The primary purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between time management and academic performance of the nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao employing the descriptive- correlational method. A survey questionnaire is used in gathering data with mean, Pearson-r as the statistical tools. The results showed that the level of time management is high, whereas the level of academic performance was low. The result further showed that there is no significant relationship between time management and academic performance of the nursing students. The Dean of Nursing may continue to focus on developing the capability of nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao regarding their time management and academic performance. The clinical instructors may continue to guide the students in their academic performance and guide the students to use their time in studying. The student may continue to pursue how to improve their academic performance within their selves.
3 ACKNOWLEDGEMENT I would like to extent their heartfelt and sincere gratitude to the people who made this study possible. To Ms. Emmalyn D. Santiesteban, RN,MAN and to Ms. Christeline F. Balante, RN,MAN, their advisers for sharing their knowledge, valuable information and for guiding them in their research; To the panelists, Ms. Mildred Alidon, RN,MAN and Ms. Mary Ann Grace Dorado, RN,MAN for their comments and suggestions to improve this research; To their parents and family for their unconditional love, support and understanding; And above all, to the Almighty God who is the source of their strength, knowledge and wisdom. Researcher
I dedicate this study to my family. They serve as my inspiration Without them I couldn’t finish this study I am very thankful for having Them For their patience, love, and understanding And above all to our Almighty God, Who is the source of all my strength and wisdom.
5 Table of Contents
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Review of related Literature
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Significance Of the Study
Definition of Terms
Chapter 2 Research Design
Data Gathering Procedures
Statistical Treatment of Data
Chapter 3 Data Presentation and Analysis of Findings
6 Level of Time Management
Level of Academic Performance
Significant Relationship of Time Management and
Academic Performance of Nursing Students Chapter 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSION, AND RECOMMENDATIONS Summary
A. Letter of Permission to Conduct the Study
B. Survey Questionnaire
Chapter 1 The Problem and Its Setting
7 Background of the Study Time management, a major issue among university students, affects how they review and use the time available to them and how they adjust to their academic responsibilities (Bonhomme 2007). Sansgiry et,al (2006), defined time management for students as “cluster of behavioral skills that are important in the organization of study and course load”. This is a process That is constantly changing and must be kept under control by each individual (Hackworth,2007). Time management is often defined as a product of organizing skills, however, the same processes may not be applicable to everyone in the same way (Macan et,al 2010). Therefore, what works for one particular person might not work for another (Sarp et,al 2005). In addition, the time available to each individual for attending to a range of requirements varies according to the abilities and capability limitations of each person (Nandhakumar & Jones, 2001). Using time more effectively should enable nursing students to achieve a better balance between work and personal life ( Arnold &Pulich, 2004), be more successful in examinations (Prichard.,et al 2006) and prepare themselves for clinical environments (Heslop et al.,2001). In most cases time management is personal time management that needs to be divided effectively into the tasks to be done. It can also be referred to a list of time management skills that need to be mastered for it to be effective. Collins English Dictionary (2009) has referred to time management as the “analysis of how working hours are spent and the prioritization of tasks in order to maximize personal efficiency in the workplace”. Claessens, Eerde, Rutte and Roe (2007) describe time management as “behaviors that aim at achieving an effective use of time while performing certain goaldirected activities”. Later on in 2009 the same authors describe it as types of behavior that differentiate people who do things on time, stick to deadline and spend little time on
8 their activities from those who are often late, pass deadline, spend much time on their activities and waste time on unimportant matters (Claessens, Roe and Rutte 2009). There is currently no established standard regarding the exact number of hours needed
2010).Consequently, students believe that they do not have enough time to develop the extensive knowledge base required for nursing (Misra & McKean,2000). The concept of time has been widely discussed throughout history, and it has been expressed in different ways that time is of vital importance for all beings in the universe. Although, time is the same for everybody, actually, time cannot be borrowed or lent; time cannot be saved or changed and it can only be used. Having this along with similar other features, time is vital for individuals and organizations. In view of literature, it is clear that the concept of time has been defined as an abstract and important value in which events flow spontaneously, and which all beings in the universe own equally (McDougle 1997). Some authors have also likened it to human life, and argued that managing time is actually managing life. Besides, time is unmanageable in reality; however, individuals can manage activities in their lives (Dobbins and Pettman,1998). However, specific knowledge, skills and abilities are required to manage time in a conscious way. Additionally, effective time management provides an individual with the opportunity to devote more time to his/her family and relatives, and enjoy life (Karakose and Kocabas, 2009). Time management refers to the way that we organize and plan how long wespend on specific activities. It is the act or process of planning and exercising conscious control over the amount of time spent on specific activities, especially to increase effectiveness, efficiency or productivity. It is a challenge for us because if we don’t know how to manage time we will never be productive and successful. Having time management will help us make things faster and well organize.If the students make a good plan related to their own life and this planning will have a positive effect their academic success (Misra and McKean 2000).
9 In a study of Macan (1994), efficient use of time was discovered to positively influence students’ success in courses. However, time management requires a functional planning so that individuals become successful and productive in both private life and work life. In the study of Britton and Tesser (1991), conducted on university students, they demonstrated that education on time management positively affect academic achievement. In Davao City, people are very conscious of their time most especially the students, and employees because they do not want to become late. They arrive in school and offices as early as they can for example the class will start at 8am, students arrived 1 hour before because of traffic which is the biggest problem of some commuters in Davao. The purpose of the study is to help the students to determine their time management and as well as their academic performance. Some students have already a family that they are taking care of. Most of them are having a problem on how to manage time for example when a student went home and there are many tasks that needs to work first and so she has to set aside first her assignments and projects in school until she can’t work it because of being tired. The work of the nurse is critical because the patient’s lives is on the line and there is no room for error. Because of the importance of time among nursing students, I finally came up with the title which is “Time Management and Academic Performance of the Nursing Students”.
Statement of the Problem The purpose of the study was to determine the relationship between time management and academic performance of nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao. Specifically, it attempts to answer the following questions: 1. What is the level of time management of nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao?
10 2. What is the level of academic performance of nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao? 3. Is there a significant relationship between time management and academic performance of nursing student of St. John Paul II College of Davao? Null Hypothesis There is no significant relationship between time management and academic performance of nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao.
REVIEW OF RELATED LITERATURE In this concept, the review of related literature is divided into two: time management and academic performance. The sources of literature came from internet.
Time Management Time management can also be considered as the process by which an individual more effectively accomplishes tasks and goals, a process by which an individual obtains control over the timing and the content of what he/she does, and as what can be accomplished with time. In order to utilize time effectively, individuals must first be able to predict how much time is needed for the activity, (Kelly,2002). Maybe what people need to know first is what time is. Time is experienced and we actually measure it. As it is invisible and indefinable, we use metaphors to grasp some of its aspects. Time is money, many say so, it is a limited and valuable resource, but it is actually very precious and cannot be stored in the bank. Time is our lives as measured out in years, months, days, hours, minutes and seconds. Time has to be analyzed and used wisely in the workplace. To value time as the most precious commodity – to be spent both carefully and generously should be an essential element in life. This is because we don’t create time in our lives but instead we “create our lives in time,” (Mackenzie and Nickerson, 2009). Effective time management is less about saving time at any cost than about using the time you have efficiently.
11 Time management involves determining what one should do by setting goals, deciding which events are the most important and realizing that other activities will have to be scheduled around them (prioritizing), making decisions about how much time to allow for certain tasks (time estimation), adjusting to the unexpected (problem solving), reconsidering goals and priorities on a regular basis (evaluation), and observing patterns and trends in behavior. There is debate over exactly what skills and behaviors constitute effective time management. For example, Shipman (1983) identified six principles for effective time management. These principles included being aware of self, structuring time appropriately, setting goals and priorities, increasing personal efficiency and effectiveness, scheduling time for activity, and scheduling relaxation time, (Crutsinger,1994). Hoover (2007) views writing things down to have a surprising benefit beyond
merely helping remember important information. After writing down a list of what has to get done, one is more likely to experience a sudden “aha” moment about the best way to accomplish it and the order in which to get specific things done. That will help do more in less time. According to many time management experts, writing down lists of tasks is the key to effective time management. If one 37 has more on their plate than one think one can deal with, making a list is the single most important step one can take in the planning process. It is good to note that overloading time, can quickly wear someone out. Hoover goes on to say a written record allows one to see it all in front of them. Time-management experts know that almost nothing motivates most people more than crossing things off a to-do list. Time management behaviors have more recently been characterized as making lists, organizing, goal setting, keeping and routinely evaluating one’s schedule, and breaking down tasks into simpler parts. Empirical research investigating the effects of time management behavior has identified three broad clusters of behaviors. These behaviors include setting goals and priorities, engaging in the mechanics of time management, and having a preference for organization,(Kelly,2002).
12 Time management process involves self-recognition of the individual first, familiarity with his or her own personal traits, conducting analysis on the time-use problem and collecting relevant data, assessing alternative solutions, selecting and implementing one of these alternatives. Though effective and efficient use of time varies with respect to the task performed, the further increased the necessity of time planning. The road to success in social life passes through effective and efficient working which is only possible via time management (Iz and Ozen,2010). Time management comes down to choices. Good choices lead to better results, while poor choices lead to wasted time and energy. The good news is that time management skills can be learned and mastered by anyone. All it takes is practice and dedication. Like any other skill, you can teach time management the easy way or you can learn it the hard way (Le Banc,2008). Good time management has always been an important skill but it is arguably now more essential than ever. Factors such as widespread corporate restructuring, accelerating change information overload and the need to balance priority and working lives have put the squeeze on managers. Time management is about effectiveness and efficiency of what you doing and how you do it. (Mullins 2002). Time management is a set of principles ,practices, skills, tools, and systems working together to help you get more value out of your time with the aim of improving the quality of your life. The important point is that time management is not necessarily about getting lots of stuff done, because much more important than that is making sure that one is working on the right things (Sandberg, 2004). As stressed by Ward (2009), the focus of time management is actually changing behaviors, not changing time. A good place to start is by eliminating take personal phone calls while working. Strategies aimed at improving the effective use of time are often recommended as an aid to enhance the achievement of students found that time management significantly predicted academic success, (Pheri, 2008).
13 Britton and Tesser (1991), proposed 5 three facets of time management: shortrange planning, long-range planning, and time attitudes. Short-range planning is the ability to set out and organize tasks in the short run (e.g., within a day or a week). Longrange planning is the capacity to manage tasks over a longer time horizon (e.g., in a quarter or a year) by setting goals, keeping track of important dates and limiting procrastination. Positive time attitudes indicate that a person is oriented towards using their time constructively and maintaining agency over how their time is spent. Time management can also be considered as the process by which an individual more effectively accomplishes tasks and goals, a process by which an individual obtains control over the timing and the content of what he/she does, and as what can be accomplished with time. In order to utilize time effectively, individuals must first be able to predict how much time is needed for the activity, (Kelly,2002). However, Feeny Jonson (2002) stated that seven time management skills or behaviors can be considered essential to effective time management due to their repetitive prominence in the literature: (a) time analysis, (b) planning, (c) goal setting, (d) prioritizing, (e) scheduling, (f) organizing, and (g) establishing new and improved time habits. Although, time management documentation activities such as making lists, writing down goals, and utilizing calendars have been identified by many authors as necessary for effective time management, they tend to cross all seven skill areas. Furthermore, people who are good at managing their time have strong skills in several key areas (Hoover, 2007). They have a clear vision of their big-picture goals at work and in life—long term, yearly, monthly, weekly, and daily goals. They are skillful at breaking these goals down into smaller units, and they know how to translate these small units into action oriented to-do lists filled with tasks. Finally, they understand that achieving long and medium range goals means crossing off every task they can on their to-do list, every day. Academic Performance
14 Academic achievement or (academic) performance is the outcome of educationthe extent to which a student, a teacher or institution has achieved their educational goals. Academic success has a great influence on a student’s self-esteem, motivation, and perseverance in higher education. Poor academic performance or high failure rates may result in unacceptable levels of attrition, reduced graduate throughput and increased cost of education. This also reduces admission opportunities for tertiary students seeking higher degrees. Hence, students’ academic performance has always been a topic of interest for educators. Educators and researchers have long been interested in identifying and understanding the variables that contribute to academic excellence. Many researchers have identified demographic, socio-economic, family and school factors as variables contributing to students’ academic performance. Academic performance according to the Cambridge University Reporter is frequently defined in terms of examination performance. In this study academic performance was characterized by the overall performance in each year which culminates in a Grade Point Average (GPA). The GPA score would take into account students’ performance in tests, course work and examinations. Academic performance is the background and key of one’s student to a good future, it is very important for a student perform highly in class which results in satisfying records that is being evaluated by companies and hospitals. Academic performance in students is how well a student is doing in class. Sometimes it could mean how well they are doing and close they are coming to achieving their goals. Academic performance is what you have shown you can do in a certain subject. Ability is what you CAN do, given ideal circumstances. You can think of it as being internal and hidden until you show what you can do with your performance. Performance is external and what people see. For instance, someone that freaks out when they have to take a test may bomb it and have poor performance, even though they knew the material and had the ability to do the material on the test if they hadn't been so nervous. In educational institutions, success is measured by academic performance, or how well a student meets standards set out by local government and institution itself. As
15 career competition grows ever more fierce in the working world, the importance of students doing well in school has caught the attention of parents, legislators and government education departments alike. Although education is not the only road to success in the working world, much effort is made to identify, evaluate, track, and encourage the progress of students in schools. Parents care about their child’s academic performance because they believe good academic results will provide more career choices and job security. Schools, though invested in fostering good academic habits for the same reason, are also influenced by concerns about the school’s reputation and the possibility of monetary aid from government institutions, which can hinge on the overall academic performance of the school. State and federal departments of education are charged with improving schools and so devise methods of measuring success in order to create plans for improvement. Devi and Mayuri (2003) carried out a study of family and school factors that affect the academic achievement of residential school children studying ninth and tenth classes on a sample of 120 students of Hyderabad city. Data were collected through an interview schedule developed by the investigator to study the family factors. The result indicated significant gender difference in academic achievement and girls were found to be superior to boys in academic achievement. De Smedt et al. (2003) investigated pre-academic and early academic achievement in children with velocardiofacial syndrome of borderline or normal intelligence. In the sample 13 children from the primary schools in Flanders in Belgium was selected and tested on reading, spelling and mathematics. The results indicated no significant different in academic achievement of boys and girls. Tavani and Losh (2003) studied motivation, self-confidence and expectations as predictors of academic performance. On a sample of 4012 high school students of Florida the freshman survey instrument developed by cooperative institutional research program was employed to collect the data. The findings indicated that parental education was found to be significant predictors of educational achievement. Parental education had also positive relationship with achievement motivation of the students.
16 Deary et al. (2004) conducted a longitudinal study to examine the association between psychometric intelligence and educational achievement. The sample comprising of 70,000 school students of England participated in the study. Academic achievement was taken as the scores obtained by students in national public examination. The results showed gender difference in academic achievement. The findings indicated that the girls performed better than the boys. Sunitha (2005) studied academic learning environment of students from aided and unaided co-educational high schools. The sample of 240 students was selected from the schools of Dharwad city in India. Data were collected from administering home learning environment scale developed by the researcher and academic achievement was taken as average percentage marks of the previous year and two semesters of the current year of the students. The results revealed no significant different in academic achievement of boys and girls. Parental education was also found to have significant and positive relationship with academic achievements of the students. Bruni et al. (2006) explored the relationships among academic achievement, demographic and psychological factors. On the sample of 380 school students of Italy, school achievement index was used as an instrument to measure their academic achievement. The findings of the study indicated significant difference in academic achievement of male and female students. Female students were found to have higher academic achievement than males. Halawah (2006) examined the effect of motivation, family environment, and student characteristics on academic achievement. On the sample comprised of 388 high school students including 193 male and 195 female students of Abu Dhabi district in United Arab Emirates. Grade point average was taken as measure of academic achievement of the students. The results revealed no significant gender difference in academic achievement of the students. Preiss and Franova (2006) analyzed the relationship between depressive symptoms, academic achievement and intelligence. The data were collected from the sample of 635 school children consisting 304 boys and 331 girls by using Wechsler ‟s
17 intelligence scale for children and grade point average. The findings indicated that there was no gender difference in academic achievement of boys and girls. Waters et al. (2006) determined whether the academic performance of 575 medical students learning in rural settings differs from those learning in urban settings of Australia. Academic achievement included the results of the consecutive three years and five specialists eight week rotations conducted in either the rural clinical division for rural students or in Brisbane for urban students, all following the same curriculum and taking the same examinations. From the results no statistically significant differences were found between academic performance of rural and urban students. Navarrete et al. (2007) carried out a study on culture and achievement motivation in Latino and Anglo American high school students of USA on a sample of 149 students from the high school districts in California. Data were collected by administering culture value orientation and attribution-emotion scale to the sample and grade point average was taken as academic achievement measures of the students. Socio-economic status and education of the parents had been found to influence academic achievement of the students of both the cultures. Nuthana (2007) carried out a gender analysis of academic achievement of school students of Karnataka. The sample comprised of 600 students including 325 boys and 275 girls. Academic achievement was taken as the average grades of two previous years. The results of study showed that there was no significant difference in academic achievement of boys and girls. But the results indicated a significant difference in academic achievement of urban and rural students with urban students had higher academic achievement than rural counterparts. As a measure of academic performance, teacher given grades has well- known limitations. Grades are composite measures that account not only for student’s content mastery but often for other factors, such as their class participation, attitudes, progress over time and attendance. Both general and special educators are known to consider these various factors when grading, but to emphasize different factors. For example, special education teachers are less likely than general educators to consider homework
18 or attendance to be important in grading students performance, but are more likely to consider in-class participation to be important, (Guzman,2003). “The higher education performance is depending upon the academic performance of graduate students. Durden and Ellis quoted Staffolani and Bratti, (2002) observed that “the measurement of students previous educational outcomes are the most important indicators of students future achievement, this refers that as the higher previous appearance, better the student’s academic performance in future endeavors, (Minnesota,2007). Performance of the students is also influenced by the school in which they studied but he also said that number of facilities a school offers usually determine the quality of the school, which in turn affect the performance and accomplishment of its students. Schools influence educational process in content organization, teacher and teaching learning and in the end evaluation of the all. All these educationists and researchers agreed with this principle that schools put strong effect on academic performance and educational attainment of students, (Kwesiga,2002). Elliot (2009), also says that good academic performance is also linked having good organizational skills such as a tidy place to work and good time management. And these are all things that needs to be considered. But this will raise the academic performance session and then focuses and concentrates on having the right mind-set for raising academic performance so as to learn more effectively. When relaxing, the mind becomes more absorbent and able to learn. Confidence is also needed. A person can be smarter and have faith that one’s perceptions and ideas are as good as if not better than many other people. Drereir (2007),
emphasized that importance of taking down notes and
organization of the notes that was done. Taking down notes during class lessons can be useful upon studying or reviewing the past lesson in preparation to the examination. He pointed out that organized note taking is also necessary in order to avoid confusion and easy tracking for the previous lesson. The core of having a good study habits is to create a plan upon studying in order to make their review smoothly.
19 Theoretical and Conceptual Framework The study was anchored on the theory of Jeremy Wright entitled Pickle Jar Theory. This theory uses the analogy of an empty pickle jar to think about how people use the fixed amount of time available each day. If a person plans his schedule very well, important work can be done while still leaving time for the small things that make life fun. Take a big pickle jar which can hold largest pickles. Put as many large rocks as possible. When the jar is full, try to put two more rocks. Then put some small pebbles. Put as many as possible. Then fill the jar with handful of sands and add some water. This exercise attempts to understand that the large priorities in life represents like large rocks. Some things in life will be enjoyable like pebbles. People have some things like sand and some things in life will get in everywhere like water. Pickle jar theory something useful in scheduling time. This approach will help manage time and to have more of it. The person will feel relaxed and remain stress free since the schedule begins to flow better. Pickle jar theory overcomes the problems of all the other time management theories. By using this approach, there will be time to get important things done first and still have some time to lead the life happily.
Figure 1: The Conceptual Framework of the Study
20 The diagram illustrated on Figure 1 represents the conceptual framework of the study. The time management represents the independent variable and academic performance represents as the dependent variable.
Significance of the study This research would help the following groups of individuals: School Administrators. The school administrators can benefit in this study by determining the strength and weaknesses of the student in relation to time management and they may be able to come up with a better schedule that can benefit both the school and the students. Teachers. They can also benefit in this study because through this additional knowledge they can help the students to improve their grades by teaching them regarding time management. Nursing Students. This research will help the students to have awareness about time management. It will contribute additional knowledge regarding time management to make it more productive and effective in different tasks. It will also help them to improve their academic performance upon using this research as a guide. It promotes more chances to the students, most especially to those student mothers because it is really hard for them to go in school while taking care of their own family, sometimes they were late and make absences. But through this study, it will help them to manage their time between family and academic performance. Through this study, it will help them to realize that having a family to take care isn’t a hindrance to have a successful academic performance.
Definition of Terms The terms used in this study is defined based on operational definition.
21 Academic performance: This refers to the final grades obtained by the nursing students in their major nursing subjects. Nursing Students: This refers to the nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao who were enrolled in second semester of the academic year 2014-2015. The said students were the respondents and also the subject of the study. Time Management: This refers on how the nursing students spend, manage, and prioritize their activities. It also refers to how the students applied the seven time management skills or behaviors that can be considered to effective time management based on the study of Feeny Jonson(2002), this includes time analysis, planning, goal setting, prioritizing, scheduling, organizing, and establishing new and improved time habits.
22 CHAPTER 2 METHODOLOGY Presented in this chapter is the research design, research locale, respondents of the study, research instruments, data gathering procedure and statistical treatment.
Research Design In this study, the researcher used a descriptive- correlational method. With this, the aim was to determine the level of time management and the level of academic performance of the nursing students and also will determine the relationship between time management and academic performance.
Subjects of the Study The respondents of the study was the nursing students enrolled in second semester of the academic year 2014-2015. The researcher utilized the non-random purposive sampling technique for the selection of the subjects.
Research Instruments In this study, the researcher used a survey questionnaire to determine the time management of the students. The questionnaire is composed of 20 questions patterned after the study of Britton and Tesser. Shown in table 1 was the scaling for time management as the independent variable in which the respondents answered the survey questions as 5-Always,4Often,3-Sometimes,2-Rarely, and 1-Never. Shown in table 2 was the scaling of academic performance of the nursing students in which the final grades were ranked into very high, high, moderate, low, and very low.
23 Table 1: Scaling for Time Management RATING SCALE
Table 2: Scaling for Academic Performance
RANGE OF GRADES
EQUIVALENT Very Good
Below 75 DATA GATHERING PROCEDURE The researchers used the following data gathering procedures: 1.The researchers send a letter to the Director/ Vice President of Finance of St. John Paul II College of Davao asking permission to conduct a research study on time management and academic performance of the nursing students. In addition, a letter
24 signed by the Dean of College of Nursing was given to the clinical instructors requesting a permission to have access of the final grade of the respondents. 2.Upon approval, the survey questionnaires was then retrieving from the respondents. On the other hand, the grades of the nursing students enrolled in second semester was collected with the permission from the clinical instructors. 3.The results from the survey as well as the grades were tallied, tabulated, computed, interpreted and analyzed.
Statistical Treatment Mean. This was used to determine the level of academic performance and time management of the nursing students. Pearson –r. This was used to determine the relationship of time management and academic performance of the nursing students.
CHAPTER 3 DATA PRESENTATION AND ANALYSIS FINDINGS This chapter presents, analyzes and interprets the responses of the respondents concerning time management and academic performance of the nursing students.
25 Level of Time Management of the Nursing Students Shown in Table 3 is the level of time management of nursing students have ranges from 2.93 to 4.26 with an overall mean rating of 3.63 described as high. This means that the level of time management of nursing students is high. The data for time management of nursing student is classified from highest to lowest mean ratings. The item with the highest mean rating of 4.26 which interpret as high- 9.) I believe that there is room for improvement in the way I manage my time. Followed by item 11. With a mean rating of 4.23 , I feel I am in charge of my own time . Followed by item 7. With a mean rating of 4.06 ,I set and honor priorities. And for the lowest mean rating of 2.93 which interpret as average- I make a list of things I have to do each day. Followed by item 19 with a mean rating of3.1. I prepare a daily or weekly” to do “list followed by item 2. With a mean rating of 3.2, I make schedule activities I have to do on weekdays. The nursing students had been observed that if they only know how to manage their time their goals to achieve in their studies will never be impossible. Making lists, organizing, goal setting, keeping and routinely evaluating one’s schedule according to Kelly (2002), are behaviors that would help them in order to become successful in their academic performance and those will guide them on how to manage their time. The nursing students will be guided by those behaviors in prioritizing and setting their goals in life.
26 Table 3 Level of Time Management of the Nursing Students. Item
1. I make a list of things I have to do each day. 2. I make a schedule of activities I have to do on
tion Average Average
weekdays. 3. I plan my day before I start it. 4. I write a set of goals for myself for each day. 5. I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish
3.23 3.36 3.7
Average Average Average
3.3 4.06 3.46 4.26
Average High Average High
the way I manage my time. 10.I keep up-to-date on my reading and homework
assignments. 11.I feel I am in charge of my own time. 12.I periodically re-assess my activities in relation
13.I make constructive use of my time. 14.I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish
during the coming semester. 15.I have a set of goals of the entire quarter. 16.I usually keep desk clear of everything other
than what I am currently working. 17.When I have several things to do, I think it is the
best to do a little bit of work on each one. 18.I spend enough time on academic matters.
6. 7. 8. 9.
during the next week. I spend time to do my planning every day. I set and honor priorities. I continue profitable routines or activities. I believe that there is room for improvement in
to my goals.
19.I prepare a daily or weekly “to do list”. 20.I am able to meet deadlines without rushing at the last minute. Overall
Level of Academic Performance of the Nursing Students Shown in Table 4 is the level of academic performance of the nursing students. The final grades in major subjects of the respondents the first year to fourth year nursing students in second semester SY 2014-2015 were used for the academic performance.
27 The academic performance of the nursing students has ranges from 73-83 % with a mean rating of 75 described as poor. Table 4 : ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF NURSING STUDENTS Ranges of Grades
75-79 74 below Total
25 2 30
83.33 6.66 100
Low Very Low
Results Ranges of Grade=
Overall Mean = 75
The data also revealed that there were 10% of respondents whose grades are within the range of 80-83, described as good, 83.33 % of respondents whose grade are within 75-79, described as fair and there were 6.66% of respondents whose grade is below 74 with an overall mean of 75% described as low. According to Elliot (2009), good academic performance is also linked having good organizational skill such as tidy place to work and good time management. And these are all things that need to be considered. But this will raise the academic performance session and then focuses and concentrates on having the right mind- set for raising academic performance so as to learn more effectively. When relaxing, the mind becomes more absorbent and able to learn. Confidence is also needed. A person can be smarter and have faith that one’s perceptions and ideas are as good as if not better than many other people. Variables
Performance Table 5: correlation Between Variables
TABLE 5 : Relationship between Time Management and Academic Performance Table 5 displayed the relationship between time management and academic performance. The Pearson correlation coefficient has a value of 0.124 which indicates a negligible correlation. The probability level is 2.048, which is higher than the 0.05 level of significance which leads to the acceptance of the null hypothesis. This implies that there is no significant relationship between time management and academic performance. Based on the result, it appears that time management factors do not show evidence that could enhance the academic performance of the nursing students. Presented in Table 5 is the level of significant relationship between time management and academic performance of nursing students. The computed r-value is 0.124 which has a negligible correlation in degree of relationship. Shown also in the table is the computed t-value of
0.356 with a critical value of 2.048. The computed t-
value is smaller than critical value. Therefore the hypothesis is accepted. The degree of relationship
time management and
is no nursing
students. It has been observed that the time management of the nursing students was high it doesn’t mean that their academic performance was also high. Some of them had prioritized other things much more in their studies that is why they failed to have a good performance. Being a nursing student it is important how to manage time because in the future this profession, time management is encouraging because nurses is dealing lives wherein there is no rewind.
Chapter 4 SUMMARY, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATIONS This
recommendations of the study. SUMMARY
30 The study aimed to determine the level of time management and academic performance of nursing student. Specifically, the study was conducted to answer the following questions; 1. What is the level of time management of the nursing students? 2. What is the level of academic performance of the nursing students? 3. Is there a significant relationship between time management and academic performance of the nursing students? The null hypothesis was tested at 0.05 level of significant that there is no significant relationship between time management and academic performance of nursing students. Conclusions The findings of the study are summarized as follows: 1. The level of time management of nursing students with the mean scores ranging from 2.93 to 4.26 with an overall mean rating of 3.63 described as high. 2. The level of classroom performance of nursing students with the mean grade ranging from 73 to 83 has an overall mean of 75 described as Low. 3. There is no significant relationship between time management and academic performance of nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao. RECOMMENDATIONS Based
recommendations are formulated: 1. The Dean of Nursing may continue to focus on developing the capability of nursing students of St. John Paul II College of Davao regarding their time management and academic performance. 2. The clinical instructors may continue to guide the students in their academic performance and guide the students to use their time in studying. 3. The student may continue to pursue how to improve their academic performance within their selves.
REFERENCES A.Internet http://www.mindtools.com/pages/article/newHTE_00.htm http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/time%20management.pdf.pdf http://idl.isead.edu.es:8080/jspui/bitstream/123456789/1767/1/9789535103356.pdf http://work.chron.com/meaning-academic-performance-17332.html
32 http://www.fatih.edu.tr/~hugur/study_hard/Academic%20Performance%20of%20College %20Students.pdf http://pubs.sciepub.com/education/1/8/3/ http://shodhganga.inflibnet.ac.in/bitstream/10603/4498/7/07_chapter%202.pdf http://timemanagementtao.com/time-management-theory.html http://www.ripublication.com/ijepa/ijepav1n2_8.pdf
http://krepublishers.com/02-Journals/S-EM/EM-09-0-000-15-Web/S-EM-09-1-15-AbstPDF/S-EM-9-1-019-359-15-Karakose-T/S-EM-9-1-019-359-15-Karakose-T-Tx.pdf http://alistapart.com/article/pickle https://www.google.com.ph/? gferd=cr&ei=Gx2VKCWAYXW8gew3YHADg#g=what+is+academic+performance+2014 http://cepa.stanford.edu/sites/default/files/time%20management.pdf.pdf http://www.mcser.org/journal/index.php/mjss/article/viewFile/3544/3485 http://www.intechopen.com/books/time-management/what-do-we-know-about-timemanagement-a-review-of-the-literature-and-a-psychometric-critique-of-inst http:ph.yhs4.search.yahoo.com/yhs/search;ylt=A2oKmMj5zL1UHgQAExbfSQx.? p=time+management+and+academic+performance+britton+and+tesser+review+of+rela ted+literature+2010&type=wjsearchpageya3672&fr2=sbtopph.yhs4.search&hsimp=yhsmystartde fault&hspart=visicom&b=11&pstart=2 http://www.time- management-success.com/pickle-jar-theory.html www.researchgate.net/publication/221794272_Nursing_students'_time_management_r educing_stress_and_gaining_satisfaction_a_grounded_theory_study http://repositorio.ucm.ac.mz/bitstream/123456789/60/1/tese-de-doutoramentoAMMD.pdf
Appendix A Letter of Transmittal
Ms. April B. Evangelista, MBA School Director/Vice- President for Finance St. John Paul II College of Davao
34 Ecoland Drive Matina,Davao City
I am Senamel A. Balason, a 3 rd year BSN student of this institution is currently conducting a study entitled “Time Management and Academic Performance of the Nursing Student of St. John Paul II College of Davao”.
In connection to this, I would like to ask for your approval to allow me to conduct the said study and distribute a survey questionnaire to my respondents who are the nursing students. Thank you for your consideration.
Sincerely yours, Senamel A. Balason student
Ms. Emalyn D. Santiesteban, RN,MAN Dean of College of Nursing St. John Paul II College of Davao Ecoland Drive, Matina, Davao City
35 Dear Ma’am, I, Senamel A. Balason, a 3 rd year nursing student of this institution would like to ask a permission and approval from your office to allow me to conduct my survey in research study as a requirement for my Nursing Research 2 subject.
I am currently conducting my study entitled “ Time Management and Academic Performance of the Nursing Student of St. John Paul II College of Davao”. In connection to this, I would like to ask from your good office the data pertaining to the grades in major subjects of the nursing students as the respondents of my study.
Thank you for your kind consideration.
Respectfully yours, Senamel A. Balason student
SURVEY QUESTIONNAIRE Dear Respondents, The purpose of this survey is to determine the level of time management among the nursing students. Indicate your response by encircling the number to present your best answer using the following rating scale: 5- Always, 4- Often, 3- Sometimes, 2- Seldom, 1- Never. 1.I make a list of things I have to do each day. 2.I make a schedule of activities I have to do on weekdays.
3.I plan my day before I start it. 4.I write a set of goals for myself for each day. 5.I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish during the next
5 5 5
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
week. 6.I spend time to do my planning everyday. 7.I set and honor priorities.
36 8.I continue profitable routines or activities. 9.I believe that there is room for improvement in the way I
manage my time. 10.I keep up-to-date on my reading and homework assignments. 11.I feel I am in-charge of my own time. 12.I periodically re-assess my activities in relation to my goals. 13.I make constructive use of my time. 14.I have a clear idea of what I want to accomplish during the
5 5 5 5 5
4 4 4 4 4
3 3 3 3 3
2 2 2 2 2
1 1 1 1 1
coming semester. 15.I have a set of goals of the entire quarter. 16.I usually keep desk clear of everything other than what I am
currently working. 17.When I have several things to do, I think it is the best to do a
little bit of work on each one. 18.I spend enough time on academic matters. 19.I prepare a daily or weekly “to do” list. 20.I am able to meet deadlines without rushing at the last
5 5 5
4 4 4
3 3 3
2 2 2
1 1 1
minute. CURRICULUM VITAE
SENAMEL A. BALASON Deca Homes, Tigatto, Davao City Personal information Date of birth
Place of birth
Liangga,Surigao del Sur
Senen M. Balason
Amelia A. Balason
37 Educational Attainment
Mati Central Elementary School II (1998-1999)
Mati National Comprehensive High School (2003-2004)
St. John Paul II College of Davao (undergrad)
TIME MANAGEMENT AND ACADEMIC PERFORMANCE OF THE NURSING STUDENTS OF ST. JOHN PAUL II COLLEGE OF DAVAO
A Thesis Presented to the Faculty of the College of Nursing St. John Paul II College of Davao
In Partial Fulfillment of the Requirements for the Degree of Bachelor of Science in Nursing
By: Balason,Senamel A.
Table of Contents
Chapter 1 Background of the Study
Statement of the Problem
Review of related Literature
Theoretical and Conceptual Framework
Significance Of the Study
Definition of Terms
Chapter 2 Research Design
39 Data Gathering Procedures
Statistical Treatment of Data