A generating station which converts heat energy of coal combustion into electrical energy is known as a steam power station.
Steam is produced in the boiler by utilizing the heat of coal combustion. The steam is then expanded in the steam turbine and is condensed in a condenser to be fed into the boiler again. The steam turbine drives the alternator which converts mechanical energy of the turbine into electrical energy.
Generation of Electricity • Prime mover coupled to Alternator • Prime mover is driven by energy obtained from various sources
such as • burning of coal
CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION Working of plant is gradually moving from a regulated to a non-regulated
system with high competition. Power Plant’s efficiency is dependent on quality of its operations and maintenance
and C&I has a crutial role in it. C&I has very important role in stabilization of various subsystem of Power Plant
through – tuning and commissioning of various Loops – performance monitoring of various subsystems – optimal operation of the plant at the target performance level – Prevent Tripping and Forced shutdowns • Use of Latest C&I systems has resulted in increase in PLF and decreasing the manpower required per MW.
CONTROL AND INSTRUMENTATION LAB 1. MANOMETRY LAB 2. PYROMETRY LAB 3. AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEMS LAB 4. PROTECTION & INTERLOCKING LAB 5. FURNACE SAFEGAURD SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB
MANOMETRY LAB This lab deals with the instruments related to pressure measurement.
This Lab. Consists o • Sensor • Indicator
BOURDON TUBE • Bourdon tube is non liquid pressure measurement device. • Typical tube contains a curved tube that is open to external pressure input on one end is coupled to needle.
PYROMETRY LAB This lab deals with the instruments related to temperature measurement like
Resistance Temperature Detector (RTD)
RTD – Resistance Temperature Detector • Used as a primary sensing element
• operates on this principle of changes in electrical resistance • Temperature Range
: 183°C – 540°C
• Element Resistance at 0°C • Accuracy
: +/- 0.5
: 100 ohm
AUTOMATIC CONTROL SYSTEM LAB • Deals in automating the equipments and feeding routes. • Provides safe operation under all plant disturbances and component failures. • Requires 24 Volt DC, 4-20 mA to excite all the controls. • System installed in BTPS is “OLD RUSSIAN SYSTEMS”. • These are ACS (Automated Control System) which are slowly being replaced by DCS (Digital Controlled Systems).
PROTECTION & INTERLOCKING LAB Interlocking : It is basically inter-connecting two or more equipments so that if one fails other can perform the task. Main Equipments of this lab: Relays Fuses Circuit Breakers
Fuses • It is a sheet piece of metal. • It melts if a heavy current flows through it and breaks the circuit. • Usually silver is used as a fuse material.
Relays The main operation of a relay comes in places where
only a low-power signal can be used to control a circuit. It is also used in places where only one signal can be
used to control a lot of circuits. They are used to switch the signal coming from one
source to another destination.
FURNACE SAFEGUARD SUPERVISORY SYSTEM LAB • In this lab, fuel firing system is monitored in the furnace.
• Oil is sprayed first for firing of coal in furnace so Light Diesel Oil (LDO) is used for ignition. • The rate of oil flow is 6000 L/hr before firing.
OBJECTIVE OF C&I SYSTEMS • Safe operation of plant • Better visibility, close monitoring of Plant parameters and events for fault analysis
• Lower the cost of generation • Increase equipment life
• Minimize environmental effect • Maximize efficiency • Energy conservation