Online Examination System
Dot Net Project Report...
Acknowledgement The author conveys his heartfelt gratitude to the Director-Principal Director-P rincipal of IET BHADDAL college for the encouragement encouragement and unstinted support given by him.
The author would like to convey heartiest thanks to the CEO of the Company INFOWIZ for providing such an intensive and extensive training in the project undertaken by me.
The author acknowledges continuous guidance and incessant support rendered by
Sarabhjit Singh Head of the Department of Computer Science, not only for this project but also in my overall career development.
Without the help, guidance and support of Ms. Rajvinder under whose supervision. I had the opportunity of working, it would have been absolutely impossible for me to complete the project. Her contribution is profusely acknowledged.
Moral, intellectual and very frequently required support from all the faculty members is also hereby acknowledged.
Lastly the author would also like to thank each and every person who contributed directly or indirectly for completion of this project.
CS/o8/8095 Manveer singh CS/08/8043
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TABLE OF CONTENTS
Profile – Introduction
8 – 19
Introduction to the project
20 – 24
Modular description of the project
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39 – 54
Introduction to SQL Server
67 – 69
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Profile – Introduction
8 – 19
Introduction to the project
20 – 24
Modular description of the project
2|P a g e
39 – 54
Introduction to SQL Server
67 – 69
CHAPTER-1 COMPANY PROFILE 1.1 INTRODUCTION TO THE COMPANY INFOWIZ is an ISO certified company. It has been working from more than 5 years in the field of IT and Web Development and has been providing its clients with its exceptional and quality Web Design, Development and SEO services. Our clients range from individuals to professionals and small, medium and large scaled Businesses. In 2008, INFOWIZ entered into IT outsourcing and partnered successfully with many offshore web and SEO companies of US, UK, France, Ireland, Canada, and Australia etc. to provide them quality and timely services. INFOWIZ does not boost it self of being the best Development Company but automatically enjoys reputable position among top Web Development companies because we of our timely delivery and quality work. We don‟t claim for something we can‟t deliver. Before taking a project from a client, we ask for all his needs and requirements. After that our skilled team of professionals analyze the needs and comes up with a plan as how we can work to completely satisfy those requirements of our clients. We then work step by step keeping our client informed about the progress and complete the project in time ti me giving complete contentment to them. From concept building to implementation of any project, our team manages the projects efficiently up to its completion. Our tactful strategy and dedication towards quality work has given us the recognition we enjoy and that is why our clients only come back to us whenever they require any kind of web related solutions. We do not only emphasize on formulating an attractive solution to our clients, but we believe in providing a workable solution.INFOWIZ offers research based Search Engine Marketing products that help achieve greater insights to your online business. Our Research & Development arm offers SEO tools for SEM professionals. INFOWIZ is an organization which is established in the field of VLSI-VHDL, VLSI -VHDL, Embedded systems, PHP, .NET, Web Designing, Web Development, Network Support and Network training. We provide Support and training in the field of Programming Programming Languages, Embedded systems (Micro controller based design, Electronics system design),VLSI-VHDL and Networking solution. INFOWIZ also provides Technical Research & Development support and consultancy to some Electronics companies like Sagitech solutions Panchkula, Jarc infotech Mohali etc. 3|P a g e
1.4 PROFILE OF PROBLEM Problem Definition Problem Definition is an initial investigation, which defines the problem that led to user request. One must know what the problem is before it can solved. It states the objectives the user is trying to achieve and the result the result that the user wants to see. It gives more stress on logical requirements of the problem rather than the physical requirements. Need of the user is identified and the problem definition is the verification of the user requirements. So the user is asked to thoroughly explain the problem that is to solve. And an initial investigation is carried out.
KEY QUESTION: What is the problem or opportunity? RESULT: Statement of scope and objective.
In my project “Online Test”.Testsare a form of distance learning. The tests are portable and available where ever you are. You don't have to go anywhere to take the test, it comes to you. You can access an online test at the time and place, which is most convenient to you. You can move anywhere, and still access the online test. During the initial investigation the following problems were discovered:
In manual system I have discovered that organization has to do lot of maintenance of student records with respect to different courses as well as packages.
The second was that result is not out immediately after test.
Most of the time spends in evaluation.
The staff and infrastructure cost is very high.
Large number of domains to handle.
Many types of constraints are there like: Boundaries/cost/time Boundaries/cost/time constraints.
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CHAPTER-2 FRONT END 2.1 INTRODUCTION TO VISUAL STUDIO 2.1.1 The .NET Framework
The .NET Framework is a multi-language environment for building, deploying, and running XML Web services and applications. The .NET Framework is a new computing platform that simplifies application development in the highly distributed environment of the Internet. The .NET Framework is designed to fulfill the following objectives:
To provide a consistent object-oriented programming environment whether object code is stored and executed locally, executed locally but Internet-distributed, or executed remotely. To provide a code-execution environment that minimizes software deployment and versioning conflicts. To provide a code-execution environment that guarantees safe execution of code, including code created by an unknown or semi-trusted third party. To provide a code-execution environment that eliminates the performance problems of scripted or interpreted environments. To make the developer experience consistent across widely varying types of applications, such as Windows-based applications and Web-based applications. To build all communication on industry standards to ensure that code based on the .NET Framework can integrate with any other code.
It consists of three main parts:
Common Language Runtime Despite its name, the runtime actually has a role in both a component's runtime and development time experiences. While the component is running, the runtime is responsible for managing memory allocation, starting up and stopping threads and processes, and enforcing security policy, as well as satisfying any dependencies that the component might have on other components. At development time, the runtime's role changes slightly; because it automates so much (for example, memory management), the runtime makes the developer's experience very simple, especially when compared to COM as it is today. In particular, features such as reflection dramatically reduce the amount of code a developer must write in order to turn business logic into a reusable component. Unified programming classes The framework provides developers with a unified, objectoriented, hierarchical, and extensible set of class libraries (APIs). Currently, C++ developers wee the Microsoft Foundation Classes and Java developers wee the Windows Foundation Classes. The framework unifies these disparate models and give Visual Basic and Script programmers access to class libraries as well. By creating a common set of APIs across all programming languages, the common language runtime enables cross-language
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inheritance, error handling, and debugging. All programming languages, from Script to C++, have similar access to the framework and developers are free to choose the language that they want to use.
ASP.NET ASP.NET builds on the programming classes of the .NET Framework, providing a Web application model with a set of controls and infrastructure that make it simple to build ASP Webapplications. ASP.NET includes a set of controls that encapsulate common HTML user interface elements, such as text boxes and drop-down menus. These controls run on the Web server, however, and push their user interface as HTML to the browser. On the server, the controls expose an object-oriented programming model that brings the richness of object-oriented programming to the Web developer. ASP.NET also provides infrastructure services, such as session state management and process recycling that further reduces the amount of code a developer must write and increase application reliability. In addition, ASP.NET uses these same concepts to enable developers to deliver software as a service. Using XML Web services features; ASP.NET developers can write their business logic and wee the ASP.NET infrastructure to deliver that service via SOAP. For more information, see Soap Community Links.
Server-side managed code
ASP.NET is the hosting environment that enables developers to wee the .NET Framework to target Web-based applications. However, ASP.NET is more than just a runtime host; it is a complete architecture for developing Web sites and Internet-distributed objects using managed code. Both Web Forms and XML Web services wee IIS and ASP.NET as the publishing mechanism for applications, and both have a collection of supporting classes in the .NET Framework. The application we will build is a simple data application with lookup and edit. We will build both a Windows and Web-based client to display the Authors table from the SQL Server Pubs sample database. For the Web portion, we will see the Web Forms Designer to create a Web page that is compatible with a standard HTML 3.2 browser. On the server, the Web Forms code will call an XML Web service to retrieve data that contains Authors information from the database. For the Windows portion, we will build a Windows application that will communicate with this same XML Web service to retrievea dataset containing the author information. Communication with the XML Web service is handled using HTTP and XML.
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ASP.NET is a managed framework that facilitates building server-side applications based on HTTP, HTML, XML and SOAP. To .NET developers, ASP.NET is a platform that provides onestop shopping for all application development that requires the processing of HTTP requests. ASP.NET is a compiled, .NET-based environment; you can author applications in any .NET compatible language, including Visual Basic .NET, C#, and JScript .NET. Additionally, the entire .NET Framework is available to any ASP.NET application. Developers can easily access the benefits of these technologies, which include the managed common language runtime environment, type safety, inheritance, and so on. ASP.NET is a web application framework developed and marketed by Microsoft to allow programmers to build dynamic web sites, web applications and web services. It was first released in January 2002 with version 1.0 of the .NET Framework, and is the successor to Microsoft's Active Server Pages (ASP) technology. ASP.NET is built on the Common Language Runtime (CLR), allowing programmers to write ASP.NET code using any supported .NET language.
The Following Diagrams explains in detail:-
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2.2 ASP.NET ARCHITECTURE
ASP.NET is based on the fundamental architecture of .NET Framework. Visual studio provides a uniform way to combine the various features of this Architecture.
Fig 3.5.2a 2.3 MICROSOFT SQL SERVER
Microsoft SQL Server is a full-featured relational database management system (RDBMS) that offers a variety of administrative tools to ease the burdens of database development, maintenance and administration. In this article, we'll cover six of the more frequently used tools: Enterprise Manager, Query Analyzer, SQL Profiler, Service Manager, Data Transformation Services and Books Online. 2.3.1 COMPONENTS OF SQL SERVER
Enterprise Manager : It is the main administrative console for SQL Server installations. It provides you with a graphical "birds-eye" view of all of the SQL Server installations on your network..
Query Analyzer : It offers a quick and dirty method for performing queries against any of your SQL Server databases. It's a great way to quickly pull information out of a database in response to a user request, test queries before implementing them in other applications, create/modify stored procedures and execute administrative tasks.
SQL Profiler: It provides a window into the inner workings of your database. You can monitor many different event types and observe database performance in real time. SQL Profiler allows you to capture and replay system "traces" that log various activities..
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Service Manager : It is used to control the MS-SQL Server (the main SQL Server process), MSDTC (Microsoft Distributed Transaction Coordinator) and SQL Server Agent processes. An icon for this service normally resides in the system tray of machines running SQL Server. You can use Service Manager to start, stop or pause any one of these services. Data Transformation Services (DTS) : It provides an extremely flexible method for importing and exporting data between a Microsoft SQL Server installation and a large variety of other formats. Books Online: Itis an often overlooked resource provided with SQL Server that contains answers to a variety of administrative, development and installation issues. It's a great resource to consult before turning to the Internet or technical support.
2.4 HTML (HYPERTEXT MARKUP LANGUAGE)
Internet media type
Type of format
HTML, an initialism of Hypertext Markup Language, is the predominant markup language for Web pages. It provides a means to describe the st ructure of text-based information in a document by denoting certain text as links , headings, paragraphs, lists, and so on - and to supplement that text with interactive forms, embedded images, and other objects. HTML is written in the form of tags, surrounded by angle brackets. HTML can also describe , to some degree, the appearance and semantics of a document, and can include embedded scripting language code (such as Ja vaScript) which can affect the behaviour of We b browsers and other HTML processors. Files and URLs containing HTML often have a .html or .htm filename extension.
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2.5 INTRODUCTION TO ADO.NET
ADO.NET consists of two primary parts: Data provider: These classes provide access to a data source, such as a Microsoft SQL Server or
Oracle database and OLEDB data provider. Each data source has its own set of provider objects, but they each have a common set of utility classes: Connection: Provides a connection used to communicate with the data source. Also acts as an
abstract factory for command objects. Command: Used to perform some action on the data source, such as reading, updating, or deleting
relational data. Parameter: Describes a single parameter to a command. A common example is a parameter to a
stored procedure. Data Adapter: A bridge used to transfer data between a data source and a Dataset object (see
below). Data Reader: Used to efficiently process a large list of results one record at a time. It allows
records to be accessed in a read-only, forward-only mode, i.e., records have to be accessed in sequential order; they can neither be randomly accessed nor can a record which has been processed previously be accessed again. Datasets
Dataset objects, a group of classes describing a simple in-memory relational database, were the star of the show in the initial release (1.0) of the Microsoft .NET Framework. The classes form a containment hierarchy: A DataSet object represents a schema (either an entire database or a subset of one). It can contain tables and relationships between those tables. A DataTable object represents a single table in the database. It has a name, rows, and columns. A DataView object "sits over" a DataTable and sorts the data (much like a SQL "order by" clause) and filters the records (much like a SQL "where" clause) if a filter is set. An in-memory index is used to facilitate these operations. All Data Tables have a default filter, while any number of additional Data Views can be defined, reducing interaction with the underlying database and thus improving performance. A DataColumn represents a column of the table, including its name and type. 10 | P a g e
A DataRow object represents a single row in the table, and allows reading and updating of the values in that row, as well as retrieving any rows that are related to it through a primary-key foreign-key relationship. A DataRowView represents a single row of a DataView. The distinction between a DataRow and Data Row View is important when iterating over a result set. A Data Relation is a relationship between tables, such as a primary-key foreign-key relationship. This is useful for enabling Data Row‟s functionality of retrieving related rows. A Constraint describes an enforced property of the database, such as the uniqueness of the values in a primary key column. As data is modified any violations that arise will cause exceptions.
2.6 SYSTEM DESIGN
is the process of developing specifications for a candidate system that meet the criteria
established in the system analysis. The plan of the project provides a review of the different modules in which the project is divided. The modules are designed and tested individually and then merged together to form an integrated project. ENTITIES 1) Fieldname with an asterix * shows the valid fields. 2) Fieldname underlined shows the foreign key usage
Interfaces are a common concept in object-oriented programming. From the Java documentation: In English, an interface is a device or a system that unrelated entities use to interact. According to this definition, a remote control is an interface between you and a television set, the English language is an interface between two people, and the protocol of behavior enforced in the military is the interface between people of different ranks. Within [an object-oriented] ... programming language, an interface ... is a device that unrelated objects use to interact with each other. An interface is probably most analogous to a protocol (an agreed on behavior). ... 11 | P a g e
You use an interface to define a protocol of behavior that can be implemented by any class anywhere in the class hierarchy. Interfaces are useful for the following: Capturing similarities among unrelated classes without artificially forcing a class relationship. Declaring methods that one or more classes are expected to implement. Revealing an object's programming interface without revealing its class. .NET provides an interface type that you can use to formally spell out a list of member signatures. Any class that implements an interface must implement the list of member signatures defined by the interface. This assists quality control by enforcing the class members to use the same names. It also assists flexibility by providing interface polymorphism, which is similar to polymorphism with base classes. Although an interface is similar to a base class, it is also very different. They are similar in that: Both provide structure to another class that uses them Both can be used for polymorphism Interfaces are different than base classes in that: A class can inherit only one base class, but it can implement many interfaces A base class can contain implementation, an interface cannot Interfaces can only contain Methods, Properties, Indexers, and Events. They cannot contain fields or constants (which are used for implementation)
One of the many benefits of object-oriented programming is that it allows for reuse of logic. For example, classes can be created that contain a base level of functionality. These base classes can then be extended through inheritance to create new classes that encompass the functionality of the base class along with any custom logic needed. The end result is that as a developer, once the base class has been created, you can extend and enhance the functionality of the base class with minimal effort. Since the .NET Framework is built upon the principles of object-oriented programming (OOP), it's no surprise that ASP.NET borrows heavily from the tenets of OOP, one such tenet being inheritance. The base functionality for all ASP.NET pages is spelled out by the Page class in the System.Web.UI namespace. This class defines the essential properties, methods, and events for an ASP.NET page, including such members as: 12 | P a g e
The intrinsic objects - Response, Request, Session, and so on, Common properties - IsPostBack, IsValid, and others, While all ASP.NET pages must be derived from the Page class, they need not be directly derived. That is, an ASP.NET page may extend a class that, itself, extends the Page class. In fact, when using the code-behind model for creating ASP.NET pages the actual ASP.NET page is derived from the code-behind class, with the code-behind class being derived from the Page class.
Stored procedures are extremely similar to the constructs seen in other programming languages. They accept data in the form of input parameters that are specified at execution time. These input parameters (if implemented) are utilized in the execution of a series of statements that produce some result. This result is returned to the calling environment through the use of a record set, output parameters and a return code. That may sound like a mouthful, but you‟ll find that stored procedures are actually quite simple.
Web form pages are HTTP-Based, they are stateless, which means th ey don‟t know whether the requests are all from the same client, and pages are destroyed and recreated with each round trip to the server, therefore information will be lost, therefore state management
Mainly there are two different ways to manage web page‟s state: Client-side state management:
There is no information maintained on the server between round trips. Information will be storedin the page or on the client‟s computer.
A cookie is a small amount of data stored either in a text file on the client's file system or inmemory in the client browser session. Cookies are mainly used for tracking data settings. Let‟s take an example: say we want to customize a welcome web page, when the user request the default web page, the application first detect if the user has login before, we can retrieve user information from the cookies. 13 | P a g e
A hidden field does not render visibly in the browser, but you can set its properties just as you can with a standard control. When a page is submitted to the server, the content of a hidden field is sent in the HTTP Form collection along with the values of other controls. A hidden field acts as a repository for any page-specific information that you would like to store directly in the page. Hidden field stores a single variable in its value property and must be explicitly added it to the page. ASP.NET provides the Html Input Hidden control that offers hidden field functionality.
Query strings provide a simple but limited way of maintaining some state information. You can easily pass information from one page to another, But most browsers and client devices impose a 255-character limit on the length of the URL. In addition, the query values are exposed to the Internet via the URL so in some cases security may be an issue. A URL with Query strings may look like this: http://www.examples.com/list.aspx?categoryid=1&productid=101
Session object can be used for storing session-specific information that needs to be maintained between server round trips and between requests for pages. Session object is per-client basis, which means different clients generate different session object. The ideal data to store in sessionstate
Each active ASP.NET session is identified and tracked using a 120-bit Session ID string containing URL-legal ASCII characters. Session ID values are generated using an algorithm that guarantees uniqueness so that sessions do not collide, and Session ID‟s randomness makes it harder
Session IDs are communicated across client-server requests either by an HTTP cookie or a modified
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Database enables you to store large amount of information pertaining to state in your Web application. Sometimes users continually query the database by using the unique ID, you can save it in the database for use across multiple request for the pages in your site.
As you saw in the Hello World example, controls are the building blocks of the web page‟s graphical user interface (GUI). Some controls that you are probably familiar with include buttons, checkboxes, and listboxes.Controls allows a user to indicate a preference, enter data, or make selections. They can also provide support for validation, data manipulation, and security, or help to ensure a uniform look and feel to the application. There are several types of web controls:
The original controls available to any HTML page, such as input (for entering data), a (anchor), div (for separating and applying format to a section), and more. These all work in ASP.NET exactly as they work in other web pages. 15 | P a g e
ASP.NET server controls
Microsoft created the ASP.NET server controls to accomplish two complementary aims. The first was to “normalize” the HTML controls so that the programme would have a more consistent interaction with the control; the second was to add an extensive and rich set of powerful controls such as data grids, calendars, ad rotators, and more.
ASP.NET AJAX server controls
ASP.NET AJAX server controls enjoy all the benefits of ASP.NET server controls, such as dragand-drop operation and a declarative programming model. However, they also include added client-side functionality, helping you to create a smooth and snappy user interface.
The heart of ASP.NET programming is the ASP.NET server control. With the exception of tables, the traditional HTML controls are replaced by their equivalent ASP.NET controls, both for convenience and flexibility. For example, instead of using a traditional HTML input control, you will use instead an ASP.NET TextBoxcontrol. In addition to standard form elements, such as text boxes, labels, buttons, and checkboxes, ASP.NET controls include several broad categories that provide rich functionality with very little code. These include: Validation controls Often, a given field requires a specific format or range of data to be valid. Many of these validation routines are similar and used in many placesMicrosoft provides a full range of built-in validation controls. Chapter 5 discusses these controls in detail. Data source controls Data binding to a variety of data sources, including Microsoft SQL Server and Access, and other relational databases, XML files, and classes implemented in code.
Data view controls
Various types of lists and tables that can bind to a data source for display and editing. Login & security controls Allow users to personalize their view of a site, including rearrangement of the Page it. User information can be saved automatically and transparently. 16 | P a g e
CHAPTER-3 INTRODUCTION TO THE PROJECT 3.1 PROJECT TITLE: ONLINE TEST FOR CERTIFICATION
An Online Test is one wherein a student answers, questions of the test online. The submitted answers are evaluated by the Test software and the results are available immediately. This saves the evaluation time. Besides this a large amount of details like Test trends can be made available immediately if required. The Online Test Software has several modules in it . Practically for a system to be used on the internet it will have the students details module, student authorization module, subjects and questions management, question paper management, evaluation system and generation of results as well as student answer books. The Online Test are well suited for multiple choice type questions. Here a question is given and the student has to select the correct answer out of the four given choices. A typical question is shown in the introduction. After the student finishes answering the question paper he submits it by clicking on the submit button. The software then processes the answers and awards the marks depending on the marking scheme of the software, usually one mark is awarded for a correct answer and zero for a wrong one, but in some cases negative marks may also be awarded for a wrong answer. As soon as the student submits the answers, the administrator of the system can get the results instantly and depending on the features several other data as well. This may include the overall trends of the test, the time taken by the student to answer, the number of students passing in each section of a particular subjects and so on.
3.2 REQUIREMENTS OF THE CLIENT:
Man-less interface should be designed which can perform with directions all the time i.e. 24*7. The interface should be available to all with certain level of access restrictions like user cannot have access to the administrator‟s data. Every single individual gets the knowledge according to the specified course and test only. Big organization can manage their users at their end.
3.3 KEY FEATURES OF SOLUTION:
The solution designed for the client will be a web based portal accessible anywhere anytime and by anybody. The knowledge base should be unlimited. Restricted and facilitated access to all or selected i.e. some data is only accessible to administrator. Division of admin work at different organizations
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3.4 DESIGN OF THE SOLUTION:
While designing the solution according to the requirements of the client we make the following five modules of our project:
ADMIN CONSOLE WEB INTERFACE ORGANIZATION LOGIN END USER LOGIN MIS(Management Information System) 3.4.1 ADMIN CONSOLE: This module provides the information used by the company. Admin console includes all the other modules like: a) Web content- It contains information about company policy, terms & conditions, mission/vision, contact of the company and feedback. b) Regional content- It contains information about countries, states, cities and educational organizations. c) Course content- It contains Q/A, videos, images, assignment sheets, tests of the respective courses and subjects. d) Packages – The packages can be single organization package and test package(user packages).
3.4.2 WEB INTERFACE: This is the presentation or advertisement layer of the project and is accessible to all. It contains the following content: a) Homepage – This page contains the list of offered courses , number of registered users , new courses added , new packages added link to demo/test/content. b) Information layer – It contains about us page, company contact, mission/vision of the company. c) Content layer- It contains the index of countries, index of courses and tests, take a demo. d) Registration layer- It contains index of plans, payment methods, registration form. 3.4.3 ORGANIZATION LOGIN: This is the login of the organization on the company website. It contains: a) The number of unregistered users. b) The number of registered users and their validity period. c) Users registration. d) Links to all user‟s content e) Group reporting i.e. student browsing history, test results, certificate generation and email results to users.
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3.4.4 END USER LOGIN: This is the end user login i.e. the content available on the end- user‟s page: a) Login valid up to (time period).
b) c) d) e) f) g) h) i)
Number of test credits available. Number of tests already appeared. New content added (links). Profile picture. Download option (related to user course and test). View contents (related to user added subjects). Appear for test (related subjects). View results history.
3.4.5 MIS: A management information system (MIS) is a system that provides information needed to manage organizations effectively.Management information systems are distinct from regular information systems in that they are used to analyze other information systems applied in operational activities in the organization. MIS consists of: a) Pi chart (max or min usage in countries etc, max or min usage of which course, test etc.) b) Bar chart (max or min usage in countries etc, max or min usage of course, test etc.)
3.5 TYPE OF TEST:3.5.1 Sample Test:This Test contains some questions which the students have to complete within 10 minutes and this test is also known as demo test. 3.5.2 Premium Test:In this the organization prepares the Test for the user in which he /she has to attempt within time duration fixed.
3.6 ADVANTAGES OF ONLINE TEST The various advantages of online Tests are as follows:
Physical presence at a given location is absolutely not necessary.
No time is spent on evaluation.
Results are available instantly.
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The time of starting and completion of Test can be recorded at the server and the student cannot manipulate the same
Even for subjects that the actual Test that will not be conducted online students can be given extensive practice and training by holding online Mock Tests.
Almost all competitive exams are multiple choice types and these can be easily conducted online, for example GCET - Goa Common Entrance Test held to shortlist candidates for medical and engineering courses.
3.7 MAJOR ACTIVITIES OF NEW PROPOSED SYSTEM: All the required information is available on one screen. 3.7.1
Everything is stored in the computer database, so it is easy to update. 3.7.2
Time and retrieval of data:-
Retrieval of information is not time consuming because data is stored in computer and computer is made to work faster. 3.7.3
No storage problem:In computers a data is stored in for long period as many as you want so no damage of data with time, due to any environmental factors.
No wastage of stationary:-
While storing the data in the computers there is no need of stationary.
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3.8 HARDWARE REQUIREMENTS: 3.8.1 3.8.2 3.8.3 3.8.4
Pentium IV processor,2.66GHz or above. System with RAM of 2GB. Minimum of 20GB Hard Disk Space. Colored Monitor with a Pointing device.
3.9 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENTS: 3.9.1 Front end: Asp.Net 3.9.2 Back end: Microsoft SQL Server 2008 3.9.3 Platform used: Microsoft Window XP/ Windows 7 3.9.4 Web Browser: IE6.0,7.0 , Mozilla or Chrome.
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Student/Professio MIS nal Login
Pending User Information
Pending/Unu sed Credits
Regions 1. 2. 3. 4.
Country Setup State Setup City Setup Educational Organization Setup
Contents 1. 2. 3. 4. 5.
Course Setup Subject Setup Q/A Setup Tutorials Videos/Links
Packages 1. Organization Package 2. User Package 3. Test Package Web Content 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
History Mission Expertise FAQs About Us Contact Us
Login Validations 1. Organization Validation 2. User validation
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1. 2. 3. 4. 5. 6.
History Mission Expertise FAQs About Us Contact Us
Professional Information 1. Linked Educational Organization List 2. Courses Offered List 3. Package Selection Help 4. Package Selection List 5. Registration Form Demo 1. Demo Content 2. Demo Test 3. Demo Videos/Links 4. Demo Tutorials
Assign User Assign Package
View Records of Registered Users 1. Test Result Basis 2. Content Record Basis Re-buy Package
About Access Packages and Courses 1. For Organization Packages 2. For User Packages 3. For Test Packages 4. For Downloads
1. Test Selection List 2. Take Test About Content 3. Test Check and and Tests Marks 1. Acc. to Obtained marks obtained in Videos/Tutor tests by users ials Download
Previous Test History
CHAPTER-4 MODULAR DESCRIPTION OF THE PROJECT 4.1 FEASIBILITY STUDY After recognizing the need of the system, a feasibility study is conducted to test the system proposal according to its workability, effect on the organization, ability to meet the user needs and effective use of resources. The objective is not to solve the problem but to acquire a since of its scope, during the problem, definition have been crystallized, the estimation of cost and benefits will be estimated.
4.1.1 The proposal summarizes what is going to be done. It consists of the following: a) STATEMENT OF THE PROBLEM: - The Result calculation which is being done manually at present. b) SUMMARY OF FINDINGS AND RECOMMENDATIONS: - The major objective while studying the problem undertaken, including finding about the working methodologies of the college.
4.1.2 Recommendations in my subject are A) The project would be very simple and user friendly package and would be easy to handle by an operator who does not have enough knowledge about the internal routines and procedures used. Also the depot would be able to use it for looking up for the details of the students including the information required by the any person and save its time. B) A backup would be maintained to be used incase of any failures of original data so there is no problem for the customer as well as the depot authorities.
In the conduct of the feasibility study, the analyst will usually consider seven distinct, but interrelated types of feasibility. They are: 1.
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This is concerned with specifying equipment and software that will successfully satisfy the user requirement. The technical needs of the system may vary considerably, but might include:
The facility to produce outputs in a given time.
Response time under certain conditions.
Ability to process a certain volume of transaction at a particular speed.
Facility to communicate data to distant location.
In examining technical feasibility, configuration of the system is given more importance than the actual make of hardware. The configuration should give the complete picture about the system's requirements: How many workstations are required, how these units are interconnected so that they could operate and communicate smoothly. What speeds of input and out- put should be achieved at particular quality of printing. This can be used as a basis for the tender document against which dealers and manufacturers can later make their equipment bids. Specific hardware and software products can then be evaluated keeping in view with the logical needs. At the feasibility stage, it is desirable that two or three different configurations will be pursued that satisfy the key technical requirements but which represent different levels of ambition and cost. Investigation of these technical alternatives can be aided by approaching a range ofsuppliers for preliminary discussions. Out of all types of feasibility, technical feasibility generally is the most difficult to determine. As in this system, we have to develop a client-server application on the web, so java is the best option for such an application. Here we can add no. of clients to the server without much affecting the speed of the system.
It is mainly related to human organizational and political aspects. The points to be considered are:
What changes will be brought with the system?
What organizational structures are disturbed?
What new skills will be required?
If not, can they be trained in due course of time?
Generally project will not be rejected simply because of operational infeasibility but such considerations are likely to critically affect the nature and scope of the eventual recommendations. This feasibility study is carried out by a small group of people who are familiar with in- formation system techniques, who understand the parts of the business that are relevant to the project and are skilled in system analysis and design process.
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The Employee Management Matrix system is very easy to operate. It is very user friendly and no one will face any problem from switching manual system to this web based application.
Economic analysis is the most frequently used technique for evaluating the effectiveness of a proposed system. More commonly known as cost / benefit analysis; the procedure is to determine the benefits and savings that are expected from a proposed system and compare them with costs. If benefits outweigh costs, a decision is taken to design and implement the system. Otherwise, further justification or alternative in the proposed system will have to be made if it is to have achance of being approved. This is an ongoing effort that improves in accuracy at each phase of the system life cycle.
Social feasibility is a determination of whether a proposed project will be acceptable to the people or not. This determination typically examines the probability of the project being accepted by the group directly affected by the proposed system change. As Employee Management Matrix system is very user friendly, so people will accept it without any problem.
It is a determination of whether a proposed project will be acceptable to management. If management does not accept a project or gives a negligible support to it, the analyst will tend to view the project as a non-feasible one. The Employee Management Matrix System is very useful for the managerial level. They can come to know about the status of employees working on project by just clicking a link. Also they can check that they have what number of employees of a particular skill set.
Legal feasibility is a determination of whether a proposed project infringes on known Acts, Statutes, as well as any pending legislation. Although in some instances the project might appear sound, on closer investigation it may be found to infringe on several legal areas.
Time feasibility is a determination of whether a proposed project can be implemented fully within a stipulated time frame. If a project takes too much time it is likely to be rejected.
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4.2 SOFTWARE REQUIREMENT SPECIFICATION The software specification is produced at the culmination of the analysis task. The function and performance allocated to software as a peat of system engineering are refined by establishing a complete information description, a detailed functional description, a representation of a system behavior, an indication criteria and other information pertinent to requirement. The introduction to software requirement specification state the goals and objective of the software, describing it in the context of the computer based system. This information description provides a detailed description of the problem that the software must solve. Information content, flow and the structure are documented.A description of each function required to solve the problem is presented in the functional description. A validation criterion is probably the important and ironically the most often neglected section of the software requirement specification. A requirement is a “function or characteristic of a system that is necessary…the quantifiable and verifiable behaviors that a system must possess and constraints that a system must work within to satisfy an organization‟s objectives and solve a set of problems”.
4.2.1 REQUIREMENTS ARE CLASSIFIED AS FOLLOWS: 184.108.40.206 Functional Requirements
Functional requirements define the fundamental actions that must take place in the software in accepting and processing the inputs and in processing and generating the outputs. These are generally listed, as “shall” statements starting with “The system shall… These include :
Validity checks on the inputs Exact sequence of operations Responses to abnormal situation, including a) Overflow b) Communication facilities c) Error handling and recovery
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Effect of parameters Relationship of outputs to inputs, including a) Input/output sequences b) Formulas for input to output conversion
220.127.116.11 Nonfunctional requirements
In systems engineering and requirements engineering, non-functional requirements are requirements, which specify criteria that can be used to judge the operation of a system, rather than specific behaviors. This should be contrasted with functional requirements that specify specific behavior or functions. Non-functional requirements are often called qualities of a system. Other terms for non-functional requirements a re “constraints”, “quality attributes”, “quality goals” and “quality of service requirements”. Non-functional requirements can be divided into two main categories.
Execution qualities, such as security and usability, are observable at run time. Evolution qualities, such as extensibility and scalability, embody in the static structure of the software system.
4.3 REQUIREMENT PROCESS 4.3.1 Requirement Elicitation
This concerned with where software requirements come from and how the software engineer can collect them. It includes requirement sources and elicitation techniques. Activities
Elicit requirements from various individual sources;
Insure that the needs of all users are consistent and feasible; and
Validate that the requirements so derived are an accurate reflection of user
4.3.2 Requirement Analysis
The very purpose of the analysis is to identify the requirements in a complete, accurate, consistent, and unambiguous manner. Activities
Detect and resolve conflicts between requirements
Discover the bounds of the software and how it must interact with its environment
Elaborate system requirements to software requirements.
4.3.3 Requirement Specification
Requirements specification typically refers to the production of a document, or its electronic equivalent, that can be systematically reviewed, evaluated, and approved. For complex systems,
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particularly those involving substantial non-software components, as many as three different types of documents are produced: 1.
System requirements specification, and
Software requirements specification.
Preparation of SRS from the requirements collected
4.3.4 Requirement Validation
Requirements validation is concerned with the process of examining the requirements documents to ensure that they are defining the right system (that is, the system that the user expects). It is subdivided into descriptions of the conduct of requirements reviews, prototyping, and model validation and acceptance tests. Activities
Conduct Review Meetings
Closing Issues identified in the review meeting
Approval & Kick off
4.3.5 Changes Request Management
On receive of any change list from the client or stakeholders that has to be discussed and reviewed with the team. Activities
Analysis major and minor changes
Made corrections in the SRS on approval of CCB.
4.4 DATA FLOW DIAGRAM A data-flow diagram (DFD) is a graphical representation of the "flow" of data through an information system. DFDs can also be used for the visualization of data processing (structured design). On a DFD, data items flow from an external data source or an internal data store to an internal data store or an external data sink, via an internal process. A DFD provides no information about the timing or ordering of processes, or about whether processes will operate in sequence or in parallel. It is therefore quite different from a flowchart, which shows the flow of control through an algorithm, allowing a reader to determine what operations will be performed, in what order, and under what circumstances, but not what kinds of 28 | P a g e
data will be input to and output from the system, nor where the data will come from and go to, nor where the data will be stored (all of which are shown on a DFD). In the course of developing a set of levelled data-flow diagrams the analyst/designers is forced to address how the system may be decomposed into component sub-systems, and to identify the transaction data in the data model. There are different notations to draw data-flow diagrams, defining different visual representations [ for processes, data stores, data flow, and external entities. Data flow diagram ("bubble charts") are directed graphs in which the nodes specify processing activities and the arcs specify data items transmitted between processing nodes. Developing a data-flow diagram:
Data-flow diagram example:
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Level Zero (DFD)
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Level -1 (DFD)
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Level-2 Test Organization
About us Contact
1.2 Regional Content
1.1 Web Content
1.3 Course Content
1.0 Admin console Org charges
1.4 User Validations
1.5 Charge Setup
Individual user charges
Org Test Packages Communication
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Link to content
Number of registered user
List of courses
New Packages Added
Demo Test Home Page
How to join
Index of Plan
2.0 Registration layer
Index of countries
Index of subjects
Index of Syllabus
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CHAPTER -5 SCREEN SHOTS 5.1 ADMIN PORTAL
5.1.1 ADMIN LOGIN
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5.1.2 ADMIN HOME
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5.1.3 ADMIN COUNTRY
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5.1.4 ADMIN STATE
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5.1.5 ADMIN CITY
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5.1.6 ORGANISATION TYPE
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5.1.7 ORGANISATION DETAIL
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5.1.10 QUESTION ANSWER SETUP
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5.1.11 TEST DETAILS
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5.1.13 ADMIN ABOUT US
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5.1.14 ADMIN CONTACT US
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5.1.15 FAQ SETUP
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5.2 WEB PORTAL 5.2.1 USER LOGIN
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5.2.2 REGISTRATION FORM
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5.2.3 HOME PAGE
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5.2.4 ABOUT US
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5.2.5 VIEW COMPANY AND PACKAGES
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52.11 ONLINE REGISTRATION
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5.2.12 ONLINE PAYMENT
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5.2.13 CONTACT US
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CHAPTER-6 INTRODUCTION TO SQL SERVER 6.1 INTRODUCTION TO SQL SERVER SQL server is an SQL-compliant RDBMS. SQL_compliant means it use the ANSI(American National Standard Institute)version of Structured Query Language or SQL. Structured Query Language is a command that allow us to modify or retrieve information from the database. Client Server means that SQL Server is designed to store data in the central location (the Server) and deliver it on demand to numerous other locations (the Client). SQL server is also a RDBMS (Relational Database Management System).
6.2 NEW FEATURES IN SQL SERVER 2005/2008:
6.2.1 T-SQL (Transaction SQL) enhancements
T-SQL is the native set-based RDBMS programming language offering high-performance data access. It now incorporates many new features including error handling via the TRY and CATCH paradigm, Common Table Expressions (CTEs), which return a record set in a statement, and the ability to shift columns to rows and vice versa with the PIVOT and UNPIVOT commands. 6.2.2 CLR(Common Language Runtime)
The next major enhancement in SQL Server 2005/2008 is the integration of a .NET compliant language such as C#, ASP.NET or VB.NET to build objects (stored procedures, triggers, functions, etc.). This enables 6.2.3 Service Broker
The Service Broker handles messaging between a sender and receiver in a loosely coupled manner. A message is sent, processed and responded to, completing the transaction. This greatly expands the capabilities of data-driven applications to meet workflow or custom business needs 6.2.4 Data encryption
SQL Server 2000 had no documented or publicly supported functions to encrypt data in a table natively. Organizations had to rely on third-party products to address this need. SQL Server 2008 has native capabilities to support encryption of data stored in user-defined databases. 6.2.5 SMTP mail
Sending mail directly from SQL Server 2000 is possible, but challenging. With SQL Server 2005, Microsoft incorporates SMTP mail to improve the native mail capabilities. Say "see-ya" to Outlook on SQL Server!
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You can easily create HTTP endpoints via a simple T-SQL statement exposing an object that can be accessed over the Internet. This allows a simple object to be called across the Internet for the needed data. 6.2.7
Multiple Active Result Sets(MARS)
MARS allow a persistent database connection from a single client to have more than one active request per connection. This should be a major performance improvement, allowing developers to give users new capabilities when working with SQL Server. For example, it allows multiple searches, or a search and data entry. The bottom line is that one client connection can have multiple active processes simultaneously. 6.2.8
Dedicated administrator connection
If all else fails, stop the SQL Server service or push the power button. That mentality is finished with the dedicated administrator connection. This functionality will allow a DBA to make a single diagnostic connection to SQL Server even if the server is having an issue 6.2.9
SQLServer Integration Services(SSIS)
SSIS has replaced DTS (Data Transformation Services) as the primary ETL (Extraction, Transformation and Loading) tool and ships with SQL Server free of charge. This tool, completely rewritten since SQL Server 2000, now has a great deal of flexibility to address complex data movement. 6.2.10 Database mirroring
It's not expected to be released with SQL Server 2005 at the RTM in November, but I think this feature has great potential. Database mirroring is an extension of the native highavailability capabilities.
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CHAPTER-7 DATA BASE DESIGN 7.1 REGISTRATION
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7.4 ORGANISATION TYPE
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7.5 ORGANISATION DETAIL
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7.8 QUESTION ANSWER SETUP
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7.9 TEST DETAIL
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7.11 ABOUT US
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7.1 2 CONTACT US
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CHAPTER-8 TESTING PRODUCT: A product is universally applicable. APPLICATION: An application is user(s) or group(s) of user(s) specific. TESTING: To check / to verify the functionality and specifications. QUALITY: To Validate / to ensure / to certify that the product/application is free from bugs.
8.1 Black Box Testing (Opaque / Closed Box / Functional Behavioral)
Testing without looking at the code of the application.
Testing on the basis of functional specifications.
Testing from end user point i.e. the real user.
Testing when the application is in running mode.
8.2 White Box Testing (Glass / Structural / Open box)
Code based testing of the Product / Application.
Typically done by developers having the testing experience.
8.3 SOFTWARE TESTING LIFE CYCLE (STLC)
Test effort estimation. : To study current process followed by client in development / testing.
System Study / FRS (Functional and Requirement Specifications). Sp ecifications).
Re – estimate estimate the efforts which may differ from preliminary estimate. Re – estimation. : Re –
stop – Test plan: Specifies testing methodologies / strategies / pass – fail criteria / scope / stop – resumption criteria / resources / scheduling / Risk Analysis. Design and document: To identify unit functions. Test Cases: Design test cases to cover functionality / Usability / Performance / Scalability / Security etc. Conduct tests and report defects / bugs: Tests are executed and identified defects are classified and reported using defect-tracking tool. To verify fix/failure of bugs: Reported bugs are verified as successfully fixed or not. Regression testing: Testing earlier logged and fixed bugs to verify if any of them is reopening or not and if the fixing of reported bugs has effected any other area/part/portion of the product / application. Or not.
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Stress / Load testing: To test the functionality of the application/software under heavy stress/ load. Stability Analysis: Once the testing is complete, product‟s stability and quality information is provided. Test summary reports: The report summarizes the testing efforts and outputs.
8.4 TYPES OF TESTING
User Acceptance Testing: In this type of testing, the software is handed over to the user in order to find out if the software meets the user expectations and works as it is expected to. Alpha Testing: In this type of testing, the users are invited at the development center where they use the application and the developers note every particular input or action carried out by the user. Any type of abnormal behavior of the system is noted and rectified by the developers. Beta Testing: In this type of testing, the software is distributed as a beta version to the users and users test the application at their sites. As the users explore the software, in case if any exception/defect occurs that is reported to the developers. Smoke Testing: This type of testing is done in order to check if the application is ready for further major testing and is working properly without failing up to least expected level. Unit Testing: Starting from the bottom the first test level is "Unit Testing", sometimes called “Component Testing”. It involves checking that each feature specified in the "Component Design" has been implemented in the component. Integration Testing:As the components/ modules are constructed and tested they are then linked together to check if they work with each other. It is a fact that two components/modules that have passed all their tests, when connected to each other produce one new component full of faults. These tests can be done by specialists, or by the developers.
Integration Testing is not focused on what the components/modules are doing but on how they communicate with each other, as specified in the "System Design". The "System Design" defines relationships between components/modules.
System Testing: Once the entire system has been built then it has to be tested against the "System Specification" to check if it delivers the features required. It is still developer focused, although specialist developers known as systems testers are normally employed to do it.
In essence System Testing is not about checking the individual parts of the design, but about checking the system as a whole. In effect it is one giant component.
Regression Testing: The term "regression testing" can be applied in two ways. First Way, when a code problem has been fixed, a regression test runs tests to verify that the defect is in fact fixed; "Imagine finding an error, fixing it, and repeating the test that exposed the problem in the first place. This is a regression test"
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Second Way, regression testing is the counterpart of integration testing: when new code is added to existing code, regression testing verifies that the existing code continues to work correctly, whereas integration testing verifies that the new code works as expected. Regression testing can describes the process of testing new code to verify that this new code hasn't broken any old code.
Usability Testing: This testing is also called as „Testing for User-Friendliness‟. This testing is done if User Interface of the application stands an important consideration and needs to be specific for the specific type of user. Security Testing : Determine how well your system protects against unauthorized internal or external access or willful damage Stress Testing: The application is tested against heavy load such as complex numerical values, large number of inputs, large number of queries etc. which checks for the stress/load the applications can withstand. Load Testing: The application is tested against heavy loads or inputs such as testing of web sites in order to find out at what point the web-site/application fails or at what point its performance degrades. Recovery Testing: Recovery testing is basically done in order to check how fast and better the application can recover against any type of crash or hardware failure etc. Type or extent of recovery is specified in the requirement specifications.
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CHAPTER-9 IMPLEMENTATION 9.1 INTRODUCTION: Implementation is the stage in the project where the theoretical design is turned into the working system and is giving confidence to the new system for the users i.e. will work efficiently and effectively. It involves careful planning, investigation of the current system and its constraints on implementation, design of method to achieve the change over, an evaluation, of change over methods. A part from planning major task of preparing the implementation is education of users. The more complex system is implemented, the more involved will be the system analysis and design effort required just for implementation. An implementation coordinating committee based on policies of individual organization has been appointed. The implementation process begins with preparing a plan for the implementation for the system. According to this plan, the activities are to be carried out, discussions may regarding the equipment has to be acquired to implement the new system. Implementation is the final and important phase. The most critical stage is in achieving a successful new system and in giving the users confidence that the new system will work and be effective. The system can be implemented only after thorough testing is done and if it found to working according to the specification. This method also offers the greatest security since the old system can take over if the errors are found or inability to handle certain types of transaction while using the new system. At the beginning of the development phase a preliminary implementation plan is created to schedule and manage the many different activities that must be integrated into plan. The implementation plan is updated throughout the development phase, culminating in a change over plan for the operation phase. The major elements of implementation plan are test plan, training plan, equipment installation plan, and a conversion plan. There Are Three Types Of Implementation:
1. Implementation of a computer system to replace a manual system. 2. Implementation of a new computer system to replace an existing system. 3. Implementation of a modified application to replace an existing one, using the same computer. Successful implementation may not guarantee improvement in the organization using the new system, but improper installation will prevent it. It has been observed that even the best system cannot show good result if the analysts managing the implementation do not attend to every important detail. This is an area where the systems analysts need to work with utmost care.
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Training Of Personnel Involved With System
Even well designed system can succeed or fail because of the way they are operated and used. Therefore, the quality of training received by the personal involved with the system in various capacities helps or hinders and may even prevent the successful implementation of management information system. Those who are directly or indirectly related with the system development work must know in detail what must know in detail what their roles will be, how they can make efficient use of the system and what the system will or will not do for them. Both system operators and users need training.
System Operators Training
Running of the system successfully depend on the personnel working in the Computer Centre. They are Responsible for providing the necessary support. Their training must ensure that they are able to handle all possible operations, both routine and extra-ordinary in nature. If the system calls for the installation of new equipment, such as new computer system, special terminals or different data entry machines, the operators training should include such fundamentals as how to turn the equipment on and use it, how to power off and a knowledge of what constitutes normal operations. The operators should also be trained on different type of malfunctioning, how to recognize them and what steps should also be taken whenever they arise.
User may be trained on use equipment, particularly in the case where, e.g. a micro computer is in use and individual involved is both operator and user. In such cases, user must be given training on how to operate and user. In such cases, user must be given training on how to operator the system also. Questions that may be trivial to the analyst, such as how to turn on a terminal, how to insert a diskette into a micro-computer or when it is safe to turn off equipment with out danger of data loss are significant problems to new users who are not familiar. Inmost of the cases user training deals with the operation of the system itself, with proper attention given to data handling techniques. It is imperative that users be properly trained in methods of entering transaction, editing data, formulating inquiries, deleting and inserting of records. No training is complete without familiarizing users with simple systems 78 | P a g e
maintenance activities. Weakness in any aspect of training may lead of awkward situation that creates user frustration and error. Conversion Methods
A conversion is the process of changing from the old system to the new one. It must be properly planned and executed. Four methods are common in use. They are Parallel Systems, Direct Conversion, Pilot System and Phase In method. Each method should be considered in the light of the opportunities that it offers and problems that it may create. In general, system conversion should be accomplished in shortest possible time. Long conversion periods create problems for all persons involved including both analysts and users.
The most secure method of converting from an old to new system is to run both systems in parallel. This method is safest one because it ensures that in case of any problem in using new system, the organization can still fall back to the old system without the loss of time and money.
The Disadvantages Of Parallel Systems Approach Are:
It doubles operating costs.
The new system may not get fair trial.
This method converts from the old system to new system abruptly, sometimes over a weekend or even overnight. The old system is used until a planned conversion day, when it is replaced by the new system.
Pilot approach is often preferred in the case of the new system which involves new techniques or some drastic changes in organization performance. In this method, a working version of the system is implemented in one part of the organization, such as a single work area or department.
Phase – IN- method:
This method is used when it is not possible to install a new system throughout an organization all at once.
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9.3 POST IMPLEMENTATION REVIEW
After the system is implemented and conversion is complete, a review should be conducted to determine whether the system is meeting expectations and where improvements are needed. A post implementation review measures the systems performance against predefined requirement. It determines how well the system continues to meet the performance specifications.
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