O’Leary and Creswell Chapter Two

November 9, 2018 | Author: Lindsay R. Calhoun | Category: Hypothesis, Quantitative Research, Question, Qualitative Research, Prediction
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O’Leary Chapter O’Leary Chapter Two Two Creswell Chapter Six Research Questions

O’Leary Chapter Two Problems=opportunities, potentialities rather than simply obstacles, impediments, dilemmas.  Definition of Problem: A situation where there is a gap between what is real and what is ideal or desired.  Problems suitable for research are problems where you can make a difference. 

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Steps in researching problems Draw on own knowledge and experience  Read 

Stakeholder analysis and needs identification Identify the scope/extent/# of people/organizations people/organizations likely to be

1 adversely affected  2 causal to a problem situation s ituation 

3 involved in potential problem alleviation

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Stakeholder analysis continued Find out whether, how, why problem at hand is seen as an issue or priority issue by various stakeholder groups  Recognize that even within various stakeholder groups there can be a diversity of  attitudes and opintions 

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Unpack problems: Before any problem is approached through research it is essential for researchers to critically explore the assumptions that underpin the natuer of the problem at hand. They also need to understand how they, as researchers, have come to understand a particular problem situation

O’Leary Chapter two Explore the dominant world view  Explore your own perspectives 

Explore range of perspectives held by various stakeholders. 

Box 2.2 example p. 31

O’Leary Chapter Two 

From Problems to Research Questions A well developed research question is an essential starting point for the research  journey  Without clear articulation of your research question, you are traveling blind. 

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Research Questions: Define an investigation  Set boundaries 

Provide direction  Act as a frame of reference for assessing your  work. 

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Developing the Question 

Briefly respond to the following questions What is your topic? What is the context for your research? 

What do you want to achieve? What is the nature of your question? 

Are there any potential relationships you want to explore?

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Developing the Question continued: Using who, what, where, when, why, how and the answers from step one, piece together a question  If you have developed more than one question, decide whether you need to select one or more questions and make that selection 

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Developing the Question continued Narrow and clarify until your question is i s as concise and well articulated as possible.  Assess the question(s) in relation to the question checklist 

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Question checklist Is the question right for you?  Does the question have significance for an organization, institution, group, field, community,etc.  Can it lead to tangible situation improvement? im provement?  Is the question well articulated?  Is the question researchable?  Does the question have a level of political support? 

O’Leary Chapter Two Hypotheses: The role of a hypothesis is to take your research question a step further by offering a clear and concise statement of what w hat you think you will find in relation to your variables, and what you are is a tentative are going to test. It is tentative proposition that is subject to verification through subsequent investigation  A hypothesis is designed to express relationships between variables so not all research questions will have hypotheses. 

O’Leary Chapter Two 

Do not develop hypotheses if: You do not have a hunch or educated guess about a particular situation  You do not have a set of defined variables  Your question aims to explore the experience of some phenomena  Your question centers on developing rich understandings of a group  Your aim is to engage in, and research the process of collaborative change. 

Creswell Chapter Six 

Qualitative Research Questions Generally more broad than quantitative questions  Utilize a central broad question and more specific subquestions.  Ask one or two central question with five to seven subquestions (no more than a dozen)  Relate the central question to the specific qualitative strategy of inquiry. 

Creswell: Chapter Six 

Qualitative Questions continued Begin research questions with “what” or “how” to convey and open and emerging design  Focus on a single phenomenon or concept  Use exploratory verbs: discover, seek, describe, explore…  Use nondirectional language language i.e., avoid terms such as “affect,” “influence,” “cause,”  Questions will evolve throughout study  Use open-ended questions with theory/literature  Specify participants and research site if necessary 

Creswell: Chapter Six 

Quantitative Questions Includes both questions and hypotheses designed to shape and specifically focus the purpose of the study. Interrogative statements and questions that the investigator  seeks to answer.  Hypotheses are predictions the researcher  holds about the relationship among variables. 

Creswell: Chapter Six 

The use of variables in research questions or hypotheses is typically limited to three basic approaches Compare groups on an independent variable to see its impact on a dependent variable  Relate one or more independent variables to a dependent variable  Describe responses to the independent, mediating, or dependent variables. 

Creswell: Chapter Six 

Quantitative Research Questions Continued… To add rigor, test a theory and specify research questions and hypotheses that are included in the theory  Independent and dependent dependent variables var iables must be measured separately  To eliminate redundancy, write only research questions or hypotheses, not both, unless the hypotheses build on the research questions 

Creswell: Chapter Six 

Quantitative Research Questions 

If hypotheses are used: there are two forms Null hypothesis: represents the traditional approach to writing hypotheses. It makes a prediction that in the general population, no relationship or difference exists between groups on a variable.

The wording is: “There is no difference (or relationship…) between the groups…

Creswell: Chapter Six 

Quantitative Research Questions continued… 

Hypotheses continued… 

Alternative hypothesis: The investigator makes a prediction about the expected outcome for the population of a study Directional hypothesis: “Scores will be higher for Group A than for Group B” on the dependent variable variable or “Group A will change more than Group Group B” on the outcome. In these examples, examples, an expected prediction is made  Nondirectional hypotheses: hypotheses: a prediction is made, but the exact form of differences is not specified because the researcher  does not know know what what can be predicted from past literature. literature. i.e., “there is a difference” between the two groups… 

Creswell: Chapter Six Quantitative Research Questions continued…  Use nondemographic variables (measuring attitudes and behaviors) as independent variables unless the study intentionally employs demographic variables as predictors…  Use the same word pattern 

Creswell: Chapter Six 

Descriptive Questions and inferential questions Write descriptive questions followed by inferential questions…  What are the differences? See page 113 

Creswell: Chapter Six 

Mixed Methods Need to include both quantitative and qualitative questions  Need to incorporate elements of good questions and hypotheses already addressed  Some attention should be given to whether  project is one-phase or multi-phase and then to the order of the questions 

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