origo - tételek(egyben)

February 14, 2018 | Author: Edit Zsohárné Stampfel | Category: Suit (Clothing), Wedding, Kitchen, Easter, Engagement
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origo szóbeli témkörök kidolgozva angol nyelv középfok....



 I’m Peter Somogyi. My friends call me Soma and my family Peti. I’m twenty eight years old and I was born in Ajka on the sixteenth of October in nineteen seventy-nine. I’m single and about one hundred and eighty centimeter tall and weigh about seventy kilos. I work at a company called Continental here in Veszprém (a company manufacturing spare parts of the cars). I work as a quality engineer to be more precise measuring technician. I’ve been working there since the end of the last year. I like my job and my colleagues. I have to measure different dimensions on some head sensors every day and in the end I have to give the results about them to the customer.

- bemutatkozás - személyes információk - a család, barátok, rokonok bemutatása - saját maga és családtagjai foglalkozása. ezzel kapcsolatos tervek, elképzelések - harmadik személy külső megjelenésének, belső tulajdonságainak, szokásainak leírása

 I come from a small family and live with my parents. There are - családi ünnepek, családi tradíciók four of us: my mum, my dad, my grandmother and me. Anyway, my grandmother doesn’t live with us, but we live close enough to her. We live at five Verseny Street, in Ajka on the second floor of a big block of flats. My parents are in their fifties, they are quite youngish. Unfortunately, I grew up as an only child. I would always have liked to have a brother or a sister with whom I could share my problems. My father is an old age pensioner but my mother still goes out work. My father has been retired for eight years. He used to work as a miner and now he works for a small shop called Etalon-Electronic. He helps anyone who would like to buy any fittings such as LCDs, DVD players, notebooks, etc. He is of medium height, his body is average and he has got brown hair. He wears glasses for driving and reading. He has been a very big instrumental guitar music collector since I knew him. My mother was born in the same year as my father. She is fifty-three years old. She works at the local police station. As she sometimes works a lot therefore she is very tired and anxious because of her job. Although she tries to be patient with us every day. My grandmother was born before The Second World War. Her name is Etelka. She is a seventy-eight year-oldmodern lady, because she has got a mobile phone and a DVD player, too. She makes the lunch for us on weekdays. My extended family is my three cousins and their parents. Because of the simplicity both of my parents have got a sibling. My mother’s elder sister is Teri and her husband is my godfather called Misi. They have got only a daughter called Szilvi, my elder cousin and two grandchildren. My father’s elder brother and his wife have got two daughters. They work as a nurse in the Hospital of Veszprém. The elder one is called Évi, she has got a son and the younger, Ági is single yet. All of them live in Ajka similarly to us.  My father is fifty-three years old. He is of medium height. He wears a beard and a moustache therefore he doesn’t have to shave every day. He has got a round face and a bit turned-up nose and brown eyes. His hair is getting grey. He has got a thin body and narrow shoulders. He wears glasses. He has a thin lips and expressive face. He hasn’t got wrinkles in spite of his age. He has been retired for years. He is interested in instrumental guitar music, he is a great collector. He works at a shop although he is and old age pensioner. I get on well with him, because he is understanding and patient. He is good mannered and sociable and he has got a lot of friends. Sometimes he is moody and he has a good sense of humor and he usually is cheerful. He is married and he is a reliable husband. I hope I’ve got my father’s personality. He is fond of shopping and he likes going from shops top shops watching the prices every morning. My mum is very proud of him. My mother is very careful of her appearance. She is as about tall as my father also she is of average height. Her hair is rather red but it changes color according to fashion because she has it dyed. She has got a shoulder-length hair and it’s a bit curly. She has a round face with a pointed nose, a wide mouth and green eyes. She has got a thin body and narrow shoulders. She doesn’t wear glasses. She has full lips and has got wrinkles here and there. She is interested in reading books. She is a good mannered woman and she is witty, very honest and permissive with me. She worries about me if I go out with my friends or I leave home. She has luck, because she doesn’t have to cook on weekdays only at weekends. Thanks godness, she always cooks what I like eating. She is a bit self-controlled, modest and she is always casually dressed. She is fond of hoeing in the garden and talking with the neighbours at her parental home. FAMILY OCCASIONS, TRADITIONS IN HUNGARY Christmas: Our family is not really that traditional. We don’t often go to church, only for weddings and funerals. We used to try to go to midnight mass on Christmas Eve, but when it got around to midnight, everyone was usually too drunk or had eaten too much or was too tired to walk a mile up to the church. At Christmas we -1-

celebrate the birth of Jesus Christ, The Saviour of men. A week before X-mas, carol singers appear in the streets to announce the approach of the festival. They carry a Christmas crib with them and go from house to house performing the nativity play. It relates the story of Christ's birth and the appearance of the three kings bringing presents to the son of god. We always send postcards to our distant relatives wishing “Merry X-mas”. December 24th is Xmas Eve. The Xmas tree, a fir or pine, is decorated and children are given a lot of presents. Most families go to the midnight service in church. On the first and second day of Xmas families have big meals and visit each other in the afternoons. On Christmas Day the family gathers round the table to partake of the traditional Hungarian Christmas lunch. Two things are essential parts of this meal: stuffed cabbage and poppy-seed cake. The rest of the meal is usually chicken soup followed by pork chops or turkey. New Year’s Eve: On New Year's Eve people sit up till after midnight to see the new year in. At midnight we sing the national anthem and drink champagne and then we wish to each other “Happy New Year”. Some people go to parties and dances others watch comic shows on TV. We usually stay up until dawn. Easter: At Easter we celebrate Jesus Christ's Resurrection that is the rising of Jesus from the tomb 3 days after his Crucifixion. Most Easter traditions are associated with Easter Monday when boys set out to call on their female friends and relatives and sprinkle them with perfume or water. Girls, in return, treat them to home-made cakes or some drinks and present them with eggs painted mainly red, green or yellow. Children are also presented at Easter with either some chocolate eggs or a chocolate Easter bunny and an Easter chick. A typical Easter Sunday breakfast consists of ham and hard-boiled eggs. There are no set dishes that we eat for lunch at Easter. As a general rule however, we usually have chicken soup, pork, beef or veal cutlet followed by some desert. We celebrate birthdays, name days, wedding anniversaries, mother’s day and commemorate our close relatives or friends on funerals. Birthday or name day: on that day I invite my relatives, my friends and give a big party. Our small family gathers round the table and we spend on talking, eating and discussing family matters in the afternoon. They wish me “Happy birthday/name day (happy returns of the day)”. My mother usually prepares (or makes cakes) a chocolate layer cake with many candles on it. She loves baking so she sometimes makes at least three kinds of cakes for the occasion. If the weather is nice, we have a little garden party at my mother’s parental home. We take the chairs and the tables out and put the pre-prepared snacks, sandwiches and drinks on them. I always get some gifts; however, I can be happy about the small one, too. Wedding: people sometimes can’t help falling in love with each other. In case the end of this situation is usually a marriage apart from your childhood’s love. There is an old tradition including you ask your dear’s hand. It is called the proposal. Traditionally the man goes down on one knee to pop the question. If he receives a "yes", th e couple is engaged. Traditionally the man buys his fiancée an engagement ring, most commonly a diamond ring. Then some of us want to have an engagement party. Then the couple has to draw up a guest list, send out invitations, buy the wedding dress, arrange a honeymoon, and of course, to select the wedding rings. People can get married either in a church or in a registry office. In the latter case there must be two witnesses. Most people, however, prefer to have a church wedding too, with the bride in white attended by her bridesmaids and the bridegroom in black attended by his best men. After the wedding ceremony there is a large reception where an enormous meal is eaten, the wedding cake is cut and toasts are drunk in whisky or sherry. The guests are dressed in their best clothes and dance to accordion music. Old traditions such as dancing with the bride at midnight and the bride leaving to change clothes after the dance are still kept at most wedding parties. In addition to it the happy couple traditionally goes on honeymoon. The members of the wider family only meet at weddings, funerals and christenings. Some of them may turn up around the time of your name day or birthday to say many happy returns but most of them prefer to write cards. There is only one sad occasion, which no one likes and it is called funeral. We usually take a wreath containing flowers to the burial for the tomb.



 I come from a small-sized industrial town called Ajka, in the Centre - a ház vagy lakás leírása of the Transdanubian region (from the western part of Hungary). Ajka is situated along the line diving the Bakony Hills region. Two important routes - a környék és a környezet leírása pass through here, to the north Highway 8, which runs east to west, and in - a város v. település, ill. kerület the middle region, the Székesfehérvár-Szombathely railway line. The Torna bemutatása, ahol lakik stream flows through the inner part of the town. It has a population of - otthonteremtés, lakáshelyzet; az 35.000. But sometimes there are a lot of people coming from villages to do ideális lakóhely the shopping. My town is about 130 kilometres far from the capital. - a lakásfenntartás kérdései Ajka received its name its one-time owner called Heiko. Heiko was a (költségek) warrior who came to Hungary with Gisely, wife of King Stephen. The town’s - diákszálló, albérlet: házirend, development was founded on industry. As early as 1836 coal was discovered lehetőségek és tiltások in Ajkacsingervölgy. Our glass factory is famous all over the world, its - generációk együttélése products have been transported even to the Queen of England. Ajka got its town status in 1959. Apart from the churches almost nothing remained of the - munkák a házban és a ház körül old village. Sports hall, a swimming pool and a hospital were built. At the moment there are much more modern sports halls, a modernized beach, a lot of schools and hypermarkets such as Tesco, Penny, Lidl and in the nearest future Aldi and Interspar are going to move here. We have got a library, a redecorated culture house and two department stores in the centre of the town. They offer not only clothes but some other goods needed for the inhabitants, too. In addition to it, a new park center is being built and it seems as if more firms come here. It is a busy and lively town. I’m very happy to live here. Firstly, because most of my friends live here and (I don’t have to travel to see them) secondly, because the town itself is cosy. It is neither too big nor too small and it offers very good shopping and entertainment facilities. However, what I don’t like that it is dirty for me and the pollution is big from the factories.  I would prefer to live in the country. I consider myself to be privileged, because I live in a town. Towns are lively places, where there is always something interesting happening. There is a wide choice of shops, cinemas, theatres, restaurants and pubs. You can go out to a different place every night if you want to. Even if I live in a village, I would prefer to move to a town because town life is so much exciting. Life is never dull in a town, the latest exhibitions, films and plays are going on. Streets are better kept and shops are better supplied. Shopping can even be a pleasure because there is a much wider choice of everything. City life is also better for the children because there is a variety of schools they can choose from and they don’t need to commute. Neither do adults need to commute to work, because they have more chance of employment. Town life Advantages: Life is never dull (exhibitions, films, plays, friends) Better supplies in shops (wide choices, within easy reach) Variety of schools and places of work, better chances of good education and employment Higher living standards (better roads, more conveniences in flats) Disadvantages: Commuting difficulties (rush hours, traffic jams) Pollution (from cars and factories) Crowds, noise, rat race Higher cost of living Village life Advantages: People are friendly and close to nature Gentle peace of living Clean atmosphere-healthy living More privacy and relaxation (gardening, walking in the forest and in the fields) Disadvantages: Life is boring (out-of-the-way, nowhere to go, long silent winter nights) Commuting to work and school (less chance of a successful career) -3-

Less efficient services (one doctor or no doctor at all, muddy streets, few shops)  I live on a housing estate which is quite close way from the centre. But there are buses that take you to the downtown. On foot it takes you about 10 minutes, but as I like riding a bike it takes me about a few minutes to get anywhere. The ground is mainly flat there. It is an area of low hills and nice green valleys. Oak and fir forests occupy the slopes of the hills. I live on the second floor with my parents of a block of flats. There are some parking places and playgrounds around us. Part of the area is a lawn and road. Our flat used to be a council flat but we bought it years ago. Thus we now have a 54-square-metre freehold flat. It isn’t a spacious one but just enough for a family of three. It is comfortable and equipped with all modern conveniences such as hot water, electricity, central heating, drains and a telephone. We have got a living room, a hall, a small room for me, a kitchen, a toilet, a bathroom and a balcony. Besides we have got a cellar where we can keep our different things such as bikes, boxes, old-fashioned clothes, books and my mother keeps here our stewed fruits and the pickles. Our electric meter is in the staircase. Our kitchen is of small size but the space is used very efficiently. We cook by an electrical cooker and it is right under the cupboard. Next to it is the sink unit with its stainless steel sink and the draining-board where we just pile the already washed up dishes and let them dry. We haven’t got a dishwasher. Over the sink we keep the microwave oven into the cupboard. There is never enough space in the cupboard. Saucepans, frying pans, jugs, bowls, mugs, the kitchen scales, the mixer, pressure cooker, grater, hot sandwich oven and the rolling pin are kept in the kitchen cupboard. On the shelves there are spices and the ingredients needed every day for cooking like salt, flour, sugar and a cooking oil. We keep the bread slicer the working top of the cupboard and in the drawers we keep the cutleries. There is the dining table with a corner seat by the window. We use on it the percolator. The kitchen floor is covered with lino because it’s easy to keep clean. The wall is tiled with light brown color. We don’t have a separate dining-room; we only have a lunch or dinner in the kitchen, which we use every day. Sometimes we lay a table in the living room if we have a bigger occasion. No room for our fridge and deep fryer in the kitchen therefore we use them in the hall. We have a nice, large plastic bathtub in the bathroom and there is hot and cold running water. The washbasin is beside the tub and over the washbasin is a mirror. We keep there the soap dish and our toothbrushes and the toothpaste. The floor is covered with lino but the walls are tiled. On the left side you can find the towel rack installed into the wall. If you enter here, there is a bathroom shelf over your head where we own deodorants, sprays, body lotions, shampoos and any detergent. By the way we have an old washing machine on the right side. On both sides the left and the right there are two wardrobes in our living room. It is light and cosy. It faces the street. We have a desk with two comfortable, modern chairs in the centre, which look like an armchair. We keep on it some newspapers, some bills, a flower and an ashtray although we don’t smoke. The books are also kept both in the living-room and in my room. There is a settee bottom of the left side’s wardrobe where my father usually watches the news or some films lying on it. On the right side there is a sofa and a bedside table. There are nice curtains on the windows and a big carpet on the floor. The floor is wall-to-wall carpet and the walls are white washed. The furniture is dark brown. There are plants and pictures on the walls. There is a personal computer in the corner. There is a lot of china and ornaments on the shelves and there is our TV by the window. Next to it there are some flower stands. Behind the TV there is a big balcony door, which opens directly into the balcony. My room is the smallest one. The ceiling is whitewashed and there is a wall-to-wall carpet on the floor as well. I would have liked to have a wooden mosaics but my father denied my idea. Anyway, it was redecorated last year. There is my comfortable bed on the right side. There are some cushions (or pillows) on it. In front of my single bed I’ve got a wardrobe where I keep everything such as clothes, books, CDs, bills, amplifier,… A chandelier hangs up on the ceiling. The walls are covered and there is my PC next to the bed. My window faces a playground where I played a football a lot when I was a child. It has a blind because of the summers hot.  People can live in sky-scrapers, high-rise blocks, blocks of flats, terraced houses, semi detached houses, bungalows, cottages. They can own their flats – in that case they are called freehold flats. They can rent a council owned flat or live in a council built flat sold to a cooperative of people. They can share a flat with other families and live in co-tenancy. Some people live in lodgings e.g. because they work in another city or haven’t got money to buy it. -4-

I have never lived in lodgings but I can imagine that you have to keep a number of houses rules. You are not supposed to smoke in the common rooms, you are not allowed to be too noisy, take girls and boys into your room, stick pictures on the wall and you have to use the bathroom at a fixed time. Students living away from home use student hotels and university halls of residence provided by universities in separate buildings. Lodgings are used by those who can’t get a hostel room. This means that they have to pay to the landlady. Some students prefer a one-room flatlet with cooking facilities or perhaps sharing the bathroom and kitchen. When several students come together, they like to rent furnished, self-contained flats but they are difficult to obtain and compared with other types of accommodation are very expensive.  The local councils used to build many blocks of flats and let them to people who couldn’t afford to build or buy of their own. The problem with it is that these flats were mainly one-or-two rooms flats, which were comfortable enough for couple, but not for a family. Young married couples whom don’t have enough money they have no other choice but to live with their parents. There is not serious shortage of accommodation for married couples in Hungary. People don’t have to wait for years to buy a house or a flat, place of their own. Nowadays, to be able to build or buy a house or a flat you need to have enough money to put down a deposit. The deposit covers some percent of the cost of the flat. Then you can get a bank loan at quite a high interest rate and you pay it back in monthly instalments. If you have children, you may get a state grant, which you do not have to pay back. If you are a good worker, you may even get an interest-free loan from the company you are working for.  I always make my bed and air my room every morning. To tell the truth, I haven’t got a lot of housework. At weekends, I always do my room and help dad to wash the car or clean the garage. I usually empty the dust bin and my mother sometimes asks me to hoover the carpet in my room. If the weather is good and it isn’t raining, she always cleans the windows and the doorsteps. She sweeps the floor then wipes it up. After lunch or dinner my father washes up and dries the dishes. He likes doing it and therefore my mother is very proud of him. She has to wash our clothes, but we have got an automatic washing-machine. Having been washed our clothes, she had to iron them. She usually beats the bigger carpets. As we have got a weekend house, my mother usually go to visit our garden. She waters the flowers and the vegetables with a watering can. I sometimes have to dig a few parts of the garden in spring. It is not a woman work, I think. She adores hoeing and meanwhile talking with her sister or the neighbours. In summer the lawn grows, therefore we cut the grass with the lawnmower. The fruit trees mainly need spraying. In autumn we harvest the fruits such as apples, pears, plums, grapes and nuts. Of course, the falling leaves have to be raked.



 In fact, I need some time till I regain my senses in the - szokásos napi tevékenység otthon morning. Being a heavy sleeper, it is very difficult for me to get up. I always és a munkahelyen set the alarm clock and wake up between 6 and quarter past 6 on weekdays. - munkahely, munkakör, további However, if I go to work in the afternoon I can get up later. I never have tervek coffee, but I like drinking milk or cocoa, which I make myself. When I get - pályaválasztás up I go to the bathroom to wash. I wash my face, neck, ears and hands in népszerű foglalkozások, kereseti cold running water and dry myself with a towel. Sometimes I take a shower -lehetőségek or have a bath. Then I clean my teeth, don’t comb as I have short hair and I begin to get dressed. I am always in a hurry in the mornings so I don’t have - munkahelyi körülmények: előmenetel, munkával kapcsolatos time to prepare my breakfast therefore I make it in the previous evening. problémák Anyway, I am never hungry in the morning. As a rule, my father gets up - munkahelyszerzés, earlier than me and by the time I awake he has prepared some sandwiches munkanélküliség, szociális only for himself as he knows I don’t eat. Sometimes I turn on the radio to problémák listen to the news broadcast and the weather forecast. However, when I go to work in the morning, five of us travel together by car and the radio is on. I used to go to work by my bike at my previous workplace. I have to clock in when I arrive and clock out when I leave my company. I work flexitime, in two shifts, normally 8 hours and 20 minutes. But we do some overtime every weekday, when I work in the morning. It enables me to leave work an hour earlier anytime. I have been working as a measuring technician at Continental since the end of the last year. I’m satisfied with my job, because I draw a higher salary than before and there are comfortable surroundings there. My boss is all right in every respect, I can’t say anything against him. My colleagues are very kind and helpful. I get on well with them. The salary and the conditions are good and my firm treats me well. When I get to the office I first open the post and read the letters I have got from my clients. I spend most of my time measuring. Any pieces of the headsensors such as cables, connectors, labels or the sensor itself must be checked. I measure their dimensions such as horizontal, vertical dimensions or positions, diameters, angles or in fact I should find any mistake on them. I apply different test methods and procedures and use some test equipment. There are two projectors, two microscopes, coordinate measuring machine, optical machine, a lot of callipers, dial gauges, measuring rooler and plug ganges, which are available for me to measure. When I have finished I have to write a test report for the order. The dimensions, which are out of the tolerance, must be marked. To be the report approved or rejected must be written at the bottom of the last side and of course it must be signed. Sometimes my boss asks me to water the flowers and air the office. I have my breakfast at about 8 o’clock, which is usually some sandwiches. I always have lunch with my colleagues at quarter to noon. In my opinion there are fine meals in the restaurant where we have lunch. If I work in the afternoon I have lunch with my dad at my grandmother. As a general rule I finish work at 4 in the afternoon. We talk a lot on the way home and get home at around 5. When I arrive I spend about half an hour hanging around without doing anything particular. I sometimes surf on the net then I start studying for the next English lesson. Unfortunately, we usually don’t have supper with each other. My father likes having it meanwhile watching TV. My mother prefers eating in the kitchen. And I like having the dinner in my room. After supper I help my mother to clear the table and wash up. Then I go to take a warm bath and go back in front of my pc. Until I fall asleep, I watch TV a bit.  I have had several jobs since I left school. My first job was at the local hospital where I worked as an administrator. I had to install and repair some PCs. The atmosphere wasn’t good and I was underpaid. I could say I was fed up with it. Then my second job came, which was rewarding and my starting salary was higher than before. I’ve been working for about 3 years there. I was fond of my colleagues and my job, too. I adored working there. However, money talks. I would have liked to change my job therefore I applied for some companies. In fact, I was not motivated only because of the money. I wanted to find such a firm where I can earn more money and train new vocational things. Fortunately, I didn’t have to be unemployed as I could find a new, my present job relatively fast. It seems to be fashionable for people to change their jobs. Some people have to work too much, some too little, others get bored with their jobs or fed up with their colleagues because of backbiting. People always -6-

want more money and higher positions. If I want to change my job, I must look at the advertisements in the newspapers, magazines or nowadays on the Internet. You must write your curriculum vitae or profile. I agree with my future boss on my starting salary, the office hours and the lunch break, the amount of paid holiday I would be entitled to. He also shows me round the office and tells me what my responsibilities would be. As the job and the conditions appeal to me I accept that I would be on probation for the three months. Of course, you should be adequately paid for your work so that you don’t have to work on the side. To work Good points, bad points - in factory - to get on well with boss and colleagues - for a company, firm, subsidiary - good chance of promotion - in agriculture - no backbiting - in heavy, light industry - to have kind and helpful mates - to run a private practice - to draw a high salary - to be a guest-worker abroad - to work in pleasant and healthy surroundings - to do casual work - to lick one’s boots - to do moonlightning - to do a lot of overtime - to be underpaid; high number of accidents - no responsibility; no freedom Jobs can be grouped in several ways as, e.g. manual and non-manual jobs. The workers doing manual work often referred to as blue-collar workers. The ones doing mainly brainwork are called white-collar workers. Some jobs need university qualifications, and these are professions; others don’t and these are skilled, semiskilled or unskilled. Skilled people are those who have learnt a trade such as pastry-cook, turner, joiner, plumber, shop assistant, car mechanic, railwayman, tailor, barber. Unskilled jobs, such as the job of factory hand, do not require special training. Other occupations are the followings: - Professions Design/electrical engineer, psychiatrist, solicitor/barrister/lawyer, judge, physician(doctor), vet, interpreter, (chartered) accountant, clerk, model, social worker, university professor, teacher, architect, surgeon, computer programmer - Trades and other occupations caretaker, cashier, dustman, coach, chimney sweep, hotel receptionist, cook, coal miner, house painter, air pilot, postman, travel agent, technician, salesman, baby sitter, shoemaker, librarian, speech-therapist, glazier, …  I am afraid I don’t really know exact figures about how many unemployed inhabitants are there in Hungary. All I know is that at the moment unemployment is still rising. The unemployed may feel guilty about being out of work even if it is not their fault. They feel they are useless and a burden on a state. They join the dole queue and receive just enough money not to starve. In my opinion some people don’t want to work, because they can get enough aid from their councils; others haven’t got a suitable trade and some firms claim much more than they should. You should have 3-5 years training in your trade and you should speak two languages fluently although they don’t want to get you enough salary. People begin to save when there is enough money for all that is needed in the family. Most people save for a flat, a plot of land, a week-end cottage or for holidays abroad. There are some who save for a car or put money aside to purchase durable consumer goods or new furniture. Naturally, many people save without any definitive end, just for the sake of the safety. Others can’t afford to put any money aside because of their income and it is just about enough to keep body and soul together. The retirement age in Hungary is 60 for woman and 62 for men, but these age limits are going to be changed in the near future. There are some occupations from which people can get pensioned off at an earlier age if they have been in employment for at least 30 years. As far as I know a few such jobs are that of a miner, a policeman, a fireman and the soldier. It seems to me that in today’s Hungary wage-earners earn more than salary-earners, especially if they work in private industry. For example the starting salary wages of a skilled worker with three years’ training are higher than the commencing salary of a teacher or a doctor with eight or nine years’ training. I would recommend my son to set up his own business or to tell the truth, more you learn, more you earn at a jointventure. If my daughter didn’t want to go to university, I would recommend her to become a hairdresser or a beautician. Both are good jobs for getting tips. -7-


 By the time I got the junior section of primary school called Veres Pálné, it was quite obvious that I was rather slow on the - a tanulással kapcsolatos napi tevékenység uptake. I was not one of those bright students who can easily cope with difficulties in subjects. I usually studied by fits and starts, which meant I - iskolájával, a tantárgyakkal, tanárokkal sometimes failed to fulfil the requirements. When I didn’t know the kapcsolatos információk material, I must confess, I used cheat sheets. Besides, I sometimes relied - iskolai hagyományok, iskolai élmények on other students and expected them to prompt. I had to wear a uniform - szervezett és önálló tanulás, egész at that school called cloak (gown). This school had five grades and there életen át tartó tanulás were extra courses called electives such as draw or music study circle, - iskolatípusok, vizsgák, értékelés, physical education. There were not compulsory sports, but we could osztályzás choose some sports like football in spring, basketball or volleyball in winter or table tennis anytime. Different schools’ teams competed against each other in championship tournaments. My mum made some sandwiches me for breakfast and fortunately, I could eat my lunch at my grandmother every weekday. Hungarian secondary schools fall into three categories: Secondary Grammar, Secondary Technical or Vocational Schools. I myself attended a Secondary Grammar School and I think these schools are very competitive in Hungary. Well, I applied for admission to one of the most known grammar schools in my hometown, where I spent five years. The school was named after a famous engineer called Bánki Donát. I took my school-leaving examination here. Our school building lay in the centre of the city. It was a big, whitecoloured, two-storey building with a large school yard and some trees around it. Both the library and the school buffet were in the basement where you could buy sandwiches, milk, cocoa, and the basic articles needed for school work such as books, notebooks, pens, pencils, rubbers and so on. Most classrooms were on the first and second floors while the headmaster’s office and the staff room were in a separate corridor on the ground floor. Our school had also got some special laboratories such as language, physics, chemistry, arts and craft labs. These labs were quite well equipped. In the language lab e.g. we had a television and cassette players with headphones and all the necessary dictionaries. We had also a computer room, where we could study computer techniques and programming. No uniform had to be worn at this school to be more precise it was not compulsory any more.  I liked having my friends. They were all very hard-working and most of them were bright, too. Our class was a good team and there was a good atmosphere. We often helped each other with the homework. Our teachers were satisfied with us and we all respected them. There were no unqualified teachers on the staff. They were all very competent and imparted a great deal of knowledge to us. If somebody lagged behind, the others helped him. We didn’t want anybody to drop out. Anyway, I had a few teachers who just yabbered on but nobody listened to them. They liked some students better than others and had their favourites in each class. We had two hours’ homework every afternoon and sometimes it took even longer because we had to learn poems from a Hungarian author or texts in a foreign language by heart. All of us were expected to specialise at the age of sixteen in order to concentrate on the subjects that we need for university entrance. Additional lessons were offered to us in the subjects that we opted for and they were usually the ones that we would need for our future career. You are of school-age while you are not eighteen in Hungary. If you are not there, you are marked absent in the attendance register and you will be given a warning later if your absence has not been excused e.g. by a doctor’s note. My favourite subjects were arts subjects. They came to me easily and I took pleasure in studying some of them. I especially liked history, grammar and perhaps literature, but most of my friends found them very difficult. Because they thought they were useless subjects. Maths was, in fact, the least popular subject in my class. I always hated it, because I have never had got sense of it. Physics was my weak point, too. I don’t even like to think of it. Although I tried to do my best in these subjects too, my efforts were not always crowded with success. Chemistry and music weren’t my cup of tea either. I was fairly energetic so I did a quite a lot of things in the afternoons. To tell you the truth, studying was quite a demanding activity for me. So as not to fail my exams, my parents set up maths lessons for me. I had to -8-

take private lessons twice a week. However, there were things I enjoyed. This was a gymnastics work-out four times a week, which I enjoyed very much. And I quite often had my friends over, played with the computer or just watched television. I didn’t like to overload myself; I liked to have time relax. I didn’t know what I would have liked to do when I left school. One thing was sure I would have liked to go on my studies. After leaving secondary high school (in the fourth year), I decided to go on with my studies and applied for the local technical school. I managed to pass the final exams and I didn’t get such bad grades after all. Having gone to the technical school, I enrolled for an intermediate-software-operator course. It took me if I remember well, nine months. But, in my humble opinion it was worth finishing it. After leaving the fifth year, I learnt a second trade in Veszprém called text and picture editor. Unfortunately, I couldn’t get a job where I was promised to be employed. Therefore, I went on my studies and became technical engineer assistant. Although, I have got three trades I’ve been working as a measuring technician for three years. Sort of schools: Pre-school education/crèche Kindergarten, nursery school Primary/elementary school Secondary/high school Secondary technical school Vocational school Academic grammar school Co-education school/mixed school Boarding school Approved school, Hostel

University of Technology University of Medicine University of Arts and Sciences Teacher Training College University of Economics Faculty of Arts/Natural Sciences/Law Academy of Fine Arts/Music/Applied Arts/Film and Theatrical Arts College of Finance and Accountancy Training College for Kindergarten Teachers

School traditions and experiences I was fond of class outings. There was a confidential-clerk in my class who was pointed/marked by our head-master. He had to collect the money from each classmate. We usually went to a trip in every year as usual in Hungary. We often visited famous museums, castles or churches. My elder cousins used to regularly go for gathering or vintage from their school. They were fetched by the school-bus and sometimes they got a little salary, too. In my time the repeated occasions were the carnival in February or school-balls and you could apply for the summer’s camp if you wanted to. However, I’ve never taken a part in a camp. During the year we commemorate all the public holidays and important events of Hungarian history with some productions prepared and performed by alternate classes. Every year in February or March there is a party organised in honour of the school leaving students. Both humorous skits and some serious programmes are performed by the third-year students and each school leaver is presented a blue ribbon marking the years they have spent in school. Then a big school ball is held, the greatest attraction of which are the ball-opening dances. In May the school leaving ceremonies continue and the fourth-year students wander around the school. The last phase of these ceremonies is the final party or school-leaving feast, which is always held after the final exams. Each form goes out to a nice restaurant with their teachers and they eat and drink to their hearts’ content to make the end of the school years memorable. In addition to it, on these days a serenade is held by the leaving students, which means they go for visit their teachers in their private flat or detached house and they are singing a kind song to say goodbye to him or her.



 For everyday wear I like sports jackets, a pair of corduroys, pure - barátok, ismerősök, iskolawoollen jumpers, cotton shirts with checked patterns. I like wearing baggy és munkatársak trousers or stretch jeans with a pair of sport or low-shoes. Blue jeans and denim - öltözködés, divat skirts are extremely popular nowadays. They can be worn with everything and for egyesületi everyday wear. They are durable, hard-wearing, washable and crease-resistant. In -ésösszejövetelek, klubélet, levelezés short they are practical for causal wear. A man usually can wear a vest, a pair of underpants, a shirt, trousers, - társasági élet perhaps a waistcoat, a tie and a jacket or a single- or double-breasted suit. On his - civil szervezetek feet he wears a pair of socks and low-heel shoes with rubber or leather soles. A - közbiztonság fashionably dressed man wears a purple, mustard yellow, dark green or royal blue suit with a brightly coloured patterned shirt and a tie. A woman wears a pair of panties, bras, a slip, a blouse, a skirt or a dress, or a suit, a pair of tights or stockings. A well-dressed woman always appears elegant. She is choosy about clothing and dresses in perfect taste. She usually wears a brightly-coloured suit with golden buttons and a white blouse. The skirt is mini and she looks charming and marvellous in it. She may also wear tight trousers which show off her figure well. Her dresses are always padded at the shoulders. She wears long ear-rings but has never much make-up on apart from her lipstick which is quite bright in colour.  I think fashion adds spice to life: colour, variety, beauty. Women must always be welldressed and follow fashions to please themselves and men. The world would be a dull place if people wore the same things. As for me I don’t care much about fashion. I always wear whatever I think is comfortable, practical and attractive. My family tries to keep pace with changing fashion (mostly my mum) but we don’t carry it to extremes. You know we are simple people with a medium income so we can’t afford to spend so much money on clothes. My mother has a good dress sense. Everything she wears invariably suits her. My grandmother is good at sewing and knitting pretty dresses, well-cut suits and fashionable pullovers. All clothes she makes for her grandchild are a perfect fit. However, it depends on the weather what I put on. In winter you must be careful not to catch cold. You must wear warm clothes and dress in layers. In cold weather people wear fur hats or thick, knitted hats and gloves, warm scarves and polo-necked sweaters, cotton stockings or trousers, winter boots and thick fur-lined overcoats. In summer, anyway, it is enough to put on a light dress with a low-cut neck or a T-shirt with shorts or breeches and a pair of low shoes or sandals. On the beach women wear a bathing suit or a bikini (sometimes a topless one) and perhaps a straw hat. Men wear swimming trunks. In autumn (fall), the best strategy for protecting yourself from the rain is to carry an umbrella with all the time. I don’t like this season, because it is the rainiest one. When the weather is colder, people put on a mackintosh or some other kind of waterproofs. It is important that you should wear water-resistant shoes or wellingtons as well because you can catch a cold easily if you step in the puddles in the street and get your feet wet.  Most towns and villages have clubs or community centres which cater for the cultural requirements of the population. They combine recreation and education and do a lot to help people to develop their talents. They provide entertainment, all sorts of facilities for amateur science and art activities, organise concerts, shows, theatrical performances and lectures on political, scientific and cultural topics. They regularly organise exhibitions of modern art and make efforts to enable museum visitors of every age to better understand the items on display. Most cultural centres have their own amateur art groups, folk ensembles, choirs or even orchestras who quite often give public performances or concerts. They run astronomy, photo and sewing circles as well as separate clubs for teenagers and pensioners. Most school institutes have a club, which is extremely popular with the student body. It is not only provides, such as video shows, concerts and discos, but a wide choice of amateur art activities like painting, sculpture, pottery, music, dancing and acting as well. Especially popular are the musical and theatrical groups. Those who like singing join the choir and those who have exceptionally fine voices and a good ear for music go - 10 -

in for solo singing. Those who make dancing a hobby have a choice of ballet, folk dancing or acrobatic rockand-roll. Most students seem to prefer theatricals. Some of their amateur productions have won the praise of professionals. The correspondence used to be a popular thing between the pals and students, but this habit totally changed. On these days you need to write a letter in a paper form in ink only if it is demanded e.g. official letters or profiles with your own hand to apply for a job or perhaps a few lines for your relatives. Nowadays people settle all their things on the Internet. The today’s letter is named an e-mail. There are a lot of e-mail programmes so as to help you to write your message easier. In addition to it, e.g. most firms supply only an email address where you can send your curriculum vitae. The most important difference and the biggest advantage is its quickness compare to the old form.  Civil organisations: I’m not a member of any civil organisations. In fact, I don’t know exactly what they are employed in. However, there are different kinds e.g. The Red Cross or the Maltese Cross Service where you can take your old fashionable clothes. They will give them to the poor people. Besides, language courses and computer studies are organized by them, too. In my opinion they usually arrange blood-givingweekends everywhere. It is a great idea because in that way you can help other people who are in need of blood. You feel only a small pinprick and you relax on a bed for a few minutes. Not to speak of the fact that you will be examined and it may be important for you. In the end you are rewarded with some goods such as a beer, a refreshing and a bar of chocolate so as to be able to regain your energy. Public safety: There are, at least one local police station in every town or village. Of course, there are more in bigger cities or in the capital. They deal with the public safety’s questions such as car stolen, damaging, and burglars or in fact, they should care about your safety in the streets in the evenings. They have to take drunken people into hospital or they help you if you have lost your way going home.

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 In fact, I don’t spend a lot of time on hobbies. At weekends I usually - a szabadidő eltöltése, like only relaxing and pursue some hobbies that are collecting music and szórakozási lehetőségek listening to the latest songs that I am interested in. Besides, I’m fond of - egyéni érdeklődés, hobbik watching and listening concerts on DVD. In these respects I take after my father a bit, because he has been a big collector since I knew him. I used to - színház, mozi, opera, koncert draw and used to pursue modelling when I was a child, but I gave it up - tévé (műsorfajták), újság, rádió because lack of the time. On these days in my spare time I like going on trips - olvasás: könyvtár, olvasmányok, to the nature with my family or sometimes reading English topics on the kedvenc könyve Internet. I don’t keep any pets as I live in a freehold flat and in my opinion their place is not there. Other people keep dogs, cats, hamsters, guinea-pigs, parrots or have big tanks with goldfish or terrapins in them. Although, both cooking and baking cakes are not my line, I seldom make my favourite meals such as a French salad, a Hungarian lecsó or a pizza. If you are a stay-at-home type, you can pursue a lot of hobbies that are typically home occupations. Some of them are only for women – I have never seen a man knitting, crocheting or sewing e.g. neither have I seen a woman hammering – others are for men, for instance do-it-yourself. Most of these hobbies, however, are unisex, that is, they suit both sexes. They are: collecting stamps, napkins, coins or even buttons; making soft toys, gifts; drawing, painting or writing poetry, modelling, mounting and developing photos, playing card games, chess or other party games or keeping pets. As far as I know keeping pets has always been an English hobby. If they can’t afford to keep a pet, they go bird-watching and this brings them a lot of enjoyment. Gardening is another common British hobby as well as taking photos, printing and enlarging them. The most popular outdoor games are football, golf and cricket. Hobbies indoor: painting, drawing, collecting, reading, playing card games, board games, chess, keeping pets, do-it yourself, sewing, knitting, cooking, learning languages, listening to records, doing embroidery, crossword puzzles Hobbies outdoor: fishing, angling, gardening, pot-holing, mountain climbing, hiking, doing sports, hunting  If you live in a big town you are a lucky chap from the point of view of entertainment possibilities. You have a rich choice of museums, exhibitions where you can see paintings, graphics, water-colours and sculptures. If you want to dine out or listen to folk or gypsy music there are several restaurants, pubs, night clubs which you can choose from. Theatre I’m not much of a theatre goer. In fact neither my time nor my money allows me to go to the theatre regularly. And, to tell you the truth, I am not really interested in it. I prefer watching TV or video films at home, or perhaps going to the cinema. If you stay at home, you don’t have to dress up, and this is a great advantage. Anyway, the play I saw last was a great one. I wasn’t disappointed, because it was a splendid adaptation of two famous lady’s life called Marlene Dietrich and Edit Piaf. The plot of the play was really gripping and rich in surprising returns. It held the attention of the audience from the beginning to the end. I can buy a theatre tickets at the booking-office. I like to sit in the boxes because they are quite near the stage and they are by far the most comfortable. I normally sit in the stalls, which are the seats on the ground floor. Over the boxes is the dress circle then follow the balconies and finally the gallery. As you enter the theatre there is usually a big foyer, where people can meet before the performance. The two main parts of a theatre are the stage and the auditorium. The hall is usually separated from the stage by the orchestra pit. A curtain, when lowered, covers the stage and during the performance footlights illuminate the stage. In a big theatre there are several cloakrooms where you can leave your hats and coats. Then you show your ticket to the usherette, who will offer you a programme and lead you down the aisle to your row and seat. While the beginning of the play, you can leaf the programme booklet from which you learn about the cast, the director, about the approximate plot of the play and perhaps the programme of the theatre for that season. Right before the performance the orchestra begins tuning up. Then the lights go out, the curtain rises and the play begins. A - 12 -

play usually consists of at least two acts, but sometimes there are three acts with two intervals in between them. During the interval you can go to the refreshment room where you can discuss the play over a nice drink. After then the bell rings for the next act. In the end of the play the curtain fall and the lights go up. The audiences usually applaud the company. Curtain call follows curtain call and the whole cast is given a standing ovation. Concert I quite like pop music although I wouldn’t call myself a fan. I gladly like listening to any music. At the beginning of this year we went to a 2-day concert was given by some well-known Scandinavian bands, in the Netherlands. Lots of guitar artists appeared there who celebrated the 48th guitar festival at Tilburg. There were some very young, ambitious bands who were very talented musicians with a fine technique. For example there was a little nine-year-old drummer. Everybody was very surprised at his ability. Anyway, the instrumental music lovers were really delighted including me, too. Their CD covers, labels were signed by the famous guitarists after the show. Cinema The usual cinema show consists of a feature film begun by a newsreel, lots of commercials and of course short films like trailers from the future films. The main film is usually cinemascope and dubbed. However, an undubbed film is very good for language learning. And if you master the given language you can even enjoy the films without looking at the subtitles. Low attendance at cinemas is due to several factors. On one hand the price of cinema tickets has been raised and it is not a cheap evening any more to go out to see a film; mostly if you would like to have a popcorn or a refreshment. On the other hand the cinema owners seem to forget that most families have video or DVD players at home and you can borrow all films from the videotheque. There are some different films like these: western, adventure film, thriller, horror film, sciencefiction fantasy, detective film, comedy, screen adaptation of a successful novel entitled e.g. Harry Potter. TV, radio  I usually switch on the TV in the evenings and read on the teletext channel the TV programmes for the day. There is usually quite a rich choice of programmes. To tell you the truth I like watching TV because it brings the world into your home and keeps you informed about what is happening around you. I especially enjoy Hungarian soap-operas and some programmes that show you famous people over the world. I never miss the half-past-seven o’clock news either. I also love witty and humorous cartoons like “Tom and Jerry” or “the Roadrunner”. Only one or maybe two Hungarian state channels used to be received at home, because there was no one who could have made a business from the broadcasting. Today, I don’t know exactly how many channels I can get on TV, but there are quite a lot. There are two well-known and popular commercial channels called RtlKlub and TV2. There is no great difference between them. They are financed by its advertisements so the programmes are interrupted for commercials, which I dislike. Besides we can also receive lots of different Hungarian channels such as my mum’s favourite TV Paprika or my dad’s much liked political channels, the old ones MTV1-2 and TV Danube, our local television programme, the satellite channels about sports and documentaries and of course some German or English ones. To be frank, there is only one thing that these programmes are good for and this is the language learning. I’m interested in historical films, adventure films and series. I also enjoy witty and exciting detective stories, particularly one of them titled Columbo. I like Peter Falk the star of Columbo because he can always find the murderer, although he always forgets everything that he needs. He is so funny with his old fashioned balloon coat or his broken down car and he always comes back to ask the suspect one more question even if the suspect thinks that he won’t any more. I can’t help watching the next part if it is on in a reasonable time on TV. I quite often watch video or cinema films and I’m a regular customer at the video hire shop. I enjoy perhaps crimes the most because they are usually very well done and give you a lot of excitement. I have never been disappointed by horror films, they are macabre or spine-chilling and I think somewhere at the back of their minds everybody longs for adventure and thrills or even fear. And these films are able to fill in this gap in our lives. Anyway, in my opinion it isn’t worth sitting in front of the telly, because your health could be damaged because of sitting there for so long and even you may become a couch potato. We begin the day by switching on the radio in my colleague’s car to listen to the time-signal, which is of great help when we are in hurry, the news broadcast and the weather forecast. We are listening to some kind of radio stations it depends on the persons in the office. Radio “Petőfi” used to have mainly a lot of light music programmes: pop, jazz, folk, rock or gypsy but it totally changed today. Perhaps radio ‘Kossuth’ has the most - 13 -

varied and serious programmes. It transmits running commentaries, radio plays, political and economic programmes, lectures, press reviews and even bedside stories for children. At my workplace all of us love musical broadcasts such as “Radio 1”, Radio “Danubius” or Radio “Sláger”.

Newspapers, libraries For each week all radio and television programmes are published in the Radio and TV Times. This weekly has quite a big circulation, bigger than most dailies. Daily papers are almost the same in appearance and lay-out. They all have a political section containing world and domestic news. The main news is usually placed on the first page right under the heading. Current events or topicalities may also be reported and commented on by the editor on the front page, usually with big headlines. The arts review and the science pages are usually in the middle of the paper followed by the fashion, gossip and travel columns while sports news is generally on one of the last pages. Apart from news, newspapers also contain many other features like advertisements, announcements of births, marriages and deaths, crossword puzzles, horoscopes, letter from readers, obituaries of famous people who have died, weather forecasts and classified advertisements, which may be personal or advertise jobs, houses or cars for sale. Just like many other countries, Hungary, too, has local and national papers. They are either serious or sensational. At present most of them are tabloids. There are also several periodicals coming out weekly, monthly and quarterly. Journals dealing with specialised subjects such as medicine, science, trade or education are usually published monthly or quarterly. The well-known Hungarian daily papers perhaps are “the Napló” and “the Népszabadság”. The popular tabloids are the Blikk or The Story Magazine and there is a journal with financial affair called HVG. Some serious British papers are The Times, The Guardian, The Sun or the Daily Mirror. I always skim through the whole paper first and choose the articles that at first sight seem to be interesting. The headlines are printed in block letters so they easily catch the eye. After scanning the paper I always start reading the sport pages first. Then I read the jobs or the political reviews and the internal affairs.  I can borrow books from a library. In fact, nowadays I don’t need to have a lot of books, therefore I quite rarely use the local lending library of which I am not a member at the moment, but my father is. Anyway, I used to be a member there when I was a student. At that time I was used to reading as we had to read all compulsory readings. To join a library you have to fill in a lending card. If you want to borrow a book, you write the author’s name, the title and ISBN number on the book card and the librarian puts down on your card the date when the book is due for return. Books are issued for three weeks, but can be renewed for another three. Only a limited number of books can be borrowed at a time. For overdue books fines are charged. There are a lot of books in a library that normally cannot be borrowed. They are mainly encyclopaedias, dictionaries and lexicons. You are allowed to work with them in the reading room, where you will also find newspapers and periodicals published in Hungary from the 1930s. I often go to the bookshops just to look around. But sometimes I can’t resist temptation and buy some languages books, maps or a magazine for my mother. Last time I bought two expensive dictionaries, but it was worth buying them, because I can use them in the future, too.

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 Fortunately I am in good health and I can’t remember the - testi és lelki egészség, egészséges time that I was last ill. I try to take care of myself; you know good health életmód above wealth the saying goes. Although, I sometimes crawl without socks - testápolás at home. Many people neglect their health and get a bad cold easily when - betegség megelőzése, a betegség the rainy weather sets in. kezelése, betegápolás When I was ill last time I had flu, strong headache and a sore throat. My nose was running and I was coughing and sneezing. I had a - orvosnál temperature of thirty-eight point five degrees. I also had a pain in my - gyógyszerek, gyógymódok chest. In Hungary, you must register in by phone to the GP (General - orvosi szolgáltatások, biztosítás Practitioner) before you get there. Then the assistant gets you an appointment. When the nurse shouted ‘next please’, I entered the surgery - dohányzás, alkohol-és drogfogyasztás room. The doctor told me to strip to the waist. He gave me a thorough - sport: sportolási lehetőségek, sportágak medical check-up. He/she began by feeling my pulse and looks at my tongue. As my temperature was quite high he looked at my throat and said - tömegsport és versenysport that it was badly inflamed. He also listened to my lungs, heart, breathing and took my blood pressure. After the through examination he diagnosed my illness and told me that I had all the symptoms of influenza. He sent me to the laboratory for a blood test and prescribed me some medicine (he made out a prescription) such as some anti-febrile to keep my fever down, some menthol drops for my nose and a mixture for my throat. I had to gargle every two hours. He told me I had to stay in bed for a few days and also told me to drink a lot of hot tea with lemon and keep warm. In the end I was put on the sick-list (the doctor made out a sickness certificate in my name for my company; health care benefit) and had to stay off work for a week. I went to the chemist’s where they made up the mixture and reminded me to shake it well before use. I also bought some pain-killers for my headache and took one pill three times a day after meals. I told my boss that I couldn’t work for a few days and he wished me a quick recovery. After following the doctor’s advice and taking the medicine in the prescribed way, I soon recovered from my illness.  In our climate, especially in autumn and late winter people often have health problems. They catch a cold or flu and those who don’t have enough resistance can contract pneumonia. Arthritis and rheumatism are also caused by cool and damp weather. The number of patients suffering from hay fever, allergies and respiratory problems such as bronchitis and asthma, is rising. Quinsy and appendicitis are very common with children as well as food poisoning and indigestion. A very upsetting tendency is that more and more people suffer from nervous breakdowns and have crack-ups due to the overwork and fatigue. In the most serious cases people end up in mental hospitals and never recover from their illness. Such diseases as the plague, cholera, small-pox, malaria, tuberculosis and many others were stamped out a long time ago. Children get vaccinations for small-pox and polio at a young age and are also given periodical medical check-ups at school. The diseases that seem to take the heaviest toll of human life are coronary heart diseases, circulatory disorders, cancer and the relatively new contagious AIDS, which spreads through sexual intercourse or blood transfusion. Being very widespread in Hungary, smoking affects a lot of people. It is very harmful for you health, especially for your circulatory system, throat, windpipes and lungs. Alcoholism is even worse because one you have become dependent on alcohol it is extremely difficult to give up drinking. And alcohol will slowly but surely ruin not only your health, but also your family’s lives. Fortunately, drug addicts are still few and far between in this country but the problem is already present. We must do everything to prevent a large number of youngsters getting affected by drug-taking. To keep in good health we should first of all no join the rat-race of modern life. We should avoid stress and tension and do some exercise every day. It is important to breathe a bit - 15 -

of fresh air and not to sit inside from morning till night. We should try to avoid fatty meat and animal fats so as not to be overweight. Remember the saying, ‘An apple a day keeps the doctor away’. Diseases: mumps, measles, chicken pox, whooping cough, dysentery, diarrhoea  I was in hospital when I was a child. I had my tonsils removed. I think this is a very common reason for an operation even in adulthood. Most people, however, are operated on for appendicitis. Sometimes an emergency operation is needed. Before the operation the surgeons and the nurses dress in green, wash their hands and put on masks. You are put on a stretcher and taken to the operating theatre where you get local or general anaesthetics. Fortunately, I have never broken any of my bones, but at once I sprained my knee and had to go hospital for an X-ray. If a young person’s bone is broken, it will set quickly but he will have to have it in plaster for a time, too. If it is his leg that is broken he will naturally have to go round on crutches until the plaster comes off. Once the plaster comes off, he will still have to rest it and walk as a little as possible.  Of course, not only should you visit the dentist when one of your teeth is aching but you should go for a regular check-up at least once a year. It is very important to brush your teeth at least three times a day particularly after meals to protect your denture or your mouth against getting worse or foul breath. After I’ve been comfortably seated in the dentist’s chair he asks me which tooth is troubling me. He makes me open my mouth and begins probing for cavities. When he finds one, he gives you an injection and reaches for the drill. After drilling I am allowed to rinse my mouth. The dentist then stops the cavity and asks me not to chew for an hour or two. If the aching tooth is too far gone the dentist will pull it out. Before the extraction he anaesthetises your nerves with an injection given in your gum so the pain that you actually feel is quite bearable.  In Hungary the whole system of health care is undergoing a change at present. The Health Minister was resigned. Besides, there are a lot of problems in the health care. A round fee has been introduced recently, but it was cancelled by a referendum. We had to pay three hundred forints to the GP and more fees for staying in hospital. The medical services are substantially financed by a state budget on one hand. However you pay a monthly contribution from your salary but you don’t pay for the actual treatment. Medical centres provide service free of charge but there are, of course, private practitioners and even some private policlinics that charge for visits. Everyone can choose their GP freely and go to the one whom they trust most. Surgeries are open four hours a day treating patients who are mobile. People on sick leave get seventy five percent of their salary. With some countries Hungary has an agreement and so when you are abroad as a tourist you don’t have to pay for health care or if you have to, the insurance company will pay it back to you. But you shouldn’t forget to take out a policy before the journey.  I am not particularly interested in sports and I’m not involved in any regular sports activity. In fact I like riding a bike, I can get somewhere really quickly and it contributes a lot to the healthy way of living, I think. Unfortunately, I can’t bring myself to do physical jerks every morning. I used to do some push-ups and I could do a few ones with one hand too, but nowadays I always fail after the fifth even with my two hands. I sometimes go swimming with my friends to the local swimming pool. Sport helps you to keep fit and preserve your health. Quite a few of my colleagues and friends are involved in regular sports activities. They mainly play ball games such as perhaps the well-known one football and handball for a team or only for hobby. We have a lot of opportunities to pursue sports in our town, you just have to be determined and find time for it. There are two green football-fields, a lot of smaller soccer grounds, a swimming pool, some tennis courts, a few fitnesswellness-clubs. We had two or three P.E. (Psychical Education) lessons a week at school, if I remember well. It was so pleasing to move your muscles after sitting for long hours at the school desk and going numb. When the weather was bad, we did some gymnastics in the gym, and if it was nice, however, we played outdoor games in the football field or run on the tracks around it. At the beginning of the lessons we always did some warming-up exercises. In international competitions there are six gymnastics exercises for men, and these are: high bars, parallel bars, rings, pommel-horse, vault and floor exercises. The four-exercises for women are vault, beam, uneven parallel bars and floor exercises again. Athletics includes all kinds of track and field events. The track events are running in different distances, hurdles, and steeple chase; the field events comprise hammer, discus, and javelin throwing as well as like pole vaulting, high jumping, long jumping or hop-skip-and-jump. The basic winter sports are skiing, including ski-jumping, slalom racing, downhill and cross country skiing, skating. I have never pursued winter sports, but there is a quite slippery steep slope not far from our place in the Parkerdő - 16 -

where we can toboggan freely in winter. I can’t skate or ski so all I can do is watch the competitions on TV. Slalom racing and ice dancing are my favourite. I love watching their great speed and swift movements. In fact all winter sports are spectacular. Aquatic sports include all sports done in or on water. Water-polo, high diving, diving, swimming, rowing, sailing, wind-surfing, water-skiing are all aquatic sports. There are different strokes in swimming e.g. breaststroke, crawl… The Olympic 2008: It is a big sport event that is held every four year. It will be held this summer, in Beijing, the capital of China. The competitors will be playing against each other in 28 branches, but some of them will be held in other towns. A lot of Hungarian admirers are said to travel to cheer. A sportsman can play much more if he is encouraged or hailed, I think. Hungarians are really good at swimming e.g. Gergő Kis or László Cseh is expected to win a few gold medals or at least to be on the foot-plate. Anyway, Gergő lives in Ajka thus we are very proud of him. In fact we used to excel at swimming because we had e.g. Krisztina Egerszegi and Tamás Darnyi who seemed to be by far the best all over the world both in the Olympic Games and the World Championship for years. They broke lots of records mostly they were unbeatable in backstroke and crawl stroke (freestyle) despite coming from our small country. We are also good at rowing, boxing, pentathlon and particularly men water-polo. In the Olympics we usually win at least two or three gold, silver or bronze medals. We used to excel in table tennis and football, but we aren’t quite good at them any more. I can’t wait to watch the events on telly, because they are really exciting and of course I adore win, too. Unfortunately, the games may be disturbed by the politics, because there were quite lot demonstrations because of the communism and around the torch. I am not much of a football fan because I think football is in a mess in Hungary. Besides, I say that it is better to watch football matches on telly because that way you can definitely avoid the occasional fights on the terraces. I go off it (lose interest in) when I watch on TV some fans breaking and crashing anything that get their way. After some matches shop windows near the grounds are smashed up and even the police are attacked by them. We should build more protective fences or barriers to stop fans fighting each other or others. Most Hungarian teams are extremely weak and whenever there is a championship they never get further than the qualifying heats. Other countries’ selected teams easily knock them out. Sometimes they manage to draw, but in the most cases they are defeated by two or more goals. Football: There are two teams, each consisting of ten players and a goalkeeper, who play each other on a pitch. No player, but the goalkeeper handle the ball, but heading is allowed. The forwards try to out-manoeuvre the opponents and get close enough to the goal kick the ball on it. If it happens, it means a goal and the team leads by one goal to nil (1:0). The game is governed by rules which must be strictly observed. A referee is assisted by two linesmen. The referee can award a free kick or a penalty if there is foul play. He may even send a player off the field for a grave offence. The team that scores more goals wins the match. The goal scorer, usually the top player, is feted as a hero. Classification of sports: Professional sports/amateur sports Outdoor/indoor sports Winter sports/summer sports Team sports/individual sports Water sports/athletics/ball games/ Enumeration: soccer, handball, basketball, volleyball, spinning, swimming, tennis, table tennis, track and field events, hurdles, steeple chase, javelin throwing, pole vaulting, slalom racing, cross-country skiing, bobsleighing, figure skating, aquatics, high diving, rowing, breaststroke, crawl (freestyle), butterfly stroke, backstroke, fencing, pentathlon, motor racing, hockey, floor exercises, parachuting, equestrian sports, weightlifting, wrestling, boxing, shooting and archery, chess Typical English Sports: cricket, rugby, soccer, golf, tennis, darts

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 I like window-shopping especially in a new shopping - vásárlás, különösen élelmiszer, ruha és centre, but I rarely waste time doing it. If I want to buy something, I’ll go háztartási cikkek vásárlása in the largest hypermarket and buy it. In my family every morning it is - vásárlási lehetőségek és tapasztalatok my dad who buys everything that we need such as bread or rolls, milk, some cold cuts and the basic food for supper and breakfast. He always - árak, a fizetés módjai buys different products for my grandmother mostly which are quite - különböző üzlettípusok heavy. Thus we don’t need to do week-end shopping as other families do. - vásárlási szokások, ajándékozás I prefer shopping in the nearest super/hypermarket because it sells almost everything that a family needs. There you can get almost - hirdetések, reklám everything under one roof. Almost all supermarkets are self-service - szolgáltatások: posta, telefon, bank, Internet, stores, which are really popular because you make your choice as you rendőrség, diplomáciai képviselet, autójavítás, please. Another advantage of supermarkets is that they have lower prices fodrász, tisztító, stb. than small shops. I suppose this is because bulk sale is cheaper. But - a szolgáltatások leírása, ezzel kapcsolatos sometimes they cut the price of certain goods so that people will come to tapasztalatok them. These hypermarkets are owned and run by rich investigators thus the bigger fish eat the little fish. People who are in favour of small shops argue that their needs are much better looked after in a small shop and that the assistants are more polite and attentive when serving them. Smaller shops are mainly privately owned and their number is growing from month to month. These shops are the baker’s, butcher’s, confectioner’s, fruiterer’s, greengrocer’s, grocer’s, fishmonger’s etc. They always have fresh products, the bread is never stale or dry, the milk is never sour, and the service is always fast and polite. Anyway, I warn everybody against doing their big shopping on Friday or Saturday because on these days the bigger shops are full of customers. On Saturdays’ mornings you always have to queue up in front of the counters as well as the pay desks. Everybody is in a hurry, both buyers and shop assistants are nervous and there are often a lot of irritating remarks. They have got plastic baskets for the fewer goods and wire trolleys for customers who want to buy a lot. Young mothers often use them to push their babies in. The goods are tidily arranged on trays and long shelves on which the various prices are clearly marked or the goods themselves are labelled.  The first counter to your right is the fruit and vegetable counter with its fresh fruits, mainly the ones in season and tangerines, oranges, bananas, pineapples, pruned fruits like figs and dates, tinned fruit, marmalade and lots of different kinds of vegetables. Next we come to the confectionery shelves with all sorts of sweets, chocolate bars, cakes, biscuits, fancy cakes, boxes of chocolates, candied peanuts and stuffed sweets. Then comes the bakery counter, which is always well stocked with fresh white wheat and brown rye bread, rolls, croissants, buns, rusks, etc. after that we come to the wine counter, where dry and sweet wines (common table or vintage wines) are sold. Then comes the dry groceries shelves, where you buy flour, cereals, tea, spices, rice sugar (lump, castor, granulated or brown). Everything is sold ready packed. Vegetable and sunflower oils are sold ready-bottled. There is also a big dairy counter with a large variety of dairy products: sweet or salted butter, margarine, eggs, hard and soft cheese, full-fat or skimmed milk, sour cream, sweet cream and fruit yoghurts. Next to this is the delicatessen and smoked meats and sausages counter. This counter sells ready-to-serve foods such as roast chicken, prepared meats, French salads etc. Here one is offered a variety of sausages, ham, bacon, rolled beef, smoked pork, salami and other cold cuts. There is a special hall, where they sell meat and poultry, lard and other animal fats and offal. A special counter handles packed meats. Meat is - 18 -

sold here ready-weighed and packed in cling film. There is a wide choice of fat and lean pork, beef, veal and minced meat not to mention semi-prepared, ready-to-fry and ready-to-serve meats. Before going shopping I take stock of our supplies then there is no need to run to the neighbour to borrow a bit of this or a little of that. After taking stock I draw up a shopping list and set out to do my shopping. I walk from shelf to shelf, filling my basket with the things I need. I have to think over what to buy because I can’t afford to buy all kinds of things I don’t need. After finishing shopping I go to the cash desk, where there is often a long queue. When it is my turn, the cashier adds up the bill on the cash register and gives me the receipt. I can pay today in cash, by credit card or with buying tickets. The easiest thing is to pay in cash, because paying with the buying tickets aren’t changed and if you pay by a credit card, make sure you know your pin-code and it is slower, too. The grand total is rounded whole. Then I pack the things I have bought into a shopping bag and leave the shop/supermarket. Meat is usually sold by the joint or slice, bread is by the loaf, flour, rice and salt by the packet, cream, yoghurt and milk by the carton, oil, juice, beer and wine by the bottle and you normally ask for a jar of jam or instant coffee, a tube of mustard or toothpaste, a packet of tea or cigarettes, a head of lettuce or cabbage, a bunch of grapes or bananas and a box of matches.  If an article, usually a durable consumer product, costs more than you can afford, you buy it on a hire-purchase. A majority of shops and stores offer facilities for credit buying. This means that you pay a cash deposit on the price of the article whether it is a car, a TV or a furniture, and pay the balance off in instalments over an agreed period of time. It is a widely used method of buying because it enables a lot of people to obtain things. The buyer signs a written agreement with the finance company which lends him the money at an agreed rate of interest. He is also asked to find someone to act as guarantor for the loan. The interest rates vary, but usually they are around 30 percent. The final price you pay depends on the size of initial cash deposit and the length of time over which payments are spread.  Other services: At the photographer’s you can have your photo taken and if it’s urgent, they will do it in a few minutes. The photos from your family or anything may be enlarged, developed or you can have snapshots printed, too. The watchmaker repairs or sets your watch if it is slow or fast and he also changes the battery if it is run down. The shoemaker does the shoe heels or soles, patches or sews the upper leather of your shoes if they want repairing. I go to the dry-cleaner’s if I want to have any stains removed or if I want any of my clothes dyed from one colour to another. I rarely go to the barber’s where I have a haircut, shampoo and shave. I like having my hair cut myself instead of the barber’s not to mention it’s free. I used to go to the hairdresser and had my hair done according to the dictates of fashion. If the clothes do not fit well or we want to have a new suit made, a tailor or a dressmaker is needed. Ready-to-wear suits often do not fit; the jacket may be a bit broad in the shoulders or the trousers too long. They must be taken in or let out, turned up or let down. When buttons have come off, they have to be sewn on. We take our car for its usual MOT (Ministry of Transport) to the local garage, where the car mechanic gives it a check-up and repairs any parts that don’t work properly. Our central department store in our town is a two-storey building where you can buy several thousand items of consumer goods. All the best-known products are usually in stock. On the ground floor you will find jewellery, haberdashery, sports articles, toys, perfumery, household goods and leather goods. The second floor is taken up by ready-made clothes for men and women and a nice assortment of underwear. You will also find coats for all season wear (fur coats, overcoats, waterproofs, raincoats) and footwear (boots, slippers, sandals, and high-heeled shoes) as well as textiles, drapery, millinery counters, cameras, musical records. If you would like to buy clothes first you should ask the shop assistant to show you some. She will show you some of pieces, which you can try on in the changing room. If it fits you then you buy it otherwise you can ask another one e.g. in a larger size.  The central post office in our town occupies a huge, old building. It has a lot of services e.g. it maintains connection with our relatives/friends living far away from us (drop a letter or a postcard); you can subscribe to newspapers or magazines; you can buy stamps, post-cards or envelopes; you can send money by money order or cheque; you can also post a parcel. These things have changed a lot recently, to be more precise they have become more simple and faster. In front of it you see public telephone boxes mainly for long-distance calls. To tell you the truth a few people use them, because today almost everybody has got a mobile phone (See further details below). When you enter the lobby there are some post-boxes where we can post our letters or postcards; we take it for granted that the postman will deliver it to the right place. On the right side there is a newspapers and magazines counter, - 19 -

which sells the latest issues of all dailies, weeklies, annuals. There is a sale of stamps counter, too where you can buy stamps, coins, postcards, letter writing paper and envelopes. When you enter the main hall you see rows of counters and bottom of them a sign or a topic, which helps you how to find the one you want. The first is marked parcel post, which handles all parcels and packages. There is a parcel balance where your parcel is weighed. You must fill in a parcel form before posting it. At all other counters you can send money by money order or cheque; take up money; post letters, telegrams, postcards; pay your rent or bills for gas, electricity, telephones. There is also a savings bank section, where you can keep a savings account or buy bonds. Packets and parcels can be sent by parcel post or if they are not too big, by letter post. Letter post is quicker. A letter can be registered or sent by recorded delivery, which means that the person who receives it must sign it. If a letter is urgent, you send it express or ‘air mail’ and pay a bit more for the postage. In Hungary we write the addressee’s name on the right-hand side of the envelope in the middle. Right underneath we write the town, street and house number. In the bottom right-hand corner we write the postal code of the town or village the addressee lives in. The sender’s name and address go in the left-hand corner of the envelope. Nowadays people send letters less and less in a normal form than before, because a new technique was born. It’s called ‘e-mail’ and sent on the internet by electronic form. It is quite similar to its forefather, but it is quicker and more modern. You can create a free e-mail address; you only have to register on the suitable website. There is a window where you can write the subject of the letter, the addressee’s e-mail address or and there is a copy box where you can pick a name of your friend hereby he’ll receives ‘a copy’ from it; you can add some files that you want to send and of course there is more space for the text itself. This service has been quite widespread because most companies and households have got personal computers with Internet connection.  Phone: We are on the phone at home. It has been installed for years and since then it has been much easier for us to sort out things. Our telephone hasn’t, but most of them have an answer-phone system, which if we aren’t at home would automatically answer telephone calls and record any message (which is) left by the caller. In my opinion telephone is a marvellous invention. Traditional telephoning: If you want to make a telephone call, first step is to pick up the receiver and wait for the dialling tone. Then you insert a twenty-forint coin into the slot and begin dialling the number. If you are calling a place in the same area you just dial the number, but if it is in another area you dial first the code for that area. Then when you hear a sort of musical sound you dial the particular number. For these longdistance calls the charge is usually higher. A high tone buzzing means the line is engaged. I hang up and my coin is returned. Then I try again. If you are hearing a pay tone of rapid pips, it means you have to insert more money otherwise they will get cut off and you can start the operation all over again. If you have misdialled, you have to apologise and say ‘sorry, wrong number’. If the number is unobtainable, it means that you must have dialled no the correct number and a machine tells you ‘the dialled number is not in use’. When you have been put through you hold on till somebody at the other end of the line answers the phone. He will say ‘Hallo, this is Mr. X speaking’. Then you can give your name and actually your connection is come off (or you say who you would like to talk to). As the matter of fact, it is an old-fashioned process to make a phone call in a telephone box. Nowadays most people have got a mobile phone (moving/portable phone; cell phone), which maintains connections you almost anywhere. These receivers are bought in different sizes and there are three big suppliers in Hungary from which you can choose. On one hand you can be a subscriber and then you have to pay your bill monthly or on the other hand you can be a post-paid costumer. The procedure of the answering itself is almost the same as the old method but of course a coin isn’t needed. However, there is one thing that can cause a problem when you are in such a place where there is no reception.  Internet: The word itself is widespread all over the world. It means ‘network of networks’ and it is a spacious system, which contains lots of computer-networks. In fact, you can send files to anywhere with its help, there are a lot of computer needed operations like sending e-mails, downloading files, buying things with credit card and mostly it delivers lots of information if you are ‘surfing on the net’. There are some internet browsers which must be installed on your PC and then you can type a web-site address that you want to see.

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 People often travel on business, for pleasure, for - utazási formák: üzleti út és turistaút, relaxation or even for education or for their health. I love it too, but the egyéni és szervezett utazás snag is that I can’t afford to travel as much as I’d like to. I’ve neither the - utazás autóval, vonattal, hajóval és money nor the time for it. But I usually go for a trip/journey at least once repülővel, ezek használata üzleti út és a year in summer. In a package tour you travel with others and follow a nyaralás során prearranged itinerary covering all the famous landmarks. You pay a - szálláslehetőségek, kemping single, all-inclusive price that covers everything such as transportation, - utazási irodai szolgáltatások meals, accommodation, sightseeing tours and guides. With independent travel you pay as you go and during the journey you can change your - utazási élmények mind if you want to. But you can go in a travel agency and ask them to - a külföldi tartózkodással kapcsolatos give you cost estimates and secure reservation for you. It used to be long tudnivalók time ago. Nowadays people who have Internet they manage all services and goods of the journey on the net. Lots of travel agencies advertise themselves on different web-sites. You can browse among the pictures of the accommodation; you can read some details about them and of course their prices are shown for a night. You can book a room in a hotel or in an apartman and you can pay a deposit, too. I prefer individual travel to group travel. If you go on a package, you have to be adaptable, you have no time to look at everything you are interested in and the worst thing is when you have a bad guide. He can spoil all your holiday. I can be my own master, depend on nobody and can always do what I like. Although, package tours have some advantages too: everything is arranged for you by travel agency from the necessary documents to hotel reservations. And it doesn’t seem to be very romantic to arrive in a strange town at night with no idea where to go. I plan my holiday well in advance and make a lot of arrangements. First of all I decide where to go. Fortunately, we have unlimited possibilities to go practically anywhere in the world only you need have enough foreign currency. It is enough to have a valid passport if you want to travel abroad. Passports expire from time to time and people have to extend them or apply for a new one. Your passport entitles you to go any country in the world without restrictions. As our country is a member of European Union, today you don’t have to have your passport to step the borders at least your new type of identity card may be needed. You don’t need a visa in none of the countries of Europe but it is needed to the USA or Australia now yet. You need to have some foreign currency though, which you can get at a money changer, a bank or a travel agency. The exchange rate is always changes for the forint’s value. The things that you need for a holiday are always determined by the length, the time and the type of the holiday. The general rule is that you should try to travel light and take the fewest possible clothes with you. You must also pack your toilet goods in and don’t forget about your camera either, provided you have one. Customs officials examine the luggage of out-going and in-going travellers. You may be asked to produce all the articles which you are bringing in with you. You must truthfully answer any questions put to you by the Customs officer. There are goods liable to duty and you have to pay taxes on them. If you have nothing to declare you tell the officer about it or if you are at the airport you simply go through the green channel. If you have dutiable goods, you go to the red channel and declare them. Most of personal belongings are exempt from duty. You must pay duty on a large amount of spirits, tobacco, coffee, on electrical appliances etc. If you try to smuggle and then a dutiable article is found in your baggage, you have to pay a fine and your article may be confiscated. - 21 -

 If you like sleeping in a tent in the open air then camping is the most ideal way of spending your holiday. Apart from hot showers most camping sites offer other facilities like flush toilets, drinking water, cooking areas, guarded parking places, electricity, bungalows, restaurants, bathing and fishing facilities and sports grounds. It is so exciting to arrive at a camp-site and pitch your tent wherever you want or park your caravan. Furthermore you can cook your supper over the camping gas fire and you are close to the nature all the time. You can enjoy absolute freedom and have none of the headaches of advance hotel booking. For a ludicrously small sum you can enjoy a comfort. Camp-sites are usually situated beside clear streams, in green valleys between high mountains, by a lake or pond, or at the seaside. All of outdoor sports are available including water sports and hiking. Foreigners in Hungary can stay in well equipped, modern camping-sites all around Lake Balaton in guest-houses, motels or hotels. The most popular form of accommodation in the Balaton region is renting private rooms or flats for a certain period of time. There are a lot of people letting their houses to foreigners in summer. In Budapest, there are a lot of nice first-class hotels where people from abroad can spend some pleasant and comfortable nights. You can book a hotel room on the phone or you might as well book on the internet. If they have vacancies or they are not all booked up, they can usually offer you a choice of single/double rooms or suites, rooms with or without showers. While booking, you have to make sure what room you want to take. It can be faced to the main street or it can be on the ground floor/top floor. Besides you have to decide whether you want a breakfast or full board or not. When you have arrived at the hotel you go up to the reception desk and show your passport or I.D. to the receptionist. It can quite easily happen that he isn’t at the desk. In such a case you can ring the bell. He will fill in a registration slip for you and write your name in the hotel register. If you haven’t done it previously, it is good to ask him about the price of the room per night and what meals and facilities this price includes. Then the reception clerk will give you your key (ticket for the room) and the porter will show you to your room and he’ll also take up your luggage (hotel valet). When you decide to leave, you give your key to the receptionist, check out and settle your bill.  Train/rail: I hardly ever travel by train, perhaps once in a blue moon. However, I like travelling by rail because it’s very comfortable and quick. Besides it’s an excellent way to get to see the countryside too. And although the trains don’t always leave and arrive on the dot, they are usually punctual. Tickets can be purchased from railway stations and travel agencies. If you go on a day trip it is better to buy a return ticket than a single one as you pay less and you don’t have to worry about buying another ticket for your journey back. Children under the age of 14 get some reduction, you just have to ask for a special children’s ticket at the booking office. I think that the railway today still carries the bulk of passenger traffic. There are a lot of commuters who can’t afford to use their cars every day so they choose to travel by train. Others choose the railway because in a train they always have enough space to move about, and they can be absolutely relaxed and calm on a train. In Hungary you have the choice of following kinds of trains: express trains, fast and slow passenger trains. Express trains are usually through trains while slow passengers trains stop at every single station. You have to make a seat reservation for express trains, but not for fast or slow passenger trains. In the hall, in front of the booking offices there are long queues of people buying tickets. Some of them are already nervous because they are afraid of missing their trains. Others are waiting patiently for their trains to be announced over the loudspeakers. Unfortunately, there is a growing number of homeless people who find shelter in the waiting rooms of railway stations. Having bought a cheap fare, I go to the platform where I’m waiting for the train. You mustn’t step over a yellow painted line because it is dangerous. Inside the first-class carriages you can find very comfortable upholstered seats while in a second-class car the compartments are less comfortable and the seats are covered with fake leather. That’s why the latter one is cheaper. In each compartment there are luggage racks over the seats where you can put your trunks, holdalls or suitcases. I like sitting facing the engine as opposed to sitting back to the engine. I always choose a non-smoking compartment and preferably a seat by the window. During the journey an inspector can come to clip every passenger’s ticket. Without having a ticket you’ll possibly be fined by the ticket inspector on the train. You can go to the corridor and look at the beautiful scenery. There are some people who are smoking; others are trying to get past them while they go away to be more precise people are coming to and fro. If it is not a direct train you have to change to get your real destination. Apart from passengers, trains also carry goods of many different kinds. Railway transport is still one of the cheapest ways of carrying freight over long distances. For example milk, coal, cars and many other things are transported by loaded containers. Most railway accidents happen at level crossings where there are no - 22 -

crossing gates and inattentive drivers go across the track without checking if the signal is red or white. Sometimes trains go off the track it can cause delays or even casualties. Types of trains: slow train/passenger train/fast train through train/direct train/non-stop express freight train/goods train  Air(port): Air travel is definitely the quickest way of transport. Air travel does save time. I have flown once or twice in my life and the mere feeling of flying was really a memorable experience for me. I wish I could fly more often. I enjoyed travelling in a jet because it was so nice to be above the clouds, not to mention clear weather when you could see everything underneath and everybody tried to look through the window and drunk in the sights. MALÉV, the Hungarian Airlines operate flights to all important cities abroad all the year around. Some internal flights have been started recently which enable you to get to another town within Hungary in the shortest possible time. Before boarding the plane the passengers must register at the check-in counter. While checking in your luggage is weighed and the attendant attaches a special tag to it to prevent it from getting lost or misplaced. If you exceed the baggage allowance you will have to pay an excess fare. After the officer has checked your passport you go to the departure lounge where you usually have to wait for some time before your plane is due to take off. It is wise to check the flight list on the TV screens to see if your flight is going to be delayed or not. Departures, calls for flights, delays, cancellations or changes are also announced over loudspeakers. When your flight is announced you go to the right gate and boarding begins. Stewardesses greet you on the board the plane. You show your boarding card to them and take your seat. They help everyone to put the hand-luggage into the luggage-compartment, to sit comfortably in the reclining seats and to adjust the safety belts. Statistics show that air travel is safer than any other way of travelling. Air crashes are rarer than serious accidents on the railways not to mention roads. The cockpit is full of modern navigational equipment and the landing and take-off are controlled by computers.  Ship: I’ve travelled by ship several times on Lake Balaton, but most of these trips were pleasure cruises. After we had bought the tickets we went to the pier and saw the ship entering the harbour. Then it dropped anchor, we went on the board and the ship started. You can enjoy the sight of the calm, green water and the white sailing boats on it as well as the pleasant view of the surrounding hills and villages. In Hungary you can also take one of the passenger boats which ply our big rivers or the ferries that cross them regularly. From May to September there is a daily boat service on the Danube between Budapest Vienna, which takes about five hours. On Lake Balaton a daily ferry run from Balatonfüred to Siófok every day. (Tihany-Fonyód?) Big ocean liners are like real floating cities with all modern conveniences. They can transport several thousand passengers. The cabins are above and below deck. A cabin looks very much like a compartment of a railway sleeping car. All cabins have portholes. In stormy weather many passengers feel seasick when the stern dips down and the bow goes up. In case of emergency like running aground, hitting an iceberg or sinking, on board a ship are available life-boats, life-belts, buoys and other safety devices. When the ship approaches its destination, it slowly slips into the harbour and the passengers disembark. Types of watercraft: sailing ship, barge, trawler, yacht, kayak, tanker, submarine, ferry, ocean liner, raft, paddleboat, rubber boat Coach, bus: Hungary has quite an extensive inter-city coach network reaching into all parts of the country. The vehicles are comfortable and the service is reasonably rapid. Prices are on a par with those for first-class rail travel. Most coaches are operated by a company called Volán, but the number of privately run coaches is gradually increasing. At present they are mainly hired for school trips or package tours. Unfortunately, they are often on a strike in fact because they can. They demand to rise their salary if not they don’t transport the passengers.

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 In Hungary in most houses the meals are breakfast, lunch and supper. Hungarian breakfast consists of milk or tea, some cold meals with a - étkezési szokások slice of bread spreading butter or rolls, different jams, honey and toast. - étterem és más vendéglátóhelyek In an English home four meals are served: they are breakfast, lunch, tea and the most important meal of the day is the dinner. English breakfast - egészséges étkezés consists of cornflakes, ham and eggs (boiled and fried) with tomato or - egy-két étel elkészítése mushrooms, buttered toast or bread and butter with marmalade and fish may - otthoni vendéglátás, meghívás be served. Some orange juice is drunk before breakfast and tea or coffee is - a magyar konyha jellegzetességei drunk after it. MEALS IN HUNGARY MEALS IN ENGLAND - to have breakfast - to drink early morning tea - to take one’s elevenses - to eat a substantial breakfast - to have lunch at work/at home - to have a snack for lunch - to have a cold meal for supper - to have a big dinner I usually have no breakfast at home except at weekends because I have it with my colleagues at my work. I eat some sandwiches which I have made previously or I sometimes buy a ‘cocoa snail’. I usually eat some cold cuts with rolls, green pepper or tomato and drink cold milk. Some people just eat an apple or a banana or drink a cup of tea/coffee. At weekends we have a more relaxed breakfast; we often eat ham and eggs or gypsy toast. To make a tea (for more persons) I put the kettle under the tap and fill it up with water. Then I put it on the electric cooker (or in the microwave oven) and bring the water to boil. When the water is boiling I put the teabags into it. I leave them to brew for some minutes then I take them out. I serve it with sugar and lemon. To make sandwiches I cut a loaf of bread into slices and spread some butter or marge over them. I make hardboiled eggs, cut them up and put them on the bread together with some slices of salami or cold sausages. Finally I grate some cheese and sprinkle it over the bread slices. For decoration I use paprika paste or mustard. Lunch is the second meal of the day and people have it between twelve and half past two depending on the time of the lunch break at work. It is usually a heavy meal and most working people have it in a self-service restaurant or in the canteen of their factory. There we join to the queue. After taking a tray, the cutlery, some paper serviettes and a plastic glass we choose what we want to have. Naturally, canteen food isn’t in the same street as what your (grand) mother/wife cooks at home, but I’m not particularly choosy or fastidious about what I eat. I eat everything that is delicious and well-cooked and I don’t have particularly sweet tooth. Lunch consists of three courses: first comes some soup (clear, vegetable, meat, pea, bean or fruit soup). I generally take fruit soup, because this is my favourite. The second course is either some meat (a pork chop, some poultry or fish, usually tuna or heck) with garnish (mashed potatoes, chips or rice) or some vegetable dish made from green peas, French beans, marrow, spinach or sorrel. Cabbage is also popular prepared as cabbage with tomatoes or stuffed cabbage. The second course may also be some noodles, pancakes, strudel (filled with fruit, cottage cheese, cabbage or poppy-seed), scones or doughnuts. The third course is always some cake or depending on the season of the year fresh or stewed fruit. - 24 -

The Hungarians take great pride (are proud of) in their fish dishes, made from the delicate pike-perch caught in Lake Balaton and the many varieties that abound in the Danube or in the smaller ponds. The Fish soup is a meal itself. I think Hungarian cuisine has a good reputation and the foreigners who come here find our dishes very tasty and luscious. Hungarian Goulash e.g. is world famous but there are many other lesserknown specialities. Among the most popular national dishes are paprika chicken with sour cream, stuffed cabbage, noodles with poppy-seed and sugar/cabbage or roasted paprika potatoes. Our national dish is noodles with cottage cheese, sour cream and scraps of roasted bacon. We are also fond of different soups; we are a soupeating nation. Both the ‘beans soup of Jókai’ and ‘Újházi chicken broth’ are the most famous soup in Hungary. A typical Hungarian lunch is unimaginable without soup. We must mention ‘pancake Hortobágyi style’ and a pudding called ‘floating islands’ yet. I lay the table as I sometimes do for a Sunday lunch. I spread a nice white cloth over the dining table and put a vase with flowers in the middle. I put out the dinner plates first, then the soup plates. The knife and spoon go on the right-hand side, the napkin and the fork on the left. I put the side plates, goblets, glasses and dessert spoons in front of the plates. Finally I try not to forget about the saltcellar, the pepper pot and the toothpicks either. FEW RECIPES How to make the “Hungarian lecsó (Stewed peppers and tomatoes with sausage)” Ingredients: - Red pepper 1 pinch - Salt 2 teaspoon - Onions 300g - Sausage 300g - Green peppers 1kg - Tomatoes ½ kg - Oil - rice Simmer diced onions in oil and add the cleaned peppers sliced in ringlets. Let them sauté for 5mn. Under covered lid at a low heat. Now add sausage slices, peeled and diced tomatoes and spices. Heat it at a medium range for a half hour. Prepare rice in the meantime and serve together with the “lecsó”. How to make “rakott krumpli” Ingredients: - 6 eggs : - Cooking oil - 2kg potato - red pepper - sausage - sour cream - salt - Red pepper/paprika - pepper Cook the potatoes and the eggs then peel them. Then you have to make a sauce by the following steps: cut onions and simmer them in oil, add a bit red pepper to it, pour into it a carton of sour cream and stir it while boiling. Having sliced the eggs and the potatoes, you put them into a Pyrex dish/bowl (or a roasting/baking dish/tin) by making layers. Meanwhile sprinkle with salt and season with pepper. Cook while it is red.  To eat out means to have a meal in a restaurant. If you want to dine out you have the choice of going to a first-, second-, or third-class restaurant, a self-service restaurant or in summer to an open-air restaurant. People choose the self-service system if they are in a hurry and they want to have a quick meal. You go into the restaurant and choose the dish you want to eat from the list (which is) hanging on the wall. Then you pick up a tray, knife, fork, spoon and queue at the counter where the food is on display. You pick out what you want and put it on your tray, which you have to push along a special rack till you reach the cashier. The cashier will give you the bill. After paying you take your tray to any table you like. You can sit alone or with another - 25 -

customer. Furthermore advantages are that you can have a hot meal in few minutes and you never buy a pig in a poke. The only disadvantage is that you may not always find a free table. If people have time and money, they go to a first-class restaurant. When you enter a restaurant, first you have to leave your coats in the cloakroom. After that you enter the dining-room and either look for an empty table yourself or the headwaiter shows you to one. Some people reserve tables in advance, otherwise they may not always have luck in finding a free table. You sit down at the table and ask the waiter for the menu. If you decide to dine a la carte, you go through the menu and give the order to the waiter. Sometimes you ask the waiter what he can recommend you. Some restaurants have certain special dishes which can’t be eaten at other places. As most dishes have a fancy name you sometimes ask the waiter what that dish includes. Paying for your dinner at a restaurant in Hungary is not always very simple. You have to make a sign to the waiter and let him know that you’d like to ask for the bill. He comes immediately and you can pay. You usually give the waiter a tip or leave it on the table. It is usually ten or fifteen per cent of the grand total. I love eating in restaurant because the atmosphere is so intimate/familiar there and a soft music is sounding at the background not to mention you are served. But I rarely go to restaurant unless there is an occasion. We often go to a café or a pizzeria where we go Dutch.  Most people in Hungary eat more than necessary. Our calorie intake is about double the amount we actually need. People eat a lot of carbo-hydrates in food like bread, cakes and sugar, which are very fattening. I think we also eat more meat and protein than necessary, especially fatty meats (which) are favoured by most Hungarians. That is why there are so many fat people among us. A healthy diet should contain at least the same amount of fibre as fat. It should also contain the major nutrients, such as vitamins, protein, calories or iron. It should be high in vegetables and grains, with modest amount of meat. I would say: eat when you are hungry, but don’t force the food down when you are not. I have never been on a slimming diet because I’m on the skinny side. I don’t easily put on weight even if I eat a lot. I think we are so wasteful while in some parts of the world there are millions of people (who are) suffering from malnutrition. I get very upset when I see people wasting food (e.g. throw any bread into the dustbin).  Last year I took one of my cousins to a good restaurant. She was wined and dined at my expense. We sat down at the corner and the waiter brought us the menu immediately. We both felt like some orange juice and apricot brandy first. Then we began to study the menu more closely. It contained a wide range of appetizers (hors-d’ oeuvres), that is: cold appetizers, soups, vegetables, meat dishes, salads, desserts, cheese, fruit and drinks. The waiter came up to our table and inquired what we would like to order. To start with I ordered fried cheese and a chicken soup ‘richly’ for her. I ordered slices of turkey with mushroom spreading whipped cream and rice as the main course for me and the other one was tenderloin steak with jacket potato. While waiting for the meal we were sipping our apricot brandy. Having had our supper, we drunk a full-bodied Hungarian wine from Badacsony. When it was the time for the sweet course we could hardly move. In the end we wanted to have a soft dessert like ice-cream and finished a glass of refreshment. We sat talking for a while then I called the waiter and settled the bill. I told him to keep the change. We left the restaurant with the enjoyable feeling that we had had a very good meal.

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 I came here by car as I live in Ajka about thirty kilometres from - helyi és távolsági közlekedés leírása (megközelítési lehetőségek) here. If we hadn’t got a car, I must have taken the early morning coach to get here in time. Although it is not very cheap, I like driving. A car is always quick - közlekedési eszközök and comfortable. The traffic was not particularly heavy on the motorway and (tömegközlekedés, autó, kerékpár, nothing out of the ordinary happened. I managed to park the car in the car park egyéb) across the road. The whole journey from my home to here didn’t take more - autótartás than half an hour. - jogosítvány  In most big cities people have a wide choice of esélyegyenlőség a közlekedésben vehicles as public transport services consist of buses, trams, suburban trains, -(idősek, kisgyerekkel közlekedők, the underground system and perhaps trolley buses. Day by day the inhabitants gyerekek, mozgássérültek) have to travel long distances to and from work and school and most of them - közlekedési szabályok, közlekedési use the public transport network. In addition to the inhabitants lots of people morál (autóvezetők és gyalogosok, utazók, motorosok, commute and go to work in big cities and thus public transport has to handle járműveken kerékpárosok) an enormous number of passengers. I sometimes cannot avoid going to the közlekedési gondok, capital and I prefer using the public transport services to driving because of the -közlekedésfejlesztés heavy traffic. Perhaps the taxi is the most comfortable, but also the most expensive means of transport. The yellow tram is the cheapest and generally - közlekedésbiztonság the slowest, but also the most frequent vehicle after the underground. It works by electricity and has a pair of fixed rails and electric wires so it doesn’t pollute the air as much as buses do. The trolley bus is a mixture of trams and buses; it has rubber tyres but runs on electricity. The underground railway is definitely the quickest means of transport as it goes under the ground so it never gets into traffic jams. It runs every other minute. Every vehicle stops at determined distances. If you want to get off you signal to the driver by pushing a button (except the underground railway, the tram), which is nearest to you and the bus comes to a halt at the next stop. Stops are marked with signs of different colours for different types of vehicles. Trams usually run in the middle of the road so at the tram stops there are special islands for pedestrians. Before getting on a vehicle we have to take care for our tickets because of the no-conductor system. Tickets for buses, trams and the underground are on sale at termini, major news-stands, tobacconist’s, shops and post offices, but not on board the vehicles themselves. Tickets for suburban trains must be purchased at the railway stations. Fares for suburban trains vary according to the distance. Other vehicles charge a flat rate for a ticket. Ticket prices have gone up so many times recently thus one cannot really follow these changes in prices. You perhaps had better buy a season/monthly ticket. It is valid from the first of the month till the fifth of the next month. You put the ticket in a machine, pull the handle and your ticket will be punched. You have to keep your ticket while travelling as inspectors make occasional spot-checks on tickets and you can expect quite a hefty fine if yours isn’t in order. If you are a fare dodger, the ticket inspector may fine you to several thousand - 27 -

forints. The taxi or the car is perhaps the most convenient way of travelling in a town. Cars are waiting at taxi ranks and can be called on the street or by telephone. They are quite expensive, though, so people only use them when they are in an unknown town and don’t know how to get about it, or when they have a lot of luggage to carry or even when they go out somewhere in the evening and don’t want to drive. The fare is recorded on a meter, which a passenger can see from his seat. The best point about cycling to work or school is that it is cheap. It also helps you to keep fit unless there is too much smog to breathe in on the way. It can be quite quick because it doesn’t need much space for overtaking; there can be no problems with parking either. You will definitely not get a parking ticket if it is parked in the wrong place. The worst thing about cycling is that you are in danger if you ride the bicycle in the busy place. It doesn’t protect you from bad weather either. What’s more if you don’t lock it properly, it can easily be stolen. cycling lane – biciklizár , to lock-lezárni  In Hungary you can get a driving licence from the age of 18, but before you get it you first have to pass a theoretical test and a practical one. In the theoretical part you are asked about the rules of the Highway Code and if you pass this test you are allowed to attempt driving with the examiner sitting next to you. First you take a “routine exam mixed with a technical exam” including U-turns, three-point turns, reserving into a narrow space and other manoeuvres and you certainly have to show the examiner that you know the car’s technical side such as changing fuses or any wheel, oil level checking or lights test etc. Then comes the next test called “driving in or around the town”. Between the previous ones you are expected to take a health theoretical exam too. You will still need a health certificate to testify that there is nothing wrong with your health that hinders you from driving. Anyway, people don’t often pass the first time.  We have got a Suzuki Ignis, which we bought a brand-new style two years ago. It was worth buying it because it is swift, economical and comfortable. Its only one disadvantage is its a bit high petrol consumption. The interior space is more than enough for four people. It does not have much luggage space though unless you remove the rear seats. When we bought it, we were happy to see that the body is new and it had got 0 km. We like it because it is silent, has a good acceleration and has never let us down. A car virtually consists of two basic parts; the wheels and the body. Under the bonnet are the parts that basically move the car: the engine, the cylinders, the carburettor, the shafts, the battery, the spark plugs and the petrol tank. The things that the driver has to manipulate while driving are the clutch, accelerator and brake pedals, the handbrake and the steering wheel. The speedometer and the different indicator lights are on the dashboard. What you can see on a car from the outside are the headlights, the registration number on the number-plate, the windscreens with wipers, the bumpers, the rear view mirror, the boot, the mudguard and the rear indicator lights. Under the car are the chassis and the exhaust pipe. The starting of the car: when I get into our car I first put the ignition key into the keyhole and I turn it by switching on the ignition. Then I push down the clutch pedal and turn the key while starting the engine. Then I put the gear lever into first gear. (Then if the handbrake was pulled in I take off it). I let out the clutch pedal slowly while pushing down the accelerator pedal and thus the car moves off. An MOT test is a compulsory test on cars done at determined intervals over a certain age. It is important to have your car MOT-ed regularly, because it may turn out to be unfit for driving. In that case it endangers both your and other motorists’ lives. The most frequent types of driving offences are: improper parking, reckless switching between traffic lanes and driving through the red lights. Unfortunately these drivers aren’t always fined as traffic wardens cannot be present everywhere. So in most cases offending drivers get away without a fine and sometimes they are just let off with a caution. In fact it hasn’t been true recently because of the “0-tolerance“.  The problem of modern traffic is caused by a lot of different factors. The most acute is perhaps the constant congestion on the roads, traffic islands, pavements and in the vehicles themselves. Urban areas are beginning to get choked and traffic has slowed down immensely. Because of the large number of cars pouring onto roads travelling about towns has become very difficult, and the environment has become more polluted. Public transport has deteriorated and the roads are also in an awful state of repair. The general view now is that the roads as well as public transport need to be improved and not allowed to deteriorate further. Ring roads have been built around larger towns to prevent city centres from seizing up entirely. Heavy goods vehicles have been banned out of Budapest even the use of cars is restricted to prevent constant traffic jams and pollution. Greater use of one-way streets and computer-controlled sets of traffic lights may also help the traffic flow. Several pedestrian subways and vehicle underpasses are being built at crossings. - 28 -

There is a high number of road accidents in this country, but fortunately they don’t all end with deaths. In most cases they result in bodily injuries. I think drivers, pedestrians and road conditions can be blamed for this. Drivers who drive too fast and without any consideration for others, and the ones who think they are safe at the wheel even though they have drunk too much. Pedestrians, who step off the pavement without first looking to the left or right, cross the roads when the traffic lights are against them or those who jump off moving vehicles. In most places and especially at busy junctions traffic lights control the traffic. The green light lets cars through while the red light tells them stop and amber means wait. The automatic light system allows you to pass along the main roads without stops. There are other signs on the road too, which either give you direct orders or warn you of possible danger. There are also direction signs, cat’s eyes, mile posts and signs painted on the road. A good driver has to know what they all mean and has to follow their instructions. He must also know the Highway Code. In Hungary we drive on the right opposite to England where people drive on the left. It would be difficult for you to be used to driving on the left, I think. You have to keep to (observe) the speed limit everywhere. In Hungary you can drive 50 kilometre/hours in a town, 90 on the main road and 130 on the motorway. But there are some sign-posts which control the speed e.g. near schools, zebra crossings, housing estates, heavy bends etc. In a junction you have to give way to the one coming from the main road. It is signed by a priority sign. There is an extended form of this one called “Stop! And give way”. At this time first you have to stop definitely. There is no sign-post in a co-ordinate junction and a certain “right-hand rule” predominates here. General rule is that you have to be careful for the older people, kids, bikers, dogs etc. You mustn’t turn around or reserve in a bridge or in a level crossing. Certainly if you can see an accident you are liable to help others and you have to call the ambulance and police. Places for traffic in towns, outside towns In town: carriage-way, one-way street, junction, cul-de-sac, lay-by, avenue, roundabout, pedestrians precinct, level crossing, flyover, bridge Outside town: motorway, main road, ring road, roundabout, slip road, central reserve Some traffic signs To give orders: give away, no overtaking, maximum speed limit, no stopping, no parking, end of restriction, no entry To warn of danger: slippery road, road narrows, railway crossing, caution, dangerous bend to right To give information: motorway, parking, filling station, dead end, hospital, zebra crossing, bus stop Other information Breathalyser, horn, to collide, to fasten the seatbelts, bottleneck, driving on the left (in England), to overtake Points – váltó (vasútnál) Barrier; gate - sorompó

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 It is worth learning a foreign language because of the - az idegen nyelvek szerepe és following reasons: fontossága The importance of learning languages - to talk freely to each other about business, politics, culture, - nyelvtanulási módszerek és lehetőségek hobbies, sport - a számítógép szerepe a - to promote friendship and understanding among people mindennapokban - to establish ties with other nations - to make friends / to correspond - Internet - the learn about other people’s culture, way of life - a számítógép előnyei és hátrányai - the read authors in the original - tömegtájékoztatás és - to understand foreign TV channels véleményformálás (tévé, rádió, sajtó) - to be better informed about the world - a kapcsolattartás egyéb eszközei - to make oneself understood while travelling (telefon, fax, mobil) - to have more chances to travel on business - to get a scholarship, to go abroad to study - to read scientific articles - to keep abreast of the latest discoveries and inventions (or of your colleagues) - to have an all-around education  First of all you can learn English/German at school, both in primary and secondary school or even at university. If you are not a student any more you can go to a course and get as many as four to ten English lessons a week. In bigger towns there are courses for all levels: beginner, intermediate and advanced. These courses are usually cheaper than the ones offered by private teachers, from whom you can get one-to-one tuition if you wish. The idea of self-study is favoured by some of those who think that a language can be enquired alone without the help of an expert teacher. Most satellite channels offer English/German speaking programmes and there are quite a few language teaching programmes on Hungarian TV too. The CNN always broadcasts so I watch the news whenever I can. It helps me to learn the language and get interesting information about the world. I often watch American movies by original language and enjoy the casts beautiful pronunciation and intonation. The more I listen to the English broadcasts/films the more I am able to catch and grasp, I think. You can get the leading English and American newspapers at the post offices and there is a daily called ‘Daily News’, which covers the latest Hungarian and foreign news in English and German. Besides you can buy/subscribe different dailies. They can all help you to master this language if you read them regularly and don’t give up after the first hardships. - 30 -

I’m studying English so that I can communicate with people from different parts of the world and I must be able to have my knowledge for my work in the future. In fact by far the most essential reason why I began to study was that wherever I went everybody always said to me ‘I had got the intermediate level certificate; it was easy to pass. Why don’t you have it?’ and it made me nervous. Then I’ve decided to obtain at least the intermediate level in English. And whatever will be I would achieve/accomplish my purpose. In addition to it, if I should lose my present job I must be communicating English in a job interview. There is no problem today if someone can speak a foreign language. You are demanded to speak at any level by almost every company mostly if it is needed for your work. If you speak a world language you can make friends during your travels and even through letters by corresponding with boys and girls from other countries. Your possibilities in your life are much wider. I am no longer considered to be an educated person without the knowledge of at least one foreign language. The most widely taught language in Hungary is German. There is no school, let it be primary or secondary without at least one or two teachers of German. In my opinion English has become more important than German recently in the world though. It is quite popular, especially among youngsters. When a child reaches the age of 8 and enters the third year of primary school, he/she starts studying a foreign language. The child is offered a choice which is usually between German and English. Children can even specialise in either of them if they wish and can get more than the average number of lessons a week in the chosen language. In most secondary schools a choice of three or four, sometimes even five foreign languages is offered to the pupils. These languages are German, English, French, Italian, Spanish and perhaps Russian or Latin. As for me, the teaching of English isn’t enough efficient in Hungarian secondary schools. It is impossible to acquire a language in three 45-minute periods a week with twenty to thirty students in a group. There is also a lack of English teachers in most schools now that western languages have become prevalent instead of Russian. Some schools are in short of teaching aids such as cassette players, videos or photocopies. However, there are such pupils between 14 and 18 who manage to pass the intermediate level state language exam. In fact, it is worth passing this exam because you can get easily into university.  I’m used to using my mobile phone every day. I take it everywhere except the bathroom or the toilet. It is good that I can be reached any time. Today you can’t be without it, I think. There are so many interesting things you can do with a mobile phone. Besides the original function of making a phone call, you can send short messages and even pictures to your friends. There are games on the phone, so I just can’t get bored. Most mobile phones even have Internet access, however, the speed of the connection has not been satisfactory yet. Still, you can always check what’s on the cinema, the result of a football team’s match and the weather forecast. A lot of people say that a cell phone damages your brain, but a certain headset is available for it.  I think the greatest invention of our times was the invention of computers. Here in Hungary we used them for about twenty years. Today computers are easy to carry not to talk about laptops. We rely on them so much that it is hard to imagine life without a PC. Obviously, it has made our lives more comfortable, because a lot of things have become more easily accessible this way. A few decades ago people struggled to produce readable handwriting, but now the struggle is about typing. It is true, however, that comforts have brought about laziness and carelessness, too. Now e.g. we don’t have to pay attention to spelling correctly because the spell check program on the computer is able to correct the mistakes you make. Computers have changed our lives in several ways. They have made people become less interested in real things. They prefer living in a virtual reality, which is sometimes far from the truth. It seems to me that people are afraid of revealing their real selves and always want to be someone else, which can be done with the help of the Internet. I don’t really like these changes, because this way we will lose our identities and will be indifferent to others. I’ve got a personal computer at home. I quickly became a fan, but I have not become an addict. My parents are quite strict about how much time I spend in front of the screen. I’ve been using it for long years and I even do my work with it. We had the Internet connected up years ago and what’s more my dad owns a PC with net too. Everyday I find new and interesting things on the worldwide web. I can chat with my friends or I can play games with people from all over the world. Advantages Disadvantages to work easier and faster you become its addict (forget to eat regularly) your back will hurt because of sitting in front of it long times your eyes are getting worse - 31 -


 Flora and fauna: Our flora and fauna are very similar to those of our neighboring countries and it is different, too. You can - természeti környezetünk (növények, find grassy steppes here. We have all kinds of medicinal herbs, the állatok) use of which we have to relearn. We have oak trees on the lower - éghajlat slopes where the weather is warmer. Beech trees can be found more - a környezetünket fenyegető veszélyek frequent above 600 meters. There are more pine woods near the border where the hills are higher. Foreigners like coming to hunt here - mindennapi környezetvédelem (a környezet szelektív hulladékgyűjtés, in Hungary because we still have a lot of wild animals, hunting tisztasága, energiatakarékosság, újrahasznosítás) seems to be cheap for them and our hospitality is still well known. The kinds of game that can be found in our country: deer, mouflon, - időjárás: az évszakokra jellemző időjárás, wild boar, pheasant, partridge, wild duck, dove, hare, wild goose, fox aktuális időjárás and many others.  Hungary is in the temperate zone and has a continental climate. This means that the weather is quite easily predictable and there are big differences between the weather in the four seasons: spring, summer, autumn and winter. Occupying a relatively flat area in the Carpathian Basin, Hungary is protected from the extremes of weather by the mountain ranges encompassing her from almost all sides. Her climate is influenced by both moderate maritime and mild Mediterranean air currents. Temperatures above 30°C (degree) may occur in July and August but generally do not last long. January and February are the coldest months, but even then average temperature doesn’t fall below minus 5°C.  Weather: my favourite season is spring. After the long cold, wet and foggy days it is warm again. Nature also awakens from its sleep and the trees and bushes are full of blossom. It smells of flowers everywhere. The nicest spring flowers are snowdrops, violets, tulips, primroses, daffodils, hyacinths and lily of the valley. This is also the time for fruit trees to come out in buds and bloom. I like nature so I try to make the best of the fine weather. May is just the right month for taking walks or going on trips to the surrounding hills. On a sunny day in spring I can’t really settle down to anything except lying in the sun and enjoying the first warm sunshine of the year. The weather in spring is quite capricious, especially in April. There can be heavy rainstorms lasting for a few hours or scattered showers lasting even for a couple of days. It was extremely hot summer last term. There was a heat wave in July. The sun was burning for days and end. There was scarcely a breath of air. The heat was increasing and it was getting hotter and hotter. It was sweltering heat and I remember that the people walking in the streets had to find shelter in the shade of big trees to avoid getting sunstroke. I got as browns as berries although I hate lying in the sun. In summer a hot spell is followed by quick showers that sweep through the fields. Before a shower the sun hides behind the clouds which look dark and - 32 -

heavy against the summer sky. When the sky is completely overcast you know that the rain is not far off. Then suddenly lightning and thunder begin. Lightning is quite dangerous and it may strike big trees or even houses. If it is a passing shower then right after it a rainbow appears in the sky, which turns blue again and the sunshine is hotter than ever. Sometimes it pours down with rain (to rain cats and dogs) and it won’t stop. You can easily get soaked to the skin. There is even hail in summer which causes a lot of damage to the crops. Wheat is harvested in the middle of summer and there are lots of fruits that are ripened by the hot sun during the summer days. There are cherries, raspberries, gooseberries, red-currants, sour cherries etc. In summer it is enough to put on a light dress with a low-cut neck or a T-shirt with shorts or breeches and a pair of low shoes or sandals. On the beach women wear a bathing suit or a bikini and perhaps a straw hat. Men wear swimming trunks. The beginning of autumn is called an Indian summer if the weather is still warm. Usually it is just like summer. We say that autumn is a rich season because the trees are full of fruits like apples, pears, plums, nuts, almonds, mulberries etc. and most of the vegetables are harvested at the beginning of the autumn too. In Hungary the grape harvest, that is vintage, is a great feast. Friends and relatives come together to pick the grapes from the vines, to press them, pour the grape juice into wine-casks and let it ferment for a while for it to be decanted later. The rainiest season is definitely autumn. The best strategy for protecting yourself from the rain is to carry an umbrella or a mackintosh with you all the time. In autumn, people put on a mackintosh or some other kind of waterproofs. It is important that you should wear water-resistant shoes or wellingtons as well because you can catch a cold easily if you step in the puddles and get your feet wet. All kinds of precipitation may occur during the autumn months from drizzle and rain through mist, fog, hoar frost and sleet to snow. In autumn the leaves of trees slowly become coloured, you can see yellowish, brownish and reddish ones. In October the weather is very changeable; one day it is as if it were summer the next is just like in winter. In November there is often frost. When winter is here, the temperature falls below zero. Then smooth snow falls down from big, grey clouds. There are blizzards and stormy winds shake the trees and windows and it’s very pleasant to sit by the fire inside while the wind is blowing outside. There are usually hard frosts in January. I often feel cold in such weather. I shiver with cold when I go to work in the morning. My eyes are watering from the cold. In winter you must be careful not to catch cold. You must wear warm clothes and dress in layers. In cold weather people wear fur hats or thick, knitted hats and gloves, warm scarves and polo-necked sweaters, cotton stockings or trousers, winter boots and thick fur-lined overcoats. Winter weather often paralyses traffic on the roads. They are slippery, because of the ice covering them and there are a lot of accidents. You must not drive at a high speed. Fog also delays traffic. Planes cannot land at the airport because of poor visibility. It’s better to cancel driving when there is dense fog hanging over the roads. If the snow sets in, the roads are deep in snow. They may be blocked by snowdrifts. Hard snowstorms sometimes stop all the traffic and many cars get stuck in the snowdrifts. England has a maritime climate, which means that the weather is very wet and rainy there. It is usually very changeable and it is difficult to forecast with certainty even for a day. It is damp and not too cold all times of the year. It rarely snows and if it does, it melts when it reaches the ground. Summers are cool and damp too. Possibly because it is so unpredictable, English people are always prepared to discuss the weather. Spring weather Summer weather slight breeze to perspire/sweat (izzadni) it begins to thaw to rain cats and dogs there are avalanches in the mountains to get soaked to the skin to be struck by lightning Autumn weather Winter weather it is wretched/rotten to have subzero temp. to have chilly weather there is a blizzard to drizzle, rain, pour, sleet a snowflake It is misty, foggy humid, wet, damp to reach gale force  There has been more and more damage to the environment since the increase of the world’s population and industry. I have heard of air, water and soil pollution. In general, the larger the city the higher the degree of air pollution, which is caused mainly by factories or by fumes from cars and from other means of transport. Even rivers are dirtier in a city than in the country. All types of pollution can be very dangerous for - 33 -

plants and animals as well as for human health. This is why we must avoid polluting our environment in any way. Acid rain is caused by air pollution. Vehicle pollution mainly in urban areas can be dangerous. Floods are caused by cutting down trees. Grass and undergrowth and shrubs aren’t able to hold humidity. Rain is joined by melted snow water and evaporation is also slow. If people cut down woods there is a big amount of water, which runs down quickly and there is nothing that can slow down the speed of it. Soil is also washed away so people cannot plant in the usual way. The other reason for floods is global warming. Ice in North Pole melts so another large of water appears in the seas and ocean. Air becomes humid so more rain falls. The other consequence of warming up is that seasons are changing all the time. There are heavy rains and a lot of snow where there didn’t use to be. (like snow in Florida). There was the winter flood in the east part of Hungary in 2001 and 2002. The water was not only cold but it ruined a lot of houses. In the summer of 2002 there were serious floods all over Europe. France, Germany, the Czech Republic and Hungary suffered the biggest damages from the floods. Some people even died. Polluted rivers flow into the oceans and seas so they poison wild life plants and animals. So species die out. Originally waters of rivers, oceans and seas clean themselves but if a lot of alga appears on the surface of the water it is not able to do so. There are disasters on waters, too. Ships and boats are wrecked and they may sink. If tankers sink, oil gets into the water and disaster can happen in a few days. Oil can get on and among the feather of birds, on the skin of seals and whales and other animals. These living creatures aren’t able to fly or swim and not able to escape if it’s needed. Oil can get into their stomachs. Different chemicals have damaged the ozone layer. Since mainly the 1950s people have used more and more oil and natural gas. Since the 1970s and 1990s we use 60 percent more energy. So all of these factures cause the green-house effect, which have led to an increase in temperature levels. Cutting down forests also “helps” the problem. Humid jungles absorbed carbon-dioxide and produce oxygen. Developed countries realized the danger. So they started to develop rules on protecting the environment. Because of the very hot, dry summers fires often occur in different places like fields, woods and in bushes. These can occur not only relatively small areas but also in huge territories. Fire-brigades rush to the spot; they try to put out fire with water or appropriate chemicals as soon as possible. Helicopters are often in action. They spray the inoculators from above. If there is strong wind it makes the work more difficult. It often takes days or even weeks to put out fires and of course rains help. An economic reactor exploded in Chernobyl in 1986 spreading a radioactive cloud of dust mainly in Europe. This has been the most dangerous event in the history of nuclear power production. Since then there have been more and more demonstrations against nuclear power. The Greens are people who try to protect environment either with legal and illegal actions. They are known to have tied themselves onto e.g. rails, which is really illegal and very dangerous. But they also table bills in Parliament. Volcanoes sometimes erupt without any reason. Although, the environment regenerates itself with it, they destroy spacious forests and spread volcanic ash all around. In fact, there mostly used to happen several times. Lots of cinema films created about famous volcanoes erupting like Etna, Vesuvius, and St. Helen. Earthquakes are caused by seismic waves.  There are more and more steps being taken in our country to enable everyday people to be environmentally friendly. The state itself tries to persuade citizens to recycle. If you pay for having your rubbish taken away, you have to pay less if there is less rubbish in your dustbin. When these dustbins were introduced it was strange to use them but nowadays it is and everyday event. In Hungary there are different colors of dustbins at more and more local housing estate. We should collect our rubbishes separately e.g. glasses, paper, plastic, dangerous litters etc. Certainly you mustn’t throw away any litters where you are warned by noticing “no dumping!” The first thing I can do is that I don’t litter the streets, but try to put the rubbish into the dustbin. Hopefully, I find one when I need it. Our household could also select waste. There’s a selective waste collection in the area where I live. I also pay attention to buying products which have been recycled and I always ask the shop assistants not to put the products into plastic bags for me. I rather put them into a box or a carrier bag. We’ve been using some light bulbs in our flat since their prices were payable. In addition to it, my dad always warns us not to leave the light switched on if we aren’t in the room. At my workplace we have some airconditioners but we only use them if needed because of their consumption (so as to save more energy). Unfortunately, I have a bad habit from which I try to give up. I can’t help turning on both my PC and my TV. However, I also know that no one is able to watch both of them at the same time.

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 Hungary is situated in Central Europe at approximately an equal distance from the Equator and the North Pole. The country - Magyarország természeti értékei occupies a territory of about 93,000 square kilometers and there are - tájak, egy-egy város leírása, turisztikai about ten million people living here. There are nineteen counties. Our nevezetességek country can be divided into three large regions: Transdanubia, the Great - alapvető földrajzi és történelmi Plain and Northern Hungary. The Transdanubian part is mainly hilly with ismeretek the exception of the northern region, which is called the Small Plain. The - a főváros és/vagy szülővárosa soil is exceptionally good there for crops and vegetables. A similar area legfontosabb nevezetességei is a Great Plain, where most of Hungary’s crops are grown. Northern - hagyományos és nemzeti ünnepek Hungary is fairly mountainous and the country’s highest peak can also be found there. Hungary belongs to the drainage system of Europe’s second - szokások largest river, the Danube. The Tisza is another long river and Lake - nemzetiségek Magyarországon, Balaton is the second largest freshwater lake in Central and Western magyar nemzetiségek más országokban Europe. - kulturális értékeink Regions - Magyarország politikai berendezkedése - Alföld, the Great Hungarian Plain (államforma, többpártrendszer, parlament, önkormányzatok) - Transdanubia: - Western Hungary (Kisalföld, the Little Hungarian Plain ) - Southern Transdanubia - Central Transdanubia and Lake Balaton - Northern Hungary On the north Hungary is bordered by the Czech and Slovak Republic, on the north-east by the Ukraine, on the east Romania, on the south by Serbia, Croatia and Slovenia while on the west the country borders on Austria. The official language of Hungary is Hungarian, but quite a few other languages are spoken as native languages by the several ethnic minorities living near the country’s borders. These are German and the Slavonic language spoken in the countries around us.  The Hungarian Republic was proclaimed on (the) 23rd (of) October, (in) 1989. Soon afterwards the ruling (then the only) party split up and new parties were formed. In the parliamentary elections held in March and April 1990, six parties received enough votes to be represented in Parliament. The president of the most successful party, the Hungarian Democratic Forum (MDF) formed a coalition government in May 1990. - 35 -

This meant the end of a forty-year-long totalitarian system in Hungary and pullout of the Soviet troops. People began to feel free as they realised that their minds were no longer manipulated centrally and they were allowed to join any political party or movement they sympathised with. There are 4 parties in the Hungarian Parliament. The MDF (see above) and the Young Democratic Federation belong to the opposition. The Hungarian Socialist Party and the Alliance of Free Democrats have been making up the government since the last election. The supreme power is vested in the Parliament whose members are elected for four years. Since Hungary became a parliamentary democracy, the Parliament has been in session almost continually, MPs work there, sometimes more days a week. There are constant debates and heated discussions whenever the government is trying to push a bill through, unlike a few years ago when everything was accepted by a unanimous vote.  Tourism also plays an important role in our economy as millions of tourists come to Hungary from year to year. I think one reason for so many tourists coming to our country is the hospitality of the Hungarians. Besides, the Carpathian Basin is at cross-roads for the traveller from north to south, from east to west. Hungary also has various tourist attractions. Visitors can enjoy the wonderful sights of Budapest, relax on one of the numerous beaches of Lake Balaton, go and see the lovely Hungarian villages where traditions of folk art are preserved and treasured or visit some of the smaller but beautiful towns like Veszprém, Kőszeg, Eger or Szentendre. The can go for outings to the romantic ‘Puszta’, the Great Hungarian Plain, where they can see the famous Hungarian stud farms. Hungary has a lively cultural life. The most popular cultural events attended by a lot of tourists seem to be the open-air summer festivals held in different towns, such as the Szeged Open-air Festival, the Sopron Festival Weeks, the Szentendre Summer or the Veszprém Castle Concerts while in spring the greatest event is the Budapest Spring Festival. Apart from festivals, the Opera House, concert halls, open-air theatres and museums are also visited by a lot of tourists who are genuinely interested in the cultural life of the country.  To introduce BUDAPEST to a tourist from abroad I would tell him some historical and geographical data about the Hungarian capital: 2000 years ago the Romans called this settlement Aquincum that is ‘the city of waters’ because there were and still there are a lot of hot water springs and medicinal baths in this region. Real urbanisation began in the fifteenth century when under the rule of Sigismund of Luxemburg the royal castle on the Buda hills was built. The later centuries, especially the nineteenth century saw the flourishing of Pest lying on the other side of the River Danube. Today Budapest is a busy metropolis with a population of 2 million people. The city is extremely rich in historical and cultural monuments, works of art and natural beauties. If you have a foreign guest you have to show him/her the Castle District with the Matthias Church, the Fisherman’s Bastion and Szécsenyi National Library in the Royal Castle. Looking over the river Danube there is Europe’s most beautiful House of Parliament. In the middle of the Heroes’ Square there is a one hundred and eighteen foot high column with the Archangel Gabriel on the top. At one side of the square there is the Museum of Fine Arts where you can see wonderful pictures. The other important museum is the National Museum, where the Revolution and War of Independence started on 15th March, 1848. The Opera House designed by Miklós Ybl is as famous as the Opera House in Vienna. The building was renovated recently so it is much nicer now. If you want to see elegant clothes and all kinds of people from different nationalities you have to go to Váci Street, the pedestrian zone and at the end of the street the Vörösmarty Square with the famous Café Gerbaud. St. Stephen’s Basilica is the second centre of Christianity in Hungary after the Basilica of Esztergom. Margaret Island is a perfect place for recreation. You can take long walks, admire the beautiful flowers and trees there and you can go for a swim there. The Gellért Spa Bath, Szécsenyi Bath, the Király and Rudas Baths are world famous and you can feel artistic atmosphere, too. Among the nine bridges famous ones are: the Chain Bridge built and designed by Adam Clark. At the bottom of the bridge there are the beautiful lions. The bridge joins the Pest side with the Gellért hill. The other bridge is the Elizabeth Bridge, the first suspension bridge. Liberty bridge has at one foot of it the technical university and at the other foot is the market-hall. The Sights of Budapest Castle Hill - King Béla IV. – fortification – XIII.th century - King Sigismund – royal palace – XV.th century - Coronation Church - Fishermen’s Bastion - 36 -

- Hilton Hotel Gellért Hill - Citadel – to have a nice view of the city and the bridges spanning the Danube - Statue of St. Gellért - Statue of Liberty Margaret Island - to be named after Princess Margaret, daughter of King Béla IV. - to be the ‘park’ of Budapest - the best place for trips and recreation Heroes’ square - Millinary Monument (to commemorate the 1000th anniversary of the founding of Hungary) - to be surrounded by a colonnade - statues of the great rulers and leaders of Hungarian history City Park - artificial lake (to row in summer, to skate in winter) - Vajdahunyad Castle (a mixture of architectural styles) - Zoo and Botanical Gardens - Fun Fair - Municipal Grand Circus Museums - Aquincum Museum - Castle Museum - Museum of War History - Museum of Fine Arts (painting, sculpture and graphic collection by European masters) - Hungarian National Gallery (large collection of Hungarian works of fine arts) - Hungarian National Museum (exhibitions on Hungarian history and natural science) (Hungarian crown jewels)  Sopron is located on the west border of Hungary and is famous for its faithfulness. If you are there you have to go to Orsolya Square, to the Fire Tower and to Szécsenyi Square and to the Fő/main Square. If you go to Pannonhalma Abbey you are visiting the first church in Hungary. In Tihany Abbey you can find the deed of foundation, in which are the first written Hungarian words. Other evidence of our religious life is the church of Ják, Zsámbék and Debrecen and the Basilica of Esztergom. There are many castles in our country and there used to be many more before World War I. because Hungary played a very important part in protecting Europe against invadors. The following castles are worth seeing: the castles of Tata, Csesznek, Sárvár, Veszprém, Siklós, Eger and Diósgyőr. Palace of Keszthely is famous for the Festetics family who helped the agricultural and cultural life of Hungary. They also established the agricultural university and the foundation of the museum there. The palace of Fertőd used to belong to Esterházy Family, which is a great Hungarian political, cultural family again. Arts have always played a great role in their lives. Haydn used to be their family musician. Hungarian folk art is world famous. It is true for craftwork, our folksongs, gipsy music and clothing. The Embroidery of Kalocsa, Mezőkövesd and Matyo embroidery are popular and a lot of foreigners buy embroidered things for presents. If we talk about folk arts we shouldn’t forget horses. Our forefathers conquered the territory on horseback. If you go to Hortobágy or Bugac you will see famous stud farms there. There are university towns and cities in Hungary like Pécs, Szeged, Debrecen, Győr and of course Budapest. If you are in Pécs you should go to see the Synagogue, the Minaret and the Barbican. If you are in Szeged you should visit Cathedral Square and from the city you can go to Ópusztaszer, where our nation is celebrated there with Festy cyclorama. Among our natural beauties we have to mention the Mátra hills, Aggtelek Stalactite Caves, Őrség, Danube bend and Hortobágy puszta. 20th August is the festival of foundation of our state. Saint Stephen’s Day is celebrated everywhere. There are different ceremonies, programmes and fireworks in the evening all over the country. We shouldn’t forget that it is the festival of new bread. Every year the Flower Festival is organized in Debrecen. It is always gorgeous but the festival itself is danger because it costs a lot of money. 23 rd October is the holiday of - 37 -

Declaration of the Hungarian Republic in 1989. The revolution against communism and the Soviet rule started on 23rd October in 1956. Some cultural events in our country: the Kapolcs festival has been organized for ten years. It is famous for performing different plays and there is folk art fair, too. Győr is also famous for its International Cultural Summer Festival and Spring Festival. In summer opera singers, actors and directors want to perform their plays in the Szeged Open Air Theatre. They have to prepare and enter for the programmes well in advance. The Water-Music-Flower Festival in Tata is both a cultural and entertaining event and people like to go there to have fun. Some people say that the events of Pepsi Island are wonderful and they not only have fun but they learn a lot of new things. Others accuse the islands of vandalism and being noisy and aggressive behaviour. The fact is that is taken place for ten years now and it attracts a lot of young people. Hungary is said to be a great wine producer. Our climate and geographical position are very good for grape growing and producing wine. Hungarian people celebrate wine e.g. during the week of Wine Week of Badacsony, with the Vintage Parade and Vintage and Folk Art Fair in Badacsony, Wine Weeks in Balatonfüred, in Szépasszonyvölgy the Festival of Eger and Sopron Festival Weeks. You must have heard of the “busójárás , the so called Mardi Gras procession” in Mohács. At the end of winter, on the last Sunday of Carnival people walk along the streets wearing funny masks, sometimes animal heads and they make an awful noise to drive out winter and greet spring. It also symbolizes the driving out of the Turks. One of the internationally well-known sport events is Formula 1. in the Hungaroring, in Mogyoród. Popular and famous drivers come here from all over the world and police has to guarantee their and everybody’s safety. People have to buy tickets well beforehand and they cost a lot of money. Enterprises can make a good profit there.

Public and traditional holidays in Hungary 15 March (the fifteenth of March) We commemorate the Hungarian Revolution and War of Independence of eighteen-forty-eight and fourty-nine. We wear ‘kokárda’ (national sign, emblem)” on this day on the left side of our suit or coat where our heart is. 1st May (the first of May – Labour Day) It is a spring holiday when maypoles are put up in gardens. The beer and the Vienna sausage occur to me about this public holiday mostly. Lots of interesting programmes are usually held and a board is stood upright, too. 20th August (the twentieth of August) It is the day of Stephan the first. On this day we commemorate the founding of our state almost a thousand years ago. This is the day of new bread. 23rd October (the twenty-third of October) We celebrate the declaration of the Hungarian Republic and commemorate the revolution of nineteen-fifty-six. th

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GREAT BRITAIN a célnyelvi ország(ok) főbb jellemzői The British Isles is the name given to England, Scotland, -(fekvés, nagyság, főváros, pénznem, Wales and the whole of Ireland in the geography books. The United államforma, parlament) Kingdom of Great Britain and Northern Ireland (the UK) is the name of a legismertebb földrajzi értékek (éghajlat, the land the Queen reigns over. Southern Ireland is independent of the -tájak, városok) és turisztikai UK. Great Britain is surrounded by the Atlantic-ocean. The highest nevezetességek mountains are in Scotland and Wales: Ben Nevis and Snowdon. The - néhány történelmi esemény south coast has a mild and sunny climate which makes it popular with both holiday-makers and the elderly. The east coast is flat and it is - ismertebb ünnepek, szokások dominated by agriculture. a mindennapok kultúrája (étkezés, England occupies about 244,100 square kilometres area. Its -közlekedés, a társas érintkezés formái) population is 57 million and currency is Pound Sterling (£, font). The - kulturális értékek capital is London and the spoken languages are English and Welsh.  Britain has a two-party system of the Labour and the Conservative Party. The governmental model that has been operating in Britain since 1688 is called Constitutional Monarchy. This means that it has a monarch (king, queen) as the Head of State. The monarch has very little power and can only reign with the support of Parliament. Parliament consists of two houses: the House of Commons and the House of Lords. There were several well-known prime minister in the UK. Margaret Thatcher was the first woman Prime Minister. John Major, Tony Blair, Gordon Brown is the current one. Queen Elizabeth II. has been reigning in the country for more than 50 years. Her son, Charles is going to succeed her. In 1990 John Major was elected as PM, he had a very successful European policy and adopted a more compromising attitude. British people watch a lot of television and also said to be the world’s most dedicated home-video users. This doesn’t mean that they’ve given up reading. In Britain more papers are sold than in any other country in the world. Some of these people have the reputation of being shy and reserved with strangers. But others are extroverts and talk to anybody. British people don’t like answering personal questions about their private lives. You must never ask them how mush money they earn, or how old they are. Everybody knows that all Englishmen wear bowler hats, pinstripe suits and carry umbrellas; Scotsmen are mean, hate spending

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money and drink whisky all day long; Welshmen do nothing play rugby and sing (and some British people tell jokes about Irish). Interestingly enough, the English drive on the left. Tourists must be very careful if they want to drive and walk in England. It is difficult to get used to their traffic. What’s more, the steering wheel of their cars is on the right side. (Several peoples tried to invade England and its other territories. Celts, Romans, Anglo-Saxons and Vikings all endeavored to conquer all the country. A Norman man, William the Conqueror was the first king to be crowned in 1066. In 1666 there was a fire which destroyed more than half the city of London including the old St. Paul’s Cathedral.)

Regions Scotland There are three large geographical areas in Scotland: the Highlands, the Lowlands and the Islands, 5 million people live in Scotland. Edinburgh is the capital; Glasgow is the chief industrial and commercial city. Places to visit: - The Edinburgh Festival – for music and drama - Loch Ness – to catch a glimpse of the monster? England - Hadrian’s Wall – named after the Roman Emperor Hadrian – was completed in the 2 nd century. It is huge fortification all along the Scottish border. - The Lake District – an area of mountains and lakes which looks larger than it really is. It has dramatic, romantic scenery. - Stratford-on-Avon – the birthplace and burial place of William Shakespeare. The Royal Shakespeare Company plays here at the Festival Theatre as well as in London. - Stonehenge (it is made of stones, the great circle of standing stones is believed to have had some religious or astronomical purpose) - Windsor – the town on the River Thames. Its castle is a royal residence. - Eton – close to Windsor. The famous public school here was founded in 1440. - Canterbury – the cathedral and the residence of the Archbishop of Canterbury, who is the religious head of the Church of England. - Oxford and Cambridge – the famous (and the oldest) university towns in Britain. The Sights of London - The Tower of London (an ancient fortress; to play an important part in British history; to serve as a palace and a prison; to be a museum; crown jewels; to be guarded by beefeaters), raven (holló) - Buckingham Palace (residence of the queen; changing of the guard at 11:30) - Westminster Abbey (to contain tombs and monuments of famous Britons; to be the scene of coronations and royal weddings) - Houses of Parliament (to have parliamentary sessions; a flag on Victoria Tower; Clock Tower – Big Ben), House of Lords, House of Commons - ST. Paul’s Cathedral (second largest dome in the world; built by Sir Christopher Wren in the 17 th century) - Trafalgar Square (heart of London; fountains and pigeons; Nelson’s Column (Nelson was an admiral, who defeated Napoleon’s troops in a battle at Waterloo ; The National Gallery) - The Monument (to commemorate the Great Fire of London in 1666) - Downing Street No. 10. (residence of the Prime Minister; Gordon Brown, to be guarded all day) - Famous bridges: Westminster Bridge, Tower Bridge - Famous museums: The British Museum, The New London Museum, Tate Gallery, Victoria and Albert Museum - Madame Tussaud’s Waxworks (in Baker Street, famous people, politicians, actors… in waxwork) Wales The capital is Cardiff. There are 2.9 million inhabitants in Wales. The highest number live in the industrial areas of South Wales. There is a Welsh language. Welsh folklore and language strengthen each other. Every year a national festival of traditional poetry and music is held. It’s called the “Eisteddfod”. Northern Ireland - 40 -

The country’s capital is Belfast. It is a land of lakes, rivers and a varied sea coast. It is a great place for outdoor sports and for tourism – when times are peaceful. Above all, the Northern Irish people are friendly and generous.  The most well-known festivals in England 14th February: It's St Valentine's Day; many people send a card to the one they love or someone whom they have fallen in love with. People usually do not sign these cards and a lot of time is spent trying to guess who has sent them. 31st October: Hallowe'en means 'holy evening' and takes place on 31 st October. Although it is a much more important festival in the United States than Britain, it is celebrated by many people in the UK. It is particularly connected with witches and ghosts. At parties people dress up in strange costumes and pretend they are witches. They cut horrible faces in potatoes and other vegetables and put a candle inside, which shines through the eyes. People may play difficult games such as trying to eat an apple from a bucket of water without using their hands. In recent years children dressed in white sheets knock on doors at Hallowe'en and ask if you would like a 'trick' or 'treat' (csokit vagy csalunk). If you give them something nice, a 'treat', they go away. However, if you don't they play a 'trick' on you, such as making a lot of noise or spilling flour on your front doorstep. 5th November (Guy Fawkes Day): In 1605 King James I was on the throne. As a Protestant, he was very unpopular with Roman Catholics. Some of them planned to blow up the Houses of Parliament on 5 th November of that year, when the King was going to open Parliament. Under the House of Lords they had stored thirty six barrels of gun powder, which were to be exploded by a man called Guy Fawkes. However one of the plotters spoke about these plans and Fawkes was discovered, arrested and later hanged. Since that day the British traditionally celebrate 5th November by burning a dummy, made of straw and old clothes, on a bonfire, whilst at the same time letting off fireworks. This dummy is called a 'guy' and children can often be seen on the pavements before 5th November saying, 'Penny for the guy'. If they collect enough money they can buy some fireworks. (Blow up - explode; Carol - a Christmas hymn; Dummy - an object made to look like a real person; Hanged -killed by hanging from a rope tied round the neck; Public holiday - a day when nobody goes to work; Witch - a woman who uses magic)

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