August 11, 2017 | Author: Mary Jean Garcia Deoquines | Category: Cross Cultural Communication, Nonverbal Communication, Communication, Information, Semiotics
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ORAL COMMUNICATION THE COMMUNICATION PROCESS “ When we label something as a process, we also mean that it does not have a beginning, an ending, or fixed sequence of events. It is not static, or at rest. It is moving. The ingredients within a process interact, each affect all of the others.” ---David Berlo Communication is about two people talking such as with a sibling, a parent, a teacher, or a friend, face-to-face in real life or even via the internet. It is also a group of people talking with each other to solve a problem such as discussing with classmates about how a report should be done. Even buying a snack from a vendor outside the school campus is considered communication. It involves a transaction: a person wants to talk to someone about something because that person needs something from that someone. For example, if a student needs permission to attend high school trip, the student has to ask his/her parents. When a group has to submit a report, all the group members have to sit down and discuss how to go about it. Anyone who needs to buy something has to tell the vendor exactly what is wanted and ask how much it costs. Communication is stirring up ideas in the mind of another. It is the sharing of ideas among a group of people. It is sharing of ideas among the group of people. It is imparting concepts to an audience. Nature of Communication  Communication is a process.  Communication occurs between two or more people (the speaker and the receiver).  Communication can be expressed through the words (verbal), actions (nonverbal), or both at the same time.

Process of Communication


The speaker generates an idea.

Daphne loves Rico as a friend

The speaker encodes an idea or converts the idea into words or actions.

She thinks of how to tell him using their native language.

The speaker transmits or sends out a message.

She tells him, “Rico, I love you as a friend.”

Rico hears what Daphne says. The receiver gets the message.

The receiver decodes or interprets the message based on the context

The receiver sends or provides feedback.

He tries to analyze what she means, and he is heartbroken.

He frowns and does not say something, because he is in pain.

MODELS OF COMMUNICATION 1. Shannon- Weaver Model Known a s the mother of all communication models, the Shannon-Weaver model (1949) depicts communication as a linear or one-way process consisting of five elements: a source (producer of message); a transmitter (encoder of message into signals); a channel (signals adapted for transmission); a receiver (decoder of message from the signal); and a destination.

This model, however, has been criticized for missing one essential element in the communication process: feedback. Without feedback, the speaker will not know whether the receiver understands the message or not.

2. Transaction Model It is a two way process with inclusion of feedback as one element. This model is more interactive. There is a collaborative exchange of messages between communicators with an aim of understanding each other. It also shows the barrier, such as noise, mat interfere with the flow of communication.

3. Schramm Model Schramm modified the Shannon-Weaver Model. Field of experience is everything that makes a -person unique--- everything he/ she has ever learned, watched, seen, heard, read and studied. In other words, it is everything a person has ever experienced or not experienced, done or not done. In fact, this is practically everything that has happened in his/ her life. It is this field of experience that is used to interpret the Message and create a Response.

ELEMENTS OF COMMUNICATION Communication is divided into elements which help us better which help us better understand its mechanics or process. These elements are the following: 1. Speaker- the source of information 2. Message- the information, ideas, or thoughts conveyed by the speaker in words or in actions. 3. Encoding- the process of converting the message into words, actions, or other forms that the speaker understands. 4. Channel- the medium or the means, such as personal or non-personal, verbal or nonverbal, in which the encoded message is conveyed. 5. Decoding- the process of interpreting the encoded message of the speaker by the receiver. 6. Receiver- the recipient of the message; or someone who decodes the message. 7. Feedback- the reactions, responses, or information provided by the receiver. 8. Context- the environment where communication takes place. 9. Barrier- the factors that affect the flow of communication. VERBAL AND NONVERBAL COMMUNICATION Verbal Communication refers to the interaction in which words are used to relay a message for effective and successful verbal communication, used words to express ideas which can be easily understood by the person you are talking to. Consider the following when engaging in this type of communication. 1. Appropriateness The language that you used should be appropriate to the environment or occasion whether formal of informal. 2. Brevity Speakers who often use simple yet precise and powerful words are found to be more credible. Try to achieve brevity by being more direct with your words. Avoid fillers and insubstantial expressions which do not add to the message, such as “uh”, “you know”, “I guess,” and others. 3. Clarity The meaning of words, feelings, or ideas maybe interpreted differently by the listeners; hence, it is essential for you to clearly state your message and express your ideas and feelings. 4. Ethics Words should be carefully chosen in consideration of the gender, roles, ethnicity, preferences, and status of the person or people you are talking to. 5. Vividness Words that vividly or creatively describe things or feelings usually add color and spice to communication; hence, you are encourage to find ways to charm your audience through the use of vivid words. Nonverbal Communication refers to the interaction where behaviour is used to convey and represent meanings. All kinds of human responses that are not expressed in words are classified as nonverbal communication. Examples of nonverbal communication are stares, smiles, tone of voice, movements, manner of walking, standing and sitting, appearance, style of attire, attitude towards punctuality and space, personality and others. Mastery of nonverbal communication is important for several reasons: 1. It enhances and emphasizes the message of your speech, thus making it more meaningful, truthful, and relevant. 2. It can communicate feelings, attitudes and perceptions without saying a word. 3. It can sustain the attention of listeners and keep them engaged in the speech. 4. It gives the audience a preview to the type of speaker you are. 5. It makes you appear more dynamic and animated in your delivery. 6. It serves as a channel to release tension and nervousness, 7. It helps make your speech more dramatic. 8. It can build a connection with listeners. 9. It makes you a credible speaker.

10. It helps you vary your speaking style and avoid a monotonous delivery. FEATURES OF AN EFFECTIVE COMMUNICATION In their pioneer book Effective Public Relations, Professors Broom, Cutlip and Center (2012) list the 7Cs of Effective Communication. This list is widely used today, especially in public relations and advertising. 1. Completeness Complete communication is essential to the quality of the communication process in general. Hence, communication should include everything that the receiver needs to hear for him/her to respond. 2. Conciseness Conciseness does not mean keeping the message short, but making it direct or straight to the point. Insignificant or redundant information should be eliminated from the .communication that will be sent to the recipient. 3. Consideration To be effective, the speaker always consider relevant information about his/ her receiver such as mood, background, race, preference, education, status, needs, among others. By doing so, he/ she can easily build rapport with the audience. 4. Concreteness Effective communication happens when the message is concrete and supported by facts, figures and real-life examples and situations. In this case, the receiver is more connected to the message conveyed. 5. Courtesy The speaker shows courtesy in the communication by respecting the culture, values, and beliefs of his/ her receivers. Being courteous all the time creates a positive impact on the audience. 6. Clearness Clearness in communication implies the use of simple and specific words to express ideas. It is also achieved when the speaker focuses only on a single objective in his/her speech so as not to confuse the audience. 7. Correctness Correctness in grammar eliminates negative impact on the audience and increases the credibility and effectiveness of the message. Intercultural Communication Intercultural communication happens when individuals interact, negotiate, and create meanings while bringing in their varied cultural backgrounds ( Ting-Toomey, 1999). For some scholars, intercultural communication pertains to communication among people from different nationalities ( Gudykunst, 2003). Still, others look at intercultural communication as communication that is influenced by different ethnicities, religions, and sexual orientations. Both interpretations show that intercultural communication takes place when people draw from their cultural identity to understand values, prejudices, language, attitudes, and relationships ( Gudykunst & Kim, 2003). Moreover, this facet of communication can also be seen as a bargained understanding of human experiences across diverse societies. Simply put, intercultural communication is the sending and receiving of messages across languages and cultures. Sometimes, intercultural communication can flow smoothly and become very interesting for a cross-cultural group. However, things may not go as planned when communication is disrupted by cultural collisions. When you speak, your speech is continuously accompanied by gestures, facial expressions and other body movements that add to what you are saying in different ways. For example, nodding means “yes” in the Indian subcontinent, Iran, most of Europe, Latin America, and North America. However, in Greece, Lebanon, Syria, Palestine, Turkey, Macedonia, Bulgaria, and Albania, nodding indicates disagreement. Moreover, in the case of Japanese culture, silence as a form of communication is more integrated in their customs than in Western languages. It is therefore important for you to acknowledge and understand the many communicate on patterns present in other cultures.

The Development Model of Intercultural Sensitivity The Developmental Model of Intercultural Sensitivity (DMIS) offers a structure that explores how people experience cultural differences. According to Bennet and Bennet (2004), it has six stages. These are the following: Stage 1: Denial. The individual does not recognize cultural differences. An individual in the denial stage might be heard saying: “ All cities are the same; they have tall buildings, fast food chains, and coffee shops.” Stage 2: Defense. The individual starts to recognize cultural differences and is intimidated by them, resulting in either a superior view on own culture or an unjustified high regard for the new one. An individual in the defense stage might be heard saying: “ This culture does not view life the way we do; our culture is certainly better.” “ Their ways are better than my own; I wish I were one of them.” Stage 3: Minimization. Although individuals see cultural differences, they bank more on the universality of ideas rather than on cultural differences. An individual in the minimization stage might be heard saying: “ Once we see through the cultural differences, we really are just the same!” Stage 4: Acceptance. The individual begins to appreciate important cultural differences in behaviours and eventually in values. An individual in the acceptance stage might be heard saying: “ These people and I have different values and experiences , and I think we can learn from one another.” Stage 5: Adaptation. The individual is very open to world views when accepting new persperctives. An individual in the adaptation stage might be heard saying: “ To address our issue, I have to adjust my approach to consider both my own and my counterpart’s background.” Stage 6: Integration. Individuals start to go beyond their own cultures and see themselves and their actions based on multifarious cultural viewpoints. An individual in the integration stage might be heard saying: “I can look at things from the perspective of various cultures.” Once you understand these stages, you may apply it to: 1. Recognise communication behaviors which differ from your own, 2. Take into account what can influence these types of behaviors, 3. Try to analyse how linguistic and cultural communities in terms of communication behaviour and influencing factors (Allwood, 1985). Characteristics of Competent Intercultural Communicators World Bank (2010) identifies the following traits that define a competent intercultural communicator. 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.

Flexibility and the ability to tolerate high levels of uncertainty Reflectiveness or mindfulness Open-mindedness Sensitivity Adaptability Ability to engage in divergent thinking (or thinking creatively) and systems-level thinking (or thinking how each one in a system or organization influences each other) 7. Politeness Note that in addition to culture, other elements such as gender, age, social status, and religion must also be taken into consideration when communicating with others. Refrain from showing a bias when talking to someone by following the tips below: 1. Avoid stereotypes, i.e., generalizations about a certain group. 2. Challenge gender norms; avoid using “he” and “man” to refer to a general group of people. To remedy this, you may use plural pronouns or rewrite a sentence to avoid using pronouns. The use of his/her is also acceptable. 3. Do not talk down on younger people and the elderly. 4. Be sensitive to the religious practices of others.

5. Be polite at all times; do not belittle people you perceive to be on a lower social class than you. Functions of Communication Communication is a complex process, with elements, levels, and dimensions. People do not just communicate because people love to talk. Humans communicate for several reasons: regulation and control, social interaction, motivation, information, and emotional expression. These reasons are called the Functions of Communication. Each Function is based on the Speaker’s purpose for communicating. 1. Regulation and Control. The speaker is using this function if his/her purpose is to control others by managing their behavior. This can be seen in the example of making an announcement that the community will start segregating their garbage. This function is also demonstrated by the simple act of telling someone to be quiet or encouraging someone to continue discussing the topic. This function of communication means to be able to use language, gestures, and emotions to manage individual or group activities such as a parent telling a child not to misbehave or a policeman directing pedestrians not to jaywalk but use the pedestrian lane. This is also observed when a student tells his/her parents to stop teasing them about having a crush at school. Siblings are also told not to look for that crush in school. 2. Social Interaction. The most familiar and the primary reason why people communicate. This is because people do love to talk and love to talk with each other. Talking with one another is one way people are entertained. Humans talk for the sole purpose of coming together as a society. Social interaction allows people to be connected with one another. A family becomes close not because they live under the same roof, but because each member interacts with another. Friends get together to interact and enjoy each other’s company. A new acquaintance can become a friend by getting to know that person through more opportunities for interaction. 3. Motivation. This is when the Speaker’s purpose is to persuade or try to persuade another person to change his/her opinion’s attitude, or behavior. This is different from Regulation and Control where the Speaker simply directs others and insists on his/her own agenda. In this function, persuasion is used to move the listener away from his/her own position towards the Speaker’s own or the position where the Speaker wants the other person to move. For example, having the Listener agree with the Speaker that there is a “Pope Francis effect” is one such agenda. Convincing friends to go to the mall after school to watch a movie is another example. 4. Information. This function is used when the speaker wants to make others aware of certain data, concepts, and processes- knowledge that may be useful to them. This may be something as serious as knowing what the MRSA virus is and how to avoid getting it. Or something less serious but just as important such as when and where the school graduation will be held and what the other details are. 5. Emotional Expression. More than Regulation and Control, more than Motivation, Emotional Expression is used by a Speaker for the purpose of moving another person to action. The Speaker appeals to the Listener’s feelings and emotions to encourage him/her to act in a particular direction. Receiving messages that include pictures of the devastation brought about by a typhoon such as Yolanda, or photos of children dying or crying because of hunger, the Receiver of the message cannot help but be moved to do something: donate money, clothes, food, and water, or even volunteer to help build new houses for the victims.

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