in nature were related to man’s spiritual life E)

have always been used in order to communicate with unknown powers

D) can fully explain the spiritual side of humanity

in reaction to the rational thinking style that characterized the Enlightenment

E)

145

derives a great deal from magic and astrology

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 108. In the passage, the author admits that digital clocks, compared with dial clocks, ----.

Kpds Mayıs 2007 (76 – 80) There seems no question but that the clock dial, which has existed in its present form since the seventeenth century and in earlier forms since ancient times, is on its way out. More and more common are the digital clocks that mark off the hours, minutes, and seconds in ever-changing numbers. This certainly appears to be an advance in technology. You will no longer have to interpret the meaning of “the big hand on the eleven and the little hand on the five.” Your digital clock will tell you at once that it is 4:55. And yet there will be a loss in the conversion of dial to digital, and no one seems to be worrying about it. Actually, when something turns, it can turn in just one of two ways, clockwise or counter-clockwise, and we all know which is which. Clockwise is the normal turning direction of the hands of a clock, and counter-clockwise is the opposite of that. Since we all stare at clocks (dial clocks, that is), we have no trouble following directions or descriptions that include those words. But if dial clocks disappear, so will the meaning of those words for anyone who has never stared at anything but digitals.

the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise” will cease to carry any meaning

B)

people will continue to use the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise” on a regular basis

have a number of drawbacks which make their use rather restricted

B)

can, in the long run, be replaced by technologically new and more efficient clocks

C) are technologically more advanced and tell time very precisely D) do not seem to have much efficiency and easily break down E)

A)

are not aware of the fact that in antiquity time was completely disregarded

B)

do not seem to be concerned about “the loss” that the replacement of dial clocks by digitals will cause

C) can also define their position accurately by using digital clocks D) today have a growing interest in dial clocks and value them very much

C) it will be quite confusing for everyone to tell the time right away

E)

D) most people will wonder about the meanings of the words “clockwise” and “counterclockwise” E)

have already stopped using the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise” to indicate directions

it will certainly be a major technological change unprecedented in the past 110. As has been pointed out in the passage, the word “clockwise” ----.

107. It is pointed out in the passage that the use of the clock dial ----. A)

is no longer practical since one is often confused about the meaning of the words “clockwise” and “counter-clockwise”

B)

was most popular in the seventeenth century but has since lost its importance

A)

first came into use in the seventeenth century

B)

is used only in conjunction with the word “counter-clockwise”

C) can also be used with reference to a digital clock D) signifies the direction in which the hands of a dial clock move

C) is still widely used despite the technological progress in the manufacture of digital clocks

E)

D) has improved enormously since the seventeenth century due to advances in technology E)

have ceased to be in widespread use due to some inexplicable technological shortcomings

109. The author asserts that people ----.

106. The author maintains that, when dial clocks go out of use and only digitals are used, ----. A)

A)

has a very long history though at present it is becoming less and less popular

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has no meaning unless it is used with reference to a dial clock

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Metin Oklar ve Çeviriler 113. As is clear from the passage, NASA’s purpose in consulting scientists is to ----.

Kpds Kasım 2007 (96-100) A couple of months ago NASA asked the scientific community what kinds of research it should conduct when it returns humans to the moon. In doing so, NASA wanted prioritized research objectives for the robotic orbiters and landers that will be used primarily for reconnaissance purposes prior to later explorations by astronauts of the lunar surface. Recommendations made by scientists varied greatly, but they can be summarized. The top priority that scientists have recommended is the development of programmes for lunar data analysis. Next is the exploration of the moon’s south pole, which is called “the Aitken basin,” an impact scar mostly on the moon’s back side. Then comes an instrument network for probing the interior of the moon, and this is followed by rock sample returns, scientifically selected landing sites, and analysis of any icy polar deposits.

there is still a lot that has to be learned about the moon

B)

scientists are extensively familiar with the structure of the moon

A)

the scientific specification of the locations where robots or astronauts can land

B)

the problems related to the working of the robots orbiting the moon or landing on the surface

C) the analysis of the rock samples that will be taken from the Aitken basin D) the tasks that will be performed by the astronauts when they explore the moon’s south pole E)

NASA is determined to make the moon a new base for space exploration

the question of how NASA can benefit from the results obtained from lunar explorations

115. It is clearly stated in the passage that astronauts ----.

and scientists have conflicting research objectives about the moon has already developed a multi-purpose research programme for the moon

A)

will use a variety of instruments only to learn about the interior of the moon

B)

will be sent to the moon to investigate the lunar surface

C) will, in the first place, select a suitable spot for landing their craft

C) always consults the scientific community, but seldom takes its advice into consideration

D) are expected to discover icy deposits under the south pole

D) is planning to send robots to the moon before it sends astronauts E)

give them the opportunity to discuss their research results about the moon

114. According to the passage, one of the recommendations made by the scientific community concerns ----.

112. One understands from the passage that NASA ----.

B)

learn whether the moon has water deposited as ice under its poles

E)

D) the scientific community does not regard NASA’s objectives about the moon as feasible

A)

B)

D) encourage them to focus their attention on a full study of the Aitken basin

C) the exploration of the lunar surface is not so urgent as understanding the inner structure of the moon

E)

make sure that its programmes for lunar data analysis are supported by them

C) find out about the kind of research which is primarily important for lunar exploration

111. From the research recommendations summarized in the passage, it becomes clear that ----. A)

A)

E)

has been indifferent to various recommendations made by scientists

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have been trained to perform lunar data analysis

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