Ntpc Summer Training Report
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SUMMER TRAINING REPORT 15th June to 30th July
Submitted By:Gaurav Srivastava 0713231040 ECE-1(7th sem)
ABOUT THE COMPANY CORPORATE VISION : “A world class integrated power major, powering India's growth with increasing global presence.”
CORE VALUES : B C O M I T
Business ethics Customer focus Organizational & professional pride Mutual respect & trust Innovation & speed Total quality for excellence
NTPC Limited is the largest thermal power generating company of India, public sector company. It was incorporated in the year 1975 to accelerate power development in the country as a wholly owned company of the Government of India. At present, Government of India holds 89.5% of the total equity shares of the company and the balance 10.5% is held by FIIs, Domestic Banks, Public and others. Within a span of 31 years, NTPC has emerged as a truly national power company, with power generating facilities in all the major regions of the country.
State-owned enterprise Public (BSE: 532555)
Headquarters Delhi, India
R S Sharma, Chairman & Managing Director
▲ 50,188.52 crore (US$ 10.89 billion)(2009-10)
▲ 8,837.65 crore (US$ 1.92 billion)(200910)
EVOLUTION OF NTPC
NTPC was set up in 1975 with 100% ownership by the Government of India. In the last 30 years, NTPC has grown into the largest power utility in India.
In 1997, Government of India granted NTPC status of “Navratna‟ being one of the nine jewels of India, enhancing the powers to the Board of Directors.
NTPC became a listed company with majority Government ownership of 89.5%. NTPC becomes third largest by Market Capitalisation of listed companies
The company rechristened as NTPC Limited in line with its changing business portfolio and transform itself from a thermal power utility to an integrated power utility.
NTPC is the largest power utility in India, accounting for about 20% of India‟s installed capacity.
Sites of NTPC NTPC Head Quarters Sr. No. 1 2 3 4 5 6
Head Quarter NCR HQ ER-I, HQ ER-II, HQ NER SR HQ WR HQ
City Delhi Patna Bhubaneswar Lucknow Hyderabad Mumbai
NTPC Project Sites: 1 Singrauli
Andhra Pradesh 2,600
Madhya Pradesh 3,260
8 NCTPP, Dadri
9 Talcher Kaniha
11 Talcher Thermal
Andhra Pradesh 1,000
16 Sipat-I(erection phase)
17 Bongaigaon(erection phase.) Assam Total
Need for communication Among different sites Enterprise Resource Planning (ERP) An ERP system can either reside on a centralized server or be distributed across modular hardware and software units that provide "services" and communicate on a local area network. The distributed design allows a business to assemble modules from different vendors without the need for the placement of multiple copies of complex and expensive computer systems in areas which will not use their full capacity Manufacturing Engineering, bills of material, work orders, scheduling, capacity, workflow management, quality control, cost management, manufacturing process, manufacturing projects, manufacturing flow Supply chain management Order to cash, inventory, order entry, purchasing, product configurator, supply chain planning, supplier scheduling, inspection of goods, claim processing, and commission calculation Financials General ledger, cash management, accounts payable, accounts receivable, fixed assets Project management Costing, billing, time and expense, performance units, activity management Human resources Human resources, payroll, training, time and attendance, rostering, benefits Customer relationship management Sales and marketing, commissions, service, customer contact, call-center support Data services Various "self-service" interfaces for customers, suppliers and/or employees Access control Management of user privileges for various processes
Types of networks used by NTPC NTPC uses 3 different types of networks for the purpose of communication among its various sites. These are listed below: MPLS Network ISDN Network VSAT Network MPLS Network MPLS Network is the Multiple Protocol Level Shift Network. It provides a network speed of 2 mbps to 34 mbps. It is the primary network which is used by the NTPC sites. ISDN Network ISDN is the Integrated Service Digital Network. This Network is provided by operators like BSNL or VSNL, in the form of a leased line which is a dedicated line. The speed provided is up to 2 mbps. VSAT Network VSAT or Very Small Aperture Network is a satellite based network. It is used as a backup network. The speed provided by VSAT is about 2 mbps.
INSAT-3E is the fourth satellite launched in the INSAT-3 series. It is an exclusive communication satellite to further augment the communication services that are being provided by the INSAT System. Weighing 2775 kg at lift-off, INSAT-3E carries 24 Normal C-band and 12 Extended C-band transponders.
2,775 Kg (Mass at Lift-off) 1218 Kg (Dry mass)
September 28, 2003
VSAT Network Definition: A Very Small Aperture Terminal (VSAT), is a two-way satellite ground station with a dish antenna that is smaller than 3 meters (most VSAT antennas range from 75 cm to 1.2 m). VSAT data rates typically range from narrowband up to 4 Mbit/s. VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations). VSATs access satellites in geosynchronous orbit to relay data from small remote earth stations (terminals) to other terminals (in mesh configurations) or master earth station "hubs" (in star configurations).
Technology: VSAT was originally intended for sporadic store-and-forward data communications but has evolved into real-time internet services. VSAT uses existing satellite broadcasting technology with higher powered components and antennas manufactured with higher precision than conventional satellite television systems. The satellite antenna at the customer's location includes, in addition to the receiver, a relatively high-powered transmitter that sends a signal back to the originating satellite. A very small portion of a transponder is used for each VSAT return path channel. Each VSAT terminal is assigned a frequency for the return path which it shares with other VSAT terminals using a shared transmission scheme such as time division multiple access. An innovative feature of VSAT is that the technology has evolved to the point that something that previously could only be done with large, highpowered transmitting satellite dishes can now be done with a much smaller and vastly lower-powered antenna at the customer's premises. In addition, several return-path channels can co-exist on a single satellite transponder, and each of these return-path channels is further subdivided using to serve multiple customers. Now days, nearly all VSAT systems are now based on IP, with a very broad spectrum of applications.
History: The first commercial VSATs were C band (6 GHz) receive-only systems by Equatorial Communications using spread spectrum technology. More than 30,000 60 cm antenna systems were sold in the early 1980s. Equatorial later developed a C band (4/6 GHz) 2 way system using 1 m x 0.5 m antennas and sold about 10,000 units in 1984-85. In 1985, Schlumberger Oilfield Research co-developed the world's first Ku band (12/14 GHz) VSATs with Hughes Aerospace to provide portable network connectivity for oil field drilling and exploration units. Ku Band VSATs make up the vast majority of sites in use today for data or telephony applications. A recent breakthrough in the VSAT technology has enabled us to use Ka band frequency which further reduces the size of Antenna to 3 meters.
Configuration: Most VSAT networks are configured in one of these topologies: A star topology, using a central uplink site, such as a network operations center (NOC), to transport data back and forth to each VSAT terminal via satellite. A mesh topology, where each VSAT terminal relays data via satellite to another terminal by acting as a hub, minimizing the need for a centralized uplink site. A combination of both star and mesh topologies. Some VSAT networks are configured by having several centralized uplink sites (and VSAT terminals stemming from it) connected in a multi-star topology with each star (and each terminal in each star) connected to each other in a mesh topology. Others configured in only a single star topology sometimes will have each terminal connected to each other as well, resulting in each terminal acting as a central hub. These configurations are utilized to minimize the overall cost of the network, and to alleviate the amount of data that has to be relayed through a central uplink site (or sites) of a star or multi-star network.
Advantage of VSAT Network: VSAT is a satellite based communication service that offers a flexible and reliable communication solution including Enterprise Wide Networking with high reliability and reach that extends even to remote sites.
A VSAT Network provides: Reliability in transmission of data (data, voice, video) Allocation of resources to different users (bandwidth, amplification power) Fixed Network solution. Provide point-to-multipoint (broadcast), multipoint-to-point (Data Collection), point-to-point communication and broadband multimedia services. Provide communication to remote and inaccessible areas.
Band Band C Band Ku Band Ka
VSAT Frequency Spectrum Allocation Frequency Area Foot- Delivered GHz print Power
3 to 7
10 to 18
18 to 31
However, NTPC uses C Band frequency range (4GHz to 6 GHz). NTPC has been assigned Transponder No. 3 in the recently launched satellite INSAT 3E with uplink frequency range of 5.925 GHz to 6.425 GHz and downlink frequency range of 3.7 GHz to 4.2 GHz. The central frequency range used by NTPC to uplink and downlink its signals are 6025000Hz and 3800000 Hz respectively. The frequency at which satellite confirms its position by sending a signal is called the Beacon Signal, and in case of INSAT 3E it is 4197.51 MHz which is measured with a spectrum analyzer connected to antenna through the LNA. A VSAT System can be broadly classified into two segments. Space Segment. Earth Segment.
Space Segment: This segment is primarily the satellite that is used for communication. The satellites used are exclusively in the Geo-Stationary orbit, Located on an arc 36,000 km above the equator. This segment is available from the organizations that have procured satellites, arranged launch and who operate these satellites on commercial basis. In addition to international agencies, a number of private players have emerged who own or lease satellites which are used to carry their own or their customers‟ data traffic.
Ground Segment: This is primarily called the Earth Terminal segment, The Earth terminal (or equipment at the customer‟s premises) can typically be divided into two parts 1. Outdoor unit 2. Indoor Unit The outdoor unit is generally, ground or even wall mounted and the indoor unit, which is the size of a desktop computer, is normally located near existing computer equipment in your office.
Satellite communication concept
Note: HPA – High Power Amplifier (Earth Station equipment that amplifies the transmit RF signal) CPE – Customer Premises Equipment (eg. Telephone, PABX, Ethernet hub, host server etc.) VSAT Specifications Antenna diameter: 11 m Traffic Capacity: 9.6 kbps – 2 mbps Diagram Frequency Bands: C-Band (4/6 GHz) Ku-Band (12/14 GHz) Ka-Band (20/30 GHz) Network: Point-to-Point
Configuration: Point-to-Multipoint Equipment List: Antenna; Outdoor Unit: HPA, LNA, SSPA(Solid State Power Amplifier) Indoor Unit : Chassis Note: Antenna size is used to describe the ability of antenna to amplify the signal strength; Outdoor unit (ODU) is connected through a low-loss coaxial cable to the indoor unit (IDU) called IFL (Inter-facility Link).
Typical VSAT System Outdoor Unit: The antenna system consists of a reflector, feed horn and a mount. The size of the antenna varies from 1.8 meters to 3-8 meters, 7.8 meters or 11 meters. The feed horn is mounted on the antenna frame at its focal point by support arms. The feed horn directs the transmitted power towards the antenna dish or collects the received power from it. Antenna size is used to describe the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal strength. Up converters and High Power Amplifiers (HPA) used for converting and amplifying the signal before transmitting to the feed horn. Extended C band, down converter receives the signal at 4.5 to 4.8 GHz and the up converter converts it to 6.725 to 7.025 GHz.
Antenna varies – antenna size is describe the ability of the antenna to amplify the signal strength feed-horns directs transmitted power to antenna dish or collects the received power from it.
Cassegrain Antenna System: 1. A Double reflector system 2. Works on the principle of cassegrain optical telescope. Employs a parabolic contour for the sub dish. 3. Permits a reduction in the axial dimension of the antenna. 4. Greater flexibility in the design of the feed system. 5. Used for monopulse radar, satellite communication and eliminates the need for long transmission lines.
Radio Frequency Terminal (RFT): RFT is mounted on the antenna frame and interconnected to the feed horn + Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) + down-converters. LNA – minimize signal noise. Noise temperature is a parameter used to describe the performance of LNA.
Indoor Unit (IDU): The IDU consists of modulators that superimpose the user traffic signal on a carrier signal. This is then sent to the RTF for up conversion, amplification and transmission. It also consists of demodulators which receive the signal from the RFT in the IF range and demodulates the same to segregate the user traffic signal from the carrier. IDU also interfaces with various end user equipments, ranging from standalone computers, LANs, routers, multiplexes, telephone instruments, EPABX as per the requirement. It performs the necessary protocol conversion on the input data from the customer end equipment prior to modulation and transmission to RFT.
Block Diagram of a VSAT System
Antenna Control Unit: This unit works to receive and transmitting signals from the satellite using antenna and tracks antenna when required. 1. Beacon Signal Receiver The satellite sends a self generated signal named beacon signal to the earth station so that the antenna can track the signal. This signal is 4197 MHz for NTPC. This receiver the 4197 MHz signal can convert it to 70 MHz signal for antenna tracking. 2. Antenna Tracker This checks the voltage level of the signal and when reduced automatically moves the dish antenna to track the maximum strength.
Tracking modes (For checking): a) Time mode – The antenna tracker checks for the voltage level after every 10 sec, 20 sec or whatever time is. b) Signal Mode – The antenna tracker tracks the antenna to obtain the maximum signal strength whenever there is a difference of 3dB. c) Time and Signal mode – It is the combination of both the above modes. The antenna tracks the signal whenever the signal strength decreases. Half Power Beam Width (HPBW) – It is a parameter to check the strength of the signal. The width of the beam when the there is a difference of 3 dB from the maximum point of the gain i.e. beam width at that point of half power. Given by HPBW = 70λ/DxD
where λ = Wavelength D = Diameter of antenna
V = Velocity of the wave
As the antenna size is decreased HPBW increases as D is inversely proportional to HPBW. Hence tracking in small antennas is not required but in case of antennas with big diameter, tracking is essential.
Antenna Control Unit
High Power Amplifier: These are also known as Vacuum Tubes (Valve) Amplifiers or Tube Amplifiers, while semiconductor amplifiers have largely displaced valve amplifiers for low power applications, valve amplifiers are much more cost effective in high power applications such as RADAR, countermeasures equipment, or communication equipment. etc. Now we‟ll compare two types of HPA which were used in our training
TWT High Power Amplifier
1. Used where power required is less, 1. Used for high power i.e. for less power rating around requirements, eg. 1kW, 3kW 100W, 400W, 750 W 2. No tuning required as the signal is 2. Needs tuning so that maximum wide band signal gain is achieved at a particular frequency. Narrow band signal. 3. Suitable for NTPC as power rating 3. Also used. NTPC CSES has got is low both types of High Power Amplifiers. Both run each at a time to avoid burnout. So to avoid heating up we use Klystron II & TWT HPA alternatively. 4.
Working of Travelling Wave Tube (TWT): This device is an elongated vacuum tube with an electron gun (a heated cathode that emits electrons) at one end. A solenoid coil wrapped around the tube creates magnetic field which focuses the electrons into the beam, which then passes down the middle of a wire helix that stretches the length of the tube, finally striking a collector at the other end. (In Lower power devices, the solenoid coil can be replaced by permanent magnets) A directional coupler, which can be either a waveguide or an electromagnetic coil, fed with low powered radio signal that is to be amplified, is positioned near the emitter, includes a current into the helix. The helix acts as a delay line, in which the RF signal travels at the same speed along the tube as the electron beam. The electromagnetic field due to the current in the helix interacts with the electron beam, causing bunching of the electrons (an effect called velocity modulation), and the electromagnetic field due to the beam current then induces more current back into the helix (i.e. the current builds up and thus is amplified as it passes down). A second directional coupler, positioned near the collector, receives an amplified version of the input signal from the far end of the helix. An attenuator prevents any reflected wave from travelling back to the cathode. The bandwidth of a broadband TWT can be as high as one octave, although tuned (narrowband) versions exist, and operating frequencies range from 300MHz to 50 GHz. The voltage gain of the tube can be of the order of 40 decibels. A TWT integrated with a regulated power supply and protection circuits is referred to as a Travelling Wave Tube Amplifier (TWTA).
Working of a Klystron II Tube: Klystrons are used as an oscillator or amplifier at microwave frequencies to produce both low power reference signals for super heterodyne radar receivers and to produce high power carrier waves for communications and the driving force for linear accelerators, It has the advantage (over the magnetron) of coherently amplifying the reference signal and so its output may be precisely controlled in amplitude, frequency and phase. Many Klystrons have a waveguide for coupling microwave energy into and out of the device, although it is quiet common for lower power and lower frequency klystrons to use coaxial couplings instead. In some cases a coupling probe is used to couple the microwave energy from a klystron into a separate external waveguide.
A klystron makes use of speed-controlled streams of electrons that pass through a resonating cavity. Electrons in a klystron are accelerated to a controlled speed by the application of several hundred volts. As the electrons leave the heated cathode of the tube, they are directed through a narrow gap into a resonating chamber, where they are acted upon by a RF signal. The electrons bunch together and are directed into one or more additional chambers that are tuned at or near the tube‟s operating frequency. Strong RF fields are induced in the chambers as the electron bunches give up energy. These fields are ultimately collected at the HPA alternatively. NTPC CSES has got both types of HPAs. Both are run each at a time to avoid burnout. So to avoid heating up we use Klystron II & TWT HPA alternatively.
Low Noise Amplifier: The Low Noise Amplifier (LNA) is a special type of electronic amplifier used in communication systems to amplify very weak signals captured by antenna. It is often located very close to antenna. Using a LNA, the noise of all the subsequent stages is reduced by the gain of the LNA and the noise of the LNA is injected directly into the received signal. Thus, it is necessary for a LNA to boost the desired signal power while adding as little noise and distortion as possible in the later stages in the system. LNA is rated with Noise Temperature Rating. Lower the noise temperature better the quality and more is the cost, Here at CSES NTPC we have LNA of 37 K rating. Other NTPC sites generally have LNA of 54 K rating. Make
: Paradise make
UP/Down converter: They are used to convert signals from low to high frequency or from a high to low frequency respectively. Up converter are used while transmitting, to increase the frequency, while down converter are used to decrease the frequency while reception. The center frequency of up converter is 6025 MHz and Down converter is 3800 MHz. In C band, up converter converts 70 MHz frequency to 5.9-6.4 GHz and just the opposite occurs in down converter while reception.
Block diagram of up converter
Modem is a combination of two words Modulation and Demodulation. This is a device which modulates the transmitting signal and demodulates the receiving signal. A communication device that converts one form of signal into another that is suitable for transmission over communication circuits, typically from digital to analog and then from analog to digital.
Modulation means superimposing the baseband signal on a carrier of high frequency so that it can be transmitted and demodulation is just vice versa of it i.e. it extracts the message signal from carrier wave at receiving end. Modulation techniques used: QPSK – Quadrature Phase Shift keying. QAM 16 Forward Error Correction (FEC) – this is a parameter determining the output of QPSK & BPSK. This is represented in fractions eg. ½, ¾, 7/8. etc.
Multiplexer is a device that allows multiple logical signals to be transmitted simultaneously across a single channel. Works in the following manner: Quantization + Pulse Code Modulation (PCM) + Compressor.
Quantization – Quantizing refers to use of a finite set of amplitude levels and a selection of level nearest to a particular sample value of the message signal as the representation for it.
Pulse Code Modulation – In PCM system, the message signal is sampled and the amplitude of each sample is rounded off to the nearest one of a finite set of allowable values, so both „time and amplitude‟ are quantized. Compressor – It reduces the output frequency (compresses) to optimum level.
Block Diagram of MUX & Modem networking
Router: A device or setup that finds the best route between any two networks, even if there are several networks to traverse, such a device is called router. Like bridges, remote sites can be connected using routers over dedicated or switched lines to create WANs. There are data ports in router known as DTE ports. It is a 25 pin data port. When two routers are connected i.e. same ports then there is a cross connection. But when different ports are connected like port of router with DCE port of MUX then there will be straight connection.
Exchange: A workplace that serves as a telecommunication facility where lines from telephone can be connected together to permit communication is called Exchange. The voice signal from modem + mux is sent to exchange so that it can distribute it to its telephone subscribers. In NTPC 184 trunk lines are possible. Parameters: Route Number – It specifies NTPC site which has to receive data. Trunk number Transmission network Lens number – Combination of Module, unit, group (chord) & circuit number.
Communication between two Sites via VSAT:
STAR – the hub station controls and monitors can communicates with a large number of dispersed VSATs. Generally, the Data Terminal Equipment and 3 hub antenna is in the range of 6-11 m in diameter. Since all VSATs communicate with the central hub station only, this network is more suitable for centralized data applications.
Mesh – a group of VSATs communicate directly with any other VSAT in the network without going through a central hub. A hub station in a mesh network performs only the monitoring and control functions. These networks are more suitable for telephony applications.
Hybrid Network – In practice usually using hybrid networks, where a part of the network operates on a star topology while some sites operate on mesh topology, thereby accruing benefits of both the topologies.
TDMA (Time Division Multiple Access): When numerous remote sites communicate with one central hub, this design is similar to packet switched networks. Because of competition with one another for access to the central hub, it restricts the maximum bandwidth in most cases to about 19.2 kbps. All VSATs share satellite sources on a time slot basis. Usually used in star topology as a transmission technique. Offered to domestic needs.
The VSAT Hub communicates with all dispersed VSATs (typically a 1.8 m diameter parabolic shaped dish) on an outgoing channel of up to 512 kbps based on the TDM scheme. The incoming or return channel from the dispersed VSATs uses the TDMA channel technology that enables a large number of respective VSATs to share this single return channel. The incoming routes typically operate at 128kbps, and can go up to a maximum bandwidth of 256 kbps.
Petrol stations, information providers, retail chains, financial institutions and many large corporation that requires transfer of low to medium rate data applications between its head office and, local and outstation branch offices. Example of Point of Sales (POS transactions), Credit Card Verification, Reservations Systems Financial and Banking Applications (tellers, loans, ATM) etc.
SCPC (Single Carrier Per Channel) SCPC-based design provides a point to point technology, making VSAT equivalent to conventional leased lines. Dedicated Bandwidth up to 2 Mbps Usually using an international VSAT service in Asia Pacific.
In the Hub-to-Remote configuration, one end of the VSAT link (normally the customer‟s HQ) is connected to the 11m VSAT Hub (Earth Station) via a terrestrial leased line. A VSAT antenna at the remote end or the distant end (normally the branch office) of the VSAT link is then interconnected to the VSAT hub via the satellite.
VSAT links with a Remote to Remote configuration bypass the VSAT Hub and has a stand-alone VSAT antenna at both ends of the link. Typical VSAT antenna size ranges from 1.8m to 2.4m.
FDMA (Frequency Division Multiple Access) Oldest method of channel allocation. The satellite channel bandwidth is broken into frequency bands for different earth station. The earth stations must be carefully power controlled to prevent the microwave power spilling into the bands for the other channels. Here, all VSATs share the satellite resource on the frequency domain only.
3 Types: PAMA (Pre Assigned Multiple Access) DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access)
PAMA (Pre-Assigned Multiple Access) The VSATs are pre-allocated a designated frequency. Equivalent of the terrestrial (Land Based) Leased line solutions.
PAMA solutions use the satellite resources constantly. Therefore, no callup delays in the interactive data applications or high traffic volumes. PAMA connects high data traffic sites within an organization
DAMA (Demand Assigned Multiple Access) The network uses a pool of satellite channels, which are available for use by any station in that network. On demand, a pair of available channels is assigned, so that a call can be established. Once the call is completed, the channels are returned to the pool for an assignment to another call. Since the satellite resource is used only in proportion to the active circuits and their holding times, this is ideally suited for voice traffic and data traffic in batch mode. DAMA offers point-to-point voice, fax, and data requirements and supports video-conferencing. Satellite connections are established and dropped only when traffic demands them.
CDMA (Code Division Multiple Access): Under this, a central network monitoring system allocates a unique code to each of the VSATs. Enabling multiple VSATs to transmit simultaneously and share a common frequency band. The data signal is combined with a high bit rate code signal which is independent of the data, Reception at the end of the link is accomplished by mixing the incoming composite data/code signal with a locally generated and correctly synchronized replica of the code. Since this network requires that the central network management system co-ordinates code management and clock synchronization of all remote VSATs, STAR topology is the best one. Mainly used for interference rejection or for security reasons in military systems.
VSAT Characteristics and Advantages: Reliability: Reliable satellite transmission of data, voice and video between an unlimited number of geographically dispersed sites or from these sites to headquarters.
Flexibility: The VSAT networks offer enormous expansion capabilities; On the other hand, VSATs offer unrestricted and unlimited reach. Additional VSATs can be rapidly installed to support the network expansion to any site, no matter however remote. Network Management: Network Monitoring and control of the entire VSAT network is much simpler than a network of leased lines, easily integrates end-to-end monitoring and configuration control of all network subsystems. A low mean-time to repair: Few hours, compared to leased lines which extend up to a few days. Essentially, lesser elements imply lower MTTR. Up time of up to 99.5 % is achievable on a VSAT network. This is significantly higher than the typical leased line uptime of approximately 80-85%. Cost: VSAT network offers significant savings over 2-3 years timeframe. The service charged depends on the bandwidth which is allocated to the network in the line with customer requirements. Link Budgets: RF equipment would cater to the requirements of the network topology and satellite modems in use. The link budget estimates the ground station and satellite EIRP (Effective Isotropic Radiated Power) required.
VSAT Services Interactive real time application: o Point of sale/retail/banking (eg. ATM) o Corporate data Telephony o Rural: individual subscriber o Corporate Telephony Intranet, Internet and IP infrastructure o Multimedia delivery (eg. Video streaming) o Interactive Distant Learning/ Training Direct-to-Home o Broadband internet access for consumers and businesses
Opportunities in VSAT Technology: Voice over IP (VoIP) via satellite Frame Relay via Satellite ATM via Satellite
Video-on-Demand via satellite Multimedia Application o Internet/e-mail connection o Telemedicine o Distance Learning
LAN/WAN: A computer network that spans a relatively small area is called LAN. Most LANs are confined to a single building or a group of buildings. However one LAN can be connected to other LANs over any distance via telephone lines and radio waves. A system of LANs connected in this way is called a Wide-AreaNetwork (WAN). Most LANs are connected workstations and personal computers. Each node (individual computer) in a LAN has its own CPU with which it executes programs, but it is also able to access data and devices anywhere on LAN. This means that many users can share expensive devices such as Laser Printers, as well as data. Users can also use the LAN to communicate with each other, by sending emails or engaging in chat sessions.
Leased Circuits: A leased circuit is a dedicated link provided between two fixed locations for the exclusive use of the customer. A Leased circuit may be speech may be speech circuit, a data circuit or telegraph circuit. Leased Line charges are uniform in all cases and are same as applicable to point to point leased circuit. In addition to above installation charges are also leviable.
Minimum hiring period for all regular leased circuit is one year.
Leased Line Circuit
E-mail: Shorter for electronic mail, the transmission of messages over communication networks is called e-mail. The message can be notes entered from the keyboard or the electronic files stored on the disk. Most mainframes, minicomputers, and computer network have an e-mail system. Some e-mail systems are confined to single computer systems or network, but others have gateways to other computer systems, enabling the users to send electronic mails anywhere in the world. Companies that are fully computerized make extensive use of e-mail because it is fast, flexible and reliable.
Proxy Server: A server that sits between a client application, such as web browser, and a real server is called Proxy Server. It intercepts all real requests to the real server to see if it can fulfill the requests itself. If not, it forwards the request to the real server.
Hubs: A common connection point for the devices in a network is called hub. Hubs are commonly used to connect the segment of LAN. A hub contains multiple ports. When a packet arrives at one port, it is copied to the other ports so that all segments of the LAN can see all the packets. A passive hub serves simply acts as a conduit for the data, enabling it to go from one device (or segment) to another. So called intelligent hubs include additional features that enables an administrator to monitor the traffic passing through the hub and to configure each port in the hub. Intelligent hubs are also called manageable hubs. A third type of hub, called a switching hub, actually reads the destination address of each packet and then forwards the packet to the correct port.
A Diagram showing Hub connecting nodes
Switches: In networks, a device that filters and forwards packets between LAN segments is known as switch. Switches operate at the data link layer (Layer 2) and sometimes the network layer (Layer 3) of the OSI Reference Model and therefore supports any packet protocol. LANs that use switches to join segments are called switched LANs or incase of Ethernet networks, Switched Ethernet LANs.
Routers: A device that forwards data packet along with networks is called Router. A router is connected to at least two networks, commonly two LANs or WANs or a LAN and its ISP‟s network. Routers are located at gateways, the places where two or more network connect. Routers use headers and forwarding tables to determine the best path for forwarding the packets, and they use protocols such as ICMP to communicate with each other and configure the best routes between any two hosts. Very little filtering of data is done through routers.
Mobile Communication: In a mobile communication system at least one of the transceivers is mobile. It may be on board a vehicle that can move at high speeds, or it may be a handheld unit by a pedestrian.
Wireless Network: In networking terminology, wireless is the term used to describe any computer network where there is no physical wired connection between sender and receiver, but rather the network is connected by radio waves and/or microwaves to maintain communications. Wireless networking utilizes specific equipments such as NICs, APs and routers in place of wires (copper or optical fiber) for connectivity.
Radio Paging Overview: On site Pagers provide a fast and flexible means of communication between fixed installations and mobile packet pagers. They can be used to transmit tones, text message and alarm conditions and, unlike public systems, no call charges are incurred once the system has been installed.
Applications of Radio Paging: Industrial Site Paging Alarm Monitoring Security Systems Warehousing Hotels and Restaurants Medical Facilities Environmental monitoring Retail Checkouts
Local Area Network (LAN): The Local Area Network (LAN) is by far most common type of data network. As the name suggests, a LAN serves a local area (typically the area of the floor of a building, but in some cases spanning a distance of several kilometers). Typically installations are in industrial plants, office buildings, college or university campuses, or similar locations. In these locations, it is feasible for the
owning Organization to install high quality, high-speed communication links interconnecting nodes. Typical data transmission speeds are one to 100 megabytes per second. A wide variety of LANs have been built and installed, but a few types have more recently become dominant. The most widely used LAN system is Ethernet system developed by Xerox Corp. Intermediate nodes (i.e. repeaters, bridges and switches) allow LANs to be connected together to form larger LANs. A LAN may also be connected to another LAN or WANs and MANs using a “router”. In summary, a LAN is a communication network which is: Local (i.e. one building or groups of buildings) Controlled by one administrative authority Assumes other users of LAN are trusted Usually high speed and is always shared LANs allow users to share resources on computer within an organization, and may be used to provide a (shared) access to remote organizations through a router connected to a Metropolitan Area Network (MAN) or a Wide Area Network (WAN).
The photograph shows some of the networking equipment at the center of the LAN used by the Communication Group in the Department of Engineering. Unshielded Twisted Pair cabling (UTP) enters the rack from the five such laboratories and is terminated on the patch panel (housed in the bottom box). Each outlet is connected via a colored patch lead to either 10 or 100 Mbps Ethernet Switch (blue, above the patch panels). Access to the remainder of the campus network is controlled via a TCP/IP Internet Router (blue, with cables connected at the rear). A second switch/router may be used to connect other equipment (white) forming separate experimental test LANs. The two smaller boxes on the top are Ethernet Hubs for connecting groups of workstations, similar hubs also provide connection for the fiber optic links to other parts of the work area.
Wireless Network Topologies Topology: The physical (real) or logical (virtual) arrangement of elements. In our case, this refers to the arrangement of nodes (i.e. computers, network printers, servers, etc.) in which the network is connected. There are five major topologies used today in wired networks: Bus, Star, Ring, Tree, and Mesh, but only two make sense in a wireless environment. These include the star and mesh topologies. The Star topology, which happens to be in widest use today, describes a network in which there is one central base station or Access Point (AP) for communication. The information packets transmitted by the originating node and are received by the central station and routed to the proper wireless destination node.
This station can be a bridge to a wired LAN giving access to other wired clients, the Internet, other network devices, and etc. From our review system, Complex‟s SoftBridge program provides a “software bridge” to wired clients and services without specialized hardware or AP. With this software, any computer that is connected to the wired network has a wireless Network Interface Card (NIC) can act as bridge.
The mesh topology is a slightly different type of network architecture than the star topology, except that there is no centralized base station. Each node that is in range of one another can communicate freely.
Advantages of Networking:
Sharing Resources #Software The ability to share both a software application and the files it creates amongst all of your computers is the primary reason for setting up a network. Not only will you see an increase in your employees‟ productivity, but an increase in the organization of their computer files as well. No longer will you have to copy files to floppies and carry them from another computer to yours for processing. Opening files on a computer across your office will be as simple if they were stored on their own machine.
#Printers Sometimes the printer connected to your machine doesn‟t have the capabilities of another printer of your office. ; i.e. color or laser quality. To print on another printer in a non networked situation, you have two options.
First, you can disconnect your printer and install the new printer on your computer. Second, you could copy the file to a floppy disc and load it into the computer with connected printer. In a networked situation it is easy to select the printer in the network.
#Internet Most of the employees in the office can increase their productivity with access to internet. Using a technology such as Roadrunner and a cable/DSL router combined with a network allows multiple computers to share the same account.
#Logging Every time something happens on your network, an entry to the server‟s log is added. Some examples include: 1. Logging in or out of workstation. 2. Opening or closing a file. 3. Creating or deleting a directory. 4. Copying a file or files. 5. Errors or problems on the server or network. 6. Files printed and by whom. 7. Virus Scan results. These log files can be then analyzed and to detect and solve the problems and weaknesses in your network.
#Security Windows NT uses a file system called NTFS, which has an ability to permit or deny the use of a file, folder, or drive based on the user‟s access level.
#Centralization A Server-based design which increases the organization of the network in many important ways, including:
#Dedicated File Server Throughout a business day, your employees produce many electronic documents. A server is built with enough storage space to save all of your company‟s important files at one location. The job of the server is to give or “serve” these files to whatever user, with the proper security requests them.
#Redundancy All Networks, Inc servers are built with mirrored storage for increased up time. If there is a network problem accessing a drive, the information that is needed will be accessed from the mirrored drive without any interruption to the user.
#Disaster Recovery The server provides a central location for saving files and thus a central location for backing them up. Daily or Weekly backup tapes of the entire server can be produced and placed in a fireproof save or take off-site as a precaution
for a natural disaster or theft. If a user accidentally deletes a file, the file can be replaced by using the copy on the latest backup.
#Virus Scanning Every computer should have a virus scanner installed. When dealing with more than one computer in an office environment, the task of stopping viruses and updating virus patterns can waste a lot of human and computer time. A virus scanner on the server can be setup to scan and repair all the files on the server regularly, and watch for new viruses on the network. When the user tries to open any new file, the server scans the file and can actually restrict access to an infected file and alert the administrator with a popup message.