o Level Worksheets PHYSICS.

August 27, 2017 | Author: ChaudhryAbdullah | Category: Mass, Speed, Density, Velocity, Acceleration

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PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Vernier calipers read to one tenth of a millimetre. Which reading shows this precision? A 3.3 cm

B 3.31 cm

C 3.310 cm

D 3.312 cm

2- The diagram shows a micrometer scale.

Which reading is shown? A 5.64 mm B 7.14 mm C 7.16 mm

D 7.64mm

[Nov-2002]

3- The diagram shows part of a vernier scale.

What is the reading on the vernier scale? A 6.50 cm B 6.55 cm C 7.00 cm D 7.45 cm [May-2003] / [May-2006]

4- One oscillation of a swinging pendulum occurs when the bob

moves from X to Y and back to X again.Using a stopwatch, which would be the most accurate way to measure the time for one oscillation of the pendulum? A Time 20 oscillations and multiply by 20. B Time 20 oscillations and divide by 20. C Time one oscillation. D Time the motion from X to Y, and double it. [Nov-2003]

5- A student has been asked to determine, as accurately as possible, the volume of a piece of wire.The wire is about 80 cm long and about 0.2 cm in diameter. Which measuring instruments should the student use? length A metre rule B metre rule C micrometer D vernier callipers [May-2004]

diameter micrometer vernier callipers vernier callipers micrometer

6- The diagram shows part of a vernier scale. What is the correct reading? A 30.5 mm B 33.5 mm C 38.0 mm [Nov-2004]

D 42.5 mm

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement 7- Which instrument is used to measure the internal diameter of a pipe with a single measurement?

A manometer B measuring cylinder C micrometer D vernier calipers

[May-2005]

8- The diagram shows a vernier V placed against a scale S.

What is the vernier reading? A 2.23 B 2.26 C 2.33

D 2.36

[Nov-2005]

9- The diagram shows one method of measuring the diameter of a beaker.

What is the diameter of the beaker? A 4.5 cm B 5.0 cm C 5.5 cm

D 8.0 cm

[Nov-2006]

10- The diagram shows a strip of paper tape that has been pulled under a vibrating arm by an object moving at constant speed. The arm was vibrating regularly, making 50 dots per second.

What was the speed of the object? A 2.0 cm / s B 5.0 cm / s C 100 cm / s D 200 cm / s [Nov-2006]

11- The width of a wooden block is measured using vernier calipers. What is the width of the block? A 3.5 mm B 5.3 mm C 8.0 mm

D 8.5 mm

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement [May-2007]

12- In an experiment, a ball is rolled down a curved track that is about half a metre long.

Which measuring device should be used to measure the length accurately? A metre rule B micrometer C tape measure D vernier calipers [Nov-2007]

13- What is the reading on this micrometer?

A 5.43mm B 6.63mm C 7.30mm D 8.13mm [May-2008]

14- Which instrument is most easily used to measure the internal diameter of a pipe? A manometer

B measuring cylinder

C micrometer

D vernier calipers [May-2009]

15-A manufacturer needs to measure accurately the dimensions of a wooden floor tile. The approximate dimensions of the tile are shown. Which instruments measure each of these dimensions accurately?

A B C D

length metre rule metre rule micrometer vernier calipers

thickness micrometer vernier calipers metre rule micrometer

width vernier calipers micrometer vernier calipers metre rule

16- Vernier calipers read to one tenth of a millimetre. Which reading shows this precision? A 3.3 cm

B 3.31 cm

C 3.310 cm

D 3.312 cm

[Nov-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement 17- Power is measured in watts. What is the correct symbol for millions of watts? A mw

B mW

C Mw

D MW

18- Vernier calipers are shown with the jaws closed.

A 0.04cm

B 0.05cm

What is the zero error? C 0.14cm D 0.15cm [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

[May-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Vernier calipers read to one tenth of a millimetre. Which reading shows this precision? A 3.3 cm

B 3.31 cm

C 3.310 cm

D 3.312 cm

2- The diagram shows a micrometer scale.

Which reading is shown? A 5.64 mm B 7.14 mm C 7.16 mm

D 7.64mm

[Nov-2002]

3- The diagram shows part of a vernier scale.

What is the reading on the vernier scale? A 6.50 cm B 6.55 cm C 7.00 cm D 7.45 cm [May-2003] / [May-2006]

4- One oscillation of a swinging pendulum occurs when the bob

moves from X to Y and back to X again.Using a stopwatch, which would be the most accurate way to measure the time for one oscillation of the pendulum? A Time 20 oscillations and multiply by 20. B Time 20 oscillations and divide by 20. C Time one oscillation. D Time the motion from X to Y, and double it. [Nov-2003]

5- A student has been asked to determine, as accurately as possible, the volume of a piece of wire.The wire is about 80 cm long and about 0.2 cm in diameter. Which measuring instruments should the student use? length A metre rule B metre rule C micrometer D vernier callipers [May-2004]

Diameter Micrometer vernier callipers vernier callipers Micrometer

6- The diagram shows part of a vernier scale. What is the correct reading? A 30.5 mm B 33.5 mm C 38.0 mm [Nov-2004]

D 42.5 mm

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement 7- Which instrument is used to measure the internal diameter of a pipe with a single measurement?

A manometer B measuring cylinder C micrometer D vernier calipers

[May-2005]

8- The diagram shows a vernier V placed against a scale S.

What is the vernier reading? A 2.23 B 2.26 C 2.33

D 2.36

[Nov-2005]

9- The diagram shows one method of measuring the diameter of a beaker.

What is the diameter of the beaker? A 4.5 cm B 5.0 cm C 5.5 cm

D 8.0 cm

[Nov-2006]

10- The diagram shows a strip of paper tape that has been pulled under a vibrating arm by an object moving at constant speed. The arm was vibrating regularly, making 50 dots per second.

What was the speed of the object? A 2.0 cm / s B 5.0 cm / s C 100 cm / s D 200 cm / s [Nov-2006]

11- The width of a wooden block is measured using vernier calipers. What is the width of the block? A 3.5 mm B 5.3 mm C 8.0 mm

D 8.5 mm

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement [May-2007]

12- In an experiment, a ball is rolled down a curved track that is about half a metre long.

Which measuring device should be used to measure the length accurately? A metre rule B micrometer C tape measure D vernier calipers [Nov-2007]

13- What is the reading on this micrometer?

A 5.43mm B 6.63mm C 7.30mm D 8.13mm [May-2008]

14- Which instrument is most easily used to measure the internal diameter of a pipe? A manometer

B measuring cylinder

C micrometer

D vernier calipers [May-2009]

15-A manufacturer needs to measure accurately the dimensions of a wooden floor tile. The approximate dimensions of the tile are shown. Which instruments measure each of these dimensions accurately?

A B C D

length metre rule metre rule micrometer vernier calipers

Thickness Micrometer vernier calipers metre rule Micrometer

width vernier calipers micrometer vernier calipers metre rule

16- Vernier calipers read to one tenth of a millimetre. Which reading shows this precision? A 3.3 cm

B 3.31 cm

C 3.310 cm

D 3.312 cm

[Nov-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Measurement 17- Power is measured in watts. What is the correct symbol for millions of watts? A mw

B mW

C Mw

D MW

18- Vernier calipers are shown with the jaws closed.

A 0.04cm

B 0.05cm

What is the zero error? C 0.14cm D 0.15cm [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

[May-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- In a laboratory on Earth, balances show that an object has a mass of 2 kg and a weight of 20 N.

The same balances and object are then taken to the Moon, where the gravitational field strength is less than on the Earth. Are the mass and weight of the object the same, or less, than before?

A B C D

mass less less same same

weight less same less same

2- A student does an experiment to estimate the density of an irregularly-shaped stone. Which items of equipment are needed? A a balance and a measuring cylinder containing water B a balance and a ruler C a ruler and a measuring cylinder containing water D only a measuring cylinder containing water

[May-2007]

3- The diagram shows a material with dimensions 5 cm × 4cm × 2 cm.

It has a mass of 100 g.What is the density of the material? A 0.40 g / cm3 B 2.5 g / cm3 D 10 g / cm3 [Nov-2002] C 5.0 g / cm3

4- On the Earth, the gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg. On the

Moon, the gravitational field strength is 1.6 N/kg. If an object has a weight of 50 N on Earth, what is its weight on the Moon? A 1.6N B 5.0N C 8.0N D 80N

[May-2003]

5- Ten identical steel balls, each of mass 27 g, are immersed in a measuring cylinder containing

20 cm3 of water.The reading of the water level rises to 50 cm3.What is the density of the steel? A 0.90 g/cm3 B 8.1 g/cm3 C 9.0 g/cm3 D 13.5 g/cm3 [May-2003]

6- A box X full of large granite rocks is weighed. An identical box Y full of small granite chippings is then weighed. Which box weighs more and why? [Nov-2003]

A B C D

heavier box X X Y Y

[Nov-2003]

reason there is more air in box X the density of a chipping is less than a rock there is less air in box Y the density of a chipping is greater than a rock

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume 7- Which relationship defines gravitational field strength? A mass x 10

B mass x weight

C mass / weight

D weight / mass

[May-2004]

8- A measuring cylinder containing some water stands on a scale pan. A solid ball is lowered into the water.The water level rises from the 30 cm3 mark to the 40 cm3 mark. The scale reading increases from 100 g to 180 g.

What is the density of the material of the ball? A 2.0 g / cm3 B 4.5 g / cm3 C 8.0 g / cm3

D 18 g / cm3

[May-2004]

9-A stone is weighed using a newtonmeter (spring

balance) and a pair of scales (pan balance). This experiment is repeated on the Moon. Are the readings for each balance the same or different when taken on Earth and on the Moon?

A B C D

reading on newtonmeter different different same same

reading on scales different same different same

[Nov-2004]

10- Four blocks, each made from a different material, are placed on scales and balanced as shown in the diagrams below. In which diagram does the block have the greatest density?

A

[Nov-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume 11- At a point on the surface of the Earth, the gravitational field strength is 9.8 N / kg. Which pair of values for mass and weight are correct for an object placed at this point? mass / kg weight / N A 9.8 10 B 10 9.8 C 10 98 D 98 10

12- Some students measure the masses and the volumes of different sized samples of a type of wood.Which graph shows their results? B

[May-2005]

13- An object that has a mass of 15 kg on the Earth is taken to the Moon. The gravitational field strength on the Earth is 10 N / kg and on the Moon is 1.6 N / kg. What are the mass and the weight of the object on the Moon?

A B C D

mass / kg 15 15 24 150

weight / N 24 150 15 24 [Nov-2005]

14- A student is trying to find the density of a stone, but he has mixed up the instruction cards.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume

What order should the cards be in? A 5 → 3 → 6 → 2 → 1 → 4→ 7 B1→5→3→6→2→7→4 C5→6→3→2→1→7→4 D1→4→5→3→6→2→7

[Nov-2005]

15- The inertia of a body is its resistance to changes in motion.Which property is a measure of the body’s inertia?

A its density

B its mass

C the height of its sides

D the size of its base

[May-2006]

16- An object of mass 100 g is immersed in water as shown in the diagram.

What is the density of the material from which the object is made? A 0.4 g / cm3

B 0.9 g / cm3

C 1.1 g / cm3

D 2.5 g / cm3

[May-2006]

17- Three objects are cut from the same sheet of steel. They are different shapes but they all have the same mass.

Which object has the greatest density? A the disc B the L-shape C the square

D they all have the same density

[Nov-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume 18- A body of mass 10 kg falling freely in the gravitational field close to the Moon’s surface has an acceleration of 1.6 m/s2. What is the gravitational field strength on the Moon? A 0 N / kg B 1.6 N / kg C 10 N / kg D 16 N / kg

[Nov-2007]

19- A lump of metal has a mass of 210 g. It is lowered into a

measuring cylinder containing water. The level of the water rises from 35cm3 to 140cm3.

What is the density of the metal? A 0.67g/ cm3 B 1.5g/ cm3

C 2.0g/ cm3

D 6.0g/ cm3

[May-2008]

20- A measuring cylinder contains 118 cm3 of water. When a small object is fully immersed in the water, the reading goes up to 144cm3. The object has a mass of 42g. What is the density of the object? A 42/26 g/cm3 B 26/42 g/cm3 C 118/42 g/cm3 D 42/144 g/cm3 [May-2009]

21- The diagram shows two objects on a beam balance in equilibrium.

Which need not be the same? A the masses of the two objects C the volumes of the two objects [Nov-2008]

B the moments about the pivot of the two objects D the weights of the two objects

22- The mass of a measuring cylinder is measured before and after pouring a liquid into it.

A 0.79g/

cm3

What is the density of the liquid? B 1.3g/ cm3 C 1.4g/ cm3 D 2.2g/ cm3

[Nov-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume 23- A room measures 4.0 m × 3.0 m × 2.0 m. The density of the air in the room is 1.3 kg/m3. What is the

mass of air in the room? A 0.054 kg B 18 kg C 24 kg

D 31 kg

[Nov-2009]

24- A passenger is sitting in an aeroplane, which takes off and climbs to 10 000m. During this time, what happens to the mass and to the weight of the passenger? mass weight A decreases decreases B increases increases C unchanged decreases D unchanged increases [May-2010]

25- A person of weight 600 N at the bottom of a mountain climbs to the top. The gravitational field

strength changes from 10.00N/ kg at the bottom to 9.97N/ kg at the top. His mass is unchanged as he climbs. What are his mass and his weight at the top of the mountain? mass at top of mountain/ kg weight at top of mountain/N A 60.0 598 B 60.0 600 C 60.1 598 D 60.1 600 [Nov-2010]

26- A box has an internal volume of 1000 cm3. When a solid object is placed in the closed box, the volume of air in the box is 520cm3. The density of the object is 8.00g/ cm3.

A 60.0g

B 3840g

C 4160g

What is the mass of the object? D 8000g [Nov-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume PAPER-2 Theory 1- A student measures the mass and the volume of four samples of rock A, B, C and D. The results are shown in Fig. 2.1.

(a) (i) Describe in detail how a measuring cylinder is used to find the volume of rock A. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................ [2] (ii) Explain why the volume of rock D cannot be found with an ordinary laboratory measuring cylinder. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................ [1] (b) Calculate the density of rock A. density = .................... [2] (c) Three of the rocks are made from the same material. State and explain which of the rocks is made from a different material. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... [2] [Nov-2007] 2-

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-1 Mass, Weight, Density and Volume

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- The graph shows the speed of a runner during a race. What is the distance travelled by the runner during the race? A 50 m B 65 m [May-2009]

C 75 m

D 90 m

2- What must change when a body is accelerating? A the force acting on the body C the speed of the body

B the mass of the body D the velocity of the body

[Nov-2002] / [Nov-2005]

3- A car driver takes a total of two hours to make a journey of 75 km. She has a coffee break of half an hour and spends a quarter of an hour stationary in a traffic jam. At what average speed must she travel during the rest of the time if she wants to complete the journey in the two hours? A 38 km/ h B 50 km/ h C 60 km/ h D 75 km/ h [Nov-2002] 4- An object is falling under gravity with terminal velocity.What is happening to its speed?

A It is decreasing to a lower value. C It is increasing.

B It is decreasing to zero. D It is staying constant.

5- Which of the following defines acceleration? A–

change in velocity time taken

B–

change in speed time taken

C–

[May-2003]

[Nov-2003]

change in distance time taken

change in distance in a �ixed direction

D–

time taken

6- The graph shows the movement of a car over a period of 50 s. What was the distance travelled by the car during the time when it was moving at a steady speed? A 10m B 100m C 200m D 400m 7- Which quantity X is calculated using this equation? A acceleration

change in velocity time taken B average velocity C distance travelled 𝑋=

D speed

8- The graph shows the movement of a car over a period of 50 s.

[May-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics What was the distance travelled by the car while its speed was increasing? A 10 m B 20 m C 100 m D 200 m

[May-2004]

9-The diagrams show a parachutist in four positions after she jumps from a high balloon. At which position does she have terminal velocity? A not yet moving B accelerating C not accelerating

D not moving

[Nov-2004]

10- Which graph represents the motion of a body falling vertically that reaches a terminal velocity? B

[May-2005] 11- A car takes 1 hour to travel 100 km along a main road and then ½ hour to travel 20 km along a side road.

What is the average speed of the car for the whole journey? A 60 km / h B 70 km / h C 80 km / h D 100 km / h

[May-2005] / [Nov-2008]

12- The graph illustrates the motion of an object.Which feature of the graph represents the distance travelled by the object whilst moving at a constant speed? A area S B area S + area T C area T D the gradient at point X

[Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics 13- Which graph shows the motion of a heavy, steel ball falling from a height of 2 m? A

[May-2006]

14- A student drops a table-tennis ball in air.

What happens to the velocity and to the acceleration of the ball during the first few seconds after release? velocity acceleration A decreases decreases B decreases increases C increases decreases D increases increases [May-2007]

15- A car is brought to rest in 5 s from a speed of 10 m / s.What is the average deceleration of the car? A 0.5 m / s2

B 2 m / s2

C 15 m / s2

D 50 m / s2

[May-2007]

16- The speed-time graph for a falling skydiver is shown below. The skydiver alters his fall first by spreading his arms and legs and then by using a parachute. Which part of the graph shows the diver falling with terminal velocity? D

[Nov-2007]

17- A skier is travelling downhill. The acceleration on hard snow is 4m/s2 and on soft snow is 2m/s2. Which graph shows the motion of the skier when moving from hard snow to soft snow? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[May-2008]

18- A free-fall parachutist falls at a constant speed. He then opens his parachute and continues to fall to Earth at a lower, constant speed. Which diagram shows how the distance fallen by the parachutist varies with time? B

[May-2009]

19- The graph shows the speed of a car as it moves from rest.

A 4 m /s

B 6 m /s

C 18 m /s

What is the average speed of the car during the first 3 s? D 36 m /s [Nov-2009]

20- Which speed-time graph shows an object moving with non-uniform acceleration?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[Nov-2009]

21- A student measures the speed of a trolley. At one instant, the speed of the trolley is 1.0m/ s and two seconds later the speed is 4.0m/ s. What is the acceleration of the trolley? A 1.5m/ s2 B 2.0m/ s2 C 2.5m/ s2 D 5.0m/ s2 [May-2010]

22- The speed-time graph shows the movement of a car.

What does the shaded area of the graph represent? A the average acceleration of the car B the average speed of the car C the total distance travelled by the car D the total travelling time of the car

[May-2010]

23- A student pulls a piece of tape through a ticker-tape timer. Every 0.02 s, the timer prints a dot on the tape. First the tape is pulled quickly, then slowly, then quickly again.

Which piece of tape does the student obtain? B

[Nov-2010]

24- A small stone is dropped from the top of a ladder, falls and hits the ground. It does not rebound. Which speed-time graph is correct? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[Nov-2010]

25- A car travels along a road. The driver stops the car by pushing his foot down on the brake pedal. What does not change if he pushes harder on the brake pedal? A the braking distance B the braking force C the stopping distance [Nov-2010]

D the thinking distance

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 1.1 shows the speed-time graph for the first 125 s of the journey of a lorry.

(a) During the motion shown, describe what happens to (i) the speed of the lorry, (ii) the acceleration of the lorry. (b) Determine the maximum speed of the lorry in m/s and in km/h.

speed = .................................. m/s speed = ................................ km/h

2- Fig. 1.1 shows a car travelling at a uniform speed of 18 m/s. At time t = 0, the driver sees a

child run out in front of the car.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

At time t = 0.6 s the driver starts to apply the brakes. The car then decelerates uniformly, taking a further 3.0 s to stop. (a) (i) On Fig. 1.2, draw a graph to show how the speed of the car varies with t.

(ii) Calculate the distance travelled in the first 0.6 s of the motion. distance = ....................... (b) The braking distance is the distance travelled by the car after the driver starts to apply the brakes. The braking distance is not the same each time that the car stops. State two factors that could increase braking distance. 1. ..................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. ..................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................................................

3- Fig. 1.1 shows a simplified speed-time graph for a train that travels between two stations.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

(a) Describe the motion of the train. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... (b) Calculate the distance travelled by the train between the two stations. distance = …………………….. (c) Another train travels between the same two stations on a parallel track. This train travels at a constant speed. It starts its journey at time t = 0 and finishes at t = 90 minutes. On Fig. 1.1, draw the speed-time graph for this train. [Nov-2004]

4- Fig. 1.1 represents the motion of Earth and the planet Venus around the Sun. The orbits shown are circles.

(a) On Fig. 1.1, draw an arrow to show the direction of the force exerted by the Sun on the Earth. (b) Information about Earth and Venus is given in the table. (i) Use the information in the table to show that Venus has a greater speed than Earth. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................... (ii) As Earth and Venus move in their orbits, the distance between them changes.Calculate the largest possible distance between them. distance = ..................... million km

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics [May-2005]

5- A cyclist starts from rest. He accelerates and then travels at a constant speed. At 12 s, the cyclist applies

the brakes and slows down. Photographs are taken of the cyclist at 4 s intervals. Fig. 2.1 shows the results.

(a) On Fig. 2.1, draw a possible position of the front wheel of the cycle at 16 s. (b) On Fig. 2.2, plot a distance-time graph of the cyclist for the first 16 s.

(c) Calculate the average speed of the cyclist during the first 12 s.

average speed = .................

[May-2006]

6- Fig. 1.1 represents the motion of a car along a straight road. As the car approaches a small town, it slows down. The car travels at a constant speed from the start of the town to the end of the town. After passing through the town, the car speeds up.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

(a) (i) Determine the speed of the car in the town. (ii) Determine the time taken by the car to pass through the town. (iii) Calculate the distance travelled by the car in the town.

speed = ............................. time taken = ............................

distance = ............................ (b) The car accelerates after passing through the town.Calculate the acceleration. Give the unit of your answer. acceleration = ............. [Nov-2006]

7- Two athletes, A and B, run a 100 m race. At time t = 0, a gun is fired to start the race. Fig. 1.1 shows the distance-time graph for the two athletes.

(a) Describe the motion of athlete A during the first 8 s of the race. .........................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (b) State the distance between the two athletes as the winner passes the 100 m mark. ................................................................................................................................... (c) Calculate the speed of athlete A between t = 4 s and t = 15 s.

speed = .......................... [May-2007]

8- A parachutist jumps from an aircraft. Some time later, the parachute opens. Fig. 1.1 is a graph of the vertical speed of the parachutist plotted against time t.

(a) State what happens at t = 20 s and t = 55 s. at 20 s .............................................................................................................................. at 55 s ........................................................................................................................ [1] (b) Describe the motion of the parachutist between t = 0 and t = 20 s. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... [2] (c) Explain, in terms of the forces acting, why the speed of the parachutist is constant between t = 25 s and t = 55 s. .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics .................................................................................................................................... [2] (d) Calculate the distance travelled by the parachutist between t = 25 s and t = 55 s. distance = ................ [2] [Nov-2007]

9- Many cars are fitted with an air-bag, as shown in Fig. 9.1. In a collision, the air-bag inflates and reduces the effect of the impact between the passenger and the dashboard.

(a) In a test of the air-bag, a heavy ball is used instead of the passenger. The car is travelling at 14 m / s when it hits a wall. The air-bag inflates and the ball takes 3.0 s to come to rest. The ball has mass 5.0 kg. (i) Calculate the average deceleration of the ball. [3] (ii) Calculate the average force exerted on the ball. [2] (iii) Using ideas about acceleration, explain how the air-bag reduces the force on the ball during the test. (b)about pressure!!! [Nov-2007]

10- When a car driver sees an emergency ahead, he applies the brakes. During his reaction time the car travels at a steady speed and covers a distance known as the thinking distance. The braking distance is the distance travelled by the car after the brakes are applied. (a) State the energy change that occurs as the car brakes. [2] (b) Fig. 9.1 shows the speed-time graph of a car. The driver sees the emergency at time t = 0. The total mass of the car is 800 kg.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

Determine (i) the thinking distance, [1] (ii) the braking distance, [2] (iii) the deceleration of the car during braking, [2] (iv) the force provided by the brakes. [2] (c) Using ideas about friction and deceleration, state and explain how the braking distance is affected by (i) using new tyres rather than badly worn tyres, [2] (ii) the car skidding on a wet road, [2] (iii) the car carrying a heavy load of passengers. [2] [May-2008] 11-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- The graph shows the speed of a runner during a race. What is the distance travelled by the runner during the race? A 50 m B 65 m [May-2009]

C 75 m

D 90 m

2- What must change when a body is accelerating? A the force acting on the body C the speed of the body

B the mass of the body D the velocity of the body

[Nov-2002] / [Nov-2005]

3- A car driver takes a total of two hours to make a journey of 75 km. She has a coffee break of half an hour and spends a quarter of an hour stationary in a traffic jam. At what average speed must she travel during the rest of the time if she wants to complete the journey in the two hours? A 38 km/ h B 50 km/ h C 60 km/ h D 75 km/ h [Nov-2002] 4- An object is falling under gravity with terminal velocity.What is happening to its speed?

A It is decreasing to a lower value. C It is increasing.

B It is decreasing to zero. D It is staying constant.

5- Which of the following defines acceleration? A–

change in velocity time taken

B–

change in speed time taken

C–

[May-2003]

[Nov-2003]

change in distance time taken

change in distance in a �ixed direction

D–

time taken

6- The graph shows the movement of a car over a period of 50 s. What was the distance travelled by the car during the time when it was moving at a steady speed? A 10m B 100m C 200m D 400m 7- Which quantity X is calculated using this equation? A acceleration

change in velocity time taken B average velocity C distance travelled 𝑋=

D speed

8- The graph shows the movement of a car over a period of 50 s.

[May-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics What was the distance travelled by the car while its speed was increasing? A 10 m B 20 m C 100 m D 200 m

[May-2004]

9-The diagrams show a parachutist in four positions after she jumps from a high balloon. At which position does she have terminal velocity? A not yet moving B accelerating C not accelerating

D not moving

[Nov-2004]

10- Which graph represents the motion of a body falling vertically that reaches a terminal velocity? B

[May-2005] 11- A car takes 1 hour to travel 100 km along a main road and then ½ hour to travel 20 km along a side road.

What is the average speed of the car for the whole journey? A 60 km / h B 70 km / h C 80 km / h D 100 km / h

[May-2005] / [Nov-2008]

12- The graph illustrates the motion of an object.Which feature of the graph represents the distance travelled by the object whilst moving at a constant speed? A area S B area S + area T C area T D the gradient at point X

[Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics 13- Which graph shows the motion of a heavy, steel ball falling from a height of 2 m? A

[May-2006]

14- A student drops a table-tennis ball in air.

What happens to the velocity and to the acceleration of the ball during the first few seconds after release? Velocity acceleration A Decreases decreases B Decreases increases C İncreases decreases D İncreases increases [May-2007]

15- A car is brought to rest in 5 s from a speed of 10 m / s.What is the average deceleration of the car? A 0.5 m / s2

B 2 m / s2

C 15 m / s2

D 50 m / s2

[May-2007]

16- The speed-time graph for a falling skydiver is shown below. The skydiver alters his fall first by spreading his arms and legs and then by using a parachute. Which part of the graph shows the diver falling with terminal velocity? D

[Nov-2007]

17- A skier is travelling downhill. The acceleration on hard snow is 4m/s2 and on soft snow is 2m/s2. Which graph shows the motion of the skier when moving from hard snow to soft snow? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[May-2008]

18- A free-fall parachutist falls at a constant speed. He then opens his parachute and continues to fall to Earth at a lower, constant speed. Which diagram shows how the distance fallen by the parachutist varies with time? B

[May-2009]

19- The graph shows the speed of a car as it moves from rest.

A 4 m /s

B 6 m /s

C 18 m /s

What is the average speed of the car during the first 3 s? D 36 m /s [Nov-2009]

20- Which speed-time graph shows an object moving with non-uniform acceleration?C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[Nov-2009]

21- A student measures the speed of a trolley. At one instant, the speed of the trolley is 1.0m/ s and two seconds later the speed is 4.0m/ s. What is the acceleration of the trolley? A 1.5m/ s2 B 2.0m/ s2 C 2.5m/ s2 D 5.0m/ s2 [May-2010]

22- The speed-time graph shows the movement of a car.

What does the shaded area of the graph represent? A the average acceleration of the car B the average speed of the car C the total distance travelled by the car D the total travelling time of the car

[May-2010]

23- A student pulls a piece of tape through a ticker-tape timer. Every 0.02 s, the timer prints a dot on the tape. First the tape is pulled quickly, then slowly, then quickly again.

Which piece of tape does the student obtain? B

[Nov-2010]

24- A small stone is dropped from the top of a ladder, falls and hits the ground. It does not rebound. Which speed-time graph is correct? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[Nov-2010]

25- A car travels along a road. The driver stops the car by pushing his foot down on the brake pedal. What does not change if he pushes harder on the brake pedal? A the braking distance B the braking force C the stopping distance [Nov-2010]

D the thinking distance

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 1.1 shows the speed-time graph for the first 125 s of the journey of a lorry.

(a) During the motion shown, describe what happens to (i) the speed of the lorry, (ii) the acceleration of the lorry. (b) Determine the maximum speed of the lorry in m/s and in km/h.

speed = .................................. m/s speed = ................................ km/h

2- Fig. 1.1 shows a car travelling at a uniform speed of 18 m/s. At time t = 0, the driver sees a

child run out in front of the car.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

At time t = 0.6 s the driver starts to apply the brakes. The car then decelerates uniformly, taking a further 3.0 s to stop. (a) (i) On Fig. 1.2, draw a graph to show how the speed of the car varies with t.

(ii) Calculate the distance travelled in the first 0.6 s of the motion. distance = ....................... (b) The braking distance is the distance travelled by the car after the driver starts to apply the brakes. The braking distance is not the same each time that the car stops. State two factors that could increase braking distance. 1. ..................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. ..................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................................................

3- Fig. 1.1 shows a simplified speed-time graph for a train that travels between two stations.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

(a) Describe the motion of the train. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... (b) Calculate the distance travelled by the train between the two stations. distance = …………………….. (c) Another train travels between the same two stations on a parallel track. This train travels at a constant speed. It starts its journey at time t = 0 and finishes at t = 90 minutes. On Fig. 1.1, draw the speed-time graph for this train. [Nov-2004]

4- Fig. 1.1 represents the motion of Earth and the planet Venus around the Sun. The orbits shown are circles.

(a) On Fig. 1.1, draw an arrow to show the direction of the force exerted by the Sun on the Earth. (b) Information about Earth and Venus is given in the table. (i) Use the information in the table to show that Venus has a greater speed than Earth. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................... (ii) As Earth and Venus move in their orbits, the distance between them changes.Calculate the largest possible distance between them. distance = ..................... million km

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics [May-2005]

5- A cyclist starts from rest. He accelerates and then travels at a constant speed. At 12 s, the cyclist applies

the brakes and slows down. Photographs are taken of the cyclist at 4 s intervals. Fig. 2.1 shows the results.

(a) On Fig. 2.1, draw a possible position of the front wheel of the cycle at 16 s. (b) On Fig. 2.2, plot a distance-time graph of the cyclist for the first 16 s.

(c) Calculate the average speed of the cyclist during the first 12 s.

average speed = .................

[May-2006]

6- Fig. 1.1 represents the motion of a car along a straight road. As the car approaches a small town, it slows down. The car travels at a constant speed from the start of the town to the end of the town. After passing through the town, the car speeds up.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

(a) (i) Determine the speed of the car in the town. (ii) Determine the time taken by the car to pass through the town. (iii) Calculate the distance travelled by the car in the town.

speed = ............................. time taken = ............................

distance = ............................ (b) The car accelerates after passing through the town.Calculate the acceleration. Give the unit of your answer. acceleration = ............. [Nov-2006]

7- Two athletes, A and B, run a 100 m race. At time t = 0, a gun is fired to start the race. Fig. 1.1 shows the distance-time graph for the two athletes.

(a) Describe the motion of athlete A during the first 8 s of the race. .........................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (b) State the distance between the two athletes as the winner passes the 100 m mark. ................................................................................................................................... (c) Calculate the speed of athlete A between t = 4 s and t = 15 s.

speed = .......................... [May-2007]

8- A parachutist jumps from an aircraft. Some time later, the parachute opens. Fig. 1.1 is a graph of the vertical speed of the parachutist plotted against time t.

(a) State what happens at t = 20 s and t = 55 s. at 20 s .............................................................................................................................. at 55 s ........................................................................................................................ [1] (b) Describe the motion of the parachutist between t = 0 and t = 20 s. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... [2] (c) Explain, in terms of the forces acting, why the speed of the parachutist is constant between t = 25 s and t = 55 s. .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics .................................................................................................................................... [2] (d) Calculate the distance travelled by the parachutist between t = 25 s and t = 55 s. distance = ................ [2] [Nov-2007]

9- Many cars are fitted with an air-bag, as shown in Fig. 9.1. In a collision, the air-bag inflates and reduces the effect of the impact between the passenger and the dashboard.

(a) In a test of the air-bag, a heavy ball is used instead of the passenger. The car is travelling at 14 m / s when it hits a wall. The air-bag inflates and the ball takes 3.0 s to come to rest. The ball has mass 5.0 kg. (i) Calculate the average deceleration of the ball. [3] (ii) Calculate the average force exerted on the ball. [2] (iii) Using ideas about acceleration, explain how the air-bag reduces the force on the ball during the test. (b)about pressure!!! [Nov-2007]

10- When a car driver sees an emergency ahead, he applies the brakes. During his reaction time the car travels at a steady speed and covers a distance known as the thinking distance. The braking distance is the distance travelled by the car after the brakes are applied. (a) State the energy change that occurs as the car brakes. [2] (b) Fig. 9.1 shows the speed-time graph of a car. The driver sees the emergency at time t = 0. The total mass of the car is 800 kg.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

Determine (i) the thinking distance, [1] (ii) the braking distance, [2] (iii) the deceleration of the car during braking, [2] (iv) the force provided by the brakes. [2] (c) Using ideas about friction and deceleration, state and explain how the braking distance is affected by (i) using new tyres rather than badly worn tyres, [2] (ii) the car skidding on a wet road, [2] (iii) the car carrying a heavy load of passengers. [2] [May-2008] 11-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- The graph shows the speed of a runner during a race. What is the distance travelled by the runner during the race? A 50 m B 65 m [May-2009]

C 75 m

D 90 m

2- What must change when a body is accelerating? A the force acting on the body C the speed of the body

B the mass of the body D the velocity of the body

[Nov-2002] / [Nov-2005]

3- A car driver takes a total of two hours to make a journey of 75 km. She has a coffee break of half an hour and spends a quarter of an hour stationary in a traffic jam. At what average speed must she travel during the rest of the time if she wants to complete the journey in the two hours? A 38 km/ h B 50 km/ h C 60 km/ h D 75 km/ h [Nov-2002] 4- An object is falling under gravity with terminal velocity.What is happening to its speed?

A It is decreasing to a lower value. C It is increasing.

B It is decreasing to zero. D It is staying constant.

5- Which of the following defines acceleration? A–

change in velocity time taken

B–

change in speed time taken

C–

[May-2003]

[Nov-2003]

change in distance time taken

change in distance in a �ixed direction

D–

time taken

6- The graph shows the movement of a car over a period of 50 s. What was the distance travelled by the car during the time when it was moving at a steady speed? A 10m B 100m C 200m D 400m 7- Which quantity X is calculated using this equation? A acceleration

change in velocity time taken B average velocity C distance travelled 𝑋=

D speed

8- The graph shows the movement of a car over a period of 50 s.

[May-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics What was the distance travelled by the car while its speed was increasing? A 10 m B 20 m C 100 m D 200 m

[May-2004]

9-The diagrams show a parachutist in four positions after she jumps from a high balloon. At which position does she have terminal velocity? A not yet moving B accelerating C not accelerating

D not moving

[Nov-2004]

10- Which graph represents the motion of a body falling vertically that reaches a terminal velocity? B

[May-2005] 11- A car takes 1 hour to travel 100 km along a main road and then ½ hour to travel 20 km along a side road.

What is the average speed of the car for the whole journey? A 60 km / h B 70 km / h C 80 km / h D 100 km / h

[May-2005] / [Nov-2008]

12- The graph illustrates the motion of an object.Which feature of the graph represents the distance travelled by the object whilst moving at a constant speed? A area S B area S + area T C area T D the gradient at point X

[Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics 13- Which graph shows the motion of a heavy, steel ball falling from a height of 2 m? A

[May-2006]

14- A student drops a table-tennis ball in air.

What happens to the velocity and to the acceleration of the ball during the first few seconds after release? velocity acceleration A decreases decreases B decreases increases C increases decreases D increases increases [May-2007]

15- A car is brought to rest in 5 s from a speed of 10 m / s.What is the average deceleration of the car? A 0.5 m / s2

B 2 m / s2

C 15 m / s2

D 50 m / s2

[May-2007]

16- The speed-time graph for a falling skydiver is shown below. The skydiver alters his fall first by spreading his arms and legs and then by using a parachute. Which part of the graph shows the diver falling with terminal velocity? D

[Nov-2007]

17- A skier is travelling downhill. The acceleration on hard snow is 4m/s2 and on soft snow is 2m/s2. Which graph shows the motion of the skier when moving from hard snow to soft snow? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[May-2008]

18- A free-fall parachutist falls at a constant speed. He then opens his parachute and continues to fall to Earth at a lower, constant speed. Which diagram shows how the distance fallen by the parachutist varies with time? B

[May-2009]

19- The graph shows the speed of a car as it moves from rest.

A 4 m /s

B 6 m /s

C 18 m /s

What is the average speed of the car during the first 3 s? D 36 m /s [Nov-2009]

20- Which speed-time graph shows an object moving with non-uniform acceleration?C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[Nov-2009]

21- A student measures the speed of a trolley. At one instant, the speed of the trolley is 1.0m/ s and two seconds later the speed is 4.0m/ s. What is the acceleration of the trolley? A 1.5m/ s2 B 2.0m/ s2 C 2.5m/ s2 D 5.0m/ s2 [May-2010]

22- The speed-time graph shows the movement of a car.

What does the shaded area of the graph represent? A the average acceleration of the car B the average speed of the car C the total distance travelled by the car D the total travelling time of the car

[May-2010]

23- A student pulls a piece of tape through a ticker-tape timer. Every 0.02 s, the timer prints a dot on the tape. First the tape is pulled quickly, then slowly, then quickly again.

Which piece of tape does the student obtain? B

[Nov-2010]

24- A small stone is dropped from the top of a ladder, falls and hits the ground. It does not rebound. Which speed-time graph is correct? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

[Nov-2010]

25- A car travels along a road. The driver stops the car by pushing his foot down on the brake pedal. What does not change if he pushes harder on the brake pedal? A the braking distance B the braking force C the stopping distance [Nov-2010]

D the thinking distance

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 1.1 shows the speed-time graph for the first 125 s of the journey of a lorry.

(a) During the motion shown, describe what happens to (i) the speed of the lorry, (ii) the acceleration of the lorry. (b) Determine the maximum speed of the lorry in m/s and in km/h.

speed = .................................. m/s speed = ................................ km/h

2- Fig. 1.1 shows a car travelling at a uniform speed of 18 m/s. At time t = 0, the driver sees a

child run out in front of the car.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

At time t = 0.6 s the driver starts to apply the brakes. The car then decelerates uniformly, taking a further 3.0 s to stop. (a) (i) On Fig. 1.2, draw a graph to show how the speed of the car varies with t.

(ii) Calculate the distance travelled in the first 0.6 s of the motion. distance = ....................... (b) The braking distance is the distance travelled by the car after the driver starts to apply the brakes. The braking distance is not the same each time that the car stops. State two factors that could increase braking distance. 1. ..................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. ..................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................................................

3- Fig. 1.1 shows a simplified speed-time graph for a train that travels between two stations.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

(a) Describe the motion of the train. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... (b) Calculate the distance travelled by the train between the two stations. distance = …………………….. (c) Another train travels between the same two stations on a parallel track. This train travels at a constant speed. It starts its journey at time t = 0 and finishes at t = 90 minutes. On Fig. 1.1, draw the speed-time graph for this train. [Nov-2004]

4- Fig. 1.1 represents the motion of Earth and the planet Venus around the Sun. The orbits shown are circles.

(a) On Fig. 1.1, draw an arrow to show the direction of the force exerted by the Sun on the Earth. (b) Information about Earth and Venus is given in the table. (i) Use the information in the table to show that Venus has a greater speed than Earth. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................... (ii) As Earth and Venus move in their orbits, the distance between them changes.Calculate the largest possible distance between them. distance = ..................... million km

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics [May-2005]

5- A cyclist starts from rest. He accelerates and then travels at a constant speed. At 12 s, the cyclist applies

the brakes and slows down. Photographs are taken of the cyclist at 4 s intervals. Fig. 2.1 shows the results.

(a) On Fig. 2.1, draw a possible position of the front wheel of the cycle at 16 s. (b) On Fig. 2.2, plot a distance-time graph of the cyclist for the first 16 s.

(c) Calculate the average speed of the cyclist during the first 12 s.

average speed = .................

[May-2006]

6- Fig. 1.1 represents the motion of a car along a straight road. As the car approaches a small town, it slows down. The car travels at a constant speed from the start of the town to the end of the town. After passing through the town, the car speeds up.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

(a) (i) Determine the speed of the car in the town. (ii) Determine the time taken by the car to pass through the town. (iii) Calculate the distance travelled by the car in the town.

speed = ............................. time taken = ............................

distance = ............................ (b) The car accelerates after passing through the town.Calculate the acceleration. Give the unit of your answer. acceleration = ............. [Nov-2006]

7- Two athletes, A and B, run a 100 m race. At time t = 0, a gun is fired to start the race. Fig. 1.1 shows the distance-time graph for the two athletes.

(a) Describe the motion of athlete A during the first 8 s of the race. .........................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (b) State the distance between the two athletes as the winner passes the 100 m mark. ................................................................................................................................... (c) Calculate the speed of athlete A between t = 4 s and t = 15 s.

speed = .......................... [May-2007]

8- A parachutist jumps from an aircraft. Some time later, the parachute opens. Fig. 1.1 is a graph of the vertical speed of the parachutist plotted against time t.

(a) State what happens at t = 20 s and t = 55 s. at 20 s .............................................................................................................................. at 55 s ........................................................................................................................ [1] (b) Describe the motion of the parachutist between t = 0 and t = 20 s. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... [2] (c) Explain, in terms of the forces acting, why the speed of the parachutist is constant between t = 25 s and t = 55 s. .......................................................................................................................................... ..........................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics .................................................................................................................................... [2] (d) Calculate the distance travelled by the parachutist between t = 25 s and t = 55 s. distance = ................ [2] [Nov-2007]

9- Many cars are fitted with an air-bag, as shown in Fig. 9.1. In a collision, the air-bag inflates and reduces the effect of the impact between the passenger and the dashboard.

(a) In a test of the air-bag, a heavy ball is used instead of the passenger. The car is travelling at 14 m / s when it hits a wall. The air-bag inflates and the ball takes 3.0 s to come to rest. The ball has mass 5.0 kg. (i) Calculate the average deceleration of the ball. [3] (ii) Calculate the average force exerted on the ball. [2] (iii) Using ideas about acceleration, explain how the air-bag reduces the force on the ball during the test. (b)about pressure!!! [Nov-2007]

10- When a car driver sees an emergency ahead, he applies the brakes. During his reaction time the car travels at a steady speed and covers a distance known as the thinking distance. The braking distance is the distance travelled by the car after the brakes are applied. (a) State the energy change that occurs as the car brakes. [2] (b) Fig. 9.1 shows the speed-time graph of a car. The driver sees the emergency at time t = 0. The total mass of the car is 800 kg.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-2 Kinematics

Determine (i) the thinking distance, [1] (ii) the braking distance, [2] (iii) the deceleration of the car during braking, [2] (iv) the force provided by the brakes. [2] (c) Using ideas about friction and deceleration, state and explain how the braking distance is affected by (i) using new tyres rather than badly worn tyres, [2] (ii) the car skidding on a wet road, [2] (iii) the car carrying a heavy load of passengers. [2] [May-2008] 11-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars PAPER-1 Multiple Choice

1- A person just supports a mass of 20 kg suspended from a rope.

What is the resultant force acting on the mass? A 0N B 10 N C 20 N D 200N

[May-2003] / [Nov-2006] / [May-2009]

2- Which statement about scalars and vectors is correct? A A scalar has direction but no size. C A vector has direction but no size.

B A scalar has size but no direction. D A vector has size but no direction.

??? / [May-2009]

3- When a block of wood of mass 2 kg is pushed along the horizontal flat surface of a bench, the

friction force measured is 4N. When the block is pushed along the same bench with a force of 10 N, it moves with a constant A speed of 3m/ s. B speed of 5m/ s. 2 C acceleration of 3m/ s . D acceleration of 5m/ s2. [Nov-2002]/[Nov-2006]

4- When two forces are combined, the size of the resultant depends on the angle between the two

forces.Which of the following can not be the magnitude of the resultant when forces of magnitude 3N and 4N are combined? A 1N B 3N C 7N D 8N [Nov-2002]

5- Which of the following groups of physical quantities consists only of scalars? A acceleration, force, velocity C force, time, velocity

B acceleration, mass, speed D mass, speed, time

[May-2003]

6- The diagram shows a cyclist leaning over in order to cycle around a corner.

Which force is necessary to maintain the motion around the corner?

[Nov-2003]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars 7- Which property of a body cannot be changed if a force is applied to it? A its mass

B its shape

C its size

D its velocity

[Nov-2003]

8- Which diagram correctly shows the addition of a 4N and a 3N force?

[Nov-2003]

9- Which is a statement of Newton’s third law of motion? A Every force causes a reaction. B If there is no resultant force on a body then there is no acceleration. C The forces acting on a body are always equal and opposite. D To every action there is an equal but opposite reaction.

[May-2004]

10- A car is travelling at constant speed along a road and drives over a large patch of oil. The driver

applies the brakes to stop the car. Compared to braking on a dry road, what may happen? A The car slows down more quickly because of the greater friction between the tyres and the road. B The car speeds up at first because of the reduced friction between the tyres and the road. C The car takes longer to slow down because of the reduced friction between the tyres and the road. D The car takes longer to slow down because the thinking distance of the driver is greater. [May-2004]

11- A particle P is moving in a horizontal circle about O. It moves at constant speed V.

Which statement is true? A A force of constant size is acting in the direction of V. B A force of constant size is acting towards O. C The force on P varies in size as it moves around the circle. D There are no forces acting on P. [Nov-2004]

12- Trolley X and trolley Y are joined by a stretched spring. Trolley X has twice the mass of trolley Y.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars

When the trolleys are released, the acceleration of X is 2 m/s2 What is the initial acceleration of trolley Y to the left? A 1 m/s2 B 2 m/s2 C 3 m/s2 D 4 m/s2

to the right. [Nov-2004]

13- The wheel of a moving car is driven by the engine. The car is accelerating in the direction shown.

In which direction does the frictional force act on the wheel? D

[Nov-2004]

14- Which is the correct statement about force and velocity? A Force and velocity are both scalars. C Force is a scalar, velocity is a vector.

B Force and velocity are both vectors. D Force is a vector, velocity is a scalar.

15- An aircraft, flying at a constant height, is gaining speed. The four forces acting are

L lift due to the wings R air resistance T the thrust due to the engines W the weight What is correct? [Nov-2005] / [Nov-2010] vertical forces horizontal forces A L=W T=R B L>W T>R C L=W T>R D L>W T=R

[May-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars 16- A body P moves in a circle around a point S. A force F keeps it moving in the circle.

What happens if the force F suddenly disappears? A P moves directly towards S. B P moves in a circle closer to S. C P moves away from S in a curved path. D P goes off in a straight line. [Nov-2005]

17- Two forces act at right angles at a point O as shown.

What is the resultant of the forces? A B C D

magnitude 15N 15N 21N 21N

[Nov-2005]

direction OQ PR OQ PR

18- A force of 20 N pushes an object of mass 5.0 kg along a rough horizontal surface where the frictional force is 5.0 N. What is the acceleration of the object? A 1.0 m/s2 B 2.0 m/s2 C 3.0 m/s2 D 4.0 m/s2

19- Forces X and Y act on a block in the directions shown on the scale diagram. In which direction is the resultant force acting? [May-2006]

[May-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars 20- The diagram shows an aeroplane turning in a horizontal circle at constant speed.

In which direction is there a resultant force?

D

[May-2006]/ [May-2010]

21- A student studies some equations.

power = work / time force = mass × acceleration How many vector quantities are contained in the equations? A1 B2 C3 D4

velocity = displacement / time [Nov-2006]

22- Which of the following correctly lists one scalar and one vector quantity? A B C D

scalar quantity displacement energy force velocity

vector quantity work force acceleration mass

[May-2007]

23- The propeller on a boat pushes water backwards with a force of 2000 N. The boat moves through the water against a total resistive force of 1800 N.

According to Newton’s third law, what is the forward force on the propeller due to the water? A 3800 N B 2000 N C 1800 N D 200 N [May-2007]

24- Forces of 30 N and 50 N act on the same body, but in different directions. Which value could not be the resultant force on the body? A 10 N B 30 N C 50 N D 70 N

[Nov-2007]

25- When a body moves across a rough surface, a frictional force is produced. Which statement about this force is always true?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars A It acts in the direction of the motion. B It is equal in value to the force producing the motion. C It makes the body recoil in the opposite direction after stopping it. D It opposes the motion across the surface.

[Nov-2007]

26- A car moves in a circle at a constant speed.

What is the direction of the resultant force acting on the car? B

27- Two forces F 1 and F 2 act on an object O in the directions shown. What is the direction of the resultant force? D

[May-2008]

28- A wooden block is pushed across a table at constant speed.

Which statement is correct? A The frictional force increases as the block moves at constant speed. B The frictional force is equal and opposite to the pushing force. C The frictional force is greater than the pushing force. D The frictional force is less than the pushing force.

[May-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars

29- What keeps an electron moving in a circle around the nucleus of an atom? A a gravitational force away from the nucleus B a gravitational force towards the nucleus C an electrostatic force away from the nucleus D an electrostatic force towards the nucleus

[May-2008]

30- A particle P is moving in a horizontal circle about O. P moves at constant speed v. Which statement is true? A A force of constant magnitude is acting in the same direction as v. B A force of constant magnitude is acting towards O. C The force on P varies in size as it moves around the circle. D There is no resultant force acting on P.

[May-2009]

31- How is the motion of a body affected by balanced and unbalanced forces acting on it? balanced forces A velocity changes B velocity changes C velocity constant D velocity constant [Nov-2008]

unbalanced forces velocity changes velocity constant velocity changes velocity constant

32- The diagram represents the Moon in its orbit around the Earth. Which arrow represents the direction of the resultant force acting on the Moon at the instant shown?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars 33- Which list contains only scalar quantities? A acceleration, displacement, mass C displacement, mass, velocity

B acceleration, distance, speed D distance, mass, speed

[Nov-2009]

34- A tractor pulls a trailer at a constant speed. The tractor exerts a forward force of 1600 N on the trailer. What is the force exerted by the trailer on the tractor? A 0N

B 1600 N backwards C 1600 N forwards

D 3200 N forwards

[Nov-2009]

35- A turntable rotates at constant speed. A coin is placed on the turntable at P. The friction force between the coin and the turntable keeps the coin in the same position on the turntable.

In which direction does the friction force act? A

36- The following statements are about motion. 1 A plane flies due East for 600km. 2 A runner’s average speed in a race around a track is 5m/ s. 3 A snail crawls at 3mm/ s in a straight line towards a lettuce. 4 A tourist travels 500km on a journey. Which statements describe vector quantities? A 1 and 2

B 1 and 3

C 2 and 3

D 2 and 4

[May-2010]

37- Two men jump out of an aeroplane at the same time. One of the men opens his parachute and the other man remains in free-fall.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars

Why is the man in free-fall moving faster than the parachutist? A B C D

The man in free-fall experiences greater air resistance. The man in free-fall has a greater mass. The parachutist experiences greater air resistance. The parachutist has not reached terminal velocity.

[May-2010]

38- Which list contains only scalar quantities? A acceleration, displacement, velocity

B distance, force, speed

C force, length, time

D length, mass, speed

[Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- A small spacecraft, known as Beagle 2, is to land on the planet Mars.

As the spacecraft enters the planet’s atmosphere, it slows down. When the speed reaches 1600 km/h, parachutes open and the friction with the atmosphere increases. The spacecraft eventually reaches a steady speed, and then finally it hits the surface. (a) On the axes of Fig. 1.1, complete the speed-time graph for the spacecraft. The parachutes open at time t 1 , and the spacecraft hits the surface of Mars at time t 2

(b) The mass of the spacecraft is 65 kg. At one point the gravitational field strength of

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars Mars is 3.0 N/kg and the total upwards force on the spacecraft is 500 N. Determine (i) the weight of the spacecraft, (ii) the resultant force on the spacecraft, (iii) the deceleration of the spacecraft.

weight = .................................... force = ...................................... deceleration = ........................... [Nov-2003]

2- Fig. 1.1 shows a free-fall parachutist falling vertically downwards. Fig. 1.2 shows how the speed of the parachutist varies with time.

(a) (i) State the name of the downward force acting on the parachutist. .................................................................................................................................. (ii) State the name of one upward force acting on the parachutist. .................................................................................................................................. (b) (i) State the initial value of the acceleration of the parachutist. Give the unit of your answer. .................................................................................................................................. (ii) Explain why the acceleration decreases from A to B. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. (iii) Explain why the parachutist falls at a constant speed after B. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. [May-2004]

3- A train travels from one station to the next. It starts from rest at time t = 0 and accelerates uniformly for

the first 20 s. At t = 20 s it reaches its top speed of 25 m/s. It then travels at this speed for a further 30 s before decelerating uniformly to rest. The total time for the journey is 60 s.

(a) (i) Sketch a speed-time graph for the motion of the train. Do not use graph paper. Put the speed of the train on the y-axis and time along the x-axis. (ii) Write down the equation, in words, that relates acceleration, time and change in velocity. [1] (iii) Explain what is meant by a uniform acceleration. (iv) Use your graph to calculate the deceleration of the train as it comes to rest.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars (b) Several forces act on the train when it is moving. (i) Name the horizontal and vertical forces that act on the train and give the direction of each force. (ii) Explain whether the horizontal forces are balanced or unbalanced, 1. when the train accelerates, 2. when the train travels at constant speed, 3. when the train decelerates. You may draw diagrams to help your explanations. (c) A second train has a non-uniform acceleration. Sketch a speed-time graph showing a non-uniform acceleration. Do not use graph paper. [May-2005]

4- Fig. 1.1 shows a 0.4 kg mass hanging at rest from a spring. (a) State what is meant by the mass of an

object. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... (b) (i) On Fig. 1.1, draw an arrow showing the direction and the line of action for each of the two forces that act on the mass. Write the name of the force next to each arrow. (ii) The gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg. Calculate the size of each of the two forces acting on the mass. first force = ........................... second force = ............................ (c) The mass is pulled downwards. State and explain what happens to the upward force. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................

[Nov-2005]

5- Fig. 2.1 shows apparatus that demonstrates how a coin and a piece of paper fall from rest.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars

At the positions shown in Fig. 2.1, the coin and paper are falling through air in the tube. The forces on them are shown in Fig. 2.2. The length of an arrow indicates the size of each force. (a) State the initial value of the acceleration of the coin as it falls. ................................................................................................................................... (b) Explain how Fig. 2.2 shows that (i) the paper falls with constant speed, ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. (ii) the coin accelerates. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. (c) A vacuum pump is connected to A and the air in the tube is removed.The coin and paper fall differently in a vacuum from the way they fall in air.State two of these differences. 1. ..................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. ..................................................................................................................................... [Nov-2006]

6- Fig. 9.1 shows the horizontal forces acting on a moving car.

(a) Compare the sizes and directions of the two forces when the car is (i) moving along a straight road at constant speed, (ii) accelerating. (b) Suggest the direction of the resultant force on the car when the car turns a corner at constant speed. (c) Fig. 9.2 shows the speed-time graph for the first 24 s of the motion of the car along a straight road.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-3 Force, Vectors and Scalars

(i) During the motion there is a period of uniform acceleration. State both the start and finish times of this period. (ii) State the main energy changes that occur in the 24 s. (iii) Calculate the acceleration of the car during the first 5 s. State clearly the equation that you use. (iv) Determine the distance travelled in the first 5 s. (d) The car is stopped by applying the brakes. Various factors can affect the distance travelled by the car during the time that the brakes are applied. Apart from the force applied by the brakes, state two of these factors. [May-2007]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- A man weighs 600 N. He runs up stairs of total height 4 metres in 3 seconds. How much power is exerted by the man? A 450W B 800W C 2400W D 7200W

[Nov-2002]

2- Which energy changes take place when a pedalling cyclist uses a generator (dynamo) to light his bicycle lamp? A chemical → kinetic → electrical → light C kinetic → chemical → light → electrical

B electrical → chemical → kinetic → light D light → electrical → kinetic → chemical

[May-2003]

3- A boy, who weighs 50 N, runs up a flight of stairs 6.5m high in 7 seconds. How much power does he develop?

A

𝟔.𝟓

𝟓𝟎 𝒙 𝟕

W

B

𝟕 𝒙 𝟔.𝟓 𝟓𝟎

W

C

𝟓𝟎

𝟔.𝟓 𝒙 𝟕

W

D

𝟓𝟎 𝒙 𝟔.𝟓 𝟕

W

[May-2003]

4- A student who weighs 500 N climbs up a flight of stairs 10 metres high in 5 seconds. What power does she develop?

A 500 x 10 x 5 W

B

500 𝑥 10 5

W

C

500 𝑥 5 10

W

5- A rock of mass 20 kg is travelling in space at a speed of 6m/ s. What is its kinetic energy? A 60 J B 120 J C 360 J

D 720 J

D

5

500 𝑥 10

W

[Nov-2003]

[Nov-2003]

6- The diagram shows the energy transfer through a machine.

The machine is 50 % efficient.Which is correct? A input energy = useful output energy B useful output energy = input energy + wasted energy C wasted energy = input energy + useful output energy D wasted energy = useful output energy

[Nov-2004]

7-When a 300 N force is applied to a box weighing 600 N, the box moves 3.0 m horizontally in 20 s.

A 45 W

B 90 W

C 900 W

D 1800 W

What is the average power?

[Nov-2004]

8- The diagram shows a curved curtain rail that has a steel ball rolling on it. The ball is released at point A.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power At which point does the ball have maximum kinetic energy? C

[May-2005] 9- The speed of light is 3 × 108 m/s.What is the energy equivalent of 2 kg of matter? A 2 × 3 × 108J

B 2000 × 3 × 108 J

C

1

× 2 × (3 × 108)2J

2

D 2 × (3 × 108)2J

[May-2005]

10- A mass hangs on a string fixed at point P. It starts from position 1 and swings to the furthest position on the opposite side, position 2. It then oscillates several times with decreasing amplitude before ending at position 3. Where does the ball have the most kinetic energy?

A at position 1 B at position 2 C the first time at position 3 D the last time at position 3

[Nov-2005]

11- A girl of weight 500 N runs up a flight of

stairs in 10 seconds. The vertical height of the stairs is 5 m. What is the average power developed by the girl?

A 50 W

B 100 W

C 250 W

D 1000 W

[Nov-2005]

12- In a hydroelectric power station, water from a reservoir falls down a long pipe before entering the

turbines. The turbines then turn the generator. What is the overall energy conversion? A electrical energy into kinetic energy B electrical energy into potential energy C kinetic energy into chemical energy D potential energy into electrical energy

[May-2006]

13- The input power to a motor is 300 W. In 20 s it lifts a load of 400 N through a height of 6.0 m.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power What is the efficiency of the motor? A 12 % B 25 % C 40 %

D 75 %

[May-2006]

14- A young child holds a ball over the edge of a balcony. The ball has

gravitational potential energy. The ball is then released. It falls onto a concrete path below, and bounces back up. Which sequence represents, in the correct order, the transformations of the gravitational potential energy after the ball is released? A → elastic potential energy → kinetic energy → chemical potential energy B → elastic potential energy → kinetic energy → gravitational potential energy C → kinetic energy → elastic potential energy → kinetic energy D → kinetic energy → gravitational potential energy → kinetic energy [Nov-2006]

15- The diagram shows a battery-operated motor lifting a block of wood at constant speed.

What is the overall energy change taking place? A chemical → gravitational potential B gravitational potential → electrical C gravitational potential → kinetic D kinetic → gravitational potential [May-2007]

16- Four students exercise in a gym.Which student does the most work? A B C D

exercise time / s 50 100 200 250

power developed / W 250 150 200 30

[May-2007]

17- Which formula gives the efficiency of an energy conversion?

A efficiency = total energy input - useful energy output B efficiency = useful energy output × total energy input C ef�iciency =

useful energy output total energy input

D ef�iciency

=

total energy input

useful energy output

18- A 2 kg mass is moving at constant speed.The kinetic energy of the mass is 400 J.

[May-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power What is the speed of the mass? A 0.4 m / s B 20 m / s C 200 m / s

D 400 m / s

[Nov-2007]

19- A crane moves its load diagonally, as

shown. By what distance is the weight of the load multiplied in order to calculate the increase in gravitational potential energy of the load?

B

[Nov-2007]

20- The efficiency of an electrical generator is 65 %.

Which useful output can be expected if the energy input to the generator is 12 kJ? A 4.2 kJ B 7.8 kJ C 19 kJ D 780 kJ

[Nov-2007]

21- A ball is held at rest on one side of a curved track.

The ball is released. It rolls down one side of the track and part of the way up the other side. It then stops, before rolling back down again. The height of the stopping point is less than that of the starting point. What is the sequence of energy changes between starting and stopping for the first time?

A potential energy → kinetic energy → potential energy + heat B potential energy → kinetic energy → heat → potential energy C potential energy → heat → kinetic energy → potential energy D potential energy → kinetic energy + heat → potential energy + heat

[ May-2008]

22- A workman rolls a barrel of weight 2000N up a plank of length 2.00m and on to a lorry. The back of the lorry is 0.80m above the horizontal surface of the road.

gravity? A 1000J

What is the work done on the barrel against B 1600J

C 2500J

D 4000J

[ May-2008]

23- Energy from petrol is used to operate an engine. The engine drives a generator, which produces electrical energy.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power

What is the overall efficiency of the process? A 25% B 30% C 55% D 83%

[ May-2008]

24- A crane lifts a load of 1000 N through a vertical height of 4.0 m in 10 s. The input power to the crane is 500J / s. What is the efficiency of the crane? A 0.17 B 0.50 C 0.60 D 0.8 [May-2009]

25- The graph shows how the height above the ground of a bouncing ball changes with time.

Which statement explains why the height of each peak decreases with time? A Kinetic energy is converted to potential energy at each bounce. B Kinetic energy is converted to thermal energy at each bounce. C The ball gains energy on impact with the floor. D The ball is wearing out. [Nov-2008]

26- A crane lifts a weight of 1000N through a vertical height of 30m. It uses 60 000J of energy. What is the efficiency of the crane? A 20% B 30% C 40% D 50%

[Nov-2008]

27- A rock climber of weight 600N climbs up a rock face of vertical height 300m in 3600s. What is the average power she generates against gravity during this time? A 0.020W B 50W C 1800W D 7200W [Nov-2008]

28- The diagram shows energy transfer through a machin

What is the efficiency of the machine?

A

input energy

useful output energy

B

useful output energy input energy

C

useful output energy wasted energy

D

wasted energy input energy

[Nov-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power 29- A man weighs 600 N. He runs up a staircase of total height 4.0 metres in 3.0 seconds. How much useful power is needed to do this? A 450 W B 800 W C 2400 W D 7200 W

[Nov-2009]

30- A parachutist has opened his parachute and is falling to Earth at constant speed. What is the principal energy conversion taking place as he falls? A kinetic energy → potential energy B kinetic energy → thermal energy (heat) C potential energy → kinetic energy D potential energy → thermal energy (heat) [May-2010]

31- A small emergency generator supplies 432 000 000J of electrical energy in twenty-four hours. What is the average power output of the generator? A 5000W B 300 000W C 18 000 000W

D 432 000 000W

[May-2010]

32- The diagram shows a curved track. A ball is released from the position shown. At which point does the ball have the maximum gravitational potential energy? A

33- When one radium nucleus decays, its mass decreases by 8.8 × 10–30kg.How much energy is equivalent to this loss in mass? (speed of light c = 3.0 × 108m/s) A 6.8 × 10–42J B 2.6 × 10–21J C 4.0 × 10–13J D 7.9 × 10–13J

[Nov-2010]

34- The energy output of a generator depends on its efficiency and the energy input. Which set of values is correct? efficiency A 0.1 B 0.2 C 0.4 D 0.6 [Nov-2010]

energy input /MJ 50 30 120 60

energy output /MJ 25 6 30 24

PAPER-2 Theory 1-Energy can be changed from one form into another. (a) Solar energy is released from energy in the nuclei of atoms in the Sun. Some of this energy is

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power converted into wind energy on the Earth. Describe, in detail, the energy changes and processes that occur as the energy in the nuclei of atoms in the Sun is changed to wind energy on the Earth. [5] (b) A motor changes electrical energy into potential energy as it lifts a load. A student measures the efficiency of this change, using the apparatus shown in Fig. 9.1. The motor lifts the load at a

distance moved/m 2.0

time taken/s 8.2

Fig. 9.2

p.d. across motor/V 6.0

current in motor/A 3.4

(i) Calculate 1. the work done in lifting the load, 2. the electrical energy supplied to the motor, 3. the efficiency of the motor. (ii) After the readings have been taken, the string breaks. State the major energy change that occurs as the load falls. [Nov-2002]

2- Fig. 11.1 shows a children’s ride. A carriage containing children is pulled up the slope by a motor. The carriage stops at A and then runs down through B, C and D without further input of energy. Between D and E the carriage turns through a bend at constant speed, as shown in Fig. 11.2. At E, brakes are applied and the carriage slows to a stop at F. The height of the ride is 30 m at A and 10 m at C. The mass of the carriage and children is 500 kg. Take the gravitational field strength as 10 N/kg. (a) (i) Discuss the energy changes that occur in the ride from A to D. (ii) Calculate the maximum potential energy of the carriage and children. (iii) Assuming that there is no friction between A and C, determine the kinetic energy of the carriage and children at C. Show your working. (b)

Between D and E, the carriage goes round part of a horizontal circle at constant speed. During this time the velocity of the carriage changes.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power (i) Explain how the carriage can have a constant speed but a changing velocity. (ii) State the direction of the force that acts on the carriage to make it move round the curve. (c) Between E and F, a frictional force of 3000 N acts to slow the carriage. Calculate the deceleration of the carriage. [May-2004]

3- A pole-vaulter runs along a track, reaching a maximum speed of 8.4 m/s. At the end of the track, he places a pole into the ground as shown in Fig. 3.1, and uses the pole to push himself vertically upwards.

(a) When the pole-vaulter runs along the track, there is a constant forward force on him of 320N and a backwards resistive force that varies with his speed as shown in Fig. 3.2.

Explain why the maximum speed that he can reach is 8.4 m/s. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................ (b) The mass of the pole-vaulter is 60 kg. (i) Calculate the maximum kinetic energy of the pole-vaulter as he runs along the track. State clearly the formula that you use. kinetic energy = ………………….

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power (ii) The pole is used to convert all this kinetic energy into gravitational potential energy. Calculate the height through which the pole-vaulter rises. Give your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures. The gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg. height = ………………………. [Nov-2004]

4- Fig. 4.1 shows a hydroelectric power station. Water from the lake is used to produce electricity in the turbine house.

(a) State where the water in Fig. 4.1 has the least potential energy. ................................................................................................................................... (b) In 30 minutes, the water loses 5.0 × 109 J of energy and 4.5 × 109 J of electrical energy is produced in the turbine house. (i) Calculate the efficiency of the energy conversion. efficiency = ......................... (ii) Calculate, in watts, the electrical power output from the turbine house. power = ........................... W (c) Some power stations burn coal to produce the same electrical power output. State one advantage of the hydroelectric power station. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ......................... (d) State one harmful effect that the hydroelectric power station may have on the environment. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................. [May-2005]

5- A student carries out an experiment to measure the power he produces. He runs up a flight of stairs, as shown in Fig. 1.1. The student takes readings to calculate his power.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-4 Work , Energy and Power (a) (i) List all of the readings he must take. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................ (ii) State one precaution he should take to make sure one of his readings is accurate. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................... (b) Write down all of the equations he must use to calculate his power from the readings. You may use symbols or words in your equations. ......................................................................................................................................... [May-2006]

6- Fig. 6.1 shows a device used to generate electricity. Water entering at the top turns the wheel. A generator connected to the wheel produces electric current.

(a) State the two main energy changes that take place in this device as water starts to flow. 1. ..................................................................................................................................... 2. ............................................................................................................................... (b) The change in the potential energy of the water every second is 2000 J. The electrical energy output is 1200 J every second.Calculate the efficiency of the process. efficiency = ....................... (c) State two ways in which the device wastes energy. 1. ..................................................................................................................................... 2. ...............................................................................................................................

[Nov-2006] 7-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments PAPER-1 Multiple Choice

1- If a nut and bolt are difficult to undo, it may be easier to turn the nut by using a longer spanner. This is because the longer spanner gives A a larger turning moment. C less friction.

B a smaller turning moment. D more friction.

[May-2006]

2- A driver’s foot presses with a steady force of 20 N on a pedal in a car as shown. What is the force F pulling on the piston? A 2.5 N B 10 N C 100 N D 160 N [May-2003]

3- A horizontal pole is attached to the side of a building. There is a pivot P at the wall and a chain is connected from the end of the pole to a point higher up the wall.

There is a tension force F in the chain. What is the moment of the force F about the pivot P? AFxd BFxh CFxl DFxs

[May-2004]

4- A load is to be moved using a wheelbarrow.

The total mass of the load and wheelbarrow is 60 kg. The gravitational field strength is 10 N / kg. What is the size of force F needed just to lift the loaded wheelbarrow? A 350 N B 430 N C 600 N D 840 N [Nov-2004]

5- A girl uses paper-clips to balance a toy bird on her finger as shown.

What is the effect of the paper-clips? A They help to raise the centre of mass above her finger. B They help to raise the centre of mass to her finger. C They help to lower the centre of mass below her finger. D They do not affect the centre of mass but increase the weight.

[Nov-

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments 2004]

6- The diagram shows a wheelbarrow and its load, which have a total weight of 150 N. This is supported by a vertical force F at the ends of the handles. What is the value of F? A 75 N B 150 N C 225 N D 300 N

[May-2005]

7- The diagrams show the cross-sections of different glasses.Which one is the least stable when filled with a liquid? B

8- A tractor is being used on rough ground. What is the safest position for its centre of mass? [Nov-2005] D

9- A plane lamina is freely suspended

from point P.The weight of the lamina is 2.0 N and the centre of mass is at C. The lamina is displaced to the position shown. What is the moment that will cause the lamina to swing? A 0.60 N m clockwise B 0.80 N m anticlockwise C 1.0 N m clockwise D 1.0 N m anticlockwise [Nov-2005] /[May-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments 10- Some containers are made from thin glass.Which empty container is the most stable? A

[May-2006]

11- Forces are applied to a uniform beam pivoted at its centre. Which beam is balanced? D

[May-2007]

12- The diagram shows a boy of weight 500 N sitting on a see-saw. He sits 2.0 m from the pivot.

What is the force F needed to balance the see-saw? A 250 N B 750 N C 1000 N D 3000 N [Nov-2007]

13- A piece of uniform card is suspended freely from a horizontal pin. At which of the points shown is its centre of gravity? C

[Nov-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments 14-The diagram shows a uniform half-metre rule balanced at its mid-point.

A 50N

B 75N

C 100N

D 150N

[Nov-2008]

What is the weight of the metal block?

15- Two blocks are placed on a beam which balances on a pivot at its centre. The weight of the beam is negligible.

Which diagram shows the forces acting on the beam? (The length of each arrow represents the size of a force.) B [May-2009]

16- The stability of a bus is tested by tilting it on a ramp. The diagram shows a bus that is just about to topple over. Where is the centre of mass of the bus?

17- A wooden trapdoor is hinged along one side and, when closed, is supported on the other side by a ledge.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments

When the trapdoor is closed, the ledge exerts an upward force of 15 N on the trapdoor. The gravitational field strength is 10N/ kg. What is the mass of the trapdoor? A 1.5kg B 3.0kg C 30kg D 150kg [May-2010]

18- What affects the stability of an object? A only its base area C only its weight and its base area

B only its base area and the location of its centre of mass D only the location of its centre of mass [Nov-2010]

19- A uniform metre rule is balanced by a 4N weight as shown in the diagram.

What is the weight W of the metre rule? A 1N B 4N C 16N D 40N

[Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- (a) Fig. 2.1 shows the same vertical force of 200 N exerted by a cyclist on the pedal of a bicycle in three different positions A, B and C.

State the position, A, B or C, in which the force exerts the largest moment about the pivot. Give a reason for your answer. .........................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments ......................................................................................................................................... (b) Fig. 2.2 shows a support for a leg in plaster and Fig. 2.3 shows a simplified diagram of the forces acting on the leg.

Calculate the force F needed to keep the leg in a horizontal position.

F = ............... [Nov-2003]

2- Fig. 9.1 shows a thin sheet of metal suspended from a hole in one corner at A. The weight of the metal is

0.10N and the centre of mass is at B. The diagram is drawn full scale.

(a) Describe in detail how you would experimentally determine the position of the centre of mass of the sheet of metal. (b) The sheet turns because of the moment of the weight about point A. (i) Define what is meant by the moment of a force. (ii) Using a distance measured on Fig. 9.1, calculate the moment of the weight about point A. State clearly which distance you measured and give the unit of your final answer. (c) Fig. 9.2 and Fig. 9.3 show a thick piece of wood with one corner on a table. Fig. 9.4 shows the same piece of wood balanced on the table. B is the centre of mass.

(i) Explain why in Fig. 9.2 the piece of wood falls to the right and in Fig. 9.3 it falls to the left. (ii) Explain why the piece of wood in Fig. 9.4 does not fall over.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments (iii) Suggest how the thickness of the wood in Fig. 9.4 affects its stability. [Nov-2006]

3- Fig. 2.1 shows a device for punching holes in a piece of paper. A person applies a force F at the end of the arm. Just before the hole is made in the paper, the arm is at rest.

(a) Just before the hole is made, the force upwards on the steel rod is 7.2 N. Calculate the value of F. Use the distances marked on Fig. 2.1. F = ........................ [2] (b) The steel rod pushes the paper into the hole in the metal base with a force of 7.2 N. steel rod has an area of 2.8 ×

10–5

The end of the

m2.

Calculate the pressure exerted on the paper.

State the formula that you use in your calculation. pressure = ......................... [2]

(c) The force downwards on the paper due to the rod and the force upwards on the rod due to the paper are related by Newton’s third law. State Newton’s third law.

.......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [1] [May-2008] 4-

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-5 Moments

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Which of the following does not affect the pressure beneath the surface of a liquid?

A area of the liquid surface C depth of the liquid [Nov-2005]

B density of the liquid D strength of the gravitational field

[Nov-2002] /

2- A manometer is connected to a gas supply.

Pressure can be measured in cm of water. What is the pressure of the gas? A 8 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure B 12 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure C 8 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure D 12 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure [Nov-2002]

3- The diagram shows a simple mercury barometer.

Which height is a measure of the atmospheric pressure? [May-2003]

4- Bubbles of gas, escaping from the mud at the bottom of a

deep lake, rise to the surface. As the bubbles rise they get larger. Why is this? A Atmospheric pressure on the bubbles decreases. B Atmospheric pressure on the bubbles increases. C Water pressure on the bubbles decreases. D Water pressure on the bubbles increases.

5- The diagrams show, to the same scale, the vertical sections of a set of circular vessels, each containing the same depth of water. Which one of the following statements is correct?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

A The water exerts the greatest pressure on the base of vessel P. B The water exerts the greatest pressure on the base of vessel S. C The water exerts the same force on the base of each vessel. D The water exerts the same pressure on the base of each vessel.

[May-2006] / ?

6- The diagram shows the levels X and Y in a liquid manometer when the gas tap is opened. What is the pressure of the gas in the cylinder? A 18 cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure B 9 cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure C 9 cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure D 18 cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure [May-2004]

7- Which would be the least likely to sink into soft ground? A a loaded lorry with four wheels B a loaded lorry with six wheels C an empty lorry with four wheels D an empty lorry with six wheels

[Nov-2004]

8- Diagram 1 shows some air trapped in a cylinder. Diagram 2 shows the same air after the piston has been pushed in slowly. The air in diagram 1 is at atmospheric pressure PA.

What is the pressure of the air in diagram 2? A

6

10

x PA

B PA

C

10 6

x PA

D 60 x PA

[Nov-2004]

9- A small table weighing 40 N stands on four legs, each having an area of 0.001 m2.

What is the pressure of the table on the floor? A 400 N/m2 B 1000 N/m2 C 10 000 N/m2

D 40 000 N/m2

[May-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure 10- A brick of weight 80 N stands upright on the ground as shown. What is the pressure it exerts on the ground?

A

80

20 𝑥 10

N/cm2

80

C 5 𝑥 10 N/cm2

B

20 𝑥 10

D

10 𝑥 5

80

80

N/cm2 N/cm2 [Nov-2005]

11- A manometer is connected to a gas supply. Pressure can be measured in cm of water. What is the pressure of the gas? A 8 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure B 12 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure C 8 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure D 12 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure

[Nov-2005]

12- The diagrams show a simple mercury barometer.

Which diagram shows the distance to be measured to find atmospheric pressure? B

[Nov-2006] 13-A water manometer is connected to a gas supply. The diagram shows the water levels. The water is replaced by mercury, which is more dense than water. Which diagram shows the mercury levels when the manometer is connected to the same gas supply? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

[Nov-2006] 14- The system shown in the diagram contains a liquid.

A downward force of 80 N is exerted on piston K. What will be the upward force exerted by the liquid on piston L? A1N B4N C 80 N D 1600 N

[Nov-2006]

15- A gas is trapped inside a cylinder by a movable piston. The length of the gas column is 50 cm and the pressure inside the cylinder is p.

The piston is pushed in a distance of 30 cm, so that the length of the gas column is now 20 cm.The temperature of the gas does not change.What is the new pressure of the gas? A 0.4 p B 0.6 p C 1.5 p D 2.5 p [May-2007]

16- Four different liquids are poured into identical

measuring cylinders. The diagrams show the depths of the liquids and their densities. Which liquid causes the largest pressure on the base of its measuring cylinder? C [Nov-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure 17- Which statement about the pressure in a column of liquid is correct? A It acts only vertically downwards. C It increases with depth in the column.

B It increases if the column width increases. D It is uniform throughout the column. [May-2008]

18- An airtight container holds a fixed quantity of gas. Its pressure and volume are measured on four occasions when the temperature is 20°C. The results are shown in the table. Which set of readings is incorrect? pressure/ kPa volume/ cm3 A 120 36 B 100 48 C 80 60 D 60 80 [May-2008]

19- A builder leaves two identical, heavy, stone tiles resting on soft earth. One is vertical and the other is horizontal.

After a few hours, the vertical tile has started to sink into the soft earth, but the horizontal one has not. Which row correctly compares the forces and the pressures that the tiles exert on the earth? forces pressures A different different B different same C same different D same same [May-2009]

20-A water manometer is connected to a gas supply. One end of the manometer is open to the atmosphere.

Which statement about the pressure of the gas supply is true? A The pressure is hcm of water. B The pressure is hcm of water below atmospheric pressure. C The pressure is the same as atmospheric pressure. D The pressure is hcm of water above atmospheric pressure. [May-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure 21- The diagram shows a simple manometer.

Side X is connected to a gas supply. Side Y is open to the atmosphere. What pressure is the length h used to measure? A the atmospheric pressure S B the difference between the gas pressure R and the atmospheric pressure S C the gas pressure R D the sum of the gas pressure R and the atmospheric pressure S [Nov-2008]

22- The diagram shows the principle of an hydraulic system.

The cross-sectional area of the master cylinder is 12.0 cm2 and the cross-sectional area of the slave cylinder is 8.0 cm2. The force applied to the master piston is 60 N, producing a pressure of 5.0N/cm2. Which line in the table is correct? pressure at slave cylinder force at slave cylinder N N/ cm2 A 3.3 40 B 3.3 90 C 5.0 40 D 5.0 90 [Nov-2008]

23- A long tube full of mercury is inverted in a small dish of mercury.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

The mercury level in the tube falls, leaving a vacuum at the top. When the atmospheric pressure falls, which length decreases? A PQ

B PS

C QR

D RS

[Nov-2009]

24- Some gas is trapped in a large syringe by a piston. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa

The pressure gauge indicates that the gas pressure is 200 kPa above atmospheric pressure. The piston moves outwards and the volume of the trapped gas doubles. The temperature remains constant. What is the new gas pressure? A 100 kPa

B 150 kPa

C 200 kPa

D 400 kPa

[Nov-2009]

25- Five blocks have the same mass but different base areas. They all rest on a horizontal table.

A graph is plotted to show the relationship between the pressure exerted on the table and the base area of the block. Which graph shows this relationship? D

[May-2010]

26- The diagram shows the levels X and Y in a liquid manometer with the gas tap open.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

What is the pressure of the gas supply? A 18cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure C 9cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure

B 9cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure D 18cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure

[May-2010]

27- The base for a statue rests on level ground. It is made from stone and is 2.0m long, 2.5m high and 0.80m wide. It has a weight of 96 000N.

A 19kPa

B 24kPa

C 48kPa

What is the pressure that the base exerts on the ground? D 60kPa [Nov-2010]

28- An engineer designs a dam wall for a reservoir.

A the depth of the water in the reservoir C the length of the reservoir

Which factor determines the pressure at X? B the surface area of the reservoir D the thickness of the dam wall [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 10.1 shows a hand-operated hydraulic press.

A force is applied downwards at X as shown. Piston Q rises in the slave cylinder. The area of

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

piston P is 20 cm2 and the area of piston Q is 400 cm2. (a) Explain, in detail, how pushing X downwards causes piston Q to rise. State clearly what happens to valve A and to valve B. (b) Piston P exerts a downward force of 300 N on the oil. (i) Calculate the pressure, in N /cm2, exerted by piston P on the oil. (ii) State the value of the pressure in the slave cylinder. (iii) Calculate the force exerted by the oil on piston Q. (c) Piston P moves down 5 cm. (i) Calculate the volume of oil that moves out of the master cylinder. (ii) Calculate the distance that piston Q rises. (d) After X in Fig. 10.1 is pushed down, it is lifted up again. State what happens, as X is lifted, to valve A, to valve B and to the piston Q. (e) State why oil, not air, is used in the hydraulic press.

[Nov-2002]

2- Fig. 2.1 shows a water manometer used to measure the pressure inside a gas pipe.

(a) State whether the pressure inside the gas pipe in Fig. 2.1 is larger than or smaller than atmospheric pressure. .....................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure (b) The manometers shown in Figs. 2.2 and 2.3 are connected to the same gas pipe at the same pressure as shown in Fig. 2.1.On Figs. 2.2 and 2.3, draw the levels of the liquid in each manometer if (i) the manometer in Fig. 2.2 contains water and has tubes with twice the diameter of Fig. 2.1, (ii) the manometer in Fig. 2.3 contains a liquid with density half that of water. (c) The manometer shown in Fig. 2.4 has its top end sealed. Explain why the water levels are different in Figs. 2.4 and 2.1, even though the pressure in the gas pipe is the same. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................

[Nov-2004]

3- Fig. 2.1 shows a stationary piston in a cylinder.

(a) The gas in the cylinder exerts the same pressure on the piston as it does on the sealed end. The sealed end has a smaller cross-sectional area.Use ideas about molecules to explain why the pressures are the same. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... (b) The piston is pushed inwards and the temperature of the gas stays constant. (i) The piston moves 0.10 m. The average force exerted on the piston to compress the gas is 23 N. Calculate the work done. State the formula that you use. work done = ........................ (ii) The gas in the cylinder starts at a pressure of 1.0 × 105 Pa and has a volume of 100 cm3. The volume of the gas decreases to 80 cm3.Calculate the final pressure of the gas. State the formula that you use. pressure = ..........................

[Nov-2005]

4- Fig.10.1 shows a section through a very old bicycle tyre that is made of solid rubber.

(a) The solid rubber tyre exerts a pressure on the ground.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure The unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa). (i) Define the pascal. (ii) The mass of the bicycle and rider is 60 kg and the total area of the tyres in contact with the road is 2.4 × 10–3m2. The gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg. Calculate the pressure exerted on the road. (iii) One of the solid rubber tyres goes over a small stone, as shown in Fig. 10.2. Describe and explain how the pressure exerted on the ground changes. (b) Fig. 10.3 shows a modern tyre that contains air. A heavy person sits on the bicycle and the shape of the tyre changes, as shown in Fig. 10.4.

The table contains information about the tyre in Fig. 10.3 and Fig. 10.4. air pressure in tyre /Pa volume of air /m3

tyre in Fig. 10.3 1.9 × 105 0.016

tyre in Fig. 10.4 2.1 × 105 V

(i) Calculate the volume V of the air in the tyre in Fig. 10.4. State one assumption that you make in your calculation. (ii) Another way to change the pressure in the tyre is to raise the temperature. State what happens to the pressure in the tyre when the temperature rises and explain your answer using ideas about molecules. [May-2006]

5- Many cars are fitted with an air-bag, as shown in Fig. 9.1. In a collision, the air-bag inflates and reduces the effect of the impact between the passenger and the dashboard.

(a) about kinematics!!! (b) If there was no air-bag, a large pressure would be exerted on the ball at the point where it hits the dashboard. (i) Define pressure. [1]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure (ii) The inflated air-bag reduces the pressure exerted on the ball. State two reasons why the pressure is reduced. [2] (c) Compressed gas from a small cylinder inflates the air-bag. The cylinder contains a volume of 600 cm3 of gas at a pressure of 1.4 × 107 Pa. The cylinder and the inflated air-bag have a volume of 30 000 cm3. (i) Calculate the pressure of the gas in the inflated air-bag, assuming that the temperature is constant. [3] (ii) The pressure inside the cylinder decreases as the air-bag is inflated. Explain, using ideas about molecules, why the pressure decreases. [2]

[Nov-2007]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Which of the following does not affect the pressure beneath the surface of a liquid?

A area of the liquid surface C depth of the liquid [Nov-2005]

B density of the liquid D strength of the gravitational field

[Nov-2002] /

2- A manometer is connected to a gas supply.

Pressure can be measured in cm of water. What is the pressure of the gas? A 8 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure B 12 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure C 8 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure D 12 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure [Nov-2002]

3- The diagram shows a simple mercury barometer.

Which height is a measure of the atmospheric pressure? [May-2003]

4- Bubbles of gas, escaping from the mud at the bottom of a

deep lake, rise to the surface. As the bubbles rise they get larger. Why is this? A Atmospheric pressure on the bubbles decreases. B Atmospheric pressure on the bubbles increases. C Water pressure on the bubbles decreases. D Water pressure on the bubbles increases.

5- The diagrams show, to the same scale, the vertical sections of a set of circular vessels, each containing the same depth of water. Which one of the following statements is correct?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

A The water exerts the greatest pressure on the base of vessel P. B The water exerts the greatest pressure on the base of vessel S. C The water exerts the same force on the base of each vessel. D The water exerts the same pressure on the base of each vessel.

[May-2006] / ?

6- The diagram shows the levels X and Y in a liquid manometer when the gas tap is opened. What is the pressure of the gas in the cylinder? A 18 cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure B 9 cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure C 9 cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure D 18 cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure [May-2004]

7- Which would be the least likely to sink into soft ground? A a loaded lorry with four wheels B a loaded lorry with six wheels C an empty lorry with four wheels D an empty lorry with six wheels

[Nov-2004]

8- Diagram 1 shows some air trapped in a cylinder. Diagram 2 shows the same air after the piston has been pushed in slowly. The air in diagram 1 is at atmospheric pressure PA.

What is the pressure of the air in diagram 2? A

6

10

x PA

B PA

C

10 6

x PA

D 60 x PA

[Nov-2004]

9- A small table weighing 40 N stands on four legs, each having an area of 0.001 m2.

What is the pressure of the table on the floor? A 400 N/m2 B 1000 N/m2 C 10 000 N/m2

D 40 000 N/m2

[May-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure 10- A brick of weight 80 N stands upright on the ground as shown. What is the pressure it exerts on the ground?

A

80

20 𝑥 10

N/cm2

80

C 5 𝑥 10 N/cm2

B

20 𝑥 10

D

10 𝑥 5

80

80

N/cm2 N/cm2 [Nov-2005]

11- A manometer is connected to a gas supply. Pressure can be measured in cm of water. What is the pressure of the gas? A 8 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure B 12 cm of water more than atmospheric pressure C 8 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure D 12 cm of water less than atmospheric pressure

[Nov-2005]

12- The diagrams show a simple mercury barometer.

Which diagram shows the distance to be measured to find atmospheric pressure? B

[Nov-2006] 13-A water manometer is connected to a gas supply. The diagram shows the water levels. The water is replaced by mercury, which is more dense than water. Which diagram shows the mercury levels when the manometer is connected to the same gas supply? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

[Nov-2006] 14- The system shown in the diagram contains a liquid.

A downward force of 80 N is exerted on piston K. What will be the upward force exerted by the liquid on piston L? A1N B4N C 80 N D 1600 N

[Nov-2006]

15- A gas is trapped inside a cylinder by a movable piston. The length of the gas column is 50 cm and the pressure inside the cylinder is p.

The piston is pushed in a distance of 30 cm, so that the length of the gas column is now 20 cm.The temperature of the gas does not change.What is the new pressure of the gas? A 0.4 p B 0.6 p C 1.5 p D 2.5 p [May-2007]

16- Four different liquids are poured into identical

measuring cylinders. The diagrams show the depths of the liquids and their densities. Which liquid causes the largest pressure on the base of its measuring cylinder? C [Nov-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure 17- Which statement about the pressure in a column of liquid is correct? A It acts only vertically downwards. C It increases with depth in the column.

B It increases if the column width increases. D It is uniform throughout the column. [May-2008]

18- An airtight container holds a fixed quantity of gas. Its pressure and volume are measured on four occasions when the temperature is 20°C. The results are shown in the table. Which set of readings is incorrect? pressure/ kPa volume/ cm3 A 120 36 B 100 48 C 80 60 D 60 80 [May-2008]

19- A builder leaves two identical, heavy, stone tiles resting on soft earth. One is vertical and the other is horizontal.

After a few hours, the vertical tile has started to sink into the soft earth, but the horizontal one has not. Which row correctly compares the forces and the pressures that the tiles exert on the earth? forces pressures A different different B different same C same different D same same [May-2009]

20-A water manometer is connected to a gas supply. One end of the manometer is open to the atmosphere.

Which statement about the pressure of the gas supply is true? A The pressure is hcm of water. B The pressure is hcm of water below atmospheric pressure. C The pressure is the same as atmospheric pressure. D The pressure is hcm of water above atmospheric pressure. [May-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure 21- The diagram shows a simple manometer.

Side X is connected to a gas supply. Side Y is open to the atmosphere. What pressure is the length h used to measure? A the atmospheric pressure S B the difference between the gas pressure R and the atmospheric pressure S C the gas pressure R D the sum of the gas pressure R and the atmospheric pressure S [Nov-2008]

22- The diagram shows the principle of an hydraulic system.

The cross-sectional area of the master cylinder is 12.0 cm2 and the cross-sectional area of the slave cylinder is 8.0 cm2. The force applied to the master piston is 60 N, producing a pressure of 5.0N/cm2. Which line in the table is correct? pressure at slave cylinder force at slave cylinder N N/ cm2 A 3.3 40 B 3.3 90 C 5.0 40 D 5.0 90 [Nov-2008]

23- A long tube full of mercury is inverted in a small dish of mercury.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

The mercury level in the tube falls, leaving a vacuum at the top. When the atmospheric pressure falls, which length decreases? A PQ

B PS

C QR

D RS

[Nov-2009]

24- Some gas is trapped in a large syringe by a piston. The atmospheric pressure is 100 kPa

The pressure gauge indicates that the gas pressure is 200 kPa above atmospheric pressure. The piston moves outwards and the volume of the trapped gas doubles. The temperature remains constant. What is the new gas pressure? A 100 kPa

B 150 kPa

C 200 kPa

D 400 kPa

[Nov-2009]

25- Five blocks have the same mass but different base areas. They all rest on a horizontal table.

A graph is plotted to show the relationship between the pressure exerted on the table and the base area of the block. Which graph shows this relationship? D

[May-2010]

26- The diagram shows the levels X and Y in a liquid manometer with the gas tap open.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

What is the pressure of the gas supply? A 18cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure C 9cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure

B 9cm of liquid below atmospheric pressure D 18cm of liquid above atmospheric pressure

[May-2010]

27- The base for a statue rests on level ground. It is made from stone and is 2.0m long, 2.5m high and 0.80m wide. It has a weight of 96 000N.

A 19kPa

B 24kPa

C 48kPa

What is the pressure that the base exerts on the ground? D 60kPa [Nov-2010]

28- An engineer designs a dam wall for a reservoir.

A the depth of the water in the reservoir C the length of the reservoir

Which factor determines the pressure at X? B the surface area of the reservoir D the thickness of the dam wall [Nov-2010]

29 . Two boys X and Y each have the same total weight and are standing on soft ground.

Which boy is more likely to sink into the soft ground and why?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

30. A student places his thumb firmly on the outlet of a bicycle pump, to stop the air coming out.

What happens to the pressure and to the volume of the trapped air as the pump handle is pushed in?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 10.1 shows a hand-operated hydraulic press.

A force is applied downwards at X as shown. Piston Q rises in the slave cylinder. The area of

piston P is 20 cm2 and the area of piston Q is 400 cm2. (a) Explain, in detail, how pushing X downwards causes piston Q to rise. State clearly what happens to valve A and to valve B. (b) Piston P exerts a downward force of 300 N on the oil. (i) Calculate the pressure, in N /cm2, exerted by piston P on the oil. (ii) State the value of the pressure in the slave cylinder. (iii) Calculate the force exerted by the oil on piston Q. (c) Piston P moves down 5 cm. (i) Calculate the volume of oil that moves out of the master cylinder. (ii) Calculate the distance that piston Q rises. (d) After X in Fig. 10.1 is pushed down, it is lifted up again. State what happens, as X is lifted, to valve A, to valve B and to the piston Q. (e) State why oil, not air, is used in the hydraulic press.

2- Fig. 2.1 shows a water manometer used to measure the pressure inside a gas pipe.

[Nov-2002]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure (a) State whether the pressure inside the gas pipe in Fig. 2.1 is larger than or smaller than atmospheric pressure. ..................................................................................................................................... (b) The manometers shown in Figs. 2.2 and 2.3 are connected to the same gas pipe at the same pressure as shown in Fig. 2.1.On Figs. 2.2 and 2.3, draw the levels of the liquid in each manometer if (i) the manometer in Fig. 2.2 contains water and has tubes with twice the diameter of Fig. 2.1, (ii) the manometer in Fig. 2.3 contains a liquid with density half that of water. (c) The manometer shown in Fig. 2.4 has its top end sealed. Explain why the water levels are different in Figs. 2.4 and 2.1, even though the pressure in the gas pipe is the same. ............................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................

[Nov-2004]

3- Fig. 2.1 shows a stationary piston in a cylinder.

(a) The gas in the cylinder exerts the same pressure on the piston as it does on the sealed end. The sealed end has a smaller cross-sectional area.Use ideas about molecules to explain why the pressures are the same. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... (b) The piston is pushed inwards and the temperature of the gas stays constant. (i) The piston moves 0.10 m. The average force exerted on the piston to compress the gas is 23 N. Calculate the work done. State the formula that you use. work done = ........................ 5 (ii) The gas in the cylinder starts at a pressure of 1.0 × 10 Pa and has a volume of 100 cm3. The volume of the gas decreases to 80 cm3.Calculate the final pressure of the gas. State the formula that you use. pressure = ..........................

[Nov-2005]

4- Fig.10.1 shows a section through a very old bicycle tyre that is made of solid rubber.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

(a) The solid rubber tyre exerts a pressure on the ground. The unit of pressure is the pascal (Pa). (i) Define the pascal. (ii) The mass of the bicycle and rider is 60 kg and the total area of the tyres in contact with the road is 2.4 × 10–3m2. The gravitational field strength is 10 N/kg. Calculate the pressure exerted on the road. (iii) One of the solid rubber tyres goes over a small stone, as shown in Fig. 10.2. Describe and explain how the pressure exerted on the ground changes. (b) Fig. 10.3 shows a modern tyre that contains air. A heavy person sits on the bicycle and the shape of the tyre changes, as shown in Fig. 10.4.

The table contains information about the tyre in Fig. 10.3 and Fig. 10.4. air pressure in tyre /Pa volume of air /m3

tyre in Fig. 10.3 1.9 × 105 0.016

tyre in Fig. 10.4 2.1 × 105 V

(i) Calculate the volume V of the air in the tyre in Fig. 10.4. State one assumption that you make in your calculation. (ii) Another way to change the pressure in the tyre is to raise the temperature. State what happens to the pressure in the tyre when the temperature rises and explain your answer using ideas about molecules. [May-2006]

5- Many cars are fitted with an air-bag, as shown in Fig. 9.1. In a collision, the air-bag inflates and reduces the effect of the impact between the passenger and the dashboard.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Pressure

(a) about kinematics!!! (b) If there was no air-bag, a large pressure would be exerted on the ball at the point where it hits the dashboard. (i) Define pressure. [1] (ii) The inflated air-bag reduces the pressure exerted on the ball. State two reasons why the pressure is reduced. [2] (c) Compressed gas from a small cylinder inflates the air-bag. The cylinder contains a volume of 600 cm3 of gas at a pressure of 1.4 × 107 Pa. The cylinder and the inflated air-bag have a volume of 30 000 cm3. (i) Calculate the pressure of the gas in the inflated air-bag, assuming that the temperature is constant. [3] (ii) The pressure inside the cylinder decreases as the air-bag is inflated. Explain, using ideas about molecules, why the pressure decreases. [2]

[Nov-2007]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- What happens when a metal bar is heated?

A The distance between the molecules increases, making the bar longer. B The molecules get larger, making the bar longer. C The molecules vibrate more quickly, making the bar denser. D The speed of the molecules increases, making the bar thinner.

2- An axle is too large to fit into the hole in a wheel that is made of the same metal. How can the axle be made to fit into the hole? A by cooling the axle alone B by cooling the wheel alone C by cooling both the axle and the wheel D by heating both the axle and the wheel [Nov-2003]

3 - A glass jug is designed so that it does not break when boiling water is poured into it.What sort of glass should be used? thickness expansion A thick expands greatly when heated B thick expands little when heated C thin expands greatly when heated D thin expands little when heated [May-2003] 4- A new liquid is tested to decide whether it is suitable for use in a liquid-in-glass thermometer. It is found that the liquid does not expand uniformly with temperature. What will be the effect of this on the scale of the thermometer? A It has a short range. B It is not linear. C The markings are too close together. D The markings are too far apart.

[Nov-2004]

5- A student is given a thermometer that reads 1 °C in pure melting ice and 101 °C in pure boiling water. She uses it to measure the temperature of some water before and after it is heated. The increase in temperature of the water calculated from her results is A 1 °C too low. B correct. C 1 °C too high. D 2 °C too high.

[Nov-2002]

6- A clinical thermometer is designed to respond quickly to a change in temperature and to have a

high sensitivity.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion Which design features should the clinical thermometer have? A B C D

bulb thick glass thick glass thin glass thin glass

[May-2003]

bore narrow wide narrow wide

7- - A liquid-in-glass thermometer consists of a bulb containing a liquid. The liquid can expand into a very thin capillary tube.

The liquid in the thermometer is replaced by another liquid that expands more for the same temperature rise. The new thermometer will have A greater sensitivity and greater range. B greater sensitivity but less range. C the same sensitivity and the same range. D the same sensitivity but greater range. [May-2004]

8- The fillings for a hole in a tooth should be made from a material that

A expands more than the hole in the tooth. B expands by the same amount as the hole in the tooth. C expands less than the hole in the tooth. D does not expand when heated. [Nov-2004] / [May-2007]

9- Four mercury-in-glass thermometers are made with different dimensions. Which will have the greatest sensitivity? A 10 cm long and bore 0.75 mm wide B 15 cm long and bore 0.50 mm wide C 25 cm long and bore 0.10 mm wide D 30 cm long and bore 0.25 mm wide

[May-2005]

10- A person cannot unscrew the lid of a pot of jam. He finds that the lid can be unscrewed after it has been held under hot, running water for a few seconds.

Why is this?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion A The air pressure in the jar falls. C The jam melts.

B The glass expands. D The lid expands.

[May-2005]

11- What makes a thermometer sensitive to small changes in temperature? A a bulb with a thin glass wall B a shiny liquid in its bore C a stem with a thick glass wall D a very narrow bore

[Nov-2005]

12- Which thermometer is the best for measuring rapidly-changing temperatures? A a clinical thermometer B a liquid-in-glass thermometer C a thermocouple D all thermometers are equally good

[May-2006]

13- The diagrams show a bimetallic strip when it is at room temperature and after it has been cooled.

The change in shape occurs because A brass contracts more than invar. C invar and brass contract by equal amounts.

B brass expands when it cools down. D invar contracts more than brass.

[May-2006]

14- The sensitivity of a liquid-in-glass thermometer depends on the volume of liquid used and the

diameter of the bore of the thermometer.Which changes will produce the greatest increase in sensitivity?

A B C D

volume of liquid decrease decrease increase increase

bore diameter decrease increase decrease increase

15- A thermocouple thermometer uses a voltmeter to measure the e.m.f. generated between two junctions. The junctions are at temperatures t 1 and t 2 . To calibrate the thermometer, fixed points

[Nov-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion

are needed. What are the values of t1 and t2 when the thermometer is calibrated at the steam point? t1 A 0 ºC B 0 ºC C 25 ºC D 25 ºC [May-2007]

t2 0 ºC 100 ºC 0 ºC 125 ºC

16- The diagram shows a liquid-in-glass thermometer.

At 0 °C, the length of the liquid column is 2.0 cm. At 100 °C, the length of the liquid column is 22.0cm. What is the length of the liquid column at 40°C? A 6.0cm B 8.0cm C 8.8cm D 10.0cm [May-2008]

17- At regular intervals along a railway line there is a gap between the rail sections.

What is the reason for the gap between the rail sections? A to allow for expansion of the rail sections during hot weather B to allow for vibrations of the rail sections as the train passes over them C to allow rain water to drain from the rail sections D to keep the wheels of the train and carriages on the rail sections [May-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion 18- A thermocouple thermometer is made from two wires connected to a voltmeter.

Which arrangement gives a reading on the voltmeter? A B C D

temperature of voltmeter colder than hot junction colder than hot junction same as hot junction same as hot junction

wire X copper iron copper iron

[Nov-2008]

19- The table shows the increase in length of four metals when heated through the same temperature rise. Each metal initially has the same length. metal increase in length/m aluminium 0.000030 copper 0.000020 platinum 0.000009 steel 0.000010 A bimetallic strip is made from two of the metals. When heated, it bends in the direction shown.

Which metals produce the above effect? A B C D

metal X aluminium copper steel platinum

metal Y platinum aluminium copper steel

[Nov-2008]

20- To calibrate a thermometer, without using another thermometer, fixed points are required. Which statement is correct? A Any temperatures can be used as fixed points. B Both a lower fixed point and an upper fixed point are required.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion C Only a lower fixed point is required. D Only an upper fixed point is required.

[Nov-2009]

21- A bimetallic strip made from brass and iron is used as a thermostat.

expands more than the iron. Which shape will the strip become? B

When the strip is heated, the brass

[May-2010]

22- The diagram shows a clinical thermometer.

Which factor affects the sensitivity of the thermometer? A the constriction B the diameter of the bore C the length of the glass tube D the thickness of the glass tube

23- What is caused by the thermal expansion of a substance when heated? A a decrease in the resistance of a tungsten-filament lamp when switched on B a rise in the pressure of the gas trapped in a gas cylinder placed in hot water C the blowing of the fuse in a circuit when the current becomes too large D the upward movement of the air above a Bunsen burner when it is lit

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Thermal expansion can be a problem.

[Nov-2010]

[Nov-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion

Small gaps are left in railway lines and in bridges, as shown in Fig. 3.1. (a) Explain in detail why the gaps are needed. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................... (b) State one other problem caused by thermal expansion and explain how it can be solved. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. [May-2004]

2- Fig. 3.1 shows a thermometer.

(a) Explain how to calibrate a thermometer. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ........................................................................................................................................................................ (b) (i) State the range of the thermometer in Fig. 3.1. ............................................................................................................................ (ii) State how you know that the scale of the thermometer in Fig. 3.1 is linear. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. (c) Fig. 3.2 shows a thermometer which is more sensitive than the thermometer in Fig. 3.1. Only 0 °C is marked on this new thermometer.On Fig. 3.2, draw the temperature markings for 10 °C and 20 °C.

[May-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-7 Temperature,Thermal Expansion

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Kinetic Theory PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Assuming the temperature remains constant, which combination correctly describes the volume and the shape of a gas or liquid?

gas or liquid A gas B gas C liquid D liquid [Nov-2003]

volume fixed not fixed fixed not fixed

shape not fixed not fixed fixed fixed

2-A liquid is heated.Which statement is incorrect? A The molecules expand. C The molecules move further apart.

B The molecules gain energy. D The molecules move faster.

[May-2007]

3- A substance consists of particles that are close together and moving past each other at random. The average speed of the particles is gradually increasing. What best describes the substance? A a liquid being boiled to form a gas B a liquid being heated C a solid being heated D a solid being melted to form a liquid [May-2004]

4- A student has three sealed plastic bags. One bag is full of gas, one of liquid and one of solid.

The student squeezes each bag to see if it changes shape, and warms each bag to see if it expands.Which bag contains gas? A the one that changes shape easily and expands the least when heated B the one that changes shape easily and expands the most when heated C the one that is fixed in shape and expands the least when heated D the one that is fixed in shape and expands the most when heated [Nov-2004]

5- What is a property of both liquids and gases?

A They always fill their containers. C They can flow.

B They are incompressible. D They have molecules in fixed positions.

6- What describes the molecular structure of a liquid? distance between

motion of the

strength of forces

[Nov-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Kinetic Theory A B C D

the molecules close together close together far apart far apart

molecules stationary random stationary random

between the molecules very strong fairly strong fairly strong weak

[May-2007]

7- Which graph shows the relationship between the pressure and volume of a fixed mass of gas at

constant temperature?

[Nov-2003]

8- A gas cylinder is left outside on a sunny day. The Sun heats the gas inside the cylinder.What happens to the gas molecules? A- They collide less often. B - They expand. C - They move closer together. D - They move more rapidly. 9- Some air is trapped inside a small balloon. The average kinetic energy of the air molecules in the balloon is increased. What remains the same? A the density of the air in the balloon B the mass of the air in the balloon C the temperature of the air in the balloon D the volume of the air in the balloon 10- Which of the following correctly compares the forces between the molecules in steam, water and ice?

A B C D

weakest forces ice ice steam water

------------------- steam water water steam

strongest forces water steam ice ice

11- A quantity of gas is trapped in a container by a piston exerting a force F. The temperature of the gas is raised while F remains unchanged.

Which statement is correct? A The gas expands. B The molecules get larger. C The piston remains in the same place. D The speed of the molecules decreases.

[Nov-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Kinetic Theory

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 7.1 shows a syringe that contains gas at the same pressure as the air outside. The piston moves freely along the cylinder without any friction. No gas escapes.

As the syringe is heated from 20 °C to 100 °C, the piston moves outwards. It stops moving when the temperature is steady. State how the value of each of the following quantities compares at 100 °C, after the piston stops, with its value at 20 °C. For each quantity you should write greater, the same or less. the average distance between the gas molecules the pressure of the gas after the piston stops the average speed of the gas molecules the frequency of the collisions between the gas molecules and the piston

[Nov-2002]

2- A thin-walled plastic bottle is sealed and contains dry air at atmospheric pressure.(a) Explain how the

molecules of air inside the bottle exert a pressure on the walls. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (b) Ice is placed inside the bottle, and the bottle is then sealed again. The temperature of the air inside the bottle falls and the bottle becomes partially crushed. Explain, in terms of the molecules of air inside and outside the bottle, why this happens. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... [Nov-2003]

3-Fig. 3.1 shows a weather balloon. The balloon is shown partly filled with gas from a cylinder.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-6 Kinetic Theory The balloon contains no gas initially. When it is connected to the cylinder, gas enters the balloon. The pressure in the cylinder decreases. (a) Explain why the molecules inside the cylinder (i) exert a large pressure initially, ................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................ (ii) exert a smaller pressure in the cylinder when the balloon is filled. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................... (b) The volume of the cylinder is 0.0020m3. The pressure inside the cylinder is initially 200 atmospheres. When the cylinder is connected to the balloon, the final pressure in the cylinder and the balloon is 1.0 atmosphere. The temperature of the gas remains constant.Calculate the final volume of gas in the balloon. State the equation that you use. volume = ..................... [May-2005]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-8 Heat Capacity PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- What is the definition of heat capacity? A the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of an object through 1 °C B the quantity of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 kg of a substance through 1 °C C the quantity of heat required to convert an object from solid to liquid without a change in temperature D the quantity of heat required to change 1 kg of a substance from solid to liquid without a change in temperature [May-2007] 2- In an experiment to find the specific heat capacity of a metal, it is found that 5200 J is needed to raise the temperature of a 2 kg block by 20 °C. What value for the specific heat capacity is given by these results? A 130 J / (kg °C) B 52000 J / (kg °C) C 520 kJ /(kg °C) D 104000 kJ / (kg °C) [May-2005] 3- A 2 kg mass of copper of specific heat capacity of 400 Jkg-1K-1 is heated for 80s by a heater of power 50W.What is the rise in the temperature? A- 5 K

B -160 K C-100 K D - 16 K

4- A cup of tea at 80oC is left to cool to 20oC.If the heat capacity of cup and tea is 4.0 kJ K-1,how much heat is released during the cooling? A- 0.04 kJ

B - 60 kJ

C - 100 kJ

D - 240kJ

5- When heat is supplied to a metallic sphere, which of the following changes will occur? A- The mass of the sphere increases B - The volume of the sphere decreases. C- The density of the sphere increases. D- The internal energy of the sphere increases. 6- Using an electric kettle, 100 g of water at 100 °C is converted into steam at 100 °C in 300 seconds. The specific latent heat of steam is 2250 J / g. What is the average electrical power used? 𝟐𝟐𝟓𝟎

A 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝒙 𝟏𝟎𝟎 W

B

𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝒙 𝟐𝟐𝟓𝟎 𝟑𝟎𝟎

W

C

𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝒙 𝟐𝟐𝟓𝟎 𝟏𝟎𝟎

W

D 𝟏𝟎𝟎 𝒙 𝟑𝟎𝟎 𝒙 𝟐𝟐𝟓𝟎W

[Nov-2008]

9- A 2 kg mass of copper is heated for 40 s by a heater that produces 100 J / s.The specific heat capacity of copper is 400 J / (kg K).What is the rise in temperature? A 5K B 10K C 20K D 50K [Nov-2003] 10- Heat energy is supplied at the same rate to 100 g of paraffin and to 100 g of water in similar containers. Why does the temperature of the paraffin rise more quickly? A The paraffin has a larger specific heat capacity than water. B The paraffin has a smaller specific heat capacity than water. C The paraffin is less dense than water. D The paraffin is more dense than water.

[Nov-2004]

11- A block of metal has a mass of 2.0 kg. Its specific heat capacity is 800 J / (kg °C). The block is supplied with 2400 J of energy. What is the rise in temperature?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-8 Heat Capacity A 0.17 °C

B 0.67 °C

C 1.5 °C

D 6.0 °C

[Nov-2009]

12-

PAPER-2 Theory 1- An iron block is heated using a small electric heater as shown in the diagram. The joulemeter is used to measure the electric energy supplied. When 7200 J of energy is supplied to the heater the temperature of the 0.50kg block rises from 10oC to 40oC. a) Calculate a value for the specific heat capacity of iron. b) The actual value for the specific heat capacity of iron is 450 J/(kg.K) Give a reason for the difference between these two values.

2- A plastic ice tray has 16 sections filled with water. When placed in the ice box, the water freezes to form ice cubes. Each section contains a mass of 20 g of water that is initially completely liquid at a temperature of 0 °C. The specific latent heat of fusion of ice is 330 J/g. (i) Calculate the amount of energy that must be taken from the tray of water to enable all the water in the tray to become ice at 0 °C. (ii) State why the heat capacity of the plastic tray does not affect the answer to (i). (iii) The ice box takes energy from the water at a rate of 30W. Estimate the time taken for all the water in the tray to become ice.

3- Fig. 3.1 illustrates the arrangement of the molecules of a substance in its solid, liquid and gaseous states.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-8 Heat Capacity

(a) State which arrangement, A, B or C, contains molecules with the most energy. (b) Explain, in terms of the forces between the molecules and their separation, why (i) gases are easier to compress than liquids, (ii) latent heat is needed to change the substance from solid to liquid. (c) Define the term specific heat capacity of a substance.

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- When a solid is melting, the temperature remains constant even though heat is being supplied because A- The heat is being used to break up the intermolecular bonds. B-The solid is not absorbing any heat. C-The molecules are moving faster. D-The molecules are further apart. 2- Ice is taken from a freezer and left in a room. The ice melts and eventually the water reaches room temperature. Which energy transfers take place? energy transfer energy transfer after during melting melting A from ice to room from water to room B from ice to room from room to water C from room to ice from room to water D from room to ice from water to room ???? / [May-2008] 3- A student is investigating the evaporation of water. The student can change: -the depth of the water; -the surface area of the water; -the temperature of the water. How many of these changes, if any, would alter the rate at which evaporation occurs? A0 B1 C2 D 3 [May-2008] 4- A liquid evaporates rapidly. Why does it cool? A - Air molecules remove heat by contact with the liquid surface. B - Energy is lost by convection currents. C - Fewer molecules are left in the liquid. D - Some of the most energetic molecules leave the liquid. [Nov-2002] / [Nov-2010] 5- A swimmer climbs out of a swimming pool on a warm, dry day. Almost immediately he begins to feel cold. Why is this? A The water allows a convection current to remove heat from his skin. B The water takes latent heat from his body in order to evaporate. C The water on his skin is a good conductor of heat. D The water prevents infra-red radiation from reaching his body. [May-2003] 6- A substance that is originally a solid is heated strongly for some time. At one stage, the energy given to the substance is used as latent heat of vaporisation. At this stage, what change does the energy cause? A It breaks the bonds holding the molecules together. Molecules escape from the liquid. B It breaks the bonds holding the molecules together. The solid becomes liquid. C It makes the molecules move faster but there is still a strong attraction between them. D It makes the molecules move faster and so the temperature rises.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat 7- Which factors increase the rate of evaporation of a liquid? increasing temperature increasing surface area A yes yes B yes yes C yes no D no yes [May-2005] / [Nov-2008]

increasing depth yes no yes yes

8- Some of the more energetic molecules in a liquid leave the surface, leaving the rest of the liquid slightly cooler. What is the name given to this process? A – boiling B – condensation C – evaporation D – freezing [May-2006] 9- A substance consists of particles that are close together and moving past each other at random. The average speed of the particles is gradually increasing. What best describes the substance? A - a liquid being boiled to form a gas C - a solid being heated

B - a liquid being heated D - a solid being melted to form a liquid

10- A substance is heated in an enclosed space until it becomes a gas. After the heater is removed, the temperature is recorded at regular intervals. The graph shows cooling of the substance. What does the section PQ represent? A - boiling C - melting

B – condensing D – solidifying [Nov-2002]

11- Ice at –10 °C is heated at a constant rate until it is water at +10 ° C. Which graph shows how the temperature changes with time? B

[May-2003]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat 12- When a liquid changes into a gas at a constant temperature, the temperature is known as its A- absolute zero

B-boiling point

C-evaporation point

D-dew point

13- Given that the specific latent heat of vaporization of oxygen is 214 kJ kg-1, how much heat will be absorbed when 3 kg of oxygen is boiled off at its boiling point? A- 64 kJ

B- 140 kJ

C- 14 kJ

D- 642 kJ

14- When ice melts to become water, which force must be overcome? A the attraction between electrons and the nucleus B the attraction between the atoms in a molecule C the force between molecules D the force of gravity [Nov-2002] / [Nov-2008]

15- The diagram shows a cross-section through a rain-water puddle formed in a shallow hole in a road surface.

Over a period of time, air temperature, wind speed and wind direction remain constant. What happens to the rate of evaporation of water from the puddle? A It decreases, because the surface area decreases. B It increases, because the puddle gets shallower. C It increases, because the surface area decreases. D It remains constant. [Nov-2004] / [Nov-2009]

16- What will not affect the rate of evaporation from the surface of a liquid? A depth of the liquid C surface area of the liquid

B draughts above the surface of the liquid D temperature of the liquid

[Nov-2005]

17- A hot liquid is carefully poured into a beaker.

The graph shows how its temperature changes as it cools towards room temperature.

Which processes are taking place at region X? A boiling and evaporation B condensation only C evaporation only D solidification and evaporation [Nov-2005]

18- A substance consists of particles that are close together and moving past each other at random. The average speed of the particles is gradually increasing. What best describes the substance? A a gas being heated B a liquid being heated C a solid being heated D a solid being melted [May-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat 19- Some ice cubes are taken from a deep-freeze and placed in a metal container. The container is heated at a constant rate and readings of temperature and time are taken. The results are recorded on a graph. Which temperature corresponds to 0 °C? C

[May-2006]

20- What conditions of temperature and surface area would produce the most rapid evaporation from a pool of water on a road surface? temperature surface area A high large B high small C low large D low small

[Nov-2006]

21-The energy required to change liquid water into water vapour at the same temperature is called latent heat of vaporisation. What does this energy do? A increases the average separation of the water molecules B increases the average speed of the water molecules C raises the temperature of the air near the water D splits the water molecules into their separate atoms

[Nov-2006]

22- A 2 kW kettle containing boiling water is placed on a balance. It is left there and continues to boil for 5 minutes. The balance reading changes by 0.2 kg. What does this information give as a value for the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water? A 2000 J / kg B 3000 J / kg C 50 000 J / kg D 3 000 000 J / kg [Nov-2006]

23- On a hot day, a drink in a bottle can be kept cool by

standing it in a bowl of water and placing a wet cloth over it. Why is the drink kept cool? A Hot air cannot escape from the bottle. B The cloth conducts heat from the bottle into the water. C The drink cannot evaporate from the bottle. D Water evaporating from the cloth cools the drink.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat 24- The liquid in a puddle evaporates and this causes its temperature to change. How does the temperature of the liquid change and why? change reason A decreases less energetic molecules leave the liquid B decreases more energetic molecules leave the liquid C increases less energetic molecules leave the liquid D increases more energetic molecules leave the liquid [May-2010]

25- An ice-cube has a mass of 7.50g. The ice-cube is at 0°C.Heat from the surroundings reaches the ice-cube at an average rate of 1.25 J/s. How long does it take for all of the ice to melt? (specific latent heat of fusion of ice = 333 J/g) A 35.5s B 55.5s C 2000s D 3120s [May-2010] 26- A hot liquid is poured into a beaker. The graph shows how its temperature changes as it cools towards room temperature.

A boiling and evaporation C evaporation only

Which processes are taking place at region X? B condensation only D solidification and evaporation [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 9.1 shows a refrigerator. Inside the pipes in the ice-box, a liquid boils and takes in latent heat. The gas condenses in the pipes at the back of the refrigerator and thermal energy (heat) leaves through the black metal fins. (a) (i) State one similarity and one difference between boiling and evaporation. (ii) Explain, in terms of the molecules involved, why latent heat is needed to boil the liquid. (b)

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat (i) Explain how the ice box at the top of the refrigerator keeps the whole of the food compartment cool. (ii) Explain why the fins are black.

2- a) The table below describes the conditions of the molecules of a substance in each of the

three states of matter, solid, liquid and gas. In the right-hand column, write the state of the substance that is described in the lefthand

column. (b) (i) What is the state of matter just before a substance boils? (ii) Describe what happens to the molecules during boiling. (c) (i) What is the state of matter just before a substance melts? (ii) Aluminium melts at 660 °C. At what temperature does it freeze?

3- Fig. 10.1 is a full-scale drawing of a small aluminium bar.

(a) Describe how the density of aluminium may be determined using the bar. In your account (i) describe the readings to be taken, (ii) state the instruments used to make the readings, (iii) describe how the density is calculated from the readings. (b) The bar is placed in a small furnace. Figure shows how the temperature of the bar varies with time t.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat

(i) State what happens to the bar between t = 600 s and 1000 s. (ii) Explain what effect the energy supplied to the bar has on its molecules between t = 0 and 1000 s. (iii) The mass of the bar is 0.030 kg and the specific heat capacity of aluminum is 880 J/(kg °C). Calculate the energy supplied to the bar between t = 0 and 600 s. (iv) Between t = 600 s and 1000 s the furnace supplies 30 joules of energy per second to the bar. Calculate the specific latent heat of fusion of aluminum. [May-2004]

4- Some details about nitrogen are given in Figure.

nitrogen

Melting point 0C

Boiling point 0C

Specific heat capacity of liquid J/g0C

Specific latent heat of vaporization J/g

-210

-195

1.4

200

(a) At –209 °C, will nitrogen be a solid, a liquid or a gas? (b) Define what is meant by specific heat capacity. (c) Using data from the table, show that less energy is needed to warm liquid nitrogen from –210 °C to –195 °C than is needed to boil it.

[Nov-2002]

5- Liquid air contains a mixture of oxygen and nitrogen. The boiling point of nitrogen is –196 °C and the boiling point of oxygen is –183 °C.A sample of liquid air in a beaker is allowed to warm up slowly. Fig. 4.1 shows how the reading of a thermometer in the beaker varies with time t.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat (a) Describe the two changes of state that occur and state when they occur. (b) The liquid air contains 200 g of liquid oxygen and 800 g of liquid nitrogen.The specific heat capacity of liquid oxygen is 1.7 J / (g °C) and the specific heat capacity of liquid nitrogen is 2.0 J / (g °C). Calculate the thermal energy needed to warm the liquid from –205 °C to −190 °C. State the formula that you use in your calculation. [May-2008]

6- The graph shows how the temperature of a benzene varies with the time as it is being heated at a

constant rate. At the point E all the benzene is in the gas state. The mass of the benzene is 0.20kg. a) At which of the three points B,C or D do the benzene molecules have the greatest energy? Give a reason for your answer. b) What is happening to the benzene between B and C. c) Calculate the change in the internal energy of the benzene between C and D? c ben =1710 J/(kg.K)

7- During a marathon race, the runner shown in Fig. 3.1 is very hot. At the end of the race, evaporation and convection cool the runner. (a) (i) Explain how evaporation helps the runner to lose energy. Use ideas about molecules in your answer. (ii) Explain why hot air rises around the runner at the end of the race.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat

(b) At the end of the race, the runner is given a shiny foil blanket, as shown 3.2.Wearing the blanket stops the runner from cooling too quickly. Explain foil blanket helps to reduce energy losses. Use ideas about conduction, convection and radiation in your answer.

in Fig. how the shiny

[May-2008]

8- A student has an open tank for storing water outside her house. The tank is black and is in direct sunlight.

She notices that the level of water inside the tank slowly decreases as water evaporates.

She investigates whether some changes, shown in the table, will affect the amount of water evaporated each day.

Only one change is made at a time. All other factors are kept constant. (a) State whether each change will increase, leave unchanged or decrease the amount of water evaporated each day. Explain each of your answers. Change-1: Change-2: Change-3: Change-4:

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-9 Latent Heat (b) She notices that the water level in the tank falls by 0.05 m in 25 hours. The cross-sectional area of the tank is 1.0m2. The density of water is 1000 kg/m3.The specific latent heat of vaporization of water is 2.2 × 106 J/kg. Calculate (i) the volume of water that evaporates, (ii) the mass of water that evaporates, (iii) the energy required to evaporate the water, (iv) the average rate at which energy is used to evaporate the water.

[May-2006]

9- A student investigates the evaporation of water. He pours 100 cm3 of water into measuring cylinder A

and 100 cm3 of water into measuring cylinder B. Measuring cylinder A is kept at 40 °C and B is kept at 80 °C in the same part of the laboratory. Fig. 2.1 shows the two measuring cylinders after 3 days.

(a) (i) Using ideas about molecules, explain why more water evaporates when the water is kept at 80 °C. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ....... (ii) Apart from an increase in temperature, state one change that causes water to evaporate faster. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................... (b) The specific latent heat of vaporisation of water is 2300 J / g and the density of water is 1.0 g / cm3. During the three days, the water level in B drops from the 100 cm3 mark to the level shown in Fig. 2.1. Calculate the energy used to evaporate water from B during the three days. energy = ................................................ [May-2007]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Density changes are responsible for which method of thermal energy transfer? A conduction only C radiation only

B convection only D conduction, convection and radiation

[May-2006]

2- The heat from the hot water in a metal radiator passes through the metal and then spreads around the

room. What are the main processes by which the heat is transferred through the radiator and then spread around the room? A B C D

[Nov-2006]

around the room conduction convection conduction convection

3- Fibre is used for home insulation in a cold country, as

shown in the diagram.Heat cannot easily escape through the ceiling because the fibre

A - traps air. C - is tightly packed.

B - is warm. D - heats the roof space.

[Nov-2002]

4- The diagram shows a thick copper plate that is very hot. One side is black, the other is shiny. A student places her hands the same distance from each side as shown. Her left hand feels warmer than her right hand. Which statement is the correct conclusion from the experiment? A - The black side is hotter than the shiny one. B - The black side radiates more heat. C - The shiny side radiates more heat. D - The shiny side is cooling down faster than the black side. [May-2005]

5- In a vacuum flask, which methods of heat transfer are prevented by the vacuum? A - conduction only C - conduction and convection only [May-2008] / [Nov-2003]

B - convection only D - conduction, convection, and radiation

6- How does thermal energy (heat energy) travel through the vacuum between the Earth and the

Sun?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat A by conduction

B by convection

7- Water at the top of a hot-water tank is heated and the water becomes hot. No

water enters or leaves the tank. Water at the bottom of the tank stays cold for some time. Why is this? A Cold water at the top of the tank falls to the bottom. B Hot water at the bottom of the tank rises to the top. C Water is a poor conductor of heat. D The insulation is a poor conductor of heat.

8- The diagram shows a room seen from above. It is

cold outside the room. The room is heated by a small fire in the fireplace. Where is most heat lost by convection? A carpet B chimney C glass window D solid wall [Nov-2005]

9- An experiment is carried out as shown in the diagram. Why does the ice take a long time to melt, even though the water at the top of the tube is boiling? A Convection never occurs in water. B Ice is a poor conductor of heat. C The gauze prevents the energy reaching the ice. D Water is a poor conductor of heat. [Nov-2005]

10- A teacher has a large tank of water in which he wants to set up a convection current. Which of the following arrangements would do this? A cooling at X [Nov-2004]

B cooling at Y

C heating at Y

D heating at Z

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat

11- The diagram shows a vacuum flask and an enlarged view of a section through the flask wall. The main reason for the silvering is to reduce heat transfer by A conduction only. B radiation only. C conduction and convection. D convection and radiation. [May-2004]

12- The diagram shows four similar cans. Each can contains the same volume of water initially at 80 °C. After five minutes, which can will contain the coolest water?

13- A double-glazed window has two sheets of glass separated by a layer of air.

Thermal energy is conducted and convected through the layer of air. The amount of conduction and convection varies with the thickness of the layer of air, as shown in the graph.

Which thickness of air produces the smallest energy transfer, and why? A 0.5 cm because there is little convection B 1.0 cm because the total thermal energy transfer is least C 1.5 cm because the total thermal energy transfer is small and conduction is low D 2.0 cm because there is little conduction

[May-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat 14- A student needs a double-walled glass vessel to contain a hot liquid.

What reduces heat losses by radiation? A a vacuum in the space between the walls C painting surface R black

B painting surface Q black D painting surface S silver

[May-2009]

15- The diagrams show four cans in a cool room. They are painted as shown. One pair is filled with hot water and left to cool down. The other pair is filled with cold water and placed near infra-red heaters.

The hot water in the black can cools more quickly than the hot water in the white can. The cold water in the black can heats up more quickly than the cold water in the white can. Which row shows the reasons for this? A B C D

better emitter of infra-red black black white white

better absorber of infra-red black white black white

[Nov-2009]

16- When a refrigerator is switched on for the first time, the air surrounding the ice-box is cooled.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat

What happens to the density of this air and to its position inside the refrigerator?

A B C

density

position of the air

decreases decreases increases

sinks to the bottom stays at the top sinks to the bottom

D increases [May-2010]

stays at the top

17- The tubes inside solar heating panels use the Sun’s radiation to warm water. Why are the tubes painted black? A Black surfaces absorb radiation well. C Black surfaces emit radiation well.

B Black surfaces conduct heat well. D Black surfaces reflect radiation well.

[Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Heat is transferred by conduction, convection and radiation. (a) (i) State which of the three methods is responsible for the transfer of heat from the Sun to the Earth. (ii) Explain why the other two methods cannot be involved in this transfer. (b) A hand feels hot when placed above a lighted match, as shown in Figure Explain in detail how convection causes this to happen. (c) Figure shows a layer of fibreglass placed between the ceiling of a room and the roof of a house.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat Explain how the layer of fibreglass helps to keep the room warm when it is cold outside.

[May-2004]

2- Fig. 9.1 shows an electric boiler in a school kitchen. The boiler contains 35 kg of water at 22 °C. The specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J / (kg °C). (a) (i) Calculate the thermal energy (heat) needed to raise the temperature of the water from 22 °C to its boiling point. (ii) The water in the boiler is heated with a 2600 W immersion heater. Calculate the minimum time for the heater to bring the water to its boiling point. (iii) Suggest one reason why the actual time is greater than the time calculated in (ii). (b) (i) The immersion heater is placed in the water at the bottom of the boiler. Explain in detail how this ensures that the thermal energy (heat) is transferred throughout the water. (ii) The boiler is made of steel and has two large plastic handles. When the water is boiling,the steel surface at X is hot while the plastic handle at Y is cool. Explain why. (c) Before the water reaches boiling point, water vapour is seen escaping from the boiler. (i) State the name of the process that produces this water vapour. (ii) State two differences between this process and boiling.

3- When a house is heated, energy is lost to the outside. Figure shows where the energy is lost from the house. (a) (i) Calculate the percentage of the energy lost through the roof. (ii) Energy is lost through the roof by conduction and from the roof by convection and by radiation. Explain in detail how this happens. (iii) Fitting carpets on the floor reduces energy loss. Explain how a carpet reduces energy loss. (b) The table gives information about three methods of reducing energy loss.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat

(i) Calculate the values of X and Y. (ii) Which one of these three methods should the house owner choose? Explain your answer. (iii) State two other ways, not already mentioned, of reducing energy loss from the house.

[May-2005]

4- Fig. 5.1 shows the arrangement of atoms in a solid block.

(a) End X of the block is heated. Energy is conducted to end Y, which becomes warm. (i) Explain how heat is conducted from X to Y by the atoms. (ii) Explain why the solid block expands when it is heated. (b) The block is heated and becomes a liquid. Describe the changes that occur to the arrangement and the motion of the atoms. [Nov-2007]

5- Three horizontal rods are placed with one end

just above a Bunsen flame. The other end of each rod is coated with wax, as shown in Fig. 3.1. (a) Describe how you would use the apparatus to discover which rod is the best conductor of heat.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat (b) Two metal teapots are identical except that one is black on the outside and the other is white on the outside, as shown in Fig. 3.2. The teapots each contain the same amount of hot water. State and explain which teapot will cool down more quickly.

[Nov-2006]

6- A heat pipe is a device that transmits thermal energy along its length. It can transmit energy thousands of times faster than a solid copper rod. Fig. 8.1 shows a heat pipe attached to black metal fins. The fins absorb energy from the Sun. The sealed pipe transmits this energy along its length into a tank of cold

water. Thermal energy from the fins is conducted through the walls of the copper pipe and causes the alcohol to boil. The boiling creates a higher pressure. At the end of the copper pipe in contact with cold water, the alcohol condenses and creates a lower pressure. The liquid alcohol runs along the pipe to be boiled again. There is little change in the temperature of the alcohol. (a)

(i) Describe how molecules in the copper conduct energy to the alcohol. (ii) Explain how boiling and condensation within the heat pipe cause the transfer of energy. (iii) Explain why the heat pipe is able to transfer energy at a fast rate. (b) In one minute, a mass of 25 g of alcohol condenses at the end of the heat pipe. The specific latent heat of

vaporisation of alcohol is 840 J/g. (i) Define specific latent heat of vaporisation. (ii) Calculate the amount of energy released when 25 g of alcohol condenses. You may neglect any change in the temperature of the alcohol. (iii) Calculate the maximum rise in temperature that the energy calculated in (ii) produces when used to heat 500 g of cold water. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 J/(g °C). (c) Black surfaces absorb and emit infra-red radiation better than white surfaces. (i) Describe an experiment that shows black surfaces absorb radiation better than white surfaces. (ii) Describe an experiment that shows black surfaces emit radiation better than white surfaces at the same temperature.

[Nov-2004]

7- Fig. 4.1 shows equipment placed on top of a house that uses solar energy to produce hot

water. (a) Explain why the solar collector has a black base.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat

(b) State and explain why the hot water in the solar collector travels to the hot-water tank. (c) Fig. 4.1 does not show any insulation. (i) Explain why it is important to insulate the hot-water tank. (ii) Explain how the hot-water tank is insulated.

8- One type of renewable energy source is shown in Fig. 3.1.

(a) (i) State the name of the renewable energy source shown in Fig. 3.1. ............................................................................................................................ [1] (ii) State what is meant by a renewable energy source. .................................................................................................................................. ..................................................................................................................................

[Nov-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-10 Transfer of Heat ............................................................................................................................ [1] (b) 1000 kg of cold water at a temperature of 20 °C is pumped down to the hot rocks. 100 kg of water returns as steam and 900 kg as hot water, both at a temperature of 100 °C. The specific heat capacity of water is 4200 J / (kg °C) and the specific latent heat of vaporisation of water is 2.3 × 106 J / kg. Calculate (i) the energy needed to heat 1000 kg of water from 20 °C to 100 °C, energy = ...................... [2] (ii) the energy needed to produce 100 kg of steam from water that is already at 100 °C. energy = ....................... [2] [Nov-2007] 9-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves PAPER-1 Multiple Choice

1- Which line in the table correctly shows examples of transverse and longitudinal waves? transverse wave A light B radio C sound D water ripples [May-2003]

longitudinal wave water ripples sound light radio

2- The diagram shows waves travelling on the sea. Which points are one wavelength apart? A - P and R

B - Q and S

C - Q and T

D - S and T

[Nov-2002]

3- The diagram shows a wave moving into shallower

water. The wavelength of the waves is reduced because

A - both the frequency and the speed decrease. C - only the frequency increases.

B - both the frequency and the speed increase. D - only the speed decreases. [May-2004]

4- The diagram shows part of a spring that is shaken from side to side to produce a wave. The distance

between successive peaks is 0.60 m and the frequency is 2.5 Hz. How long does it take for a wave to

travel 3.0 m along the spring? A - 0.20 s

B - 0.50 s

C - 2.0 s

D - 5.0 s

[May-2005]

5- Waves are sent along two long springs X and Y as shown. How should the wave motions in X and Y be described?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves

A B C D

spring X longitudinal longitudinal transverse transverse

spring Y longitudinal transverse longitudinal transverse

6- A wave transfers : A- molecules

B- energy

C- matter

D- force

7- In an experiment using a ripple tank, plane wavefronts arrive at a plane surface. Which of the following correctly describes the waves after they are reflected from the surface? [May-2006] / [Nov-2002]

A B C D

speed of waves faster slower slower the same

wavelength λ shorter longer shorter the same

8- Which statement is true for all electromagnetic waves? A They are longitudinal. B They can be seen. C They have the same frequency in air. D They travel at the same speed in a vacuum. 9- Which line in the table correctly shows examples of transverse and longitudinal waves? A B C D

longitudinal sound water waves light X-rays [Nov-2002]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves 9- The diagram shows the refraction of water waves in

a ripple tank. The water is shallower above the glass sheet. When crossing into the shallower region, what is the effect on the frequency and on the speed of the waves? wave frequency wave speed A changes changes B changes unchanged C unchanged changes D unchanged unchanged [Nov-2008]

10- The diagrams show different views of a water wave in a ripple tank.

Which letters represent a wavelength and a wavefront? wavelength wavefront A P R B P S C Q R D Q S

11- A ripple tank is used to demonstrate refraction of plane water waves. Waves in deep water have a wavelength of 1.2 cm and a speed of 9.6 cm / s. The wavelength of the waves in shallow water is 0.8 cm. What is the speed of the waves in the shallow water? A 6.4 cm / s B 8.0 cm / s C 9.6 cm / s D 14.4 cm / s

12- The diagram shows a water wave in a ripple tank. The wave has a speed of 12 cm / s at R. The wave crosses a boundary PQ where the distance between crests changes from 3.0 cm to 1.5 cm. What is the speed of the wave at S?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves A 3.0 cm / s

B 6.0 cm / s

C 12 cm / s D 24 cm / s

[May-2003] / [May-2007]

13- The diagram shows the refraction of water waves as they cross a boundary in a ripple tank. What causes this refraction? A a change in frequency due to a change in depth B a change in frequency due to a change in wavelength C a change in speed due to a change in depth D a change in speed due to a change in frequency

14- The diagram shows how displacement varies with

time as a wave passes a fixed point. What is the frequency of this wave? A 0.25 Hz B 0.50 Hz C 1.0 Hz D 2.0 Hz [Nov-2006]

15- Which diagram shows an example of a longitudinal wave?

A

light travelling from a lamp to a screen

B

a spring pushed backwards and forwards

C

a spring pushed up and down

D a water ripple caused by a dipper moving up and down [May-2010]

16- The diagram shows a wave on a string with two points P and Q marked. The wave is moving in the direction shown. What will happen next? A P will move to the right. B P will move up.

[May-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves C Q will not move. D Q will move up.

[Nov-2005]

17- The dipper in a ripple tank vibrates at a frequency of 4.0 Hz and the resulting wave pattern is photographed. The distance between the two crests shown is 20 cm. What is the speed of the wave? A 4 cm / s B 5 cm / s C 16 cm / s D 20 cm / s [Nov-2005] 18- Which wave is part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A B C D

Speed (m/s) 330 330 3x108 3x108

Type Longitudinal Transverse Longitudinal transverse

19- The diagram shows a graph of wave motion. Which quantities are shown by distances P and Q? P Q A amplitude period B amplitude wavelength C half the amplitude period D half the amplitude wavelength [Nov-2004] 20- Which diagram correctly shows water waves travelling through deep water to shallower water? A

[Nov-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves 21- The diagram shows the variation of the displacement of a wave with distance from the source. What is the amplitude of the wave? A 2.0 cm B 4.0 cm C 20 cm D 40cm [Nov-2003] 22- Radio waves, visible light and X-rays are all part of the electromagnetic spectrum. What is the correct order of increasing wavelength? shortest longest A radio waves visible light X-rays B radio waves X-rays visible light C X-rays radio waves visible light D X-rays visible light radio waves [Nov-2002] 23- The diagrams represent sound waves displayed on an oscilloscope. Assuming the controls of the oscilloscope remain the same for each sound, which diagram represents the quietest sound with the highest frequency?

24- Waves pass from deep water to shallow water and refraction occurs. What is the speed of the waves in the shallow water? A 0.2 m / s B 0.8 m / s C 2.0 m / s D 5.0 m / s [May-2006]

25- Which statement is true for all electromagnetic waves? A They are longitudinal. C They have the same frequency in air.

B They can be seen. D They travel at the same speed in a vacuum.

[May-2005]

26- The graph shows, at one instant, the pressure variation along a sound wave. Which point on the diagram represents a rarefaction and what is the wavelength of the sound wave? rarefaction at wavelength is A P X B P Y

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves C D

Q Q

X Y [May-2005]

27- Which wave is part of the electromagnetic spectrum? A B C D

speed m/s 330 330 3 × 108

type longitudinal transverse longitudinal

3 × 108

transverse

[May-2006]

28- What is meant by the term wavefront?

A the distance between successive peaks of a wave B the distance between the trough and the peak of a wave C a line joining points along the peak of a wave D a line joining the trough and the peak of a wave

[Nov-2006]

29- Which type of wave is used to send telephone signals to and from a satellite? A infra-red waves

B light waves

C microwaves

D sound waves

[May-2007]

30- The diagrams show different views of a water wave in a ripple tank.

Which letters represent a wavelength and a wavefront? wavelength wavefront A P R B P S C Q R D Q S [May-2008]

31- A ripple tank is used to demonstrate refraction of plane water waves.

Waves in deep water have a wavelength of 1.2 cm and a speed of 9.6 cm/ s. The wavelength of the waves in shallow water is 0.8cm. What is the speed of the waves in the shallow water? A 6.4cm/s B 8.0cm/s C 9.6cm/s D 14.4cm/s [May-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves 32- The diagram shows a ball floating in a tank of water.

Which diagram shows the movement of the ball as the wave passes? D

[Nov-2009]

33- A hospital needs to sterilise medical equipment. Which electromagnetic waves could be used? A infra-red

B microwaves

D ultraviolet

[May-2010]

34- Which pair of emissions travels with the same speed in air? A alpha-particles and gamma-rays C infra-red waves and sound waves

B gamma-rays and infra-red waves D sound waves and alpha-particles

[Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- (a) Water waves are transverse waves. Sound is a longitudinal wave. (i) Describe the difference between transverse waves and longitudinal waves. In your account, draw a diagram of each type of wave. (ii) Sound contains regions of compression and regions of rarefaction. Describe what is meant by a compression and by a rarefaction. (b) A ripple tank is used to demonstrate the reflection of water waves. (i) Draw a labelled diagram of a ripple tank. (ii) Draw a diagram showing the reflection of waves from a plane barrier in a ripple tank.

(c) Figure shows a water wave passing a floating log. The log is stationary.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves

The log is 6.0 m long and 5 complete waves take 10 seconds to pass point A.

Determine (i) the wavelength of the water waves, (ii) the frequency of the water waves, (iii) the speed of the water waves.

[May-2008]

2- (a) Each object in the table below emits one main type of electromagnetic wave. Complete the table by writing in the name of the type of wave.One line has been written for you. Object

Main type of electromagnetic wave emitted

remote control for a television radioactive source

(b) X-rays are used in hospitals to produce images of bones and to show whether bones are broken. (i) State what is used to detect X-rays. (ii) Explain the properties of X-rays that enable an image of a bone to be produced.

3- (a) Water waves are transverse waves. Sound is a longitudinal wave.

(i) Describe the difference between transverse waves and longitudinal waves. In your account, draw a diagram of each type of wave. (ii) Sound contains regions of compression and regions of rarefaction. Describe what is meant by a compression and by a rarefaction.

4- Fig. 4.1 shows an incorrect electromagnetic spectrum drawn by a student. The parts of the spectrum and the wavelengths are in the wrong order. The values of the wavelengths do not match the correct parts

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves of the spectrum.

(a) On Fig. 4.2, complete the table of the electromagnetic spectrum. Radio waves and their correct wavelength have been inserted for you.

(b) State the speed of all electromagnetic waves in a vacuum. .....................................................................................................................................

5-

Fig. 5.1 shows part of a long, thin spring used to demonstrate a transverse wave.

The wave shown in Fig. 5.1 has a frequency of 4.0 Hz. (a) (i) On Fig. 5.1, mark the direction the hand must move to make a transverse wave. (ii) Describe how the hand must move to make a transverse wave of frequency 4.0 Hz. (b) The speed of the wave is 0.80 m/s. Calculate its wavelength. State clearly the formula that you use. wavelength = …………… (c) State what must be done to double the wavelength of the wave on the spring.

6- Microwaves are waves in the electromagnetic spectrum.

(a) (i) State the name of waves in one other part of the electromagnetic spectrum that have wavelengths longer than microwaves. (ii) A wave in the electromagnetic spectrum has a wavelength longer than microwaves. Explain why the frequency of this wave is lower than the frequency of microwaves.

[Nov-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves (b) Microwaves are sometimes used to send telephone messages over long distances. They are sent from large dish aerials on top of high buildings or towers. There are often several repeater or booster stations placed between the transmitter and the receiver, as illustrated in Fig. 3.1.

State why (i) the aerials are placed on top of high buildings or towers, (ii) repeater or booster stations are necessary.

[Nov-2002]

7- A student produces wavefronts in a ripple tank to demonstrate refraction, as shown in

Fig. 3.1. He places a sheet of glass under the water on the right-hand side of the tank. The arrows show the directions of movement of the wavefronts.

(a) State what is meant by a wavefront. ......................................................................................................................................... (b) State what happens to each of the following quantities as the wavefronts change direction. (i) wavelength ............................................................................................................... (ii) speed ....................................................................................................................... (iii) frequency .................................................................................................................

[Nov-2005] 8- X-rays, microwaves, ultra-violet rays and infra-red rays are different types of radiation in the

electromagnetic spectrum. (a) Write the name of one of these types of radiation in each of the boxes, placing them in order of increasing wavelength.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves shortest wavelength

--------------------------------------------------------------------------

longest wavelength

(b) State one use of ultra-violet radiation. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. (c) State two properties that are common to all types of radiation in the electromagnetic spectrum. 1. ..................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2. ..................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................................... [Nov-2005]

9- (a) Each object in the table below emits one main type of electromagnetic wave. Complete the table by writing in the name of the type of wave. One line has been written for you. Object radio transmitter remote control for a television radioactive source [2]

Main type of electromagnetic wave emitted radio wave

(b) X-rays are used in hospitals to produce images of bones and to show whether bones are broken. (i) State what is used to detect X-rays. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [1] (ii) Explain the properties of X-rays that enable an image of a bone to be produced. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [2]

[May-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-11 Waves

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction PAPER-1 Multiple Choice

1- A boy stands beside a girl in front of a large plane mirror. They are both the same distance from the mirror, as shown. Where does the boy see the girl’s image? A [May-2003]

2- A ray of light is incident on one side of a rectangular glass block. Its path is plotted through the

block and out through another side. Which path is not possible? C

3- An image is formed in a plane mirror.

[May-2003]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction

Which statement must be correct? angles A w=y B w=z C x=y D x=z [May-2004]

distances dO = d I d O is greater than d I dO = d I d O is greater than d I

4- In which diagram is the path of the light ray not correct? D

[Nov-2002] / [May-2005]

5- Which colour, red or blue, has the higher frequency and which has the longer wavelength? A B C D

higher frequency blue blue red red ????/ [May-2008]

longer wavelength blue red blue red

6- An eye views an object O by reflection in a plane mirror.Which is the correct ray diagram?

[Nov-2008]

7- What happens to light as it passes from glass into air?

A Its frequency decreases because its speed decreases.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction B Its frequency increases because its speed increases. C Its wavelength decreases because its speed decreases. D Its wavelength increases because its speed increases.

[May-2007]

8- The diagram shows a ray of light reflected from a plane mirror.What is the angle of reflection? A 30 °

B 60 °

C 90 °

D 120 °

9- Which characteristics describe an image formed in a plane mirror? A real and inverted C real and larger than the object

B virtual and upright D virtual and smaller than the object

[Nov-2005]

10- A spectrum is formed when white light passes through a prism.

In which position are the colours green, red and yellow seen? A B C D

1 green green red red

2

red yellow green yellow

[Nov-2002]

3 yellow red yellow green

11- A ray of red light enters a semi-circular glass block normal to the curved surface.Which of the following correctly shows the partial reflection and refraction of the ray? [Nov-2003]/ [May-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction 12- The diagram shows two divergent rays of light from an object O being reflected from a plane mirror. At which position will the image be formed?

[Nov-2003]

13- A ray of light enters a glass block at an angle of incidence i producing an angle of refraction r in the glass.Several different values of i and r are measured, and a graph is drawn of sin i against sin r.

Which graph is correct?

A

[Nov-2008]

14- Which diagram correctly shows the dispersion of white light by a glass prism? C [May-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction 15- A pin is placed in front of, and to the right of, a plane mirror as shown. Where is the image of the pin? C

[Nov-2004]

16- The diagram shows the spectrum produced when white light is dispersed by a glass prism.

1 A infra-red B red C red D red [Nov-2004]

red green orange orange

2

green orange green green

What are the numbered visible colours? 3 4 ultra-violet blue blue ultra-violet

17-The diagram shows a patient having her eyes tested. A chart with letters on it is placed behind her and she sees the chart reflected in a plane mirror. How far away from the patient is the image of the chart? A2m B4m C5m D7m

[May-2005]

18- Light rays are deviated by a prism.

The deviation angle d is measured for light rays of different frequency, including blue light and red light. Which graph is correct? D

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction 19- Three students stand 2 m apart in front of a plane mirror which is 3 m long.

Student Y is standing opposite the mid-point of the mirror.How many students can see the images of the other two? A0 B1 C2 D3 [Nov-2006]

20- The diagram shows a child using a periscope to look at an object on the other side of a wall. Which diagram shows a correctly drawn ray of light from the object?

[May-2007]

21- The diagram shows four rays of light from a lamp below the surface of some water. What is the critical angle for light in water? B

[May-2009]

22-When white light is dispersed by a prism, compared with blue light, the red light is

A slowed down less and refracted less. C slowed down more and refracted less.

B slowed down less and refracted more. D slowed down more and refracted more.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction [May-2009]

23- The diagram shows a ray of light from one point on a lamp striking a plane mirror.

A at P and is real.

The image of the point on the lamp formed by the mirror is B at P and is virtual. C at R and is real. D at R and is virtual. [Nov-2009]

24- The diagram shows the passage of a ray of light through a triangular glass block. What is the critical angle of light in glass? D

[Nov-2009] 25- A student holds a sheet of paper with letters on it facing a plane mirror. The letters on the paper are shown.

What does the student see in the mirror? B

[May-2010]

26- A semi-circular block is made from a plastic. A ray of light passes through it at the angles shown.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction

A 1.25

B 1.41

To two decimal places, what is the refractive index of the plastic? C 1.51 D 1.61 [May-2010]

27- A ray of light strikes the surface of a glass block at an angle of incidence of 45°. The refractive index of the glass is 1.5. What is the angle of refraction inside the block? A 28° B 30° C 45° D 67° [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Figure shows a ray of light PQR passing along a simple optical fibre to its end at R.

(a)

(i) Explain why the ray PQ does not leave the optical fibre at Q. (ii) Explain why the ray QR changes direction at R.

(b) The refractive index of glass is 1.5. The ray QR makes an angle of 15° with the normal to the glass surface at R. Calculate the angle x, shown on Figure. angle x = .......................... (c) State one advantage of optical fibers rather than copper wires for carrying telephone communications.

[Nov-2002]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction

2- A man looks at his reflection in a vertical mirror. This is shown from the side in Figure. (i) On Figure, accurately mark with a clear dot labelled B

where the image of the tip A of the man’s beard will be. (ii) On Figure, accurately draw a ray from the tip of the man’s beard that reflects from the mirror and goes into his eye. You may use faint construction lines if you wish. Use arrows to show the direction of the ray. (iii) The man can see the image, but it cannot be formed on a screen. What name is given to this type of image? (iv) Write down the equation that links the angles of incidence and reflection that the ray makes with the mirror.

3- Fig. 4.1 and Fig. 4.2 show rays of light passing through the same semi-circular block of plastic.

Q is the centre of the straight side of the block. (a) State the value of the critical angle in the plastic. critical angle = ........................ [1]

(b) Explain what is meant by the critical angle. (c) Calculate the refractive index of the plastic. State the formula that you use.

refractive index = ...................... [3] (d) Some light reflects back into the plastic at Q.On Fig. 4.1, draw the reflected ray at Q. [May-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction

4- (a) Fig. 4.1 shows a ray of light incident on a mirror at X. The incident ray makes an angle of 50° with the

surface of the mirror.

(i) Complete Fig. 4.1 to show the normal and the reflected ray at X. (ii) State the values of 1. the angle of incidence, ............................................... 2. the angle of reflection. ............................................... (b) Describe with the help of a diagram how you would find the position of the image produced by a plane mirror. [Nov-2006]

5- The diagram below shows a beam of light incident on a triangular glass prism. a) Draw the lines that the beam of light would follow as it passes trough and out of the prism. b) Mark the place where total internal reflection occurs and label it as Q. c) Explain why total internal reflection occurs at the point you show.

6- The diagram shows a small object being viewed in a plane mirror. a) Mark the position of the image on the diagram b )Draw the path of a ray of light from the object which enters the eye after reflection in the mirror.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction c) Mark the angles of incidence and reflection made by the ray with the mirror and label them i and r.

7- A ray of light is incident onto a rectangular glass prism. a) Calculate the angle A. Explain your answer. b) By considering the refraction at point P, calculate the refractive index of the glass. c) Calculate the critical angle for the given glass medium. By using your answer , explain what is happening at point Q. d) Calculate the angles C and D.

8- Fig. 6.1 shows a ray of white light from a ray-box passing into a glass prism. A spectrum is formed between P and Q on the screen.

(a) State the colour of the light at end P of the spectrum. ................................................................................................................................... (b) State whether the value of each of these properties for blue light is greater than, equal to or less than the value for red light. (i) speed in a vacuum ............................................................................................. (ii) wavelength .........................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction (c) Fig. 6.2 shows the ray passing through a red filter before it reaches the prism.

Complete Fig. 6.2 to show the ray of red light passing through and emerging from the prism.

9- (a) Fig. 11.1 shows a ray of light passing through the edge of a converging lens.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction (i) Describe what happens to the direction of the ray of light as it enters and leaves the lens. (ii) State what happens to the speed, frequency and wavelength of the light as it enters the lens. (iii) Calculate the refractive index of the glass used in the lens. (b) The focal length of the lens is 20 cm. An object is placed 50 cm from the lens and an image is formed on a screen. (i) Explain what is meant by the focal length of a lens. You may draw a diagram if you wish. (ii) Draw a ray diagram to scale to show the formation of the image. (iii) The image is real. State two other properties of the image. [Nov-2007]

10- Fig. 4.1 shows an air bubble in water. The rays of light are incident on the air bubble.

The angle of incidence of ray 1 on the air bubble is greater than the critical angle. The angle of incidence of ray 2 on the air bubble is less than the critical angle. Ray 3 is perpendicular to the surface of the bubble. The angle of incidence of ray 2 on the air bubble is 27° and the angle of refraction of ray 2 inside the air bubble is 37°. (a) On Fig. 4.1, at the point where ray 1 meets the air bubble, mark (i) the normal to the surface, (ii) the angle of incidence. (b) Complete Fig. 4.1 to show how all three rays continue after they meet the air bubble. (c) (i) Define what is meant by the refractive index of water. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. (ii) Calculate the refractive index of water.

refractive index = ……………… [Nov-2004]

11- Fig. 4.1 shows part of an optical fibre.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-12 Light,Reflection,Refraction The ray PQ undergoes total internal reflection in the optical fibre. (a) On Fig. 4.1, continue the path of ray PQ until it reaches end R. (b) Explain what is meant by total internal reflection. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. (c) Optical fibres are cheaper and lighter than copper wires. State one other advantage of using optical fibres rather than copper wires for telephone communications. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. (d) The light in the optical fibre is travelling at a speed of 2.1 × 108 m / s and has a wavelength of 6.4 × 10–7 m. Calculate the frequency of the light. frequency = ........... [May-2007]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- In the diagram, the distance OP is the focal length of the lens. Through which point will the ray shown pass, after refraction by the lens? A

2- What is true for real images formed by a converging lens? A - They are inverted.

[May-2003]

B - They are on the same side of the lens as the object.

C - They can never be shown on a screen. D - They cannot be seen by the human eye. 3- An object 5.0 cm high is placed 2.0 cm from a converging (convex) lens which is being used as a magnifying glass. The image produced is 6.0 cm from the lens and is 15 cm high.

What is the focal length of the lens? A - 2.0 cm B - 3.0 cm C - 4.0 cm

D - 6.0 cm

4- Which diagram correctly shows rays passing through a camera lens? B

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses

5- A parallel beam of light falls on a converging lens. Which diagram shows what happens to the beam of light? A B C D

6- The diagram shows an object O placed 3 cm away from a converging lens of focal length 6 cm. What type

of image is produced?

A real, erect and diminished C virtual, erect and magnified

B real, inverted and magnified D virtual, inverted and diminished

[Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses 7- A lens forms a blurred image of an object on a screen.

How can the image be made sharp and in focus on the screen? A by moving the object away from the lens and screen B by moving the screen away from the lens and object C by using a brighter object at the same position D by using a lens of longer focal length at the same position

[Nov-2002] / [May-2006]

8- The human eye has a converging lens system that produces an image at the back of the eye. If the eye views a distant object, which type of image is produced? A real, erect, same size B real, inverted, diminished C virtual, erect, diminished D virtual, inverted, magnified

[Nov-2003] / [Nov-2006]

9- A student starts to draw a ray diagram for an object at O, near a thin convex lens, but is not sure

whether the image is formed at X or at F.

The correctly drawn image is A real and formed at F. C virtual and formed at F.

B real and formed at X. D virtual and formed at X. [May-2004]

10- An object 5.0 cm high is placed 2.0 cm from a converging (convex) lens which is being used as a magnifying glass. The image produced is 6.0cm from the lens and is 15cm high.

What is the focal length of the lens? A 2.0cm B 3.0cm C 4.0cm

D 6.0cm

[May-2008]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses 11- A man is short-sighted. Which ray diagram shows what happens when he looks at a distant object?

C

[May-2008]

12- Convex lenses are used in cameras and as magnifying glasses. Which types of image are formed? type of image in camera A real B real C virtual D virtual [May-2010]

type of image in magnifying glass real virtual real virtual

PAPER-2 Theory 1- The ray diagram in Fig. 11.1 shows a lens forming an image II′ of an object OO′.

(a) State: (i) which of the marked points is a principal focus of the lens, ....................................... (ii) which distance is the focal length of the lens............................................................ (b) Which of the following words describe the image? Tick all that are correct. Real

virtual

Inverted

upright

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses Enlarged

diminished

(c) On Fig. 11.1, draw one other ray that goes from O′, the top of the object, to the image.

2- A collector views a postage stamp of height 2.0cm through a hand lens placed 2.8cm from the stamp. The image he sees appears to be magnified 3 times. a) State the type of lens used for the hand lens. b) The collector views the letter on the stamp, shown full size below. In the space to the right, draw the full size the magnified image that will be seen using the hand lens. object

image

c) In the diagram below, the horizontal line represents the principal axis of the hand lens. The lens and the stamp are represented by vertical lines.

i) Remembering that the image is upright and has a magnification of 3 calculate the height of the image.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses ii) Draw a line which represents the image with proper position and height, remembering that the extension of the light ray from the top of the object to the centre of the lens will pass through the top of the image.

[3]

iii) By using your drawing find the distance of the image from the lens and the

focal

length of the lens. Image distance=………..[2] Focal length=………..[2]

3- (a) Fig. 11.1 shows a ray of light passing through the edge of a converging lens.

(i) Describe what happens to the direction of the ray of light as it enters and leaves the lens.

(ii) State what happens to the speed, frequency and wavelength of the light as it enters the lens. (iii) Calculate the refractive index of the glass used in the lens.

(b) The focal length of the lens is 20 cm. An object is placed 50 cm from the lens and an image is formed on a screen. (i) Explain what is meant by the focal length

of a lens. You may draw a diagram if you wish. (ii) Draw a ray diagram to scale to show the formation of the image. (iii) The image is real. State two other properties of the image.

4- Fig. 3.1 shows words seen through a lens. Fig. 3.2 shows the same words without the lens.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses (a) State two properties of the image formed by the lens. 1 ...................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... 2 ...................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................... (b) On Fig. 3.3, sketch a ray diagram to show how the image in Fig. 3.1 was formed by the lens. Mark clearly the focal length of the lens and the image formed.

[Nov-2003]

5- Fig. 2.1 shows the lens of a simple camera being used to photograph an object.

The lens forms a focused image of the object on the film. (a) Draw two rays from the top of the object to show how the lens forms the image. (b) The object moves closer to the camera. State how the lens is adjusted to keep the image in focus.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ......................... (c) Complete Fig. 2.2 to show how white light is split into a spectrum when it passes through a glass prism.

[May-2005] 6- Fig. 5.1 is drawn full scale. The focal length of the lens is 3.0 cm.

(a) On Fig. 5.1, draw two rays from the top of the object O that meet at the image. (b) (i) Define the term linear magnification. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. (ii) Determine the magnification produced by the lens in Fig. 5.1. magnification = ................................................ (c) Fig. 5.2 shows a normal eye viewing an object close to it. Fig. 5.3 is a long-sighted eye viewing an object at the same distance.

Complete Fig. 5.3 to show the rays travelling through the eye. [May-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Converging Lenses

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- A normal person can hear sounds whose frequencies lie between A- 10Hz – 10kHz

B- 20Hz – 20kHz

C- 25Hz – 25kHz

D- 30Hz – 30kHz

2- Astronauts in space need to communicate with each other by radio links because A- The sound waves are distorted in space. B- Some sounds are absorbed by the space suits. waves travel very slow in space. D-Sound waves cannot travel in space.

C- Sound

3- A sound wave passes through the air, in the direction shown.

direction of travel of sound wave How does a particle of air move as the sound wave passes? A moves to the right and stays there B moves left and right C moves up and stays there D moves up and down

4- A girl, standing 150 m in front of tall building, fires a shot using a starting pistol. A boy, standing 350 m from the girl, hears two bangs 1 s apart.

From this information, what is the speed of sound in air? A - 300 m / s B - 350 m / s C - 500 m / s

D - 650 m / s

[May-2007]

5- The graph shows, at one instant, the pressure variation along a sound wave. Which point on the diagram represents a rarefaction and what is the wavelength of the sound wave, respectively?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound A - P and X

B - P and Y

C - Q and

X

D - Q and Y

6- The diagram shows a loudspeaker that is producing a continuous sound wave of frequency

200 Hz in air.

molecule at P to move during

1

200

Which diagram best shows how the sound causes a

𝑠?A

[May-2004]

7- A boy strikes a rigid metal fence with a stick to create a sound along the fence. A girl listens with her ear against the fence. One second after the fence is struck, the girl hears a sound through the How long will it take for the sound to reach the girl through the fence?

A 0 second

B less than 1 second

C 1 second

D more than 1 second

[May-2006]

8- The diagrams show oscilloscope traces of sounds picked up by microphones. The oscilloscope

controls are set in the same position for all the traces. Which trace shows the sound that is both loud and low-pitched? A [Nov-2006]

9- The diagrams represent sound waves displayed on an oscilloscope. Assuming the controls of the oscilloscope remain the same for each sound, which diagram

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound represents the quietest sound with the highest frequency?

10- Which of the following does not produce a sound wave? A a bell ringing under water C a hammer hitting a block of rubber

B a gun fired in a room with no echoes D an explosion in outer space

[Nov-2003]

11- Wave forms are shown on an oscilloscope for a flute and a bassoon playing the same note. The

oscilloscope settings are the same for both wave forms.

What is the difference between the two sounds? A the amplitude B the frequency C the quality (timbre)

D the wavelength

[Nov-2005]

12- The sounds produced by two musical instruments are directed towards a microphone connected to an oscilloscope (cro). The waveforms produced on the screen are shown.

The waveforms show that the sounds produced have a different property.What is the property? A frequency B speed C timbre (quality) D wavelength

13- An ultrasonic tape-measure is used to find the distance to a wall. It sends out an ultrasonic pulse and times how long it takes for the reflected pulse to return from the wall. The ultrasound has a frequency, a wavelength and a speed. Which pair of values is needed to find the distance to the wall? A frequency and wavelength B frequency and time taken for the pulse to return C speed and time taken for the pulse to return D wavelength and time taken for the pulse to return [May-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound 14- The sounds produced are shown on a cathode-ray oscilloscope for a flute and a guitar playing the same note. The oscilloscope settings are the same for both waveforms.

What is the difference between the two sounds? A the amplitude B the frequency [May-2008]

C the quality (timbre)

D the wavelength

15- The diagram shows the trace produced on a cathode-ray oscilloscope (c.r.o.) by a sound.

Which trace is produced when both the loudness and the pitch of the sound are increased?

[Nov-2009]

16- A flash of lightning and the corresponding sound of the thunder are detected 6 s apart. A student

calculates that the lightning struck about 1800m away. On which assumption is the calculation based? A Light reaches us almost instantaneously, but sound travels at 300m/ s. B Light travels 300m/ s faster than sound. C Light travels 300 times faster than sound. D The sound of the thunder was emitted 6s after the flash. [May-2010]

17- During a thunderstorm, there is an interval of 1.70s between an observer seeing the lightning and

hearing the thunder. The speed of sound is 340m/ s. What is the distance between the observer and the storm? A 100m B 200m C 578m D 1160m [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Figure shows a student clapping in front of a vertical wall. The wall reflects the sound. The student changes the number of claps made in 1 minute until the reflection of each clap

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound

returns to her at exactly the same time as she makes the next clap. The speed of sound in air is 330 m/s. (a) Explain what is meant by speed. (b) Calculate the time between claps. time = …………………….. [2] (c) Calculate the number of claps in 1 minute. number of claps = …………… [May-2004]

2- Fig. 6.1 shows the cone of a loudspeaker. (a) Sound is being produced. Describe in detail the behavior of the cone and the air near to it.

(b) The lowest frequency that a human can hear is 20 Hz. (i) State the highest frequency that a human with normal hearing can hear. (ii) Calculate the longest wavelength of sound that a human can hear. 340 m /s.

The speed of sound in air is wavelength = ........................... [Nov-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound 3- A student measures the speed of sound in a laboratory, as shown in Fig. 11.1. The sound is received by two microphones placed a distance d apart. The time interval t between the sound arriving at the two microphones is recorded. (a) (i) Explain how sound travels through the air to the microphones. (ii) Explain why microphone 2 detects a quieter sound than microphone 1. (b) Fig. 11.2 shows average values for t as d is varied. d/m 1.00 t/s 0.0032 Fig. 11.2

2.00 0.0060

3.00 0.0092

4.00 0.0121

(i) Draw a distance-time graph from the results given in Fig. 11.2. (ii) Using your graph, calculate the speed of sound in air. (c) Fig. 11.3 shows the trace observed when the signals from the microphones are fed to the two inputs of a cathode-ray oscilloscope. The time-base setting on the cathode-ray oscilloscope is 1.0 ms/cm. (i) Determine the time interval t from the trace in Fig. 11.3. (ii) Using your answer to (b)(ii), determine the distance d between the microphones. (d) Give two reasons why it is difficult to measure the speed of sound inside a building using only a stopwatch and a metre rule. (e) The experiment in (b) and (c) is repeated under water where the microphones can still detect the sound. State and explain how the experimental results differ.

4- A sound wave in air is illustrated in Fig. 4.1.

Points A, B, C and D are at the centres of regions of compression. (a) Describe what happens as one complete sound wave moves past a point. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (b) The sound wave in Fig. 4.1 has frequency 2000 Hz and speed 320 m/s. (i) Define the frequency of a wave. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. (ii) Calculate the distance between points A and D.State clearly any equation that you use. distance = ..................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound [Nov-2003]

5- This question is about the sound produced by a mobile phone and the energy changes while it is

operating. (a) The sound produced by a ringing phone consists of two notes, one after the other.Fig. 5.1 shows the trace on an oscilloscope screen produced by the first of the notes.

The second note is louder and has a higher pitch. (i) On Fig. 5.1, continue the trace to show what happens when the second note is sounding. (ii) Explain the differences between the two traces. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ....... (b) The mobile phone contains a rechargeable battery.Energy is stored inside the battery as it is charged. Describe the useful energy change that takes place inside the battery as it is charged from the mains. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ..........................................................................................................................................................................[Nov-2005]

6-

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 Sound

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Two insulated metal spheres X and Y are initially in contact. While a positively charged rod is near X the spheres are moved apart. After this action X has a negative charge. The charge on Y will be:

A negative and smaller than that on X. B negative and the same size as that on X. C positive and smaller than that on X. D positive and the same size as that on X.

[Nov-2002] / [Nov-2006]

2- A perspex rod can be charged positively by rubbing it with a woolen cloth.How does the rod gain its charge? A The rod gains electrons. C The rod loses electrons.

B The rod gains protons. D The rod loses protons.

3- Two uncharged metal spheres, not touching one another, are suspended by means of cotton thread. A positively charged rod is brought near. Which diagram shows what happens to the spheres? A

[May-2007]

4- On a stormy day, a large, positively-charged cloud is above a tree. An electrical charge is induced on the

tree as charged particles flow through it.

What is the charge induced on the tree and how do the charged particles move?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity A B C D

charge on tree negative negative positive positive

movement of charged particles through tree negatively charged particles move down the tree negatively charged particles move up the tree positively charged particles move down the tree positively charged particles move up the tree [May-2004]

5-A positively charged rod is brought close to an insulated metal sphere. Which diagram best shows the induced charges on the sphere? [Nov-2003]

6- Which diagram correctly shows the electric field between two charged spheres? [May-2003]

7- Four processes are used to charge an isolated metal sphere.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity P The sphere is earthed by touching it. Q The earth connection is removed from the sphere. R A charged rod is brought close to the sphere. S The charged rod is removed. In which order should these processes be carried out to charge the sphere?

first A B C D

last

P Q R S P R S Q R P Q S R S P Q

[Nov-2002] / [Nov-2005]

8- How could the unit of potential difference, the volt, also be written? [Nov-2003] A A/s

B C/A

C C/J

D J/C

9- The diagram shows a positively charged acetate strip and a negatively charged polythene strip

that are freely suspended. Two rods X and Y are brought up in turn to these two strips. Rod X attracts the acetate strip but repels the polythene strip. Rod Y does not repel either the acetate strip or the polythene strip. Which type of charge is on each rod? rod X rod Y A negative positive B negative uncharged C positive negative D positive uncharged [May-2005]

10- In an electrostatics experiment, a plastic rod is rubbed with a cloth. The cloth becomes negatively charged. Which diagram shows the charge on the rod, and describes the movement of charge?

A

[May-2006]

11- A negatively-charged balloon is brought towards a wall. Which statement explains what happen A Negative charges on the balloon attract the negative charges in the wall. B Negative charges on the balloon have no effect on the charges in the wall.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity C Negative charges on the balloon repel the negative charges in the wall. D Negative charges on the balloon repel the positive charges in the wall. [May-2009]

12- A negatively-charged rod is brought close to an isolated T-shaped piece of metal. Initially, the metal is uncharged. Which diagram shows the induced charge on the metal? A

[Nov-2009]

13- Two metal spheres P and Q are mounted on insulating stands and are touching each other. They are

uncharged. A positively-charged metal sphere on an insulating handle is brought close to P but does not touch it. This induces charges on P and Q.

The positively-charged metal sphere is held in this position and sphere Q is moved to the right, away from sphere P. What are the signs of the induced charges on P and Q and how do the sizes of these charges compare? charge on P charge on Q sizes of the charges A negative positive equal B negative positive equal C positive negative equal D positive negative equal [May-2010]

14- A negatively-charged sphere X is brought up to an identical uncharged sphere Y. The spheres do not touch.

Sphere Y is ‘earthed’ by touching it with a finger, which is then removed. Sphere X is then moved away from sphere Y. What is the final charge, if any, on sphere Y? B

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity

[Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory

1- A plastic rod is rubbed with a cloth and becomes negatively charged.

(a) Explain how the rod becomes negatively charged when rubbed with a cloth.

(b) An uncharged metal-coated sphere hangs from an insulating thread. The sphere is brought near to the rod. The sphere is attracted to the rod, as shown in Fig. 11.1. (i) Describe and explain what happens to the free electrons in the metal-coated sphere as it approaches the rod. (ii) Draw a diagram to show how charge is distributed on the sphere. (iii) Explain why the uncharged sphere is attracted to the negativelycharged rod.

the sphere.

(c) With the charged rod still close, point X on the metal-coated sphere is earthed. (i) State what is meant by earthing

(ii) Describe and explain what happens to the free electrons in the metal-coated sphere as it is earthed. (iii) Draw a diagram to show how the charge is now distributed on the sphere. (d) Describe one device where electrostatic charging is used. In your answer include a diagram and explain how and why the charge is produced.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity [May-2007]

2- Electrostatic charges can be placed on objects by friction. (a) State the name of the charged particle that is transferred from one object to another in this process. (b) Fig. 5.1 shows petrol (gasolene) being pumped into a can. Electrostatic charges build up on the petrol and the pipe. (i) Explain why this is dangerous. (ii) State what can be done to stop the electrostatic charge building up in this way.

3- Fig. 5.1 shows the boiler of a coal-fired power station. Hot gases rise and thermal energy warms the water inside the metal pipes.

(a) (i) Explain why the hot gases rise. (ii) Explain how energy passes through the metal pipes by conduction. Use your ideas about particles. (b) Fig. 5.2 shows an electrostatic precipitator that stops dust and ash emerging from the chimney. Explain how the precipitator works. [Nov-2002]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity 4- An experiment to show charging by induction uses a metal sphere

mounted on an insulated support. The sphere is initially uncharged and is shown in Fig. 6.1. (a) A negatively charged rod is brought near the sphere, as shown in Fig. 6.2.

(i) State and explain the movement of electrons in the sphere that occurs as the rod is brought near.

(ii) On Fig. 6.2, draw the charges on the metal sphere.

(b) The metal sphere is now touched at point A by a wire connected to earth, as shown in Fig. 6.3. On Fig. 6.3, draw the charges on the metal sphere.

(c) The wire connected to earth is removed. Then the negatively charged rod is also removed, as shown in Fig. 6.4.On Fig. 6.4, draw the charges on the metal sphere. (d) The support is made from an insulator. State one material that may be used to make the support.

[Nov-2004]

5- Two conducting spheres are rubbed and become charged, as shown in Fig. 5.1.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Static Electricity (a) The spheres are uncharged before they are rubbed. Explain, in terms of the movement of electrons, how they become charged. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................... (b) On Fig. 5.1, draw the electric field pattern between the spheres. Show the direction of the field lines. (c) A metal wire is used to connect the two spheres together. In a time of 2.0 × 10–3 s, a charge of 1.8 × 10–13 C passes through the wire.Calculate the current in the wire. current = ....................... [May-2006]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- A wire has a resistance of 8 Ω. A second wire, made of the same material, has half the length and twice the cross-sectional area. What is the resistance of the second wire? A 1Ω B2Ω C 8 Ω D 16 Ω [Nov-2006] 2- Under which condition does Ohm’s law apply? A The current must be constant. B The power must be constant. C The temperature must be constant. D The voltage must be constant. 3- When there is an electric current in a metal wire, what flows through the wire? A atoms B electrons C neutrons D protons 4- Which factors will both increase the resistance of a wire in a circuit? size of wire temperature of wire A longer lower B shorter lower C thicker higher D thinner higher [May-2007] 5- A cell is connected to a resistor. What is the e.m.f. of the cell equal to? A The potential difference across the resistor for each unit of current. B The power produced in the circuit for each unit of charge that passes. C The work done in the circuit for each unit of charge that passes. D The work done in the circuit for each unit of current. [May-2005] 6- The potential difference between the ends of a conductor is 12 V. How much electrical energy is converted to other forms of energy in the conductor when 100 C of charge flows through it? A 0.12 J B 8.3 J C 88 J D 1200 J [Nov-2004] 7- The diagram shows an electric circuit. Which pair of readings is obtained when a suitable power supply is connected between X and Y? A B C D

voltmeter 2V 2V 12V 12V

ammeter 6A 0.5A 0.5A 2A [May-2003]

8- An electrical quantity is defined as ‘the energy converted by a source in driving a unit charge round a complete circuit.’ What is this quantity called? A current B electromotive force C potential difference D power [May-2003] / [May-2006] 9- How could the unit of potential difference, the volt, also be written? A A / s B C/A C C / J D J / C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current 10- A 3.0Ω resistor and a 2.0Ω resistor are connected in series across a 15V d.c. supply. What is the current in the circuit? A 0.25A B 3.0A C 6.0A D 12A 11- Which graph best represents how current I varies with voltage V in a component in which the resistance increases as the current increases. B

[May-2007] 12- The diagram shows two resistors connected in series with a cell. Which statement defines the potential difference across XY? A the power needed to drive a unit charge through the cell B the power needed to drive a unit charge between X and Y C the work done in driving a unit charge through the cell D the work done in driving a unit charge between X and Y [May-2004] 13- A wire of length 1.0 m has a resistance of 2.0 Ω. When connected to a cell, the current in the wire is 3.0 A. A 2.0 m length of the same wire is connected to the same cell.

What is the resistance of the wire and the current in it? resistance current A 1.0 Ω 1.5 A B 1.0 Ω 3.0 A C 4.0 Ω 1.5 A D 4.0 Ω 3.0 A [Nov-2004]

14- The current in an electric heater is 5 A. It is switched on for 5 minutes. How much charge flows through the heater? A 0.5 C B2C C 1500 C D 3000 C 15- The diagram shows a voltmeter adapted to measure a range from 0–100mV. The voltmeter is measuring the potential difference in a circuit.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current

A 0.06 mV

B 0.6 mV

C 6 mV

D 60mV

What is the reading on the voltmeter?

[Nov-2002]

16- The diagram shows the current I / voltage V graph for a length of resistance wire. Where can Ohm’s law be applied to the wire?

A at Y only

B at Z only

C from X to Y

D from X to Z

[May-2006]

17- X and Y are lamps with filaments made from the same material.The filament of lamp X is thicker and

shorter than that of lamp Y.When connected to the mains and switched on, which is the brighter lamp and which lamp has the larger resistance? brighter lamp larger resistance A X X B X Y C Y X D Y Y [Nov-2003]

18- A variable potential divider has a sliding contact S that can be moved between end P and end Q.

It is connected to a constant 6 V power supply, as shown below. What happens to the p.d. between X and Y as S moves down from P to Q?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current A It decreases gradually from 6 V to 0 V. C It stays constant at 0 V.

B It rises gradually from 0 V to 6 V. D It stays constant at 6 V.

[May-2004]

19- Why can birds stand on an overhead high voltage transmission line without suffering any harm? A Their bodies have a very high resistance. B Their feet are very good insulators. C The spaces between their feathers act as insulators. D They are not connected to earth.

[Nov-2005]

20- When a filament lamp is switched on, there is a current in the lamp. As the temperature of the filament rises, its resistance changes. Which pair of graphs shows how the resistance R of the filament and the current I vary with time after the lamp is switched on? B

D [May-2009] 21- One volt can also be written as A one coulomb per ampere. C one joule per ampere.

B one coulomb per joule. D one joule per coulomb.

[May-2009]

22- Ohm’s law states that the current in a conductor is proportional to the potential difference across it, provided that a certain quantity remains constant. What is this quantity? A length B pressure C temperature D thickness [Nov-2009]

23- Two resistors of 6 Ω and 12 Ω are arranged in parallel. A potential difference is connected across the terminals X and Y. The current in the 6 Ω resistor is 4 A.

A4A

B6A

C8A

D 12 A

What is the current in the ammeter? [Nov-2009]

24- A length of resistance wire is used as a resistor in a simple circuit.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current

Four separate changes are made to the wire. Which change will not reduce the value of the resistance of the wire? A It is covered in an insulating sleeve. B Its cross-sectional area is increased. C Its length is decreased. D Its temperature is decreased. [May-2010]

25- A 6V supply is connected in series with an ammeter and a 4Ω resistor.

A 0.67A

B 1.5A

What is the reading on the ammeter? C 10A D 24A [May-2010]

26- Sets of voltage-current readings are obtained for different electrical components. Which set of readings is for a 100Ω resistor? B

[May-2010]

27- A capacitor C charges when it is connected to a d.c. power supply.

conventional current when the capacitor is charging? A 1 and 3 B 1 and 4 C 2 and 3 D 2 and 4

Which arrows show the direction of the [May-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current

28- A battery is used to light a 24W electric lamp. The battery provides a charge of 120C in 60s.

A 5V

B 12V

What is the potential difference across the lamp? C 24V D 120V [Nov-2010]

29- The diagram shows a simple electric circuit.

flow through the resistor? charge on an electron A negative B negative C positive D positive [Nov-2010]

Which row describes the charge on an electron and the direction of electron direction of electron flow − to + + to − − to + + to −

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Two conducting spheres are rubbed and become charged, as shown in Fig. 5.1.

(a) The spheres are uncharged before they are rubbed. Explain, in terms of the movement of electrons, how they become charged. (b) On Fig. 5.1, draw the electric field pattern between the spheres. Show the direction of the field lines. (c) A metal wire is used to connect the two spheres together. In a time of 2.0 × 10–3 s, a charge of 1.8 × 10–13 C passes through the wire. Calculate the current in the wire. current = ...................

2- A filament lamp is labelled 240 V, 0.20 A. (a) Calculate the resistance of the lamp at normal brightness.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current resistance = ................. (b) The lamp is connected to a 240 V supply and switched on at time t = 0. Fig. 6.1 shows the variation with t of the resistance of the lamp. Describe how the current in the lamp varies with t. (c) A second filament lamp has higher resistance. State two differences between the two filaments that may cause the change in resistance. 1 The filament in the second lamp is ......................................................................................... 2 The filament in the second lamp is ………………………………………………………………. [May-2008]

3- Fig. 6.1 shows a circuit in which a voltmeter is placed across a resistor. The potential difference across the 12Ω resistor is 4.0 V. The voltmeter has three different ranges: 0 to 3.0 V, 0 to 6.0 V and 0 to 30 V. The best range for use in this circuit is 0 to 6.0 V. (a) Explain why (i) using the voltmeter on the range 0 to 3.0 V is unsuitable, ..................................................................................................................... ............. ..................................................................................................................... ............. (ii) using the voltmeter on the range 0 to 30 V is unsuitable. ..................................................................................................................... ............. .................................................................................................................................. (b) (i) Calculate the current in the 12Ω resistor. State the formula that you use. (ii) Calculate the p.d. between A and B in Fig. 6.1.

current = ………………… p.d. = …………………. [May-2004]

4- Fig. 9.1 shows the main parts of an electric grill. An electric current in the heating element causes

it to become red hot and to emit visible light and infra-red radiation. The infra-red radiation is used to cook food. (a) Infra-red radiation has a longer wavelength than visible light. Both are parts of the electromagnetic spectrum.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current (i) Draw a diagram of the electromagnetic spectrum that shows visible light, infra-red and three other parts of the spectrum. Your diagram should put the parts of the spectrum in order of increasing wavelength. (ii) Explain why the grill has a layer of shiny material between the heating element and the outer case. (b) For safety, the electric grill is fitted with an earth wire. State where the earth wire is connected to the electric grill and explain how it acts as a safety device. (c) The current in the heating element is 8.3 A when it is connected to the 230 V mains supply. (i) State the equation that links current, power and voltage. (ii) Calculate the power rating of the heating element when it is working correctly. Give your answer to an appropriate number of significant figures. (iii) A student thinks that if the heating element is connected to a mains supply of 115 V then the power produced is halved. Explain why the student is wrong.

[May-2004] 5- Three cells are connected in series making a battery, as shown in Fig. 8.1. The e.m.f. of each cell is 1.5 V. A resistance of 15Ω is connected to the battery.

(a) What is the total e.m.f. of the battery? ................................................................................................................................... (b) Calculate the current in the circuit.State the equation that you use. current = ............................. (c) A battery can be made from cells connected in parallel, as shown in Fig. 8.2.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current

State one advantage of connecting the cells in parallel. ......................................................................................................................................... ............................................................................................................

[May-2005]

6- An electrostatic generator is used to produce sparks, as shown in Fig. 6.1.

The belt carries negative charge to the dome, making the dome negatively charged. (a) Before a spark is produced, the discharge ball becomes positively charged. (i) Describe and explain the movement of electrons in the discharge ball and in the rod as the ball becomes charged. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................ (ii) On Fig. 6.1, mark with an X where there is the most positive charge on the discharge ball. (b) A spark jumps between the dome and the discharge ball when there is enough negative charge on the dome. A charge of 0.00016C flows in the spark in a time of 0.012 s.Calculate the average current in the spark. State the equation that you use.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current current = .........

[Nov-2005]

7- Fig. 11.1 shows how the currents in a lamp L and in a wire W vary with the potential difference (p.d.)

applied.

(a) (i) Draw a diagram of the circuit that you would use to take the readings of current and p.d. for the lamp. State the range you would choose for the voltmeter. (ii) Describe how the resistance of the lamp L varies as the p.d. increases. (b) (i) Fig. 11.2 shows the lamp L and the wire W connected in series. The current in the circuit is 0.8 A.

Determine, using the graph or by calculation, 1. the p.d. across L, 2. the p.d. across W, 3. the p.d. of the supply, 4. the resistance of the lamp L in Fig. 11.2. (ii) Fig. 11.3 shows the lamp and wire connected in parallel.A p.d. of 12 V is connected across them. Determine, using the graph or by calculation, 1. the current IW in the wire W, 2. the current IL in the lamp L, 3. the total current I in the circuit, 4. the resistance of the wire W.

[Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current

8- Fig. 8.1 shows an electrical circuit using two resistors.

(a) The switch S is open and the ammeter reading is zero.State the value of the potential difference across the 6Ω resistor. potential difference = .................... (b) Switch S is now closed. (i) State the value of the total resistance of the circuit. resistance = ............................................ (ii) Calculate the current in the ammeter. State clearly the formula that you use. current = ....................... (iii) Calculate the potential difference across the 6Ω resistor. p.d. = ......................

[Nov-2006]

9- (a) Describe an experiment to show the difference between an electrical insulator and an electrical conductor. Name one example of each. [4] (b) Fig. 10.1 is a sketch graph of the current in a component P against the potential difference (p.d.) across it.

(i) Define resistance. [1] (ii) State how the resistance of P varies with the p.d. across it. [1] (iii) Suggest what component P is. [1]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-13 Electric Current (iv) Explain why the resistance of P varies with the p.d. across it. [2] (c) Component P is used in the electrical circuit shown in Fig. 10.2.

The current in ammeter 2 is 0.40 A and the current in ammeter 3 is 0.60 A. (i) Determine the readings of ammeters 1 and 4. [1] (ii) Calculate the p.d. across the 20 resistor. [2] (iii) State the p.d. across the power supply. [1] (iv) Calculate the resistance of P in this circuit. [2] [Nov-2007]

10-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

Compete lecture based review worksheet for electric current 1. Define electric current 2. State and explain the types of electric current 3. State the following terms and sketch labeled diagram for description (i) voltage (ii)potential difference (iii)electromotive force 4. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 50 second 3000 charges are moved in that. 5. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 25 second 3000 charges are moved in that. 6. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 12.5 second 3000 charges are moved in that. Draw conclusion how current depends upon time 7. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 50 second 6000 charges are moved in that. 8. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 50 second 12000 charges are moved in that. 9. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 50 second 1500 charges are moved in that. Draw conclusion how current depends upon amount of charge 10. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 50 second 750 charges are moved in that. 11. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 100 second 6000 charges are moved in that. 12. Calculate the amount of current flowing through a conductor if in 200 second 12000 charges are moved in that. Draw conclusion how current depends upon time and amount of charge both

13. A copper wire contains free electrons to flow and cause the current, that wire is connected to a 3V dry cell for 5s and current is measured as 15mA. (i) sketch a labeled diagram to show the circuit setup. (ii) calculate the number of electrons flowing through the wire in that time (iii) determine the amount of charge transferred in circuit (iv) determine how much the chemical energy of the battery is consumed in this all process (v) calculate the electric energy dissipated in the circuit 14. A copper wire contains free electrons to flow and cause the current, that wire is connected to a 6V dry cell for 5s and current is measured as 15mA. (i) sketch a labeled diagram to show the circuit setup. (ii) calculate the number of electrons flowing through the wire in that time (iii) determine the amount of charge transferred in circuit (iv) determine how much the chemical energy of the battery is consumed in this all process (v) calculate the electric energy dissipated in the circuit 15. A copper wire contains free electrons to flow and cause the current, that wire is connected to a 3V dry cell for 10s and current is measured as 15mA. (i) sketch a labeled diagram to show the circuit setup. (ii) calculate the number of electrons flowing through the wire in that time (iii) determine the amount of charge transferred in circuit (iv) determine how much the chemical energy of the battery is consumed in this all process (v) calculate the electric energy dissipated in the circuit Draw conclusion how current depends upon voltages

16. A copper wire contains free electrons to flow and cause the current, that wire is connected to a 3V dry cell for 5s and current is measured as 30mA. (i) sketch a labeled diagram to show the circuit setup. (ii) calculate the number of electrons flowing through the wire in that time (iii) determine the amount of charge transferred in circuit (iv) determine how much the chemical energy of the battery is consumed in this all process (v) calculate the electric energy dissipated in the circuit 17. A copper wire contains free electrons to flow and cause the current, that wire is connected to two dry cells each of 3V ,for 10s and current is measured as 30mA. (i) sketch a labeled diagram to show the circuit setup. (ii) calculate the number of electrons flowing through the wire in that time (iii) determine the amount of charge transferred in circuit (iv) determine how much the chemical energy of the battery is consumed in this all process (v) calculate the electric energy dissipated in the circuit

Draw conclusion how current depends upon amount of charge 18. (a) Define resistance, (b) state symbol and SI unit for resistance, (c) which instrument is used to measure the resistance and how is it used in circuit to measure the resistance values, sketch a labeled diagram to support your justification? 19. Draw the schematic symbols for fixed and variable resistors. 20. How can we calculate the resistance of the resistor instead of measurements? 21. Sketch a labeled diagram to show the use of Voltmeter and Ampere meter to calculate the value of resistance of a resistor. 22. State the resistors colour coding scheme and draw a table to assign the colour codes to different colours. Colour Code

0

1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

23. (a)State what does each band of resistor indicates in 3 band resistor colour coding procedure (b) Describe the resistance of following resistors with colour coding scheme.

red

blk

blue

gren

red

gray

silvr

brn

red

red

red

ylw

orng

gold

silvr

9

24. State and explain Ohm’s Law . What are its limitations. 25. Sketch a labeled diagram to describe the following (a). Ohmic conductor (b). non Ohmic conductor (c). heating filament (d). semi conductor 26. State the factors which affect the resistance of a resistor. Explain the relation of resistance with each factor 27. Define the resistivity and write it’s equation. How is it useful in daily life physics applications 28.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1-Which combination of identical resistors gives the lowest total resistance? [Nov-2002]

2- The circuit diagram shows a parallel arrangement of resistors. P, Q, R and S represent the current at the points shown. Which statement is correct? A P is greater than Q. B Q is equal to R. C R is greater than S. D S is equal to P.

3- The diagram shows part of an electric circuit. What is the current in the 2Ω resistor? A 0.6A B 1.2A C 3.0A D 6.0A [May-2003] 4- Which two resistor combinations have the same resistance between X and Y?

A P and Q

B P and S

C Q and R

D R and S

[May-2004]

5- In the circuit shown, at which point is the current the smallest? B [Nov-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits

6- A cell is connected in series with an ammeter and a lamp. The current is 1 A. In which circuit, using identical cells, lamps and ammeters, is the current reading 2 A? D

[May-2005]

7- In the circuit shown, the battery lights up all four lamps. When one of the lamp filaments melts, the other three lamps stay on. Which lamp filament melts? B [Nov-2005]

8- Two resistors of 6 Ω and 12 Ω are arranged in parallel. A p.d. is connected across the terminals X and Y. The current through the 6 Ω resistor is 4 A. What is the current in the ammeter? A4A B6A C8A D 12 A [Nov-2006]

9- The diagram shows a circuit. The ammeter has negligible resistance.What is the resistance of the resistor R? A 0.5 Ω B 1.5 Ω C5Ω D6Ω [May-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits

10- The following circuit is set up. What is the reading on the ammeter? A 0.33 A B 0.50 A C 0.67 A D 1.0 A

11- Diagram 1 shows a resistor connected to a battery, an ammeter and a voltmeter.

The ammeter reading is 0.5 A and the voltmeter reading is 3.0V. A second identical resistor is now connected in parallel with the first resistor, as shown in diagram 2. What are the ammeter and voltmeter readings in the circuit shown in diagram 2? ammeter reading/A voltmeter reading/V A 0.5 3.0 B 0.5 6.0 C 1.0 1.5 D 1.0 3.0 [Nov-2003] / [May-2006] 12- The diagram shows a cell connected in series with an ammeter and three resistors (10 Ω, 20 Ω,30 Ω). The circuit can be completed by a moveable contact M. When M is connected to X, the ammeter reads 0.6 A. What is the ammeter reading when M is connected to Y? A 0.1 A B 0.2 A C 0.3 A D 0.6 A [Nov-2005]

13- At which point in the circuit is the current the smallest? D [May-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits

14- A student sets up the circuit shown. The currents measured with the ammeters are shown. Which equation is correct? A I1 = I2 + I3 + I4 B I1 = I2 = I3 = I4 C I2 + I3 = I4 + I1 D I4 = I3 + I2 + I1

15- A 1.0Ω resistor and a 2.0Ω resistor are connected in series across a 12V d.c. supply.What is the current in the circuit? A 0.25A B 4.0A C 6.0A D 12A [Nov-2003]

16- A student has a chain of 20 lamps. These are wired in series and connected to the mains. One lamp

blows and all the others go out. The student wants to find the faulty lamp and replace it. Where should the student begin? A anywhere, because the current was the same in each lamp B at the live end of the chain, because the current was greatest there C at the middle of the chain, because the current was greatest there D at the neutral end of the chain, because the current was least there [May-2009]

17-The circuit diagram shows three resistors in parallel with a battery.

A 0.57 Ω

B 0.86 Ω

C 1.75 Ω

What is the effective resistance of these three resistors? D 7.00 Ω [Nov-2009]

18- A student tests the circuit of a press-button telephone with a lamp and a battery.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits

Which single switch can be pressed to make the lamp

light? A0 B1

C5

D6

[May-2010]

19- When three identical resistors are connected in series, their combined resistance is 6Ω.

What is their combined resistance when they are connected in parallel? 1 2 3 A6Ω B Ω C 2Ω D 6Ω [Nov-2010] 3

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Figure shows a circuit in which a voltmeter is placed across a resistor. The potential difference across the 12Ω resistor is 4.0 V. The voltmeter has three different ranges: 0 to 3.0 V, 0 to 6.0 V and 0 to 30 V. The best range for use in this circuit is 0 to 6.0 V. (a) Explain why

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits (i) using the voltmeter on the range 0 to 3.0 V is unsuitable, (ii) using the voltmeter on the range 0 to 30 V is unsuitable. (b)

(i) Calculate the current in the 12Ω resistor. State the formula that you use. current = ………………

(ii) Calculate the p.d. between A and B in Figure.

p.d. = ………………….

2- A motorcycle battery consists of six 2.0 V cells in series. The battery supplies energy to the headlight. (a) State the total electromotive force (e.m.f.) of the battery. (b) The motorcycle headlight contains two identical filament lamps F and G. Filament lamp F is always lit but filament lamp G is turned on and off by switch D.Fig. 7.1 is the circuit diagram. When switch D is open, the battery supplies a current of 4.6 A. Complete the table of Fig. 7.2.

(c) Calculate the energy supplied by the battery as an electric charge of 200 C moves through the circuit. energy supplied = ...................... 3- Fig. 11.1 shows a 9.0 V battery connected in series with a 16.0 Ω resistor and a small metal conductor X at room temperature. A voltmeter measures the potential difference (p.d.) across the 16.0 Ω resistor. At room temperature the resistance of X is 4.0 Ω. (a) (i) Calculate the current supplied by the battery. (ii) Calculate the p.d. across the 16.0 Ω resistor.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits

(b) X is heated slowly to a very high temperature. (i) Sketch a graph to show how the resistance of a metal conductor depends on its temperature. (ii) State and explain how the voltmeter reading changes as the temperature of X rises. (iii) Suggest a suitable range for the voltmeter.

4- Fig.11.1 shows a wiring diagram for two different lamps A and B. (a) State the names of components C and D and explain the purpose, in this circuit, of each of these components. (b) When both lamps are working correctly, the current in C is 0.42 A. Lamp A is marked 240 V, 60W. Calculate (i) the current in lamp A (ii) the current in lamp B, (iii) the resistance of lamp A. (c) The two lamps in Fig. 11.1 are connected in parallel. When wiring the circuit in a house, an electrician makes a mistake and connects the two lamps in series to the mains supply. He switches them on. (i) Draw a circuit diagram showing the two lamps connected in series to the mains supply. (ii) State whether the current in the two lamps is larger than, the same as, or smaller than the currents you have calculated in (b). Explain your answer. (d) Another lamp is made using the same material for the filament as lamp A. The filament in this new lamp has the same length as the filament in lamp A but has half the cross-sectional area.State the resistance of the new lamp. 5- Fig. 7.1 shows an electrical circuit containing a 12 V power supply and a number of resistors. (a) Calculate the combined resistance of: (i) the 2 Ω and 4 Ω resistors in series, resistance = .................. (ii) the 3 Ω and 6 Ω resistors in parallel. resistance = ................... (b) Calculate the reading of the ammeter in Fig. 7.1. ammeter reading = ................. (c) Determine the potential difference across the 4 Ω resistor. p.d. =............. [May-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-14 DC Circuits

6- Fig. 8.1 shows an electrical circuit using two resistors. (a) The switch S is open and the ammeter reading is zero. State the value of the potential difference across the 6Ω resistor.

potential difference = .................

(b) Switch S is now closed. (i) State the value of the total resistance of the circuit. resistance = ............... (ii) Calculate the current in the ammeter. State clearly the formula that you use. current = .................. (iii) Calculate the potential difference across the 6Ω resistor. p.d. =........................

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- Which of the following would cost the least if operated from the same voltage supply? A a 5000 W electric cooker used for 1 minute C a 500 W electric iron used for 1 hour

B a 1000 W electric fire used for 10 minutes D a 100 W lamp used for 1 day

[Nov-2006]

2- The diagram shows the circuit for a hair-dryer. The fan has a power rating of 0.1 kW and the heaters each have a rating of 0.5 kW. The cost of electricity is 5 cents/kW h. What is the cost of running the dryer for two hours with switches P and Q closed and switch R open? A 1.6 cents B 3.2 cents C 6.0 cents D 7.0 cents

3- The case of an electric fan is earthed. The plug to the fan contains a 5 A fuse. There is a current of 4 A

when the fan works normally. The cable to the fan becomes so worn that the live wire makes electrical contact with the metal case. What happens? A The current flows to earth and the fuse is not affected. B The fuse melts and switches off the circuit. C The metal case becomes live and dangerous. D The metal case becomes very hot.

4- In an a.c. electric circuit in a house, the switch for any device is always connected to the ‘live’ lead.Why is this? [Nov-2002] A No current ever flows in the neutral lead of the device. B The device will be shorted if the switch is in the earth lead. C The device can never be switched off if the switch is in the neutral lead. D The device can only be isolated (made safe) if the switch is in the live lead. 5- A house-owner replaced a failed fuse for the lights of the house. When the lights were switched on, the new fuse also failed. The house-owner then used another fuse with a higher rating than the previous two. Why was this not a sensible thing to do? [Nov-2002] / [Nov-2006] A Fuses allow the circuit to work only if the rating is exactly right. B The fuse has already melted because the rating was too high. C Using a fuse with too high a rating would cause electric shocks. D A fuse with a higher rating might allow the circuit to work, but the fault would not be corrected. 6- An electric heater consists of a heating element mounted on a metal reflector. The reflector is connected to earth. Where should the switch for the heating element be connected? A between the earth wire and the reflector B between the live wire and the heating element C between the live wire and the neutral wire D between the neutral wire and the heating element [May-2003] 7- The cable to an electric fan becomes so worn that the live wire makes electrical contact with the metal case. The case is earthed. The plug to the fan contains a 5A fuse. There is a current of 4A when the fan works normally. What will happen? A The current will run to earth and the fuse will not be affected. B The fuse will melt and switch off the circuit. C The metal case will become live and dangerous. D The metal case will become very hot. [Nov-2003]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry 8- In order to turn off both lamps, which is the safest switch position? [May-2004]

9- Which circuit shows how the heater in an electric iron and a fuse should be connected to a mains electricity supply? D [Nov-2004]

10- An electric kettle is plugged in and switched on. The fuse in the plug blows immediately. Which single fault could cause this? A The earth wire is not connected to the kettle. B The live wire and neutral wire connections in the plug are swapped around. C The live wire touches the metal case of the kettle. D The wires connected to the plug are too thin. [Nov-2005]

11- What is the purpose of a circuit breaker in an electric circuit? A to change alternating current into direct current B to keep the current constant C to prevent the current from becoming too large D to reduce the current to a safe value

12- The diagram shows the components of a lighter for a gas cooker.

Which circuit diagram is correct for this lighter?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry

13- In each of the circuits below, a short circuit occurs.In which circuit would the fuse blow and make the circuit safe to repair? A

[May-2005]

14- How much energy is converted in a resistor of 5.0 Ω carrying a current of 2.0 A for 10 seconds? A 4.0 J

B 25 J

C 100 J

D 200 J

[May-2006]

15- A small heater operates at 12V, 3A.How much energy will it use when it is run for 5 minutes? A 30 J

B 120 J

C 10800 J

D 7200 J

[Nov-2003]

16- Energy is represented by the letter E, current by I, power by P, charge by Q, p.d. by V and time by t. Which pair of equations is correct? A E = It and P = VIt B E = VQ / t and P = VI C E = VIt and P = VI D E = VQ and P = VI / t 17- A battery is used to light a 24 W electric lamp. The battery provides a charge of 50 C in 50 s.

What is the potential difference across the bulb? A 5 V B 12 V C 24 V D 120 V

18- A 24Ω resistor is to be connected in series with a 12 V battery.What is the power loss in the resistor? A 0.5W

B 6W

C 12 W

D 24W

[Nov-2002]

19- A combined bathroom unit of a heater and a lamp is controlled by one switch. The unit contains a 2 kW heater and a 100 W lamp. In one week, the lamp uses 1 kW h of electrical energy. How much electrical energy is used by the heater alone? A 2 kW h B 4 kW h C 10 kW h D 20 kW h [Nov-2005]

20- The diagram shows the circuit for a hair-dryer. The fan has a power rating of 0.1 kW and the heaters each have a rating of 0.4 kW. The cost of electricity is 8 cents/kW h.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry What is the cost of running the dryer for two hours with switches P and Q closed and switch R open? A 1.6 cents

B 3.2 cents

C 6.4 cents

D 8.0 cents [May-2007]

21- Which circuit shows the correct positions for the fuse and the switch in the lighting circuit of a house? C

[May-2007]

22-An electric iron is marked 240V, 2500W. Four fuses are available with values of 5A, 10A, 13A and 30A.

Which fuse should be used? A 5A B 10A C 13A

D 30A

[May-2009]

23-A plug is wrongly wired as shown. It is connected to an old vacuum cleaner,

which has a metal case.

What is the effect of using the plug wired in this way? A The fuse in the plug blows. B The metal case is live. C The neutral wire melts. D The vacuum cleaner catches fire. [May-2009]

24- The diagram shows a standard mains plug.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry

What are the correct colours for the wires? N A blue B blue C brown D green and yellow [Nov-2009]

E brown green and yellow green and yellow brown

L green and yellow brown blue blue

25- Which costs the most if operated from the same mains supply? A a 5000 W electric cooker used for 1 minute B a 1000 W electric fire used for 10 minutes C a 500 W electric iron used for 1 hour D a 100 W lamp used for 1 day [Nov-2009]

26- Which quantity is measured in kilowatt-hours? A charge B current

C energy D power

[May-2010]

27- The metal case of an electric heater is earthed. The plug to the heater contains a 5A fuse. There is a

current of 4A when the heater works normally. The cable to the heater becomes so worn that the live wire makes electrical contact with the case. What happens? A The current flows to earth and the fuse is not affected. B The fuse melts and switches off the circuit. C The metal case becomes live and dangerous. D The metal case becomes very hot. [May-2010]

28- Many electrical appliances have metal cases. To prevent the case from becoming ‘live’, with the possibility of an electric shock, the earth wire of the electric cable is attached to the case. How does the earth wire prevent an electric shock? A It allows a current to flow to earth, so that the appliance continues working. B It allows a large current to flow to earth, blowing the fuse. C It prevents the fuse from blowing. D It reduces the current to a safe level. [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory 1- A lamp is rated at 60W 240V.Calculate: a) the current flowing through the lamp under normal use.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry Current I=…………. b) the resistance of the filament in the lamp resistance R=………… c)the cost of using 10 such lamps in paralel for 10 hours continuously at 4Rs per kWh unit? Cost=…………….

2- Figure shows a mains extension lead. The six sockets allow several electrical appliances to be connected to the mains supply through one cable.

(a) The cable connects the sockets to the mains supply. The cable contains three wires: live, neutral and earth. State what is meant by (i) live, (ii) neutral, (iii) earth. (b) Six powerful lamps are plugged into the sockets and switched on, one by one. (i) State what happens in the cable as the lamps are switched on, one by one. (ii) Describe why it can be dangerous when a fuse of the wrong value is used in the plug. (c) Explain why your hands should be dry when you put a plug into a socket. [May-2006]

3- A microwave oven is rated at 650 W and is connected to a 230 V mains supply. (a) (i) Calculate the current from the supply when the microwave oven is switched on. current = ............................ (ii) Suggest a rating of the fuse for use with this oven. fuse rating = ......................... (b) The insulation of the mains cable has worn away. The live wire touches the outer metal casing of the microwave oven. (i) Explain the hazard that results if the outer metal casing is not earthed. (ii) Explain how connecting the earth wire to the outer casing and using a fuse of a suitable rating removes this hazard. 4- The owner of a house records the details of the electricity use of all the appliances during a day. The details are shown in Fig. 4.1. appliance power rating /kW

time switched on/ hours

energy used/kWh

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry TV and computer kettle lights water heater air conditioner

1.0 2.0 0.6 3.0 1.5

Fig. 4.1

2.0 0.1 1.5 0.4 2.0

(a) Complete Fig. 4.1 by calculating the energy used by each appliance. (b) State which appliance has cost the most to use during the day. (c) The house has a meter to record the total electrical energy used. At the beginning of the day, the meter reading was 6350.5kWh.Calculate the meter reading at the end of the day. meter reading = ..................................... (d) The wires supplying electric current to the water heater are thicker than those supplying current to the lights.Explain why this is necessary. [Nov-2002] 5- The table gives information about two household appliances. appliance

television water heater

mains supply voltage /V 240

current through appliance /A 1.20

240

12.6

power /W

power / kW

time used per day /h

energy used per day / kWh

288

0.288

2.50

0.720

0.50

(a) Write the missing values in the empty spaces in the table. (b) Why is more power needed for the water heater than for the television? .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ......................... (c) The water heater is connected to the mains supply. Explain why using a 3 A fuse would not be suitable. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................... [May-2005]

6- Fig. 9.1 shows an electric kettle.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry

(a) The body of the kettle is plastic but the outside casing of the heating element is metal. (i) Explain why a fuse is included in the circuit and explain what happens when the fuse blows. (ii) Explain why the metal casing of the heating element is connected to earth. (b) The electrical power input to the kettle is 2000W and the kettle is used for 6 minutes (0.1 hour).Calculate (i) the electrical energy, in J, supplied to the kettle. State clearly the formula that relates power, energy and time. (ii) the electrical energy, in kW h, supplied to the kettle. (iii) the cost of using the kettle if 1 kWh costs 8 cents. (c) When the kettle is switched off, the water cools down. Explain, in molecular terms, how evaporation causes a loss of energy from the water. [Nov-2005]

7- Fig.11.1 shows a wiring diagram for two different lamps A and B.

(a) State the names of components C and D and explain the purpose, in this circuit, of each of these components. (b) When both lamps are working correctly, the current in C is 0.42 A. Lamp A is marked 240 V, 60W. Calculate (i) the current in lamp A, (ii) the current in lamp B, (iii) the resistance of lamp A. (c) The two lamps in Fig. 11.1 are connected in parallel. When wiring the circuit in a house, an electrician makes a mistake and connects the two lamps in series to the mains supply. He switches

them on. (i) Draw a circuit diagram showing the two lamps connected in series to the mains supply. (ii) State whether the current in the two lamps is larger than, the same as, or smaller than the currents you have calculated in (b). Explain your answer. (d) Another lamp is made using the same material for the filament as lamp A. The filament in this new lamp has the same length as the filament in lamp A but has half the cross-sectional area. State the resistance of the new lamp. [May-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-15 Practical Electric Circuitry 8- Fig. 10.1 shows a cable containing three wires coloured brown, blue and yellow/green, and a mains plug with the cover removed.

(a) Describe how to connect the cable and the three wires correctly and safely to the plug. (b) The table lamp shown in Fig. 10.2 is made from plastic. It has only two wires in the cable to connect it to the plug.

The lamp has a power rating of 100W and is used with a 230 V supply. (i) Which wire, earth, live or neutral, is not needed in the cable for the lamp? (ii) Explain why the lamp is safe to use even though it has only two wires in the cable. (iii) Explain what is meant by a power rating of 100W. (iv) Calculate the value of the fuse that should be used in the plug for this lamp. (v) Calculate the electrical energy supplied to the lamp in 30 minutes. [Nov-2006]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- A bar magnet is broken into three parts X, Y and Z. Which diagram shows the poles in X, Y and Z? D

[Nov-2004] 2- Which of the following will prove that a metal bar is a permanent magnet? A it attracts another magnet B it attracts both ends of a compass needle C it conducts electricity D it repels another magnet [Nov-2003] 3- A student tries to magnetise a short steel rod. Which of these tests will show that he has been successful? A both ends of a permanent magnet attract the rod B one end of a permanent magnet repels the rod C the rod picks up a small piece of paper D when freely suspended, the rod points in any direction

[Nov-2005]

4- A permanent magnet is placed close to a bar of soft iron PQ.

What happens? A - P becomes a north pole. B - P becomes a south pole. C - PQ does not become magnetized. D - The poles of the magnet are reversed. 5- An electromagnet is used to separate magnetic metals from non-magnetic metals. Why is steel unsuitable as the core of the electromagnet? A - It is a good conductor of electricity. B - It forms a permanent magnet. C - It has a high density. D - It has a high thermal capacity.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism 6-A metal rod XY is placed near a magnet. End X is attracted when it is placed near to the north pole of the

magnet, and also when it is placed near to the south pole. How does end Y behave when it is placed, in turn, near to the two poles of the magnet? X Y A - attraction attraction B – attraction repulsion C - repulsion attraction D - repulsion repulsion 7- Four metal rods are placed, in turn, inside a coil of copper wire.

Each rod is used to pick up as many paper clips as possible. The current is then switched off. The table gives the results of the experiment. Which rod is the most suitable core for a coil in a circuit breaker?

A B C D

number of paper clips picked up when there is a current in the coil 1 20 35 35

number of paper clips still attached after the current is switched off 0 2 0 30 [Nov-2003] / [May-2007]

8- A permanent magnet can be demagnetised by using a solenoid and switching the current on then off.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism Which diagram shows the most effective method of producing demagnetisation?

[Nov-2002]

9- The diagram shows part of a magnetic relay. M is part of the

core of the magnet. L is part of the armature which is attracted to the core when a current flows through the coil. S is a stud which stops the armature being attracted too strongly. Which line of the table gives the best materials for M, L and S?

M A iron B iron C iron D copper

L S iron iron iron copper copper copper copper copper

[May-2003]

10- End X of a metal rod attracts the N-pole of a compass needle. What does this show about the rod? A It could be made of copper but is not permanently magnetised. B It could be made of copper with a S-pole at X. C It could be made of steel but is not permanently magnetised. D It could be made of steel with a N-pole at X. [May-2004]

11- Four plotting compasses are placed near a bar magnet. You may ignore any effects of the Earth’s magnetic field. In which position does the compass appear like this,

?

C

[May-2005]

12- A current in a solenoid creates a magnetic field.

What is the effect on the magnetic field at the point P of using a larger current in the opposite direction?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism ABCD-

field strength decreases decreases increases increases

field direction reverses unchanged reverses unchanged [Nov-2006]

13- The diagram shows a brass rod and an iron rod beside each other at the bottom of a rectangular coil. What happens when a d.c. current passes through the coil? A Only the brass rod is magnetised. B Only the iron rod is magnetised. C The two rods attract each other. D The two rods repel each other. [May-2007]

14- The diagrams show an iron nail in four different situations. In which diagram will the nail become an induced magnet? A

[May-2006]

15- Why is a reed relay used in a switching circuit?

A to switch on a small current using a large current B to switch on a small voltage using a large voltage C to switch on a large current using a small current D to switch on a large voltage using a large current

[Nov-2005]

16- Each of the diagrams below is a cross-section through two parallel current-carrying conductors. Which diagram correctly shows the magnetic field pattern formed by the currents in the two conductors?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism

[May-2003]

17- X and Y are wires carrying electric currents at right angles to the page. P, Q and R are plotting compasses. Any effect of the Earth’s magnetic field has been ignored.

What is true about the direction and size of the currents? A B C D

direction of currents same same different different

[May-2005]

size of currents larger in X than in Y smaller in X than in Y larger in X than in Y smaller in X than in Y

18- The diagram shows how a steel bar can be magnetised.

Which statement describes how the steel bar can be demagnetised? A Reverse the d.c. supply and gradually decrease the current in the circuit. B Reverse the d.c. supply and gradually increase the current in the circuit. C Use an a.c. supply and gradually decrease the current in the circuit. D Use an a.c. supply and gradually increase the current in the circuit. [May-2008]

19- Which row describes the ease with which iron or steel can be magnetised and demagnetised?

A B

metal iron iron

magnetised difficult easy

demagnetised easy difficult

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism C steel D steel [Nov-2009]

difficult easy

difficult easy

20-

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 5.1 shows a magnet, two compasses and two nails.

(a) On Fig. 5.1, draw an arrow in each compass to show the direction of the magnetic field at the two positions. (b) The magnet causes the nails to become magnetised by induction. Both ends of each nail become magnetic poles. On Fig. 5.1, mark an N or an S at each end of the two nails to show the magnetic poles. (c) When the magnet is removed, the nails are still magnetised. Describe with the aid of a diagram how the nails can be demagnetised. [Nov-2006]

2- Fig. 5.1 shows a piece of recording tape passing under the recording head of a tape recorder. An

alternating current is passed through the coil. The tape is coated with a magnetic material that becomes magnetised. (a) (i) Explain why the tape becomes magnetized. ...................................................................................................... ............................ ...................................................................................................... ............................ ...................................................................................................... ............................ (ii) Fig. 5.1 shows that sections of the tape are magnetised in opposite directions. Explain why they become magnetised in opposite directions. ...................................................................................................... ............................ ..................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism (iii) The tape is moved faster past the recording head. State how this changes the pattern on the tape. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. (b) (i) Explain why the coating on the tape must be of a permanent magnetic material. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. (ii) State the name of a permanent magnetic material. .................................................................................................................................. [May-2004]

3- Fig. 6.1 shows a small plotting compass placed above a copper wire. When there is no

current in the wire, the plotting compass points towards the North. (a) A large current is switched on in the wire. The direction of the current is shown in Fig. 6.1. (i) State what happens to the compass needle. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (ii) State what happens if the compass is placed under the wire. ...................................................................................................................... ...................................................................................................................... (b) State and explain what is observed if there is a 50 Hz alternating current in the wire. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... [Nov-2003]

4- Fig. 5.1 shows a coil of wire wrapped around a plastic tube. Inside the tube are two pieces of soft iron. When the switch is closed, the compass needles point in the direction of the magnetic field produced at each position. You may ignore the magnetic field of the Earth in this question.

(a) On Fig. 5.1 mark arrows, in compasses A, B and C, to show the direction of the magnetic field at each position after the switch has been closed. (b) When the switch is closed, the two pieces of soft iron in the tube become magnets and move. (i) On Fig. 5.1, mark the poles formed on each piece of soft iron. (ii) State and explain how the pieces of iron move.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. (c) State the effect on the magnetic field of (i) reversing the direction of the current, .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ................................................................ (ii) reducing the size of the current. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................................................. [May-2005]

5- Fig. 7.1 shows a coil of wire wound around a rectangular tube.

(a) Two iron rods are placed next to each other at the bottom of the tube. When the current is switched on, the two rods repel each other. They move to the sides of the tube.Explain why the two iron rods repel. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................. (b) An iron rod and a similar copper rod are placed next to each other at the bottom of the tube. State and explain what, if anything, happens to the rods when the current is switched on. ......................................................................................................................................... .........................................................................................................................................[Nov-2005]

6- Fig. 6.1 shows a coil of wire wound on a cardboard tube.There is a d.c. current in the coil. The direction of the current is shown in the key.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism

(a) On Fig. 6.1, draw the magnetic field produced by the coil. (b) Fig. 6.2 shows a simple loudspeaker that uses the coil shown in Fig. 6.1 attached to a paper cone.

The coil is connected to a signal generator.There is an alternating current of frequency 100 Hz in the coil. (i) State what is meant by a frequency of 100 Hz. ............................................................................................................................... (ii) Describe and explain the movement of the coil. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................. [May-2007]

7- Fig. 7.1 shows apparatus that can be used to make an electromagnet or a permanent magnet.

Four rods are available. They are made of aluminium, soft iron, steel and wood. (a) (i) State which rod is used to make a permanent magnet. ............................................................................................................................ [1] (ii) Describe how the apparatus is used to make a permanent magnet. ..................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-16 Magnetism ............................................................................................................................ [1] (b) A computer component is screened from external magnetic fields by placing it in a box, as shown in Fig. 7.2.

There is a strong magnetic field outside the box. The magnetic field lines have not been drawn near the box. (i) State the best choice for the material of the box. ............................................................................................................................ [1] (ii) On Fig. 7.2, join the magnetic field lines on the left of the box to those on the right, showing the pattern of the magnetic field. [2] [Nov-2007] 8-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect PAPER-1 Multiple Choice

1-

2-An alternating current is passed through a wire stretched between the poles of a magnet. Which way will the wire move? A left and right B right only C up and down D up only [May-2005] / [May-2009]

3- A wire hangs between the poles of a magnet. When there is a current in the wire, in which direction does the wire move? A

4- The diagram shows a beam of electrons entering a magnetic field. What is the effect of the magnetic field on the electrons? A - They are deflected into the plane of the diagram. B - They are deflected out of the plane of the diagram. C - They are deflected towards the bottom of the diagram. D - They are deflected towards the top of the diagram. [May-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect

5-The diagrams show the forces F between two wires carrying currents out of the page. The magnetic fields close to the wires are also shown. Which diagram is correct? B

[Nov-2004] / [May-2007]

67-

8- The diagram shows a beam of electrons entering a magnetic field. The direction of the field is into the page.

What will be the initial direction of the deflection of the electrons as the beam passes through the field? [Nov-2002] A into the page B out of the page C towards the bottom of the page D towards the top of the page

910- Which of the following has no effect on the size of the turning effect on the coil of an electric motor? A the size of the current in the coil B the direction of the current in the coil

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect C the number of turns in the coil D the strength of the magnetic field

[Nov-2003]

11- The diagram shows a beam of electrons entering a

magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field is out of the page.In which direction does the deflection of the electrons occur? A into the page B out of the page C towards the bottom of the page D towards the top of the page [Nov-2003]

1213- A coil, carrying a current, is arranged

within a magnetic field. The coil experiences forces that can make it move. In which direction does the coil move?

A along the magnetic field B from X to Y C out of the paper D turns about the axis XY [Nov-2005]

14- In a d.c. motor, the coil is wound on a soft iron cylinder. Why is soft iron used? A - to increase the strength of the magnetic field B - to increase the weight of the coil C - to insulate the coil from the magnet D - to prevent the coil from spinning too quickly

[May-2007]

15- The diagram shows parts of a loudspeaker.

Which type of current is passed through the coil and why? [May-2006]

A B C D

current passed through coil alternating alternating direct direct

reason why to keep the magnetic field constant to make the coil vibrate to keep the magnetic field constant to make the coil vibrate

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect 16- Two parallel wires carry currents in the same direction.

Which diagram shows the magnetic field around each wire and the direction of the force on each wire? A

[May-2006]

17- A metal ring screens a piece of equipment from a magnetic field. Which metal should be used for the ring, and why? reason the metal carries the field lines around the equipment B copper the metal is non-magnetic C iron the metal carries the field lines around the equipment D iron the metal is non-magnetic [Nov-2006] / [Nov-2010]

A

metal copper

18- A copper wire is held between the poles of a magnet. The current in the wire can be reversed. The poles of the magnet can also be changed over. In how many of the four directions shown can the force act on the wire? A1 B2 C3 D4 [Nov-2006]

19- The diagram shows a coil in a magnetic field.

When the coil is part of a d.c. motor, what must be connected directly to X and Y?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect A - d.c. supply B - slip rings C - soft-iron core D - split-ring commutator

[Nov-2006]

20- A conductor is moving horizontally across a vertical magnetic field.

An e.m.f. is induced in the conductor. No deflection is seen on the ammeter. What is the reason for this? A The ammeter is not between the poles. B The conductor is moving too slowly. C The conductor is not cutting field lines. D The poles are too close together. [May-2008]

21- A d.c. motor consists of a coil of many turns rotating in a fixed magnetic field. The coil is connected to a d.c. supply through a split-ring commutator.

Some changes are made, one at a time. • The d.c. supply is reversed. • The coil is turned before switching on, so that P starts on the right and Q on the left. • The poles of the magnet are reversed. • The turns on the coil are increased in number. How many of these changes make the coil rotate in the opposite direction? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4 [May-2009]

22-The diagram shows an a.c. generator connected to a resistor.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect

Some changes are made, one at a time. • The speed of the drive is changed. • The strength of the magnets is changed. • The number of turns in the coil is changed. • The value of the resistor is changed. How many of these alter the value of the e.m.f. generated in the coil? A 1 B 2 C 3 D 4

[May-2009]

23- Each diagram shows a cross-section through two parallel conductors, each carrying an electric current. In the conductor on the left, the current is into the page; on the right, it is out of the page. Which diagram shows the directions of the forces on the two conductors? C

[Nov-2009] 24- A long flexible wire is wrapped round two wooden pegs. A large current is passed in the direction shown.

Which two pairs of lengths of wire attract each other? A B C D

first pair J and K J and K J and L J and L

second pair K and M L and M K and M L and M

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect [May-2010]

25- The diagram shows a d.c. motor.

Why is a split-ring commutator used? A to change the current direction in the coil as the coil passes the horizontal position B to change the current direction in the coil as the coil passes the vertical position C to change the current direction in the d.c. supply as the coil passes the horizontal position D to change the current direction in the d.c. supply as the coil passes the vertical position [May-2010]

26- Two parallel vertical wires P and Q are a small distance apart in air. There is a downwards electric

current in both wires. A force acts on Q owing to the current in P. This force is perpendicular to the wire Q.

What is the direction of the force on Q?

27- What does not alter the size of the turning effect on the coil of an electric motor? A the direction of the current in the coil C the size of the current in the coil

B the number of turns in the coil

D the strength of the magnetic field

[Nov-2010]

28- The diagram shows an a.c. generator connected to an electrical circuit (load resistor).

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect

Which statement is correct? A The direction of the potential difference across the load resistor is always the same. B The size of the induced e.m.f. depends on the number of turns in the coil. C The size of the induced e.m.f. does not change as the coil turns. D Winding the coil on a soft-iron cylinder makes no difference to the induced e.m.f.

[Nov-2010]

29- The diagram shows a beam of electrons entering a magnetic field. The direction of the magnetic field is downwards, towards the bottom of the page.

In which direction does the deflection of the electrons occur? A into the page C towards the bottom of the page

D towards the top of the page

B out of the page [Nov-2010]

PAPER-2 Theory

1- The diagram below shows a vertical circular coil carrying a current in the direction shown. A field line is drawn through the centre of the coil as shown.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect

i) Draw an arrow on this line to show the direction of the magnetic field. ii) Draw on this diagram one field line which goes through A and one filed line which goes through B, showing the shape of the magnetic field. The second diagram shows a beam of protons C being deflected by the magnetic field due to a current in a long straight wire. iii) Name and state the rule which determines the direction of the deflection of the protons. iv) Explain why the protons are deflected downward. 2- Fig. 7.1 shows a coil ABCD that can turn between the two poles of a magnet. Bare metal paper clips support and pass current into and out of the coil.

(a) (i) State the direction of the force on the side AB. ................................................................................................................................. (ii) Explain the reason for your choice of direction. ................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect (b) A student turns the coil through 180° so that AB is close to the N pole of the magnet. (i) State the direction of the force on side AB of the coil. ................................................................................................................................. (ii) The student releases the coil. Explain why the coil does not rotate continuously. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. (c) With the coil as shown in Fig. 7.1, the top half of the wire from C to the paper clip is coated with an insulator, as shown in Fig. 7.2. Explain why the coil can now rotate continuously. [Nov-2003]

3- The north pole of a bar magnet is held on the left of the wire and the south pole of another bar

magnet is held on the right, as shown in Fig. 10.2. (i) State the direction of the magnetic field at the wire due to these two poles. (ii) The wire is flexible. Describe the effect of this magnetic field on the current-carrying wire. (iii) The current in the wire is now reversed. State the effect of this on the wire. (iv) Describe how this effect is put to use in a d.c. motor. [Nov-2008]

4- (a) Fig. 7.1 shows a straight wire between the poles of a magnet. The wire carries a current

into the page. (i) State the direction of the magnetic field between the poles of the magnet. (ii) On Fig. 7.1, draw an arrow to show the direction of the force acting on the wire.

(b) Fig. 7.2 shows two wires. Each wire carries a current into the page. (i) On Fig. 7.2, draw the magnetic field due to the currents in the wires. (ii) There is a force on each wire due to the current in the other wire. On Fig. 7.2, draw an arrow on each wire to show these forces.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect

[May-2008] 5- Fig. 9.1 is a diagram of a simple d.c. motor.

The gap between the two halves of the split-ring commutator is so wide that a carbon brush can only touch one half of the split-ring at any time. This protects the circuit. It also means that sometimes the motor will not start when switched on. The coil is rotated by vertical forces that act downwards on side AB and upwards on side CD. The current causes a constant force of 3.0N on each side. The moment created by these forces varies as the coil turns. The moment is a maximum when the coil is horizontal. The distances AD and BC are both 0.065m. (a) Explain why (i) the carbon brushes must not be allowed to touch both halves of the split-ring at the same time, (ii) sometimes the motor does not start when switched on, even if there is no friction. (b) (i) Define the moment of a force. (ii) Calculate the value of the maximum moment created on the coil. (iii) Explain why the moment is a maximum when the coil is horizontal. (iv) Sketch a graph to suggest how the moment acting on the coil varies with time as the coil rotates at constant speed. Label each axis. On the time axis, mark clearly the time taken for one revolution of the coil. (c) (i) State the measurements you would make in order to find the electrical power input to the

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-20 Magnetic Effect motor and state how your measurements are used to find the electrical power. (ii) Draw a diagram of the circuit you would use to make these measurements. [Nov-2004]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- The e.m.f. induced in a conductor moving at right-angles to a magnetic field does not depend upon: A - the length of the conductor. B - the resistance of the conductor. C - the speed of the conductor. D - the strength of the magnetic field.

2- The diagrams show three generators.

Which are alternating current generators? A X only B Y only C X and Y only

D X and Z only [May-2008]

3- Which transformer arrangement produces an output voltage that is larger than the input voltage? B

[May-2008]

4- A student pushes the N-pole of a bar magnet into the end Q of a long solenoid and observes a deflection to the right on the sensitive ammeter. What will produce a deflection in the same direction? A - pulling the N-pole out of end Q B - pulling the S-pole out of end P C - pushing the N-pole into end P D - pushing the S-pole into end P 5-Why are high voltages and low currents used to transmit electrical energy over

A - to increase the electromagnetic radiation B - to increase the speed at which electrons move C - to reduce heat loss from the power line D - to reduce the resistance of the power line

6- A step-up transformer with 100 % efficiency

has an input voltage of 3 V and an input current of 2 A. Under these conditions, what output voltage and output current could be obtained?

long distances?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

A B C D

output voltage / V 1 2 4 6

output current / A 6 3 1 1

[Nov-2005]

7- A permanent magnet moving up and down on the end of a

spring induces an e.m.f. in a coil. Which factor, on its own, would decrease the maximum value of the induced e.m.f.? A - increasing the number of turns in the coil B - increasing the strength of the magnet C - raising the coil D - raising the support of the spring

[May-2006]

8- Which statement about the action of a transformer is correct?

[Nov-2002] A - An alternating current always flows in the secondary coil when an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil. B - The current in the secondary coil is always larger than the current in the primary coil. C - An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil. D - An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when a steady direct current flows in the primary coil.

9- A girl turns the handle of a small a.c. generator four times each second. The generator produces a maximum output voltage of 0.5 V. Which of the following graphs best shows this? A [May-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

10- The diagram shows a trace on an oscilloscope set at 5 V/cm on the vertical axis.

What is the maximum value of the potential difference being measured? A - 1.5V B - 3.0V C - 7.5V D - 15V

[Nov-2002]

11- The diagram shows a two-pole single-coil electric motor.

The split-ring commutator reverses the current in the coil as it rotates. How many times is the current reversed if the coil is rotated once? A1 B2 C3 D4 [Nov-2002] / [May-2005]

12- Why is electricity transmitted along power lines at very high

voltages? A to reduce the resistance of the cables B so that transformers can be used C to make sure that the current is the same all the way along the power lines D to reduce loss of energy

[Nov-2003]

13- A small coil is connected to a galvanometer as shown below. When the magnet is allowed to fall towards the coil, the galvanometer pointer gives a momentary deflection to the right of the zero position. The magnet moves through the coil and, as it falls away from the coil, the galvanometer pointer A gives a continuous reading to the left. B gives a momentary deflection to the left. C gives a momentary deflection to the right. D gives a continuous reading to the right. [Nov-2003]

14- A simple a.c. generator produces a voltage that varies with

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

time as shown. Which graph shows how the voltage varies with time when the generator rotates at twice the original speed?

[Nov-2003]

15- Four different substances are tested by using each as the core of an

electromagnet.The number of paper clips each holds is recorded when there is a current in the electromagnet and when the current is switched off. Which substance is the best for making the core of a transformer?

A B C D

number of paper clips held when there is a current in the electromagnet 8 6 5 4

number of paper clips held when current is switched off 4 0 1 0

[May-2004] 16- A student pushes the N-pole of a bar magnet into the end Q of a long solenoid and observes a deflection to the right on the sensitive ammeter. What will produce a deflection in the same direction? A pulling the N-pole out of end Q B pulling the S-pole out of end P C pushing the N-pole into end P D pushing the S-pole into end P

17- A simple a.c. generator produces an alternating e.m.f. as shown.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

The speed of the generator is doubled. Which graph best represents the new output? D

[May-2004] / [May-2007] 18- A step-down transformer changes 240 V a.c. to 12 V a.c. There are 600 turns on the primary coil. How many turns are on the secondary coil? A 20 B 30 C 600 D 12 000 [May-2004]

19- Why are high voltages and low currents used to transmit electrical energy over long distances? A to increase the electromagnetic radiation B to increase the speed at which electrons move C to reduce heat loss from the power line D to reduce the resistance of the power line [May-2004]

20-A small coil is connected to a sensitive ammeter. The ammeter needle can move to either side of the zero position.When the magnet is allowed to fall towards the coil, the ammeter needle moves quickly to the right of the zero position.The magnet moves through the coil. How does the ammeter needle move as the magnet falls away from the coil? A It does not move. B It gives a steady reading to the right. C It moves quickly to the left of the zero position and then returns to zero. D It moves quickly to the right of the zero position and then returns to zero. [Nov-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism 2122- Which statement about the action of a transformer is correct?

A An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil. B An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when there is a steady direct current in the primary coil. C The current in the secondary coil is always larger than the current in the primary coil. D The voltage in the secondary coil is always larger than the voltage in the primary coil. [May-2005]

23- Electrical energy is transmitted at high alternating voltages.What is not a valid reason for doing this? A At high voltage, a.c. is safer than d.c. B For a given power, there is a lower current with a higher voltage. C There is a smaller power loss at higher voltage and lower current. D The transmission lines can be thinner with a lower current.

[May-2005]

24- A magnet is pushed horizontally towards a coil of insulated wire, inducing an e.m.f. in the coil. In which direction does the induced e.m.f. make the coil move? A away from the magnet B towards the magnet C downwards D upwards [Nov-2005] / [Nov-2009]

25- Why is a transformer used to connect a generator in a power station to a long distance transmission line? A to decrease the voltage and decrease the current B to decrease the voltage and increase the current C to increase the voltage and decrease the current D to increase the voltage and increase the current

[May-2006] / [Nov-2009]

26- A transformer has more turns on the secondary coil than on the primary.

The graph shows how the input voltage varies with time. Which graph, drawn to the same scale as the input graph, shows how the output voltage varies with time? A

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

[Nov-2006]

27- Why is electrical energy usually transmitted at high voltage?

A As little energy as possible is wasted in the transmission cables. B The current in the transmission cables is as large as possible. C The resistance of the transmission cables is as small as possible. D The transmission system does not require transformers.

[Nov-2006]

28- The diagram shows the output waveform of an a.c. generator as displayed on a cathode-ray oscilloscope. The horizontal scale is 5 ms / cm. What is the time for one complete rotation of the coil of the generator? A 5 ms

B 10 ms

C 20 ms

D 30 ms

[Nov-2006]

29- The diagram shows how a magnet and a coil may be used to induce an electric current.

How could the ammeter reading be increased? A Move the coil more slowly. B Put a resistor in series with the ammeter. C Turn the magnet round, then move the coil. D Use a coil with more turns.

[May-2007]

30- A simple a.c. generator produces a voltage that varies with time as shown.

Which graph shows how the voltage varies with time when the generator rotates at twice the original speed? D

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

[May-2009]

31-Why is electrical energy usually transmitted at high voltage?

A As little energy as possible is wasted in the transmission cables. B The current in the transmission cables is as large as possible. C The resistance of the transmission cables is as small as possible. D The transmission system does not require transformers.

[May-2009]

32- A simple model of a d.c. motor is made. By mistake, the split-ring commutator is left out. The coil can turn, but is always connected to the battery in the same way.

The coil starts in the horizontal position. What happens to the coil when the circuit is switched on? A It does not move at all. B It moves upwards, out of the magnetic field. C It turns to the vertical position and eventually stops there. D It turns to the vertical position then comes back to the horizontal position. [Nov-2009]

33- The graph shows the output of an a.c. generator. The coil in the generator rotates 20 times in one second. Which graph shows the output when the coil rotates 10 times in one second? D

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

[Nov-2009]

34- Which properties make materials suitable for use as a core in an electromagnet? B C D easy

A difficult to magnetise and easy to demagnetise difficult to magnetise and retains magnetic strength easy to magnetise and retains magnetic strength to magnetise and easy to demagnetise [May-2010]

35- A magnet is pushed slowly into a coil and there is a current in the coil in the direction shown.

The magnet is then pulled out quickly from the same end of the coil.

What happens to the direction and the size of the current? A B C D

direction reversed reversed unchanged unchanged

size decreased increased decreased increased

[May-2010]

36- Electric power cables transmit electrical energy over large distances using a high voltage, alternating current. What are the advantages of using a high voltage and of using an alternating current?

A B C D

advantage of using a high voltage a higher current is produced in the cable a higher current is produced in the cable less energy is wasted in the cable less energy is wasted in the cable

advantage of using an alternating current the resistance of the cable is reduced the voltage can be changed using a transformer the resistance of the cable is reduced the voltage can be changed using a transformer [Nov-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism 37- The diagram shows an alarm system in which the switch S is shown closed.

What happens when the switch S is opened? A B C D

iron drops drops moves up moves up

bell rings stops ringing rings stops ringing

[Nov-2010]

38-

PAPER-2 Theory

1- An electromagnet consisting of an iron core and a copper coil is connected to a DC supply as shown in the diagram.When a small unmagnetised iron sphere is held near the iron core of the electromagnet it becomes attached to it as shown in the diagram.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism i) What happens to the iron core when the cuırrent passes through the copper coil? ii) Hence explain why the iron sphere becomes attached to the iron core. iii) What happens when the switch is opened? Give a reason for your answer.

2- The diagram shows an ideal transformers. i) Calculate the reading on the voltmeter. ii) Explain why an a.c supply is used rather than a d.c supply. iii) Sketch a voltage-time graph which describes the voltage output.

3- A type of portable radio uses the energy stored in a spring to generate the electrical current needed. The diagram shows an arrangement which might be used for this purpose. The spring wound up by using a key. As the spring unwinds, it rotates the magnet causing a current in the coil and radio circuit. i) Explain why a current is produced in the coil. ii) As the spring continues to unwind, it rotates more slowly.State and explain what effect,if any,this would have on the current. iii) List two advantages and one disadvantage of using such kind of device. iv) List three factors which affect the potential produced by that device.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

4- The core of the transformer is cut in two and used as shown below as part of a design for a water depth indicator. The bottom half of the core is fixed. The top half of the core is attached to a

pivoted beam and is free to move. The following results were obtained:

i) (5 points) Explain why the voltmeter reading falls as the water depth decreases. ii) (5 points) The 0.1V value is difficult to read reliably. State and explain two ways in which a larger voltage could be obtained for the same water depth.

5- Fig. 8.1 shows a simple transformer used to light a lamp. The lamp is labelled 24V, 36W.

When the mains supply is switched on, the lamp is very dim. (a) State two ways in which the potential difference across the lamp can be increased

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism without changing the mains supply. 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 2 .................................................................................................................................. (b) For the lamp operating at the correct brightness, calculate (i) the current in the secondary coil, (ii) the current in the primary coil. Assume that the transformer is ideal.

current = ................................... current = ................................... [Nov-2003]

6- Fig. 7.1 shows high voltage cables used to transmit electrical energy.

(a) State the purpose of transformer B. ..................................................................................................................................... (b) In the space below, draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of transformer B. (c) (i) Explain why high voltages are used to transmit electrical power. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................... (ii) Fig. 7.2 shows how the loss of thermal energy from a cable varies with the thickness of the cable. Explain why the loss of thermal energy is less if the cable is thicker. .................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................ [Nov-2004]

78- Fig. 3.1 shows the construction of a simple a.c. generator. When the coil is rotated an e.m.f. is induced in the coil

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

. (a) Explain why an e.m.f. is induced. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................. (b) State the purpose of the slip rings. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................. (c) The direction of the current in the coil can be found from Lenz’s law.State Lenz’s law. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................. (d) The induced e.m.f. can be increased by rotating the coil faster. State one other way in which the e.m.f. can be increased. ......................................................................................................................................... [May-2006] 9- A farmer connects a house to the mains electricity. The house is a long way from the nearest 230 V mains electricity supply. Fig. 10.1 shows the mains supply connected to the house.

(a) The farmer uses 230 V lamps in the house but they do not light up at full brightness. Explain why the lamps are dim. (b) The farmer adds transformers, as shown in Fig. 10.2.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

The lamps in the distant house light up at full brightness. Explain why the lamps are now bright. (c) (i) Describe the structure of a transformer. You may draw a diagram to help your explanation. (ii) Explain in detail how a transformer produces an output voltage. (d) The 230 V mains supply provides 690 W of power to transformer A in Fig. 10.2. (i) Calculate the current supplied to the transformer. (ii) Calculate the energy supplied to the transformer in 10 minutes. Give your answer in joules. [May-2007]

10- Fig. 7.1 shows one way to demonstrate an electrical effect.

As the wire is moved downwards between the magnetic poles, the needle of the ammeter deflects to the right. (a) State the name of this electrical effect. ................................................................................................................................... (b) State what happens to the needle of the ammeter when the wire is moved upwards between the magnetic poles. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................. (c) State and explain what happens when the wire is held stationary between the magnetic poles. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................... [Nov-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- The e.m.f. induced in a conductor moving at right-angles to a magnetic field does not depend upon: A - the length of the conductor. B - the resistance of the conductor. C - the speed of the conductor. D - the strength of the magnetic field.

2- The diagrams show three generators.

Which are alternating current generators? A X only B Y only C X and Y only

D X and Z only [May-2008]

3- Which transformer arrangement produces an output voltage that is larger than the input voltage? B

[May-2008]

4- A student pushes the N-pole of a bar magnet into the end Q of a long solenoid and observes a deflection to the right on the sensitive ammeter. What will produce a deflection in the same direction? A - pulling the N-pole out of end Q B - pulling the S-pole out of end P C - pushing the N-pole into end P D - pushing the S-pole into end P 5-Why are high voltages and low currents used to transmit electrical energy over

A - to increase the electromagnetic radiation B - to increase the speed at which electrons move C - to reduce heat loss from the power line D - to reduce the resistance of the power line

6- A step-up transformer with 100 % efficiency

has an input voltage of 3 V and an input current of 2 A. Under these conditions, what output voltage and output current could be obtained?

long distances?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

A B C D

output voltage / V 1 2 4 6

output current / A 6 3 1 1

[Nov-2005]

7- A permanent magnet moving up and down on the end of a

spring induces an e.m.f. in a coil. Which factor, on its own, would decrease the maximum value of the induced e.m.f.? A - increasing the number of turns in the coil B - increasing the strength of the magnet C - raising the coil D - raising the support of the spring

[May-2006]

8- Which statement about the action of a transformer is correct?

[Nov-2002] A - An alternating current always flows in the secondary coil when an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil. B - The current in the secondary coil is always larger than the current in the primary coil. C - An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil. D - An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when a steady direct current flows in the primary coil.

9- A girl turns the handle of a small a.c. generator four times each second. The generator produces a maximum output voltage of 0.5 V. Which of the following graphs best shows this? A [May-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

10- The diagram shows a trace on an oscilloscope set at 5 V/cm on the vertical axis.

What is the maximum value of the potential difference being measured? A - 1.5V B - 3.0V C - 7.5V D - 15V

[Nov-2002]

11- The diagram shows a two-pole single-coil electric motor.

The split-ring commutator reverses the current in the coil as it rotates. How many times is the current reversed if the coil is rotated once? A1 B2 C3 D4 [Nov-2002] / [May-2005]

12- Why is electricity transmitted along power lines at very high

voltages? A to reduce the resistance of the cables B so that transformers can be used C to make sure that the current is the same all the way along the power lines D to reduce loss of energy

[Nov-2003]

13- A small coil is connected to a galvanometer as shown below. When the magnet is allowed to fall towards the coil, the galvanometer pointer gives a momentary deflection to the right of the zero position. The magnet moves through the coil and, as it falls away from the coil, the galvanometer pointer A gives a continuous reading to the left. B gives a momentary deflection to the left. C gives a momentary deflection to the right. D gives a continuous reading to the right. [Nov-2003]

14- A simple a.c. generator produces a voltage that varies with

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

time as shown. Which graph shows how the voltage varies with time when the generator rotates at twice the original speed?

[Nov-2003]

15- Four different substances are tested by using each as the core of an

electromagnet.The number of paper clips each holds is recorded when there is a current in the electromagnet and when the current is switched off. Which substance is the best for making the core of a transformer?

A B C D

number of paper clips held when there is a current in the electromagnet 8 6 5 4

number of paper clips held when current is switched off 4 0 1 0

[May-2004] 16- A student pushes the N-pole of a bar magnet into the end Q of a long solenoid and observes a deflection to the right on the sensitive ammeter. What will produce a deflection in the same direction? A pulling the N-pole out of end Q B pulling the S-pole out of end P C pushing the N-pole into end P D pushing the S-pole into end P

17- A simple a.c. generator produces an alternating e.m.f. as shown.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

The speed of the generator is doubled. Which graph best represents the new output? D

[May-2004] / [May-2007] 18- A step-down transformer changes 240 V a.c. to 12 V a.c. There are 600 turns on the primary coil. How many turns are on the secondary coil? A 20 B 30 C 600 D 12 000 [May-2004]

19- Why are high voltages and low currents used to transmit electrical energy over long distances? A to increase the electromagnetic radiation B to increase the speed at which electrons move C to reduce heat loss from the power line D to reduce the resistance of the power line [May-2004]

20-A small coil is connected to a sensitive ammeter. The ammeter needle can move to either side of the zero position.When the magnet is allowed to fall towards the coil, the ammeter needle moves quickly to the right of the zero position.The magnet moves through the coil. How does the ammeter needle move as the magnet falls away from the coil? A It does not move. B It gives a steady reading to the right. C It moves quickly to the left of the zero position and then returns to zero. D It moves quickly to the right of the zero position and then returns to zero. [Nov-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism 2122- Which statement about the action of a transformer is correct?

A An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when an alternating voltage is applied to the primary coil. B An e.m.f. is induced in the secondary coil when there is a steady direct current in the primary coil. C The current in the secondary coil is always larger than the current in the primary coil. D The voltage in the secondary coil is always larger than the voltage in the primary coil. [May-2005]

23- Electrical energy is transmitted at high alternating voltages.What is not a valid reason for doing this? A At high voltage, a.c. is safer than d.c. B For a given power, there is a lower current with a higher voltage. C There is a smaller power loss at higher voltage and lower current. D The transmission lines can be thinner with a lower current.

[May-2005]

24- A magnet is pushed horizontally towards a coil of insulated wire, inducing an e.m.f. in the coil. In which direction does the induced e.m.f. make the coil move? A away from the magnet B towards the magnet C downwards D upwards [Nov-2005] / [Nov-2009]

25- Why is a transformer used to connect a generator in a power station to a long distance transmission line? A to decrease the voltage and decrease the current B to decrease the voltage and increase the current C to increase the voltage and decrease the current D to increase the voltage and increase the current

[May-2006] / [Nov-2009]

26- A transformer has more turns on the secondary coil than on the primary.

The graph shows how the input voltage varies with time. Which graph, drawn to the same scale as the input graph, shows how the output voltage varies with time? A

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

[Nov-2006]

27- Why is electrical energy usually transmitted at high voltage?

A As little energy as possible is wasted in the transmission cables. B The current in the transmission cables is as large as possible. C The resistance of the transmission cables is as small as possible. D The transmission system does not require transformers.

[Nov-2006]

28- The diagram shows the output waveform of an a.c. generator as displayed on a cathode-ray oscilloscope. The horizontal scale is 5 ms / cm. What is the time for one complete rotation of the coil of the generator? A 5 ms

B 10 ms

C 20 ms

D 30 ms

[Nov-2006]

29- The diagram shows how a magnet and a coil may be used to induce an electric current.

How could the ammeter reading be increased? A Move the coil more slowly. B Put a resistor in series with the ammeter. C Turn the magnet round, then move the coil. D Use a coil with more turns.

[May-2007]

30- A simple a.c. generator produces a voltage that varies with time as shown.

Which graph shows how the voltage varies with time when the generator rotates at twice the original speed? D

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

[May-2009]

31-Why is electrical energy usually transmitted at high voltage?

A As little energy as possible is wasted in the transmission cables. B The current in the transmission cables is as large as possible. C The resistance of the transmission cables is as small as possible. D The transmission system does not require transformers.

[May-2009]

32- A simple model of a d.c. motor is made. By mistake, the split-ring commutator is left out. The coil can turn, but is always connected to the battery in the same way.

The coil starts in the horizontal position. What happens to the coil when the circuit is switched on? A It does not move at all. B It moves upwards, out of the magnetic field. C It turns to the vertical position and eventually stops there. D It turns to the vertical position then comes back to the horizontal position. [Nov-2009]

33- The graph shows the output of an a.c. generator. The coil in the generator rotates 20 times in one second. Which graph shows the output when the coil rotates 10 times in one second? D

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

[Nov-2009]

34- Which properties make materials suitable for use as a core in an electromagnet? B C D easy

A difficult to magnetise and easy to demagnetise difficult to magnetise and retains magnetic strength easy to magnetise and retains magnetic strength to magnetise and easy to demagnetise [May-2010]

35- A magnet is pushed slowly into a coil and there is a current in the coil in the direction shown.

The magnet is then pulled out quickly from the same end of the coil.

What happens to the direction and the size of the current? A B C D

direction reversed reversed unchanged unchanged

size decreased increased decreased increased

[May-2010]

36- Electric power cables transmit electrical energy over large distances using a high voltage, alternating current. What are the advantages of using a high voltage and of using an alternating current?

A B C D

advantage of using a high voltage a higher current is produced in the cable a higher current is produced in the cable less energy is wasted in the cable less energy is wasted in the cable

advantage of using an alternating current the resistance of the cable is reduced the voltage can be changed using a transformer the resistance of the cable is reduced the voltage can be changed using a transformer [Nov-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism 37- The diagram shows an alarm system in which the switch S is shown closed.

What happens when the switch S is opened? A B C D

iron drops drops moves up moves up

bell rings stops ringing rings stops ringing

[Nov-2010]

38-

PAPER-2 Theory

1- An electromagnet consisting of an iron core and a copper coil is connected to a DC supply as shown in the diagram.When a small unmagnetised iron sphere is held near the iron core of the electromagnet it becomes attached to it as shown in the diagram.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism i) What happens to the iron core when the cuırrent passes through the copper coil? ii) Hence explain why the iron sphere becomes attached to the iron core. iii) What happens when the switch is opened? Give a reason for your answer.

2- The diagram shows an ideal transformers. i) Calculate the reading on the voltmeter. ii) Explain why an a.c supply is used rather than a d.c supply. iii) Sketch a voltage-time graph which describes the voltage output.

3- A type of portable radio uses the energy stored in a spring to generate the electrical current needed. The diagram shows an arrangement which might be used for this purpose. The spring wound up by using a key. As the spring unwinds, it rotates the magnet causing a current in the coil and radio circuit. i) Explain why a current is produced in the coil. ii) As the spring continues to unwind, it rotates more slowly.State and explain what effect,if any,this would have on the current. iii) List two advantages and one disadvantage of using such kind of device. iv) List three factors which affect the potential produced by that device.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

4- The core of the transformer is cut in two and used as shown below as part of a design for a water depth indicator. The bottom half of the core is fixed. The top half of the core is attached to a

pivoted beam and is free to move. The following results were obtained:

i) (5 points) Explain why the voltmeter reading falls as the water depth decreases. ii) (5 points) The 0.1V value is difficult to read reliably. State and explain two ways in which a larger voltage could be obtained for the same water depth.

5- Fig. 8.1 shows a simple transformer used to light a lamp. The lamp is labelled 24V, 36W.

When the mains supply is switched on, the lamp is very dim. (a) State two ways in which the potential difference across the lamp can be increased

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism without changing the mains supply. 1 ...................................................................................................................................... 2 .................................................................................................................................. (b) For the lamp operating at the correct brightness, calculate (i) the current in the secondary coil, (ii) the current in the primary coil. Assume that the transformer is ideal.

current = ................................... current = ................................... [Nov-2003]

6- Fig. 7.1 shows high voltage cables used to transmit electrical energy.

(a) State the purpose of transformer B. ..................................................................................................................................... (b) In the space below, draw a labelled diagram to show the structure of transformer B. (c) (i) Explain why high voltages are used to transmit electrical power. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................... .................................................................... (ii) Fig. 7.2 shows how the loss of thermal energy from a cable varies with the thickness of the cable. Explain why the loss of thermal energy is less if the cable is thicker. .................................................................................................................................... ................................................................................................................................ [Nov-2004]

78- Fig. 3.1 shows the construction of a simple a.c. generator. When the coil is rotated an e.m.f. is induced in the coil

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

. (a) Explain why an e.m.f. is induced. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................. (b) State the purpose of the slip rings. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................. (c) The direction of the current in the coil can be found from Lenz’s law.State Lenz’s law. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................................................. (d) The induced e.m.f. can be increased by rotating the coil faster. State one other way in which the e.m.f. can be increased. ......................................................................................................................................... [May-2006] 9- A farmer connects a house to the mains electricity. The house is a long way from the nearest 230 V mains electricity supply. Fig. 10.1 shows the mains supply connected to the house.

(a) The farmer uses 230 V lamps in the house but they do not light up at full brightness. Explain why the lamps are dim. (b) The farmer adds transformers, as shown in Fig. 10.2.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism

The lamps in the distant house light up at full brightness. Explain why the lamps are now bright. (c) (i) Describe the structure of a transformer. You may draw a diagram to help your explanation. (ii) Explain in detail how a transformer produces an output voltage. (d) The 230 V mains supply provides 690 W of power to transformer A in Fig. 10.2. (i) Calculate the current supplied to the transformer. (ii) Calculate the energy supplied to the transformer in 10 minutes. Give your answer in joules. [May-2007]

10- Fig. 7.1 shows one way to demonstrate an electrical effect.

As the wire is moved downwards between the magnetic poles, the needle of the ammeter deflects to the right. (a) State the name of this electrical effect. ................................................................................................................................... (b) State what happens to the needle of the ammeter when the wire is moved upwards between the magnetic poles. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................. (c) State and explain what happens when the wire is held stationary between the magnetic poles. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................... [Nov-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-21 Electromagnetism PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1-

The diagram shows a thermistor connected in a potential divider circuit. The resistance of the thermistor decreases when its temperature rises. The thermistor is heated. What happens to the potential difference across the thermistor as it is heated? A It decreases but not to zero. B It decreases to zero. C It increases. D It stays the same.

????? /[May-2008]

2- The diagram shows a circuit.What are the components X and

Y? A B C D

X

fuse lamp light-dependent resistor light-dependent resistor

Y

resistor variable resistor light-emitting diode variable resistor [Nov-2003]

3- The following trace is shown on the screen of an

oscilloscope when it is connected to a transformer. The scale is set at 5V per centimetre. What is the value of the peak voltage? A 4V B 5V C 10V D 20V [Nov-2003]

4- The diagram shows a circuit with a potential divider joined in series with a fixed resistor.

What are the minimum and maximum readings that can be obtained on the voltmeter when the potential divider is adjusted? [Nov-2003]

A B C D

minimum reading /V 0 0 2 6

maximum reading /V 2 6 4 12

5- An electrical engineer connects a diode to a radio so that:

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics if the battery is connected the right way round the radio works, if the battery is connected the wrong way there is no current.

Which diagram is correct? A

[Nov-2004]

6- A cathode-ray oscilloscope is connected to an a.c. generator.

A wave is shown on the screen. What is the effect on the trace if the generator’s speed of rotation is doubled? number of waves on amplitude of waves the screen on the screen A doubled same B same doubled C doubled doubled D same same [Nov-2004]

7-In which circuit will a lamp glow more brightly when less light shines on a light-dependent resistor? B

[Nov-2004]

8- The diagram shows the design of a cathode-ray oscilloscope tube.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics

There is a constant potential difference across the deflection plates. Which change increases the deflection of the spot on the screen? A decreasing the distance from the deflection plates to the screen B increasing the length of the deflection plates C increasing the potential difference between cathode and anode D increasing the separation of the deflection plates

[Nov-2004]

9- Which circuit contains a cell, a light-emitting diode and a fixed resistor? A [May-2005]

10- The diagram shows some of the important parts of the tube of a cathode-ray oscilloscope. Which change in voltage results in the position of the spot on the screen moving towards the top?

A decreasing V 1

B decreasing V 3

C increasing V 2

D increasing V 3

[May-2005]

11- A thermistor is connected in a circuit with a 6 V cell, a 3000 Ω resistor and a voltmeter, as shown. The graph shows how the resistance of the thermistor varies with temperature.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics

What is the temperature of the thermistor when the voltmeter reads 2 V? A 20oC B 40oC C 60oC D 80oC

[May-2005]

12-

13- A potential divider consists of an LDR and a resistor connected to a 6 V battery. What should be the resistance of the LDR for the output to be 3 V? A0 B between 0 and 10 000 Ω C 10 000 Ω D more than 10 000 Ω [Nov-2005]

14- A waveform is displayed on a cathode-ray oscilloscope. The

length of three cycles of the waveform is 6 cm. The vertical gain and the time-base settings are shown on the diagram. What is the time taken for one cycle of the waveform? A 1 ms

B 2 ms

C 4 ms

D 6 ms

[May-2007]

15-A lamp is connected in series with a light-dependent resistor (LDR) and a battery. The barrier shields the LDR from the lamp.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics

When low intensity light falls on the LDR, the lamp glows dimly. If the light intensity on the LDR increases, what happens to the lamp? A It gets brighter. B It gets dimmer but does not go out. C It goes out. D It stays the same. [May-2009]

16-The circuit diagram shows a variable resistor R connected in parallel to the lower half of a potential divider.

The resistance of R increases. What happens to the two voltmeter readings? reading on V1 reading on V2 A decreases decreases B decreases increases C increases decreases D increases increases [May-2009] 17- The diagram is a circuit designed to switch on a lamp when it gets dark.

Which component is used as the sensor at X? C

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics

[Nov-2009]

18- A thermistor is connected in a circuit with a 6 V battery, a 3000 Ω resistor and a voltmeter, as shown. The graph shows how the resistance of the thermistor varies with temperature.

What is the temperature of the thermistor when the voltmeter reads 2 V? A 20 °C B 40 °C C 60 °C D 80 °C [Nov-2009] 19- A cathode-ray oscilloscope is connected to an a.c. generator. A wave is seen on the screen of the oscilloscope.

The speed of rotation of the generator is doubled. What is the effect on the wave? A B C D

number of peaks on the screen doubled doubled same same

amplitude of wave on the screen doubled same doubled same

[May-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics

PAPER-2 Theory 1- Fig. 7.1 shows a simple version of an electron-beam tube.

The filament is connected to a 6 V power supply and there is a potential difference of 2000 V between the filament and the anode. As the electron beam hits the fluorescent screen, a spot of light appears on the screen. (a) Explain why (i) electrons are emitted from the filament, ............................................................................................... ................................... ............................................................................................... ................................... (ii) electrons accelerate after they leave the filament, ...............................................................................................

................................... .................................................................................................................................. (iii) a vacuum is needed in the tube. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. (b) An alternating potential difference of very low frequency is applied across the deflecting plates in Fig. 7.1. The spot of light on the screen is seen to move. Describe and explain the movement of the spot. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ........................................................................................................................... .............. ........................................................................................................................... .......... [May-2004]

2- Fig. 7.1 shows an electrical circuit.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics (a) On Fig. 7.1, draw an arrow at A to show the direction of flow of the electrons in the wire. (b) What is the name of component X? ................................................................................................................................... (c) State and explain how the potential difference across X varies as the light shining on it becomes brighter. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. ............................... [May-2005]

3- Fig. 7.1 shows an electrical circuit and a cathode-ray oscilloscope (C.R.O.).

(a) On Fig. 7.1, draw the connections you would make to enable the C.R.O. to measure the potential difference (p.d.) across the resistor.

(b) Fig. 7.2 shows the trace on the screen before and after the connections are made. The Y-gain control is set at 2 V for each division on the screen. (i) State the value of the p.d. across the resistor. (ii) The Y-gain control is altered to 4 V for each division. On Fig. 7.2, draw the new trace seen on the screen.

p.d. = ..............................................................

[May-2006]

4- EITHER

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics The Y-plates of a cathode-ray oscilloscope (CRO) are connected to an alternating voltage of amplitude 4.0 V and frequency 25 Hz. The Y-gain of the CRO is set at 2.0 V / division and the time-base is set at 0.01 s / division. On the grid below, draw the trace on the screen of the CRO. Show your calculations beside the grid. [4]

OR Fig. 8.1 shows a transistor used in the circuit of a simple moisture detector.

(a) Describe what happens when the water level in the beaker reaches the metal contacts. .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .......................................................................................................................................... .................................................................................................................................... [3] (b) State one use for this simple moisture detector. .................................................................................................................................... [1] [Nov-2007]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-22 Electronics 5- Fig. 8.1 shows the part of a cathode-ray oscilloscope in which an electron beam is produced.

(a) State why the filament emits electrons. ..................................................................................................................................... [1] (b) State (i) how the electrons are made to move at high speed, .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [1] (ii) why a vacuum is needed inside the oscilloscope. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [1] (c) In each second, 8.0 × 1014 electrons pass through the hole in the anode. The charge on an electron is 1.6 × 10–19 C. Calculate the current in the electron beam. current = ............................... [2]

6-

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity PAPER-1 Multiple Choice

1- The diagram shows five atoms in a radioactive

substance. The atoms each give out an α-particle. Atom 1 is the first to give out a particle. Atom 3 is the second to give out a particle. Which atom will give out the next particle?

A - atom 2 C - atom 5

B - atom 4 D - impossible to tell

2-The half-life of a radioactive material is 24 years. The activity of a sample falls to a fraction of its initial value after 72 years. What is the fraction? A - 1/3 B - 1/4 C - 1/6 D - 1/8

[Nov-2006]

3-A detector is used to measure the count-rate near a radioactive source. The reading is

minute. After 30 minutes the count-rate has fallen to 500 counts per minute. What is the half-life of the radioactive source? You may ignore the effects of background radiation. [May-2006]

A - 3 minutes C - 6 minutes

B - 5 minutes D - 10 minutes

4-Which equation shows a nuclear fission reaction? D

[May-2005]

5-A radioactive source is placed 3 cm from a Geiger-Müller tube in air. The average

counts / minute.

4000 counts per

count rate is 742

Then, in three experiments, measurements are taken with sheets of different materials placed between the source and the tube. The results are recorded in the table.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity Which types of radiation does the source emit? A - alpha and beta only B - alpha and gamma only C - beta and gamma only D - alpha, beta and gamma

[May-2005]

6-A nucleus consists of 90 protons and 144 neutrons.

After emitting two beta-particles followed by an alpha-particle, this nucleus has: A - 86 protons and 140 neutrons. B- 86 protons and 142 neutrons. C - 90 protons and 140 neutrons. D - 90 protons and 142 neutrons. [Nov-2004]

7-When dealing with radioactive substances there are possible dangers.

Which statement is correct? A Beta-particles can pass through skin and damage body cells. B Gamma-radiation is more dangerous than alpha or beta because it has a longer half-life. C Materials that emit only alpha-particles must be kept in thick lead containers. D Radioactive materials are safe to handle after two half-lives. [Nov-2004]

8-Which particle is positively charged? A - alpha-particle

B - beta-particle

C – electron

D - neutron

9-Atoms P and Q are isotopes.

How does the composition of neutral atom P compare with neutral atom Q? number of number of number of protons neutrons electrons Adifferent different different Bdifferent same same Csame different same Dsame same different

10- Which conclusion can be drawn from the Geiger-Marsden alpha-particle scattering experiment? A A positive charge is spread throughout the atom. B Electrons are arranged in orbits. C Electrons are negatively charged. D There is a dense nucleus in the atom. [May-2006] 11- Which of the following occurs in the decay of a radioactive nucleus? [Nov-2002] A The nucleus absorbs another nucleus. B The nucleus absorbs at least one form of radiation. C The nucleus always splits into two equal fragments. D The nucleus emits at least one form of radiation. 12- The table shows the possible properties of radioactive emissions. Which emission could be a beta-particle? [Nov-2002] emission charged deflected in a level magnetic field of ionisation A no yes None B yes yes None C yes yes Weak D yes no Weak

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

13- A pupil investigates the penetrating power of radiation from a radioactive source. The table shows her results.

[Nov-2002] background count

25 counts per minute

count with source only

630 counts per minute

count with source and paper absorber

630 counts per minute

count with source and aluminium absorber 3 mm thick The source emmits ? A alpha and beta-particles. B beta-particles and gamma-rays. C beta-particles only. D gamma-rays only.

180 counts per minute

14- Which particle is positively charged? A alpha-particle B beta-particle C electron

[Nov-2002] D neutron

15- Atoms P and Q are isotopes. [Nov-2002] How does the composition of neutral atom P compare with neutral atom Q? number of protons number of neutrons number of electrons A different different different B different same same C same different same D same same different

16 - X, Y and Z are three types of radiation.

X is almost completely absorbed by 5 cm lead but not by 5 mm aluminium. Y is almost completely absorbed by 5 mm aluminium but not by thin card. Z is absorbed by thin card. What are X, Y and Z? [Nov-2003] X Y Z A alpha beta gamma B beta alpha gamma C gamma alpha beta D gamma beta alpha

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

17- The nucleus of a nitrogen atom can be represented as 147𝑁 . The nucleus of this atom consists of A 7 protons and 7 electrons. B 7 protons and 7 neutrons. C 14 protons and 7 electrons. D 14 protons and 7 neutrons.

[Nov-2003]

18- Three nuclei P, Q and R have proton numbers (atomic numbers) and nucleon numbers (mass numbers) as shown. proton number P 43 Q 43 R 44

nucleon number 93 94 94

Which nuclei are isotopes of the same element? A Pand Q only B Pand R only C Qand R only D P, Q and R

[Nov-2003]

19-Two types of emission from a radioactive source are separated by passing them through a

magnetic field. The deflections are shown in the diagram. What are the emissions P and Q? emission P emission Q A alpha-particles gamma-rays B beta-particles gamma-rays C gamma-rays alpha-particles D gamma-rays beta-particles

[May-2004]

20- A narrow beam of alpha-particles is fired at a thin piece of gold foil.Which is the final direction of the largest number of alpha-particles? A

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity 21- Ra decays with a half-life of 1600 s. Rn decays with a half-life of 52 s. Po decays with a half-life of 9.1 s. Pb decays with a half-life of 10.6 h. The changing count rate for one of these radioactive nuclides is shown in the graph.

From the half-life shown by the graph, which was the decaying radioactive nuclide? A Ra B Rn C Po D Pb [May-2004]

22- Deuterium 21𝐻 and tritium 31𝐻 are two isotopes of hydrogen.

Compared to a deuterium atom, how many protons and neutrons does a tritium atom have?

A B C D

protons more more same same

neutrons more same more same

[Nov-2004] 23- Between 1909 and 1911, Geiger and Marsden carried out experiments in which alpha particles were fired at metal foil. Most of the alpha particles passed through the foil with small deflections, but some were deflected through a large angle. These results suggest that A atoms contain clouds of electrons through which some alpha particles cannot pass. B atoms contain neutrons that alpha particles bounce off. C atoms have positive and negative charges spread throughout their volume. D atoms have positive charges concentrated in a small volume. [May-2005]

24- The diagram shows the apparatus used in an experiment in which barriers of various materials

are placed in turn between different radioactive sources and a detector.

The table shows the count rates recorded by the detector for four sources. Which source emits alpha-particles only? [Nov-2005] source A B

no barrier 200 200

count rate / counts per minute paper thin aluminium 200 200 30 30

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity C D

1200 1200

600 1200

200 30

30 30

25- A nucleus is represented by 230 91𝑍 . It emits one alpha-particle and then one beta-particle. What is the resulting nucleus X? A 226 88𝑋

B 226 89𝑋

A 94

B 148

C 226 90𝑋

D 230 89𝑋

[Nov-2005]

26- A nuclide of the element plutonium is 242 94𝑃𝑢 .What is the number of neutrons in its nucleus? C 242

D 336

[Nov-2005]

27- Which statement defines isotopes? A two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of protons but different numbers of electrons B two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of neutrons but different numbers of electrons C two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons D two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons 28- Which statement about fission or fusion is correct?

A During fission, hydrogen converts into helium and releases energy. B During fission, uranium converts into daughter products and releases energy. C During fusion, helium converts into hydrogen and releases energy. D During fusion, uranium converts into daughter products and releases energy.

[Nov-2005]

[May-2006]

29- A student investigates the emission from an unknown radioactive source. The source is 10 cm in front of a detector. A strong magnetic field between the source and the detector is then switched

on. The results are shown.

average count per minute without magnetic field 4500 with magnetic field 2000 background radiation 50 Which radioactive source produced these results? source emissions from source A alpha-particles and gamma-rays only B beta-particles only C beta-particles and gamma-rays only D gamma-rays only [May-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity 30- How much energy would be released if 1 × 10–20 kg of matter was entirely converted to energy? (The speed of light is 3 × 108m / s.)

A 3 × 10–12J

B 9 × 10–7J

C 4.5 × 10–4J

D 9 × 10–4J

31- A nucleus of sodium, Na, has 11 protons and 12 neutrons. Which symbol represents this nucleus? A 12 B 11 C 23 D 23 11𝑁𝑎 12𝑁𝑎 11𝑁𝑎 12𝑁𝑎

[Nov-2006]

[Nov-2006]

32- Which is the correct comparison of the penetrating power and ionising power of alpha-particles

and gamma radiation? A B C D

greater penetrating power alpha alpha gamma gamma

greater ionising power alpha gamma alpha gamma [Nov-2006]

33- The uranium nucleus to become protactinium.

238 92𝑈

emits an alpha-particle to become thorium, which then emits a betaparticle

What is the proton number (atomic number) of protactinium? A 95 B 91 C 90 D 89

[Nov-2006]

34-Which statement is true for all three types of radioactive emission (alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays)? A They are completely absorbed by a thin aluminium sheet. B They are deflected by electric fields. C They emit light. D They ionise gases. [May-2007]

35-The diagram shows one type of radiation passing between the poles of a strong magnet and being detected. Which type of radiation is being detected? A alpha-particles only B beta-particles only C gamma-rays only

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity D alpha-particles and beta-particles

[May-2007] / [May-2009]

36- A nuclide has the notation 48 23𝑋 .Which line in the table describes a different isotope of this nuclide? proton number (atomic number) A 23 B 24 C 48 D 50

nucleon number (mass number) 50 48 24 23

[May-2007]

37- The count-rate from a radioactive source falls from 400 to 50 in 3.0 minutes. What is the half-life? A 0.75 minutes

B 1.0 minutes

C 2.7 minutes

D 8.0 minutes [May-2009]

38-What are the numbers of neutrons, protons and electrons in a neutral atom of A B C D

number of neutrons 92 92 143 235

number of protons 143 235 92 92

number of electrons 143 235 92 92

39- Which process in the Sun produces energy? A burning

B nuclear fission B electron

?

[May-2009] C nuclear fusion

40- Which travels in a straight line across a magnetic field? A alpha-particle

235 92U

C gamma-ray

D proton

[May-2009] [May-2008]

41- In the treatment of brain cancer, a patient’s head is enclosed in a helmet containing a number of

radioactive sources. The radiation from each source is directed towards the cancer. Which nuclide is the most suitable for these sources? nuclide radiation half-life A caesium-137 gamma 30 years B sodium-24 beta 15 hours C strontium-90 beta 29 years D californium-246 alpha 36 hours [May-2008]

42-A nucleus of the element cobalt may be represented by the symbol

nucleus? number of protons A 27 B 27 C 59

number of neutrons 32 59 27

59 27Co.

What is the structure of this

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity D 59 [May-2008]

32

43- The activity of a radioactive source is measured over a period of time. The graph shows the

decay curve.

Why is the curve not smooth? A Background radiation has not been subtracted. C The half-life is not constant.

B Radioactive decay is a random process. D The temperature is changing.

[Nov-2009]

44- A radioactive isotope has a half-life of 6000 years. How much time passes before the rate of emission from a sample of this isotope falls to original value? A 6000 years B 18 000 years

1

16

of its C 24 000 years

45- A nuclide of strontium is represented by the symbol

A 38 electrons and 50 neutrons C 38 neutrons and 50 protons

D 96 000 years

[Nov-2009]

88 38𝑆𝑟

. What does the nucleus contain? B 38 neutrons and 38 protons D 38 protons and 50 neutrons [Nov-2009]

226 88𝑅𝑎

222 86𝑅𝑛

What particle is also produced?

A an alpha-particle B a beta-particle C both an alpha-particle and a beta-particle D no particle but only gamma-rays [May-2010]

47-Which row is correct for fission and for fusion? A B

fission of a nucleus produces larger nuclei produces larger nuclei

fusion is the energy source of a star is used to release energy in a power station

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity C D

produces smaller nuclei produces smaller nuclei

is the energy source of a star is used to release energy in a power station

[May-2010]

48- When a sample of a radioactive nuclide decays, the count rate falls from 1200 to 150 in three minutes. What is the half-life of the radioactive nuclide? A 0.75 minutes

B 1.0 minutes

C 3.0 minutes

D 9.0 minutes

[May-2010]

49- Proton number is another name for atomic number. Nucleon number is another name for mass number. What are isotopes? B C D

A nuclei with different proton numbers and different nucleon numbers nuclei with different proton numbers and the same nucleon number nuclei with the same proton number and different nucleon numbers nuclei with the same proton number and the same nucleon number [May-2010]

50- A student investigates a radioactive source that emits only alpha-particles. Without any source nearby, the detector shows a low reading. The source and thick cardboard are placed near the detector, as shown.

What is the reading on the detector now, and why? A B C D

detector reading low low zero zero

51-

15 7𝑁

reason background radiation is detected some alpha-particles pass through cardboard alpha-particles are all absorbed by the cardboard background radiation is all absorbed by the cardboard

[Nov-2010]

is a nuclide of nitrogen. How many electrons are there in a neutral atom of A7

B8

C 15

D 22

15 7𝑁

?

[Nov-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

52-The table shows details of two samples of radioactive nuclides X and Y. nuclide number of radioactive atoms at time = 0 half-life X 16 000 1 day Y 2 000 2 days After how many days will the number of atoms of nuclide X be equal to the number of atoms of nuclide Y? A 2 days

B 4 days

C 6 days

D 8 days

PAPER-2 Theory

1-(a) Explain how it is possible for an element to have different isotopes.

......................................................................................................................................... (b) State what is meant by the half-life of a radioactive isotope. ......................................................................................................................................... (c) Fig. 8.1 shows how the number of atoms of a radioactive isotope changes with time.

[Nov-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

Determine the half-life of the radioactive isotope. On Fig. 8.1, show how you obtained your result.

half-life = .................................. [May-2007]

2- Details of two radioactive sources used by a school are shown in Fig. 8.1. source A B

type of radiation emitted gamma ray beta particle Fig. 8.1

half-life of source 5 years 28 years

(a) On Fig. 8.2, the number of Co-60 atoms in source A and the number of Sr-90 atoms in source B at time t = 0 has been plotted as ×.

(i) Plot accurately the number of Co-60 atoms in source A at t = 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. Draw the best line through your points.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity (ii) Sketch how the number of Sr-90 atoms in source B changes from t = 0 to 20 years. (b) A detector is placed near source A. It records 4000 counts in one minute from the source when t = 0. A piece of lead, which absorbs 99% of gamma rays, is immediately placed between the source and the detector. Determine (i) the counts in one minute that the detector now records from the source, counts in one minute = ...................................... (ii) the time t when the detector would measure 10 counts in one minute from the source. time = .................

3- The pie chart in Fig. 8.1 shows the relative contributions made by different sources to background radiation.

(a) Which source makes the greatest contribution to the background radiation? .......................................................................................................................... ........... (b) State one effect of background radiation. .......................................................................................................................... ............... ..........................................................................................................................

............... (c) Where do cosmic rays come from? ......................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................................................

(d) The nucleon number (mass number) of 220 86𝑅𝑛 is 220.Define nucleon number. ......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... (e) 220 86𝑅𝑛 decays by the emission of an alpha-particle. State the proton number (atomic number) and the nucleon number (mass number) of the nucleus left after an alpha-particle is emitted from this nucleus. proton number …………………….. nucleon number ….…………………. [May-2004]

4- A doctor uses a radioactive isotope, iodine-131, to find the volume of blood in a patient’s body. Information about iodine-131 is given in Fig. 10.1.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

(a) (i) Describe the structure of an atom of iodine-131. (ii) The radioactive decay equation below shows an iodine-131 nucleus decaying into a xenon nucleus (Xe). Copy the equation and insert the proton number and the nucleon number of the xenon nucleus.

131 53𝐼

---- Xe + β

(b) Describe the differences between beta-particles and gamma-rays. (c) The doctor uses a sample of iodine-131 that initially produces a count rate of 144 000 per second. The whole sample is injected into the patient’s arm. Nine small samples of blood, each of volume 2.0 cm3, are taken from the other arm at 2 minute intervals. Fig. 10.2 shows the count rates from the nine samples.

(i) State two reasons why different count rates are obtained from the nine samples. (ii) Calculate the average value of the count rates from the last four samples. This is the average count rate from a volume of 2.0 cm3 of blood. (iii) Using your answer to (ii), determine the volume of blood in the patient’s body, which has a total count rate of 144 000 per second. (iv) Sample number 9 is kept. The count rate is measured again after 16 days. Estimate the value obtained, given that the half-life of iodine-131 is 8.0 days. (d) Describe one precaution that the doctor must take when handling this radioactive source. [Nov-2004]

5- (a) Some atoms that undergo radioactive decay have a half-life of 6 hours. The count rate near a

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity sample of these atoms is initially 838 counts/minute. Background radiation near the sample is 18 counts/minute. (i) Describe the structure of an atom. It may help to draw a diagram. (ii) Explain what is meant by radioactive decay. State clearly which part of the atom decays. (iii) State what is meant by background radiation. (iv) The equipment is left undisturbed for 12 hours. Calculate the count rate due to the sample of atoms alone after this time. (b) The table shows a radioactive series. Atom A emits a beta-particle and becomes atom B.Atom B then emits a particle to become atom C. atom

A B C

proton number (atomic number)

83 X 82

nucleon number (mass number)

214 214 210

beta-particle Y none

(i) Calculate the proton number X of atom B and explain how you calculated it. (ii) State the name of radiation Y and describe the changes that occur in the atom when this radiation is emitted. (iii) Using information from the table, explain why atoms A and C are not isotopes of the same element.

6- Fig. 8.1 is a half-scale diagram of a radioactive source stored in a safe way.

[May-2005]

(a) The source emits alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays. A teacher handles the box. Explain how the teacher is completely protected from the alpha- and betaparticles but only partially protected from the gamma-rays. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (b) Describe and explain how the teacher should remove the source from the box safely. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (c) The source is brought near a radiation detector. (i) Name a suitable detector. ............................................................................................................................ (ii) Describe how you would use the detector to show that the source emits particles at random. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. [Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity 7- A radioactive source undergoes radioactive decay. (a) Explain what is meant by radioactive decay. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................... (b) Gamma-rays from a radioactive source are used to treat some foods.The gamma-rays kill bacteria in the food so that it stays fresh.Some people are worried that food treated in this way becomes radioactive. A scientist tests three food samples. She measures the count-rate of the food before and after treatment with gamma-rays. The results are shown in the table below. The radioactive source is not present during any test. food sample A B C

count-rate before treatment / counts per minute 29 32 30

count-rate after treatment / counts per minute 32 28 31

(i) Explain why there is a measured count-rate before the food is treated. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................... (ii) Determine and explain whether the treated food becomes radioactive. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. [May-2006] 8- Stars that are being formed emit infra-red radiation. Some of this radiation is received by a telescope that

orbits the Earth. Microwave signals from the telescope are sent to the Earth’s surface, as shown in Fig. 11.1. (a) (i) Microwaves travel at a speed of 300 000 km/s. The telescope is 600 km above the Earth’s surface. Calculate the time for a microwave signal from the telescope to reach the Earth’s surface. (ii) Infra-red and microwave radiation are both part of the electromagnetic spectrum.State two other similarities and give one difference between infra-red and microwave radiation. (b) As clouds of gas and dust come together to form a star, there is an energy change similar to the energy change as a ball falls to the ground. The temperature in the clouds of dust and gas becomes so high that nuclear fusion occurs. In one such reaction, two isotopes of hydrogen, 21𝐻 and 31𝐻 , fuse together. (i) Explain why the gas and dust come together. (ii) State the energy change that causes the rise in temperature as the gas and dust come together. (iii) Explain why high temperatures are needed for nuclear fusion to occur. (iv) Describe the structure of a nucleus of 31𝐻 . (v) State which element is created by the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity (vi) State one effect of nuclear fusion on a star. [Nov-2006]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity PAPER-1 Multiple Choice

1- The diagram shows five atoms in a radioactive

substance. The atoms each give out an α-particle. Atom 1 is the first to give out a particle. Atom 3 is the second to give out a particle. Which atom will give out the next particle?

A - atom 2 C - atom 5

B - atom 4 D - impossible to tell

2-The half-life of a radioactive material is 24 years. The activity of a sample falls to a fraction of its initial value after 72 years. What is the fraction? A - 1/3 B - 1/4 C - 1/6 D - 1/8

[Nov-2006]

3-A detector is used to measure the count-rate near a radioactive source. The reading is

minute. After 30 minutes the count-rate has fallen to 500 counts per minute. What is the half-life of the radioactive source? You may ignore the effects of background radiation. [May-2006] A - 3 minutes C - 6 minutes

B - 5 minutes D - 10 minutes

4-Which equation shows a nuclear fission reaction? D

[May-2005]

5-A radioactive source is placed 3 cm from a Geiger-Müller tube in air. The average

counts / minute.

4000 counts per

count rate is 742

Then, in three experiments, measurements are taken with sheets of different materials placed between the source and the tube. The results are recorded in the table.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity Which types of radiation does the source emit? A - alpha and beta only B - alpha and gamma only C - beta and gamma only D - alpha, beta and gamma

[May-2005]

6-A nucleus consists of 90 protons and 144 neutrons.

After emitting two beta-particles followed by an alpha-particle, this nucleus has: A - 86 protons and 140 neutrons. B- 86 protons and 142 neutrons. C - 90 protons and 140 neutrons. D - 90 protons and 142 neutrons. [Nov-2004]

7-When dealing with radioactive substances there are possible dangers.

Which statement is correct? A Beta-particles can pass through skin and damage body cells. B Gamma-radiation is more dangerous than alpha or beta because it has a longer half-life. C Materials that emit only alpha-particles must be kept in thick lead containers. D Radioactive materials are safe to handle after two half-lives. [Nov-2004]

8-Which particle is positively charged? A - alpha-particle

B - beta-particle

C – electron

D - neutron

9-Atoms P and Q are isotopes.

How does the composition of neutral atom P compare with neutral atom Q? number of number of number of protons neutrons electrons Adifferent different different Bdifferent same same Csame different same Dsame same different

10- Which conclusion can be drawn from the Geiger-Marsden alpha-particle scattering experiment? A A positive charge is spread throughout the atom. B Electrons are arranged in orbits. C Electrons are negatively charged. D There is a dense nucleus in the atom. [May-2006] 11- Which of the following occurs in the decay of a radioactive nucleus? [Nov-2002] A The nucleus absorbs another nucleus. B The nucleus absorbs at least one form of radiation. C The nucleus always splits into two equal fragments. D The nucleus emits at least one form of radiation. 12- The table shows the possible properties of radioactive emissions. Which emission could be a beta-particle? [Nov-2002] emission charged deflected in a level magnetic field of ionisation A no yes none B yes yes none C yes yes weak D yes no weak

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

13- A pupil investigates the penetrating power of radiation from a radioactive source. The table shows her results. [Nov-2002] background count

25 counts per minute

count with source only

630 counts per minute

count with source and paper absorber

630 counts per minute

count with source and aluminium absorber 3 mm thick

180 counts per minute

A alpha and beta-particles. B beta-particles and gamma-rays. C beta-particles only. D gamma-rays only. 14- Which particle is positively charged? A alpha-particle B beta-particle C electron

[Nov-2002] D neutron

15- Atoms P and Q are isotopes. [Nov-2002] How does the composition of neutral atom P compare with neutral atom Q? number of protons number of neutrons number of electrons A different different different B different same same C same different same D same same different

16 - X, Y and Z are three types of radiation.

X is almost completely absorbed by 5 cm lead but not by 5 mm aluminium. Y is almost completely absorbed by 5 mm aluminium but not by thin card. Z is absorbed by thin card. What are X, Y and Z? [Nov-2003] X Y Z A alpha beta gamma B beta alpha gamma C gamma alpha beta D gamma beta alpha

17- The nucleus of a nitrogen atom can be represented as 147𝑁 . The nucleus of this atom consists of A 7 protons and 7 electrons. B 7 protons and 7 neutrons. C 14 protons and 7 electrons. D 14 protons and 7 neutrons.

[Nov-2003]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

18- Three nuclei P, Q and R have proton numbers (atomic numbers) and nucleon numbers (mass numbers) as shown. proton number P 43 Q 43 R 44

nucleon number 93 94 94

Which nuclei are isotopes of the same element? A Pand Q only B Pand R only C Qand R only D P, Q and R

[Nov-2003]

19-Two types of emission from a radioactive source are separated by passing them through a

magnetic field. The deflections are shown in the diagram. What are the emissions P and Q? emission P emission Q A alpha-particles gamma-rays B beta-particles gamma-rays C gamma-rays alpha-particles D gamma-rays beta-particles

[May-2004]

20- A narrow beam of alpha-particles is fired at a thin piece of gold foil.Which is the final direction of the largest number of alpha-particles? A

21- Ra decays with a half-life of 1600 s. Rn decays with a half-life of 52 s. Po decays with a half-life of 9.1 s. Pb decays with a half-life of 10.6 h. The changing count rate for one of these radioactive nuclides is shown in the graph.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

From the half-life shown by the graph, which was the decaying radioactive nuclide? A Ra B Rn C Po D Pb [May-2004]

22- Deuterium 21𝐻 and tritium 31𝐻 are two isotopes of hydrogen.

Compared to a deuterium atom, how many protons and neutrons does a tritium atom have?

A B C D

protons more more same same

neutrons more same more same

[Nov-2004] 23- Between 1909 and 1911, Geiger and Marsden carried out experiments in which alpha particles were fired at metal foil. Most of the alpha particles passed through the foil with small deflections, but some were deflected through a large angle. These results suggest that A atoms contain clouds of electrons through which some alpha particles cannot pass. B atoms contain neutrons that alpha particles bounce off. C atoms have positive and negative charges spread throughout their volume. D atoms have positive charges concentrated in a small volume. [May-2005]

24- The diagram shows the apparatus used in an experiment in which barriers of various materials are placed in turn between different radioactive sources and a detector.

The table shows the count rates recorded by the detector for four sources. Which source emits alpha-particles only? [Nov-2005] source A B C D

no barrier 200 200 1200 1200

count rate / counts per minute paper thin aluminium 200 200 30 30 600 200 1200 30

thick lead 30 30 30 30

25- A nucleus is represented by 230 91𝑍 . It emits one alpha-particle and then one beta-particle. What is the resulting nucleus X? A 226 88𝑋

B 226 89𝑋

C 226 90𝑋

D 230 89𝑋

[Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

26- A nuclide of the element plutonium is 242 94𝑃𝑢 .What is the number of neutrons in its nucleus? A 94

B 148

C 242

D 336

[Nov-2005]

27- Which statement defines isotopes? A two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of protons but different numbers of electrons B two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of neutrons but different numbers of electrons C two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of neutrons but different numbers of protons D two (or more) nuclides which have the same number of protons but different numbers of neutrons

[Nov-2005]

28- Which statement about fission or fusion is correct?

A During fission, hydrogen converts into helium and releases energy. B During fission, uranium converts into daughter products and releases energy. C During fusion, helium converts into hydrogen and releases energy. D During fusion, uranium converts into daughter products and releases energy.

[May-2006]

29- A student investigates the emission from an unknown radioactive source. The source is 10 cm in front of a detector. A strong magnetic field between the source and the detector is then switched

on. The results are shown.

average count per minute without magnetic field 4500 with magnetic field 2000 background radiation 50 Which radioactive source produced these results? source emissions from source A alpha-particles and gamma-rays only B beta-particles only C beta-particles and gamma-rays only D gamma-rays only [May-2006]

30- How much energy would be released if 1 × 10–20 kg of matter was entirely converted to energy? (The speed of light is 3 × 108m / s.)

A 3 × 10–12J

B 9 × 10–7J

C 4.5 × 10–4J

D 9 × 10–4J

[Nov-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity 31- A nucleus of sodium, Na, has 11 protons and 12 neutrons. Which symbol represents this nucleus? A 12 B 11 C 23 D 23 11𝑁𝑎 12𝑁𝑎 11𝑁𝑎 12𝑁𝑎

[Nov-2006]

32- Which is the correct comparison of the penetrating power and ionising power of alpha-particles

and gamma radiation? A B C D

greater penetrating power alpha alpha gamma gamma

greater ionising power alpha gamma alpha gamma [Nov-2006]

33- The uranium nucleus to become protactinium.

238 92𝑈

emits an alpha-particle to become thorium, which then emits a betaparticle

What is the proton number (atomic number) of protactinium? A 95 B 91 C 90 D 89

[Nov-2006]

34-Which statement is true for all three types of radioactive emission (alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays)? A They are completely absorbed by a thin aluminium sheet. B They are deflected by electric fields. C They emit light. D They ionise gases. [May-2007]

35-The diagram shows one type of radiation passing between the poles of a strong magnet and being detected. Which type of radiation is being detected? A alpha-particles only B beta-particles only C gamma-rays only D alpha-particles and beta-particles [May-2007] / [May-2009]

36- A nuclide has the notation 48 23𝑋 .Which line in the table describes a different isotope of this nuclide? proton number (atomic

nucleon number (mass number)

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity A B C D

number) 23 24 48 50

50 48 24 23

[May-2007]

37- The count-rate from a radioactive source falls from 400 to 50 in 3.0 minutes. What is the half-life? A 0.75 minutes

B 1.0 minutes

C 2.7 minutes

D 8.0 minutes [May-2009]

38-What are the numbers of neutrons, protons and electrons in a neutral atom of A B C D

number of neutrons 92 92 143 235

number of protons 143 235 92 92

number of electrons 143 235 92 92

39- Which process in the Sun produces energy? A burning

B nuclear fission B electron

?

[May-2009] C nuclear fusion

40- Which travels in a straight line across a magnetic field? A alpha-particle

235 92U

C gamma-ray

D proton

[May-2009] [May-2008]

41- In the treatment of brain cancer, a patient’s head is enclosed in a helmet containing a number of

radioactive sources. The radiation from each source is directed towards the cancer. Which nuclide is the most suitable for these sources? nuclide radiation half-life A caesium-137 gamma 30 years B sodium-24 beta 15 hours C strontium-90 beta 29 years D californium-246 alpha 36 hours [May-2008]

42-A nucleus of the element cobalt may be represented by the symbol

nucleus? number of protons A 27 B 27 C 59 D 59 [May-2008]

number of neutrons 32 59 27 32

59 27Co.

What is the structure of this

43- The activity of a radioactive source is measured over a period of time. The graph shows the

decay curve.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

Why is the curve not smooth? A Background radiation has not been subtracted. C The half-life is not constant.

B Radioactive decay is a random process. D The temperature is changing.

[Nov-2009]

44- A radioactive isotope has a half-life of 6000 years. How much time passes before the rate of emission from a sample of this isotope falls to original value? A 6000 years B 18 000 years

1

16

of its C 24 000 years

45- A nuclide of strontium is represented by the symbol

A 38 electrons and 50 neutrons C 38 neutrons and 50 protons

D 96 000 years

[Nov-2009]

88 38𝑆𝑟

. What does the nucleus contain? B 38 neutrons and 38 protons D 38 protons and 50 neutrons [Nov-2009]

226 88𝑅𝑎

222 86𝑅𝑛

What particle is also produced?

A an alpha-particle B a beta-particle C both an alpha-particle and a beta-particle D no particle but only gamma-rays [May-2010]

47-Which row is correct for fission and for fusion? A B C D

fission of a nucleus produces larger nuclei produces larger nuclei produces smaller nuclei produces smaller nuclei

fusion is the energy source of a star is used to release energy in a power station is the energy source of a star is used to release energy in a power station

[May-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity 48- When a sample of a radioactive nuclide decays, the count rate falls from 1200 to 150 in three minutes. What is the half-life of the radioactive nuclide? A 0.75 minutes

B 1.0 minutes

C 3.0 minutes

D 9.0 minutes

[May-2010]

49- Proton number is another name for atomic number. Nucleon number is another name for mass number. What are isotopes? B C D

A nuclei with different proton numbers and different nucleon numbers nuclei with different proton numbers and the same nucleon number nuclei with the same proton number and different nucleon numbers nuclei with the same proton number and the same nucleon number [May-2010]

50- A student investigates a radioactive source that emits only alpha-particles. Without any source nearby, the detector shows a low reading. The source and thick cardboard are placed near the detector, as shown.

What is the reading on the detector now, and why? A B C D

detector reading low low zero zero

51-

15 7𝑁

reason background radiation is detected some alpha-particles pass through cardboard alpha-particles are all absorbed by the cardboard background radiation is all absorbed by the cardboard

[Nov-2010]

is a nuclide of nitrogen. How many electrons are there in a neutral atom of A7

B8

C 15

D 22

15 7𝑁

?

[Nov-2010]

52-The table shows details of two samples of radioactive nuclides X and Y. nuclide number of radioactive atoms at time = 0 half-life X 16 000 1 day Y 2 000 2 days After how many days will the number of atoms of nuclide X be equal to the number of atoms of nuclide Y?

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity A 2 days

B 4 days

C 6 days

D 8 days

PAPER-2 Theory

1-(a) Explain how it is possible for an element to have different isotopes. ......................................................................................................................................... (b) State what is meant by the half-life of a radioactive isotope. ......................................................................................................................................... (c) Fig. 8.1 shows how the number of atoms of a radioactive isotope changes with time.

[Nov-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

Determine the half-life of the radioactive isotope. On Fig. 8.1, show how you obtained your result.

half-life = .................................. [May-2007]

2- Details of two radioactive sources used by a school are shown in Fig. 8.1. source A B

type of radiation emitted gamma ray beta particle Fig. 8.1

half-life of source 5 years 28 years

(a) On Fig. 8.2, the number of Co-60 atoms in source A and the number of Sr-90 atoms in source B at time t = 0 has been plotted as ×.

(i) Plot accurately the number of Co-60 atoms in source A at t = 5, 10, 15 and 20 years. Draw the best line through your points.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity (ii) Sketch how the number of Sr-90 atoms in source B changes from t = 0 to 20 years. (b) A detector is placed near source A. It records 4000 counts in one minute from the source when t = 0. A piece of lead, which absorbs 99% of gamma rays, is immediately placed between the source and the detector. Determine (i) the counts in one minute that the detector now records from the source, counts in one minute = ...................................... (ii) the time t when the detector would measure 10 counts in one minute from the source. time = .................

3- The pie chart in Fig. 8.1 shows the relative contributions made by different sources to background radiation.

(a) Which source makes the greatest contribution to the background radiation? .......................................................................................................................... ........... (b) State one effect of background radiation. .......................................................................................................................... ............... ..........................................................................................................................

............... (c) Where do cosmic rays come from? ......................................................................................................................................... .....................................................................................................................................

(d) The nucleon number (mass number) of 220 86𝑅𝑛 is 220.Define nucleon number. ......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... (e) 220 86𝑅𝑛 decays by the emission of an alpha-particle. State the proton number (atomic number) and the nucleon number (mass number) of the nucleus left after an alpha-particle is emitted from this nucleus. proton number …………………….. nucleon number ….…………………. [May-2004]

4- A doctor uses a radioactive isotope, iodine-131, to find the volume of blood in a patient’s body. Information about iodine-131 is given in Fig. 10.1.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity

(a) (i) Describe the structure of an atom of iodine-131. (ii) The radioactive decay equation below shows an iodine-131 nucleus decaying into a xenon nucleus (Xe). Copy the equation and insert the proton number and the nucleon number of the xenon nucleus.

131 53𝐼

---- Xe + β

(b) Describe the differences between beta-particles and gamma-rays. (c) The doctor uses a sample of iodine-131 that initially produces a count rate of 144 000 per second. The whole sample is injected into the patient’s arm. Nine small samples of blood, each of volume 2.0 cm3, are taken from the other arm at 2 minute intervals. Fig. 10.2 shows the count rates from the nine samples.

(i) State two reasons why different count rates are obtained from the nine samples. (ii) Calculate the average value of the count rates from the last four samples. This is the average count rate from a volume of 2.0 cm3 of blood. (iii) Using your answer to (ii), determine the volume of blood in the patient’s body, which has a total count rate of 144 000 per second. (iv) Sample number 9 is kept. The count rate is measured again after 16 days. Estimate the value obtained, given that the half-life of iodine-131 is 8.0 days. (d) Describe one precaution that the doctor must take when handling this radioactive source. [Nov-2004]

5- (a) Some atoms that undergo radioactive decay have a half-life of 6 hours. The count rate near a

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity sample of these atoms is initially 838 counts/minute. Background radiation near the sample is 18 counts/minute. (i) Describe the structure of an atom. It may help to draw a diagram. (ii) Explain what is meant by radioactive decay. State clearly which part of the atom decays. (iii) State what is meant by background radiation. (iv) The equipment is left undisturbed for 12 hours. Calculate the count rate due to the sample of atoms alone after this time. (b) The table shows a radioactive series. Atom A emits a beta-particle and becomes atom B.Atom B then emits a particle to become atom C. atom

A B C

proton number (atomic number)

83 X 82

nucleon number (mass number)

214 214 210

beta-particle Y none

(i) Calculate the proton number X of atom B and explain how you calculated it. (ii) State the name of radiation Y and describe the changes that occur in the atom when this radiation is emitted. (iii) Using information from the table, explain why atoms A and C are not isotopes of the same element.

6- Fig. 8.1 is a half-scale diagram of a radioactive source stored in a safe way.

[May-2005]

(a) The source emits alpha-particles, beta-particles and gamma-rays. A teacher handles the box. Explain how the teacher is completely protected from the alpha- and betaparticles but only partially protected from the gamma-rays. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (b) Describe and explain how the teacher should remove the source from the box safely. ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... ......................................................................................................................................... (c) The source is brought near a radiation detector. (i) Name a suitable detector. ............................................................................................................................ (ii) Describe how you would use the detector to show that the source emits particles at random. ................................................................................................................................. ................................................................................................................................. [Nov-2005]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity 7- A radioactive source undergoes radioactive decay. (a) Explain what is meant by radioactive decay. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................... (b) Gamma-rays from a radioactive source are used to treat some foods.The gamma-rays kill bacteria in the food so that it stays fresh.Some people are worried that food treated in this way becomes radioactive. A scientist tests three food samples. She measures the count-rate of the food before and after treatment with gamma-rays. The results are shown in the table below. The radioactive source is not present during any test. food sample A B C

count-rate before treatment / counts per minute 29 32 30

count-rate after treatment / counts per minute 32 28 31

(i) Explain why there is a measured count-rate before the food is treated. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .................................................................... (ii) Determine and explain whether the treated food becomes radioactive. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. .............................................................................................................................................................................................. [May-2006] 8- Stars that are being formed emit infra-red radiation. Some of this radiation is received by a telescope that

orbits the Earth. Microwave signals from the telescope are sent to the Earth’s surface, as shown in Fig. 11.1. (a) (i) Microwaves travel at a speed of 300 000 km/s. The telescope is 600 km above the Earth’s surface. Calculate the time for a microwave signal from the telescope to reach the Earth’s surface. (ii) Infra-red and microwave radiation are both part of the electromagnetic spectrum.State two other similarities and give one difference between infra-red and microwave radiation. (b) As clouds of gas and dust come together to form a star, there is an energy change similar to the energy change as a ball falls to the ground. The temperature in the clouds of dust and gas becomes so high that nuclear fusion occurs. In one such reaction, two isotopes of hydrogen, 21𝐻 and 31𝐻 , fuse together. (i) Explain why the gas and dust come together. (ii) State the energy change that causes the rise in temperature as the gas and dust come together. (iii) Explain why high temperatures are needed for nuclear fusion to occur. (iv) Describe the structure of a nucleus of 31𝐻 . (v) State which element is created by the fusion of two hydrogen nuclei.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-23 Radioactivity (vi) State one effect of nuclear fusion on a star. [Nov-2006]

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-24 Elasticity PAPER-1 Multiple Choice 1- An extension-load graph is plotted to show the result of increasing the load on a spring. Which point marks the limit of proportionality for this spring?

2- The table shows how the extension of a spring varies with load. load / N extension / cm

0 0

2 3

4 6

6 9

8 12

10 15

12 20

14 27

16 38

Between which two loads would you find the limit of proportionality? A 0 N and 2 N B 8 N and 10 N C 10 N and 12 N D 14 N and 16 N [May-2005]

3- A metal wire, initially 1.000 m long, extends by 4 mm when a load of 2 N is added to it.

What will the length of the wire be if a further 3 N is added, assuming it does not extend beyond its limit of proportionality? A 1.060 m B 1.080 m C 1.010 m D 1.012 m [May-2006]

4- Which part of the graph shows the limit of proportionality for an elastic solid?

AO

B OP

CP

D PQ [Nov-2006]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-24 Elasticity 5- A steel spring is stretched by a load. The load is increased. At first the extension is proportional to the load. The spring reaches its limit of proportionality at L.Which is the correct graph of the extension against load for the spring? D

[May-2007]

6- A spring balance is calibrated to give readings in newtons.

The graph shows how the length of the spring varies with the load. A load causes the spring of the balance to extend by 3 cm. What is the balance reading? A3N B 5 N C 10 N D 15 N [Nov-2007]

7- An extension-load graph for a wire is shown.

What is the load at the limit of proportionality for the wire? A 4N B 15N C 60N D 70N [May-2008]

8- The graph shows the extension of a piece of copper wire as the load on it is increased.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-24 Elasticity

What does the graph show? A At a certain load the wire becomes easier to extend. B At a certain load the wire becomes harder to extend. C The load and extension are directly proportional for any load. D The load and extension are inversely proportional for any load. [May-2009] 9- A spring extends by 4 cm when 10 N is suspended from it. Two of these springs are used as shown to carry a 30 N load.

A 4 cm B 6 cm

C 8 cm

D 12 cm [Nov-2004]

What is the extension of each spring?

10- A single spring is loaded with a 1 N weight. The load is then increased to 2 N and the extension increases by 1.0cm, as shown.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-24 Elasticity Two springs that are identical to the first one are put side by side. They are connected at both ends, and a 1N weight is hung on them. The load is then increased to 2N.

What is the new increase x in the extension? A 0.5cm

B 1.0cm

C 2.0cm

D 3.0cm

[Nov-2008]

11- A load L is suspended from two springs that are in parallel. The extension of each spring is x. The springs are then arranged to hang vertically, one below the other.

In this new arrangement, what is the total extension of the two springs? 1

A 2x

B x

C 2x

D 4x

[Nov-2009]

12- Which part of the graph shows the limit of proportionality for an elastic solid?

A O

B OP

C P

D PQ

[May-2010]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-24 Elasticity

PAPER-2 Theory

PAPER-4 Alternative to Practical

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-25 others 1- A capacitor C charges when it is connected to a d.c. power supply.

Which arrows show the direction of the conventional current when the capacitor is charging? A 1 and 3 B 1 and 4 C 2 and 3 D 2 and 4 [May-2004]

23- Hydroelectric, tidal and fossil fuels are three sources of energy. Which of these are renewable energy sources? Hydroelectric tidal fossil fuels A no yes yes B no no yes C yes no no D yes yes no [Nov-2004]

4- An object is placed in front of a diverging lens as shown on the scale diagram. The principal focus F is marked on each side of the lens. At which position will the image be formed? C [Nov-2004]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-25 others

5- The table shows part of the colour code for resistors.

Which resistor has a value of 4700 Ω? A

[May-2006]

6- A capacitor can be made to store energy by connecting it to a d.c. power supply.

Along which paths do electrons flow as the capacitor starts to charge? A from X to plate 1 only B from X to plate 1 and from plate 2 to Y C from Y to plate 2 and from plate 1 to X D from Y to plate 2 only

[Nov-2006]

7- An object is placed in front of a diverging lens as shown on the scale diagram. The principal focus F is marked on each side of the lens. What is the position of the image formed by the lens? B

[Nov-2009]

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-25 others

8- An object is viewed through a concave (diverging) lens. What is the correct description of the image formed?

[Nov-2010]

A real, inverted, magnified

B real, upright, diminished

C virtual, inverted, magnified

D virtual, upright, diminished

THEORY

1- A student uses a mobile phone. He is concerned that the energy of the radio waves may cause a

temperature rise in his brain. To investigate this effect, he calculates and tries to measure the heating effect of the phone on a nearby glass beaker of water.

The phone is used for 360 s when next to a glass beaker containing 50 g of water. (a) Calculate (i) the number of pulses of radio waves produced during the phone call, (ii) the total energy of the radio waves emitted during the phone call, (iii) the maximum temperature rise produced in 50 g of water if all of the energy calculated in (ii) is absorbed by the water. The specific heat capacity of water is 4.2 J/(g °C). (b) The manufacturer gives the input power of the phone as 0.20W. (i) Calculate the energy supplied by the battery when the phone is used for 360 s. (ii) Calculate the fraction of the energy supplied by the battery that is converted into radio wave energy during the phone call. (c) The student uses the mercury-in-glass thermometer shown in Fig. 10.1. He does not detect any temperature rise in the water in the beaker when the phone is used.

PHYSICS O - LEVEL PAST PAPER QUESTIONS TOPIC-25 others

(i) Describe how you would check the 0 °C and 100 °C points on the thermometer. (ii) Explain why the thermometer is not sensitive enough to detect the temperature rise. (iii) State and explain one change that will make a mercury-in-glass thermometer more sensitive.

[Nov-2005]

2- Fig. 1.1 is a block diagram of a power station.

The four boxes represent different parts of the power station. The first box is labelled boiler.

Each of the other three boxes should contain one of the labels from the following list. generator, motor, transformer, turbine, solar panel (a) On Fig. 1.1, label the boxes using words from the list. [2] (b) State one environmental problem caused by burning oil to produce electricity. .......................................................................................................................................... ..................................................................................................................................... [1] (c) Oil is a non-renewable energy source. (i) State why oil is described as a non-renewable energy source. .................................................................................................................................. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [1] (ii) State one renewable energy source. .................................................................................................................................. ............................................................................................................................. [1]

[May-2008]