September 4, 2017 | Author: Durasnita Abdullah | Category: Lung, Blood, Heart, Circulatory System, Stars
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QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 SCIENCE FORMULAE Form 1 Density = mass of substance (g) Volume of substance (cm3) =gcm-3

PROCESS EQUATIONS Form 1 1. Respiration Glucose + oxygen

Form 2 1. Work done(joule)= force(Newton) X distance (m) Work(joule) = Nm 2. Power (watt) = work done (joule) Time (second) = Js-1 3. First class lever F Second class lever L in the middle of tools Third class lever E 4. The principle of moments; Load(N) X distance = effort (N) X distance of the load (m) of the effort(m) Distance must be from FULCRUM 5. Moment of Force = Force(N) X Perpendicular Distance from the turning point(m)

Form 3 1. Ohm’s Law



4. 5. 6. 7.

R(resistance) = V (voltage) I (current) Series V= V1 + V2 + V3 I = I 1 = I2 = I3 R = R1 + R2 + R3 Parallel : V= V1 = V2 = V3 I = I1 + I2 + I3 1/R = 1/R1 + 1/ R2+ 1/R3 Transformers (step-up or step down ) Ns = Vs Np = Vp Electrical energy; ( 1 Kilowatt = 1000 watt) Power (watt) = energy(joule) Time (second) = Js-1 Power (watt) = voltage (V) X current (A) Current(A) = Power (W) Voltage(V) Electrical Energy (kWh) = power (kW) X time (h) 1 unit of electrical energy(Joule) = 1 kWh Cost of electrical energy = power( kW) X time(h) X cost per energy(RM)


energy + carbon dioxide + water

2. Combustion Carbon + Oxygen

carbon dioxide + Energy Hydrocarbon + Oxygen carbon dioxide + Energy + water Form 2 1. Photosynthesis sunlight Carbon dioxide glucose + + water chlorophyll oxygen 2. Neutralization Acid + Alkali Salt + Water (name of salt- alkali first than acid) Form 3 1. Reactions of minerals Metal carbonates Metal sulphides

Metal oxide + Carbon dioxide Metal oxide + Sulphur dioxide

2. Reactions of metals Metal + oxygen Metal oxide Metal + sulphur Metal sulphide 3. Silicon compounds Silica forms from--- silicon,oxygen Silicate forms from---- silicon,oxygen,metal 4. Calcium compound Calcium carbonate(limestone)  Calcium salt + water Carbonate + + Acid carbon dioxide  Calcium calcium oxide + Carbonate heat carbon dioxide Calcium oxide (quicklime)  Calcium oxide calcium + energy + water hydroxide Calcium hydroxide(slaked lime):  Calcium hydroxide calcium(limewater ) + more water hydroxide solution Page 1


Indicator Glowing splinter

NUTRITION Effect  Rekindle

MOUTH  Starch

maltose Salivary amylase


Burning splinter

Carbon dioxide

  

  

Burning splinter Limewater Hydrogen bicarbonate Litmus solution

Universal indicator

Sodium hydroxide solution Acidified pottasium manganate(VII) solution

Sulphur dioxide

Produce ‘pop’ sound and extinguish Extinguish Turns cloudy Turns red to yelllow Turns purple to red Turns green to orange/red Aborb carbon dioxide Purple to colourless

OESOPHAGUS  Peristalsis process STOMACH  Protein

polypeptides Protease

Hydrochloric acids - Stop amylase reaction - Provide acidic medium for reaction of enzyms - Kill bacteria in food

DUODENUM  Maltose




amino acid Protease

Fats--------- fats droplets



fatty acids + glyserol Lipase

Water vapour

 

Blue cobalt chloride paper Anhydrous cobalt chloride

Blue to pink

Absorb water vapour

LOWER PART OF SMALL INTESTINE  Maltose glucose Pancreatic amylase


amino acid



fatty acids + glyserol Lipase

 


fructose + glucose Sucrase


galactose + glucose Lactase



  

Blue litmus paper pH paper universal indicator

  

reaction with metal

  

Red litmus paper pH paper universal indicator

  


Turns red 0-6 pH Red, yellow. orange Release hydrogen gas Turns blue pH 7- 14 blue, purple,

SMALL INTESTINE  Absorption of food occurs

LARGE INTESTINE  Reabsorptin of water occurs Page 2

QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 Food test  glucose 

benedict solution


iodine solution


millon’s reagent


 

emulsion test filter paper

 

Brick-red precipitate Blue-black solution Red coagulation Milky emulsion Translucent spot


SCIENCE TIPS Form one 1. Plants cell - CwCV + CmCN Animal cell - CmCN 2. Unicellular organisms - plants; yeast, euglena,chlamydomonas, pleurococcus animals; amoeba,paramecium Multicellular organisms ; cell-tissue-organsystem (remember examples) 3. Sates of matter - SOLID ; LIQUID ; GAS 4. Matter - ELEMENT(metal & non metal) ; MIXTURE ; COMPOUND 5. Nitrogen;78% Oxygen;21% carbon dioxide;0.03% inert gases;0.9% water vapour;vary NIT78,OXY21,CO2 0.03 6. Forms of energy ; potential, kinetic, light,heat,sound,chemical,electrical,nuclear 7. Sources of energy: renewable (water,wind,biomass,geothermal,solar,wave , firewood) or non- renewable ( fossil fuel-petroleum, coal & natural gas, radioactive substance) 8. Heat : Substance with big masses have higher heat content than smaller masses although their temperature is the same 9. Expansion and contractions : Liquid, solid and gas 10. Heat transfers : conduction in solid ; convection in fluids ; radiation in vacuum Metals ; Silver-copper- gold- aluminiumiron-tin-glass. (C, A, I, G) 11. Heat in Natural Phenomena ; land breeze (moon) sea breeze(sun)seasunmoonland


12. Heat conductors and heat insulators – vacuum-air-cork-plastic-wood-glassasbestos-water 13. Application of convection; ventilation in building, refrigerator, electric kettle, 14. Effect of matter ; liquid to gas - boiling/evaporation (absorb heat) liquid to solid -freezing (release heat) solid to liquid - melting(absorb heat) gas to liquid - condensation(release heat) gas to solid - sublimation (absorb heat) solid to gas - sublimation (release heat) 15. Application of the principle of expansion and contraction of matter Thermometer; mercury expand when hot, contract when cool gaps in railway tracks; enable the end of a metal rail to expand freely on a hot day thermostat in iron & bimetallic strip in a fire alarm; use principle of different metal expand at different rate Aluminium>brass>copper>iron>invar ABCIrin rollers in iron and steel bridge; enable end of a bridge expand freely on a hot day gaps in concrete roads; telegraph wires; not installed tightly to enable it to expand and contract 16. Absorption and radiation of heat ; A dark dull surface is a good absorber and radiator of heat; white shiny surface is a good reflectors of heat. DD-radiates/absorb WS-reflect Page 3

QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 Form two 1. Skin ; touch ;heat ;cold; pain; pressure receptors eP,dHCT,fPress(e= epi) 2. Nose; nostrils; nasal cavity; sensory cells; mucus lining; smell receptors; nerve 3. Tounge; bitter; sour; salty; sweet --- taste bud contain taste receptors 4. Ear ; pinna; ear canal; eardrum; ossicles; oval window; choclea; auditory nerve Semicircular canal – keep us balance; Eustachian tube- equalizes air pressure on both side of eardrum 5. Eye; can be seen - cornea; pupil; iris Inside; 3 layers - sclera; choroid; retina (yellow spot) conjunctiva; cornea; aqueous humour; iris + pupil; lens+ciliary body+suspensory ligaments ; vitreous humour ; blind spot; optic nerve 6. Light & sight ; reflection= light bounces off the surfaces (angle of incidence = angle of reflection) refraction= the bending of light rays when it enters medium of different densities. (away from normal- less dense; near to normal - more dense) short-sightedness = see near object clearly( lens too thick/ eye ball too long.---correction use concave lens long-sightedness = see far object clearly(lens too thin/ eye ball too short----correction use convex lens astigmatism = caused by irregular surface of cornea – use cylindrical lens colour blindness = cannot distinguish red and green colour optical illusions = brain cannot interpret accurately what eyes see blind spot = no photoreceptors at this spot stereoscopic vision = (binocular vision) both eyes in front of head- can estimate distance accurately- 3 dimensional of object ---predators monocular vision = one eye at each side of the head- has a wide area of vision-able to detect predators from back--- preys Durasnita/2012

7. Sound & hearing; produced by vibrations; cannot travel through vacuum Hard and smooth surface= good reflectors of sound Soft and rough surface = good absorbers of sound Deafness = total hearing loss Stereophonic hearing = hearing with two ears 8. Stimuli & responses in plants; tropism- certain directions & nastic movements Phototropism – shoots +ve, root –ve Geotropism – shoots –ve, root +ve Hydrotropism – shoots –ve, root +ve Thigmotropism- response to touch or contacts- tendrils, twine their stem Nastic movements- not depends on direction; mimosa pudica; venus fly trap 9. Nutrition -; Carbohydrate- main source of energy Proteins- for growth and repair damaged cells - kwasyiokor Fats- source and storage of energy; act as soluble for vits A, D, E, K. Vit- B – beri-beri & Vit C- skurvi Vit A Night blindness; Vit D-rickets; Vit E- sterility; Vit K- prolonged bleeding calcium- rickets; sodium- muscular cramps; iron-anaemia; Iodine- goiter; phosphorus- rickets; potassium- paralysis Fibre- peristalsis ---- constipation Water- solvent; regulates body temperature. 10. Balanced diet; age; body size; sex; occupation; climate; state of health 11. Human digestive system; alimentary canal Mouth; oesophagus ; stomach; duodenum; small intestine; large intestine ;anus Mouth – saliva- amylase enzyme- starch to maltose-------------peristalsis Stomach – gastric juices; protease-proteins to polypeptides/peptones---HCL(for enzyme reaction/ kill bacteria) Duodenum- bile;- emulsifies fats; pancreatic juice;- amylase- starch to maltose; protease- proteins to polypeptides; lipase- fats and oil to fatty acids & glycerol Small intestine- maltase- maltose to glucose; Page 4

QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 protease-polypeptides to amino acids; lipase – fats to fatty acids & glycerol 12. Absorption ; small intestine- villi, diffusion of fatty acids & glycerol, vit A,D,E,K-lactael ; diffusion of Amino acids, vit B,C, glucoseblood capillaries Experiment: visking tube with content of Starch + amylase enzyme… semi-permeable- allow small molecule through 13.Absorption of water; large intestineprocess defecation ;problem-constipation. 14.Biodiversity = biological diversity 15. Animal; vertebrate( mammal ,reptiles amphibians ,bird , fish); invertebrate (based on support system) 16. Plants; flowering, (monocotyledon- one seed, fibrous root, soft stem, leaf parallel network vein dicotyledon- two seed, tap root, woody stem, leaf network vein);non – flowering (algae, mosses, fern, conifers,) 17. Interdependence ;species( one type)— population( same type live together) — community( combination of many population)—ecosystem ( living things + non living things in certain (habitat) 18. Interaction ; prey-predator ; symbiosis (commensalism; mutualism; parasitism) Competition 19. Examples; Commens- remora fish&sharks,bird’s nest fern& tree,clownfish & sea anemone Mutualism- Sea anemone& hermit crab, rhizobium & leguminious plants, Lichens (algae+fungi) Parasit- raflessia & a tree, tapeworm & human, wood mushroom & a tree, aphids & mustard plants , mistletoe & a tree. 20. Biological control;parasitism & prey-predator examples;(Owls and snakes eat rats, fire ants eat aphids on leaf, guppies eat mosquitoes 21. Food chain; producers, primary consumers, secondary consumers. Tertiary consumers & decomposers. Durasnita/2012

22. Food chain+ food chain = food web 23. Pyramid numbers; energy flow & Number of organisms- decrease bottom to top. size of organisms- increase from bottom to top. 24. Photosynthesis; need sunlight, chlorophyll, water, carbon dioxide, === oxygen&glucose 25. Test for starch ; a. immerse in boiling water- break the cell walls b. immerse in alcohol – decolorize the leaf/remove chlorophyll c. soaked in hot water – soften the leaf d. iodine test – blue black colour -starch is present 26. Experiments; MV, CV, RV- presence of starch : plant kept in dark for 2 days to remove starch in leaf. a. to show carbon dioxide is needed for photosynthesis – present of sodium hydroxide solution to absorb carbon dioxide b. to show water is needed for photosynthesis- present of anhydrous calcium chloride to absorb water vapour c. to show sunlight is needed for photosynthesis- part of leaf is covered with black paper d. to show chlorophyll is needed for photosynthesis- use variegated leaf 27. Cabon cycle & oxygen cycle Importance: maintain the balance of oxygen gas and carbon dioxide gas through process of photosynthesis which needed carbon dioxide and produce oxygen for respiration of living things, combustion, decomposition also rusting 28. Enviromental issue; green house effect- cause by increase in carbon dioxide ( deforestration)— effect: increase in earth temperature because heat is trap by a layer of carbon dioxide— ice melting at both pole, raising sea level, global climatic change. thinning of ozone layer- cause by using CFC product—effect: can cause skin cancer acid rain- cause by sulphur dioxide & nitrogen dioxide from factories—effect: corrodes Page 5

QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 building, make soil acidic and not suitable for crop, destruction of habitats, pollution. Haze- cause by open burning 29. Water ; boiling point 100 0C, freezing point 0 0C, content: hydrogen & oxygen, density 1 g/cm3, effect of impurities---increase boiling point, decrease freezing point. 30. Electrolysis of water; (p)anod(+) oxygen, cathode(-)hydrogen (ratio O:H= 1:2) 31. Evaporation; MV,CV,RV:rate of evaporation (use word higher/lower or increase/ decrease not faster/slower because the word RATE) factors= a. humidity- present of anhydrous calcium chloride to absorb water vapour b. temperature- absent/ present of heat c. surface area- folded/ unfolded d. air movement- absent/ present of wind 32. Comparison between evaporation and boiling 33. Solutions; solvent + solute = solution Dilute solution, concentrated solution, saturated solution, ---suspension— 34. Solubility is maximum amount of solute that can dissolve in 100g of solvent at certain temperature 35. Factors affecting solubility of a solute; a. Type/nature of solute- (salt/sugar…….) b. Type/nature of solvent- (water/alcohol…) c. Temperature of solvent 36. Factors affecting rate of dissolving (RV) MV,CV a. size of solute, b. stirring, c. temperature, d. volume of solvent 37. Organic solvents; Lipstick/ nail varnish- amyl acetate Chlorophyll- alcohol Paint/ grease-kerosene,petrol,turpentine Blood- salt solution Fruit stains-citric acid Ink-acetone Rust/grease/rubber- benzene Plastic-chloroform


38. Acids ; pH less 7, sour, corrosive, blue litmus paper to red litmus paper , Acid + carbonates salt+ water + carbon dioxide Acid + metal salt +water + hydrogen 39. Alkalis; pH more 7, bitter, corrosive, red litmus to blue, Alkali + ammonium salt + water + ammonia gas. 40. Neutralization; acid + alkali salt + water 41. Water purification; filtration. distillation, boiling, chlorination. 42. Water supply system; reservoir coagulation(alum & lime) sedimentation filtration chlorination (chlorine & fluoride) storage 43. Air pressure; the air in atmosphere presses on the surfaces of all objects 44. Factors; temperature of the air & volume of air Aplications; syringe, siphon, insecticide spray, suction pump, filter pump, dropper 45. Dynamics; push & pull; type of force ; Frictional, gravitational ,magnetic,electrostatic Frictional force has direction & magnitude Increasing & decreasing friction( wheels, ball bearings, oil, grease ,layer of air) 46. Support & movement; Animals & plants Invertebrates(exoskeleton & hydrostatic skeleton) Vertebrates ( land-endoskeleton, waterbuoyancy of water) Land plants ( woody stem- woody tissue special structures thorns, buttres roots, stilt roots) (non-woody stem—turgor pressure special structures tendrils(cucumber), clasping roots(wild orchid), props roots(maize), prickles(rose) thorns ( bougenvilla) stilt roots (mangrove) Aquatic plants ( buoyancy of water—air sacs in their leaf & stem) 47. Stability; centre of gravity, factors of stability ; base area & position of Centre of gravity 48. Simple machine: levers; First, second ,third (F,L,E)

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QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 Form three 1. Respiration; nasal cavity—trachea— bronchus—bronchiole—alveolus Intercostals muscle—ribs—diaphragm Inhalation- external Intercostals muscle contracts, diaphragm contracts/flat, volume thoracic cavity increase, air pressure lower than outside, air force in. VICE VERSA FOR EXHALATION 2. Diffusion of oxygen; thin wall(one cell thick) of alveolus; moist; rich in blood capillaries; large number of alveoli Oxygen dissolve in moisture---diffuses into blood capillaries—combine with haemoglobin form oxyhaemoglobin— oxygenated blood—to all body produce carbon dioxide + water vapour diffuse out of the blood to alveolus---exhaled out 3. Cell respiration; glucose + oxygen carbon dioxide + water vapour+ energy 4. Harmful substances; a. CIGARRETE SMOKE Nicotine- addiction Tar- carcinogens-lung cancer Hydrogen cyanide-toxic gas-damage lungs Nitrogen dioxide-corrode cell of alveoli and trachea b. SMOKE FROM FACTORIES sulphur dioxide/nitrogen oxide- corrode lung dust –suffocate passage (asbestos- cause lung cancer) c. FUMES FROM VEHICLES carbon monoxide-combine with haemoglobin hydrocarbons- carcinogenic lead- toxin combines with red blood cells 5. Respiratory disease a. Pheumonia-breathing difficulty, excess mucus b. Chronic bronchitis-fever, pain in chest, breathing difficulty c. Emphysema-coughs and tirednesslack of oxygen in body d. Asthma-narrowing of blood vessels leading to difficulty of breathing, wheezing/coughing Durasnita/2012

6. Transport systems in humans; heart – vena cava; aorta; pulmonary artery; pulmonary veins; right & left atrium; right & left ventricle; bicuspid, tricuspid & semilunar valve------function each part. 7. Blood vessels; artery; veins ; capillaries. 8. Pulmonary circulation ; carries blood between the heart & lungs 9. Systemic circulation;. Carris blood between the heart & other parts of the body 10. Human blood; a. Plasma- yellow pale colour for transportation of nutrients, excretory products and distributes heat b. red blood cell(erythrocytes)- transport oxygen c. white blood cell(leucocytes)- produce antibodies, fight infections d. Platelets( thrombocytes)-blood clotting 11. Oxygenated blood- bright red, under high pressure, from heart to all parts of bodies, in arteries except pulmonary artery 12. Deoxygenated blood- Dark red, under low pressure, from body to heart, in veins except pulmonary vein 13. Blood group : A, B, AB, O, universal donor O --- universal recipient AB transfusion-incompatible-agglutination 14. Transport systems in plants; xylem - water & mineral salt; phloem;-glucose (experiment) 15. Transpiration; plants wilts- process of loss of water vapour through stomata ; guard cell 16. Factors- rate of transpiration RV MV, CV a. temperature, b. light intensity, c. air humidity d. air movement 17. Human excretion; process of removing waste product- through skin,lungs and kidneys;18. Urinary system; kidney ( cortex, medulla, pelvis, artery, vein) ureter, urinary bladder, urethra; ---dialysis technique separating particles of different sizes in liquid mixture, blood is filtered through an artificial membrane in the dialysis machine; Page 7

QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 19. Excretion in plants; simple diffusion through stomata & cell wall; mineral salts are removed trough crystal formation; nitrogenous waste are removed when plants sheds their flowers, leaves and bark. -----latex- rubber gum-cough mixture resin- paint/ varnish oil- perfume/ medicated oil morphine- relieve pain cocaine- anesthetic quinine- threat malaria 20. Human Reproductive system ; male ;seminal vesicle, prostate gland, sperm duct, urethra, testis, scrotum, penis female;cervix, vagina, fallopian tube ,uterus, ovary(function) 21. Sperm & ovum; structures, function & characteristics 22. Menstrual cyce; menstruation(28 days) ovulation(on 14th day)menopause. Menstruation phase(day1-5) repair phase(day6-11)fertile phase(day12-16) premenstrual phase(day17-28) 23. Fertilisation & pregnancy; ovulation(ovary) fertilisation(fallopian tube)— implantation (uterus) Sperm + ovum zygote embryo foetus baby Uterus wall; placenta; umbilical cord; amnion; amniotic fluid (function) 24. Research in human reproduction; a. STERILITY -surgery- clear blockages in oviducts or spermducts (laparoscope) -artificial insemination-husband sterile- sperms donor injected into wife uterus -hormone treatment- chlomiphene to stimulate production of ovum -IVF,GIFT,ZIFT,IUI b. BIRTH CONTROL OR CONTRACEPTION; hormone pills-preventing ovulation; tubectomy-preventing fertilization Durasnita/2012

IUD-preventing implantation Diaphragm/condom-prevent sperm enter vagina Spermicide-kill sperm Rhythm method-prevent fertilisation 25. Plants reproductive system; flower; stamen(anther& filament) pistil (stigma,style,ovary), ovul,petal,sepal----(function)---pollen grain 26. Pollination; self pollination & cross pollination ---(comparison) agents;winds; insects; animals; water (comparison-wind-pollinated flower &insectpollinated flower) advantages cross pollination; tenera sp Papaya. Eksotika Malaysia, corn masmadu 27. Development of fruit & seed; fertilization; pollen grain, style, stigma, pollen tube, ovary, ovule, male gametes, female gamete, micropyle. 28. Germination of seeds; embryo(plumule + radical) seed coat(cotyledon, testa, hilum,micropyle—endosperm for monocotyledon) ----(function) air, water, suitable temperature for germinating of seed. 29. Vegetative reproduction; roots; sweet potato, carrot; underground stems; potato, ginger horizontally stem; water lettuce, strawberry runner modified stems onion, hyacinth bulb. leaves; bryopyllum, begonia 30. Application of research on vegetative reproduction ; stem cuttings; tissue culture 31. Growth ; growth curve of human-most rapid growth-infants;- old age negative growth. growth curve of boys & girls; comparison. Girls reach puberty first than boy.. adolescence overcome boys at 12-14 yrs old 32. Lands & its resources; haematite (iron,oxygen)-haemaIRO cassiterite (Tin,oxygen) – CassiTiO Calcite (calcium, carbon, oxygen)-CalCarO malachite (copper,carbon,oxygen) MalCoCarO Iron pyrite (iron,sulphur) IroSul, Galena (lead, sulphur)GaLeSul Properties: do not dissolve in water. Hard. Metal oxide- do not decompose when Page 8

QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 heated, metal sulphide decompose to metal oxide + sulphur dioxide, metal carbonate decompose to metal oxide + carbon dioxide 33. Reaction between metal & oxygen& sulphur metal + oxygen metal oxide metal + sulphur metal sulphide Pottasium permanganate /manganate(IIV)to release oxygen Rate of reactions MAZIC (magnesium, aluminium,zinc,iron,copper) 34. Silicon compounds; silica—silicon + oxygen silicate---silicon+oxygen+metal Examples; silica---sand,quartz,jasper,opal silicon---asbestos, jade, clay, mica 35. Calcium compounds; properties;- insoluble in water, reacts with acids release co2, heated release co2. Calcium carbonate (limestone) calcium oxide (quicklime)+ water calcium hydroxide(slaked lime) Calcium hydroxide solution(limewater) LS—QL—SL—LW 36. Natural fuel resources; fossil fuels(petroleum, natural gas & coal)— provide energy. Petroleum & natural gas— from remains of organisms. Coal—from trees, ferns and moss that grew in swamps. Crude petroleum-mixture of many types of hydrocarbons-separated into components- fractional distillation. Petroleum gas for cooking gas, petrol for vehicles, naphtha for plastic, kerosene for aircraft, diesel oil for lorries, lubricating oil for lubricant, fuel oil for ships and bitumen for roads. Remember from top to bottom PETROGAS-PETNA-KERODIELUBRIFUE-BITUMEN 37. Electrostatics; static electrical charges. Atoms ( protons--+ve, electrons---ve , neutron-neutral) When two materials rub together, electrons will transfer. Gain electrons—negatively charged, loses electrons—positively charged. 38. Phenomena related to electrostatics; lightning conductor,metal chain of a tanker, Durasnita/2012

tyres of aeroplane,spark plug 39. Current; the rate of flow of charges ( only electrons move) from +ve to –ve terminal cell . Electron move from –ve to +ve terminal cell. Amphere(A) 40. Voltage; the force needed to move electrical charges. Volt(V) 41. Resistance; electrical conductors (resistor) that have the resisting of the flow of electrical current. Good conductor—lower resistance, poor conductor—higher resistance.Ohm (Ώ) 42. Series & parallel circuit; (refer formula) 43. Magnetism; produced magnetic fields line. Magnetic force strongest at its poles. Compass always pointing North. Magnetic fields line run from North to South pole. 44. Electromagnetism; its magnetism is produced by the flow of electic current. Right hand grip rule. 45. Generators; thermal, hydroelectric,nuclear & gas turbine generators. 46. Transformer ; step-up & step-down transformer.(refer formula) 47. Transmission& distribution; power station— step-up transformer—national grid network—step-down transformer—branch substation. 48. Power supply & wiring system at home; main fuse—electris meter—main switch—circuit breakers—live wire—neutral wire—earth wire. (function) single phase ( 1,2 & 3 + neutral line) three phase ( 1+2, 2+3, 1+3, + neutral line) 49. 3-pin plug; international colour code, live wire-brown, neutral wire- blue, earth wireyellow green stripes. FUSE. 50. Fuses; break off electrical circuit .A short circuit occurs when current flow through a shorter path of lower resistance. Earth wire; ensures the leakage of current flows to the ground. 51. The sun; layer; corona, chromosphere, photosphere, core. Phenomena ;sunspot, prominences, solar flares. Sun’s energy nuclear fusion ( hydrogen changed to helium) CC3PC Page 9

QUICK REVISION PMR 2012 52. Stars; birth; nebulae ( dust+ gases like hydrogen & helium)form –gravitational force a star is created, causes the temperature to rise, causing star to expand, balance between the heat pushing & the force pulling, the star will become stable. Death; the core will shrink and heat up, outer layers will expand & cool. Star turn to red giant. Medium size—white dwarf, large star---supernova-neutron star, Very big star---supernove---black hole. 53. Galaxies; spiral, elliptical, irregular. The milky way—spiral—solar system located at the spiral arm.

54. Constellation; a group of star arranged in a specific pattern that is visible from Earth. 55. Space exploration; space telescopes,- discover distant object space probes- collect information about object in space space station- astronaut live and carry out scientific work space shuttles- carrries spacecraft and equipmqnt into space and back to earth satellites- spacecraft placed orbit around earth communication satellites- weather satellites, navigation satellites, military satellites, global positioning system(GPS), environmental satellites. Remote sensing— studying condition on Earth from space.

Write down all short forms which you can remember in this space without referring notes.

GOOD LUCK PMR 2012 Durasnita/2012

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