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October 24, 2017 | Author: Kamal Nath | Category: Fluidization, Gelatin, Combustion, Boiler, Physical Sciences
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A project report on

Vocational training Duration: 14th may 2013 to 29th may 2013 (15 days)

Submitted by KAMAL NATH DHURVE 7TH SEM Mechanical engineering Roll no.-0201me101029


NARMADA GILATINES LIMITED JABALPUR (M.P.) CERTIFICATE This is certify that Mr. Kamal Nath Dhurve of mechanical engineering, 7th semester of Jabalpur engineering college has successfully completed his 2 weeks vocational training from

MAY 14TH 2013 to MAY 29TH 2013

Also this project is an original piece of work and its under the norms set by Jabalpur engineering college, Jabalpur (m.p.)



ACKNOWLEDGEMENT This is to show my sincere gratitude to all the staff members of this prestigious factory that supported me during my training period. I am highly obliged to the H.R.A. S.K.SHRIVASTAVA SIR & department for guiding me. I would also thanks to all plant members who helped me in gaining knowledge and experience in this factory.

Thankful to all





Narmada Gelatin Ltd. is subsidiary of SHAW WALLACE & COMPANY LTD. Shaw Wallace was founded in Calcutta in 1886 as agent for Tea Estate in India and as agent for export & import of good’s. Traditionally showing in Liquor & Beer, the company expanded into a diversified conglomerate with 37 subsidiaries in 21-business area. Besides the company has a considerable interest in agrochemical. Fertilizer's consumer products and shipping. The main promoter of the company is Late M.R. Chhabira. He has diversified his business interests, spanning several countries and with an annual turnover exceeding US$ 1.5 million. In mid eighties Late M.R. Chhabria expanded the group's activity in India by acquiring controlling equity interests in several companies as well. Some of the major acquisitions/promotions were:* Shaw Wallace & Company Limited. * Hindustan Door Oliver Limited. * MPIL Corporation Limited. * Falcon Tyres Limited. * Orson Electronics Limited. * Nithon Electronics Limited. * Gordon Woodroffe Limited. * Dunlop India Limited. All companies come under the Jumbo Group & are no diversified. Narmada Gelatin is the only company running in India and the current chairperson is Mrs.Vidhya Chhabria.


Gelatine Industry has a relatively late start in India, through worldwide commercial processing started in late 19th century. Narmada Gelatine limited is a subsidiary of the Shaw Wallace & Company limited which is one of the companies of Dubai based corporate Late Manu Chhabria. Industry started as a Bone Mill subsequently on 3rd January 1962 in Jabalpur,Madhaya Pradesh.The company became the public company under the section 43Aof the companies Act 1960. Shaw Wallace & company Limited, alongwith its othebusiness interests was also engaged in the manufacture and sale of the gule. In view of The common raw material of animal origin the company identified Gelatine as a new business opportunity with adequate synergy. Thus the company took over themanagement of Leiner-knit-Gelatine company Limited and on 13th January 1969 the name of the company was changed to shaw Wallace Leiner Limited and Gelatine Product started for the first time in India.As there was not enough takeoff from the domestic end-user industry, the prevailing market condition during this period was not favourable I the process of the Manufacture of the Gelatine ossein in the most important intermediate. It is used in producing photographic film in 1974, the company found opportunities to export ossein to Eastman Kodak (USA) and many customers in other countries. The company was awarded the Capexil award for of ossein in 1975 11 The export of ossein to Eastman Kodak and buyers in other countries stopped in 1980, as the user developed more economical and convenient sources elsewhere.Meanwhile with a perceptible change in the domestic scenario the pharmaceutical.Companies grew at a brisk pace. Realizing the market opportunities, the company Reforced there activities in Gelatine, emphasizing on more value added products likeheard shell and soft shell grade in Gelatine for the pharmaceuticals industry and it wasfound necessary to expand the production capacity to achieve economics of scale. With a view to upgrade the quality of the Gelatine, the existing inhouse research & Development facilities were geared up, and the

modernization of the plant wasUndertaken. The modernization and expansion commenced in 1985 and was Successfully completed in August 1988. As a result of this modernization exercise, the Production capacity moves up from 500 TPA to 1000TPA at the cost of Rs.4 crores.The same was founded with the assistance of IRBI and from internal accruals .The company also proved its dedication to research and development byContinuously innovative and discovering new process and products.In 1988, NarmadaGelatine Limited, developed the industrial Gelatine protein colled (IGPC) as a import Reduction of cost. In 1991, it established the photographic grade Gelatine and in 1992 It developed two new products, namely Haemacell-a plasma expander used for Sugerica purpose and spray dried Gelatine, thus gaining an alternative raw material for Gelatine production. Aslo in 1991, it started exporting Gelatine in a small way to Countries like United Kingdom, Switzerland, Germany and Bangladesh.These activities led to an improvement in the performance of the company to a Great from the year 1989-90 the company was back on a profit in 1992. In 1993, it Declared a dividend of 30% encourage by the Export and increased domestics demand an expansion programme was undertakenDuring the Years 1993 on increase Gelatine capacity from 1000-2000 TPA in two Phase with total of Rs 11 crores. After this was no looking back. In 1994, 1:1 bonus was given with 40 Dividends. Maidend public cum right issue was issued which were oversubscribed by 20 times. Phase I expansion to 1500 TPA was completed in 1994. The company Managed to receiver export performance awarded from M.P Industrial organization.In 1995 & 1996, 40% dividends were declared. The company was again awarded with The CAPEXIL award, this time for the export of Gelatine phase II expansion to 2000TPA was completed in 1994. In 1997, the NGL initiated movement for getting ISO 9002 certificate and Ultimately succeeded in getting it in 1998. In the year 2000 management decided to Divided their business in two parts,

first one is related to its core business that is liquor Manufacturing second one is traditional business which involve manufacturing of Pharmaceuticals Gelatine, photographic Gelatine ete. Now company is planning for Increasing the capacity of plant by 1000TPA in two phase till the year 2008 and for This company is investing Rs 11 crore. For this reason Shaw Wallace & company Limited Jabalpur is converted into Narmada Gelatine Jabalpur.

AWARD, ACHIEVEMENTS AND CERTIFICATIONS YEARS AWARDS 1975 Capexil award for ossein export 1992 National awards for import substitute from govt. of India 1994 Export performance awards from Madhya Pradesh industrial organization 1995 Capexill awards for gelatine export 1998 National awards for outstanding contribution in environment to an employee 2001 Capexil awards for gelatine export 2004 Capexil awards for ossein & gelatine export 2007 Import substitute awards INNOVATION : YEAR INNOVATION

1998 IGPC developed as import substitute 1992 Bone grist developed as an alternative raw material for the gelatin production 1993 Spray dired gelatine developed MILESTONE OF THE COMPANY YEARS MILESTONES

1961 Company started as bone mill by KNIT 1968 Taken over by shaw Wallace 1970 Gelatine production started for the first time in India 1974 Export of ossein started 1978 Name changed to shaw Wallace gelatine limited 1985 Gelatine plant modernization cum expension started to 1000TPA 1990 Gelatine export 1995 Expansion to1500TPA 1998 Expantion to2000TPA 1998 ISO 9002 certified 1999 Inducted as member of GMAP 2001 ISO 9001:2000 certification 2002 Name has been change from Shaw WAllance gelatin Ltd to Narmada gelatin Ltd 2002 CAPEXIL registration 2002 EDQM certification 2004 ISO 9001:2000 recertification 2005 USFDA team inspected our unit 2005 HALAL certification 2006 HACCP certification 2007 Import substitute award

INFRASTRUCTURE OF NGL ORGANISTION The company has its registered office at Jabalpur and manufacturing also Regional office at Calcutta, Delhi, Mumbai and Chennai. FACTORY LOCATION:The existing plant of the company is situated 16 Kilometre away from Jabalpur Madhya Pradesh. It is ideally located at the proximity of the sources of the major raw materials such as time and coal. It is also well connected by the network of Railway roadway, it is located on the NH 27 Jabalpur Bhopal highway and marketing office is 2 Kilometres from railway station. LAND AND BULLIDING:Plant is located on a free hold and well developed land measuring 78.7 acres. Over this the construction area is of 27.0 acres. The existing building consist of the factory shed and administrative block. The building is mostly of the following types. 1. R.C.C ( reinforced concrete construction) 2. R.C.C. and brick. 3. Brick work and steel structure. Also there are storage area and liming pits on the plant side. PLANT AND MACHINERY The major existing plant and machinery of the company includes water chilling plant band dries, crusher, effluent treatment plant generator set, refrigeration plant, boiler evaporator, water treatment plant rotators and various other accessories the machineries are well maintained and modification from time to has been undertaken to keep pace with latest development.

POWER The company draws power from Madhya Pradesh Electronics Board & has contracted load of 1875 KVA. The plant has two numbers of 1000 KVA & 3 numbers of 500 KVA transformation at its. It has three numbers of diesel generators of 825 KVA and one of 500 KVA respectively.

WATER The plant requires 1500-2000 cubic metres of water per day at the present level of operation. Bore wells of sufficient capacity exists. The company intends to have standard tube well. STEAM The plant consumers 10.0 tones of stem per hour installed capacity is 8 toines average consumption per hour. Industry has four boilers out of which two are stand by. 6 tones 2 coal fired. 4 tones 1 coal fried. 6 tones 1 oil fired.

ABOUT GELATINE Gelatin is defined as a "product obtained from partial hydrolysis of collagen derived from natural sources such as skin, connective tissue, and bones of animals." It is an easily digestible protein that contains all the essential amino acids except tryptophan. Gelatin is NOT a chemical or chemically modified substance. Gelatin is typically produced in a powdered or granulated form. Slightly yellow to light tan in color, it is a rather tasteless and odorless substance. Gelatin, a typical protein, acts both as an acid and as a base. Thus, it is an amphoteric substance and can be titrated with acids and with alkalies. There are elatively few ionizable groups in gelatin and these are the ones which can be titrated. They are contributed by the carboxyl groups of aspartic and glutamic acids, the imidazolium of histidine and the guanidinium of arginine. In addition, there are terminal amino and carboxyl groups. Commercial gelatin is nearly tasteless and odourless, a brittle, vitreous solid, very faint yellow to amber in colour. At normal temperature and humidity, it contains 9-12% moisture. Its specific gravity is about 1.3-1.4. It dissolves in warm water to form solutions having a faint,bouillon like aroma. The important properties of a gelatin solution are functions of pH, electrolytic impurities, methods of preparation from collagen, thermal history, aging and concentration. Gelatin is extremely heterogeneous, being composed of polypeptides of many sizes and it must never be regarded or treated as a single chemical entity. It is classified as a derived protein because it is obtained from collagen by hydrolytic action. Gelatin molecules, like those of other proteins, are large and complex. Values for the average molecular weight range from 15,000 to 250,000. Gelatin is composed of about 18 different amino acid radicals which are linked together in an ordered fashion. These amino acids obtained by the complete hydrolysis of gelatin, are listed in table below. Gelatin analyses in terms of the elements 50.5% carbon; 6.8% hydrogen; 17% nitrogen and 25.2% oxygen. Amino Acids Obtained by Complete Hydrolysis of Gelatin

Amino acid Alanine Arginine Aspartic acid Glutamic acid Glycine Histidine Hydroxproline Leucine & isoleucine Lysine Methionine Phenylalanine Proline Serine Threonine Tyrosine Valine Crystine

% by wt. 11.0 8.8 6.7 11.4 27.5 0.78 14.1 5.1 4.5 0.9 2.2 16.4 4.2 2.2 0.3 2.6 trace

Commercial gelatins vary from 50 to 300 Bloom grams and, except for specialty items, are free of added colors, flavors, preservatives, and chemical additives. Gelatin is a generally recognized as safe (GRAS) food ingredient. Typical specifications for edible gelatins are: Type A Type B pH 3.8 - 5.5 5.0 - 7.5 Isoelectric Point 7.0 - 9.0 4.7 -5.4 Gel Strength (Bloom) 50 - 300 50 - 300 Viscosity (mps) 15 - 75 20 - 75 Ash 0.3 - 2.0 0.5 - 2.0 Two of gelatin's most desirable properties are its melt-in-the-mouth characteristics and its ability to form thermo reversible gels. In addition, gelatin is relatively unaffected by ionic

strength and is stable over a broad pH range. Gelatin is preferred in many applications for its clarity and bland flavor.The Table below lists several food categories which utilize gelatin, and recommended use levels and Blooms. Table 1 Gelatin as a food ingredient Project Profiles - MP Agros Global AgriSystem Pvt. Ltd. Your Partner in Agri-business 2 Use Level Gelatin Bloom Dairy Products .2 - 1.0% 150 -250 Frozen Foods .1 - 0.5% 225 - 250 Gelatin Desserts 7 - 9% 175 - 275 Confectionery Gummi Bears 7 - 9% 200 - 275 Marshmallows 1.7 - 2.5% 225 - 275 Circus Peanuts 2.0 - 2.5% 225 - 250 Lozenges .5 - 1.0% 50 - 100 Wafers .5 - 1.0% 50 - 100 Bakery Fillings & Icings 1.0 - 2.0% 225 - 250 Meat Products 1.0 - 5% 175 - 275 Wine, Beer, Juices .002 - .015% 100 - 200 Gelatin is compatible with a wide variety of foods and ingredients. In fact, it has been used to help keep together ingredients that are incompatible. Some general nutritional information on gelatin is presented in table below. Table 2 Gelatin nutritional information Type A Type B Moisture (%) 10.5 +/- 1.5 10.5 +/- 1.5 Fat (%) 0 0 Carbohydrates (%) 0 0 Ash (%) .5 +/- .4 1.5 +/- .5 Sodium (ppm) 500 +/- 200 3600 +/- 1400 Phosphorous (ppm) 1 +/=.8 --Iron (ppm) 4 +/- 2 15 +/- 10 Lead (ppm) .002 +/- .002 .005 +/- .002 Zinc (ppm) 1.5 +/- .5 5 +/- 3 Nitrogen (%) 16.2 +/- .3 16.2 +/- .3 Calcium (ppm) 90 +/- 30 900 +/- 100 Potassium (ppm) 125 +/- 50 330 +/- 50 Calories / 100 grams 360 360

GELATINENS PRODUCT gelatin is used in a variety of consumer products. Without identifying the application rationale, a short list of products in which gelatin is present include: Dairy – ice cream, sour cream, yogurt, cottage cheese, cream pies Meat – ham, aspics, canned hams, meat loaves, pates Desserts – jellied desserts, puddings, frostings Confectionery – gum drops, lozenges, wafers, candy cigarettes, marshmallows, fruit snacks, gummi snacks Other – consommé soups, sauces

STUDY OF FACTORY FBC BOILER The major portion of the coal available in India is of low quality, high ash content and low calorific value. The traditional grate fuel firing systems have got limitations and are techno-economically unviable to meet the challenges of future. Fluidized bed combustion has emerged as a viable alternative and has significant advantages over conventional firing system and offers multiple benefits – compact boiler design, fuel flexibility, higher combustion efficiency and reduced emission of noxious pollutants such as SOx and NOx. The fuels burnt in these boilers include coal, washery rejects, rice husk, bagasse & other agricultural wastes. The fluidized bed boilers have a wide capacity range- 0.5 T/hr to over 100 T/hr.

Mechanism of Fluidized Bed Combustion When an evenly distributed air or gas is passed upward through a finely divided bed of solid particles such as sand supported on a fine mesh, the particles are undisturbed at low velocity. As air velocity is gradually increased, a stage is reached when the individual particles are suspended in the air stream – the bed is called “fluidized”. With further increase in air velocity, there is bubble formation, vigorous turbulence, rapid mixing and formation of dense defined bed surface. The bed of solid particles exhibits the properties of a boiling liquid and assumes the appearance of a fluid – “bubbling fluidized bed”. At higher velocities, bubbles disappear, and particles are blown out of the bed. Therefore, some amounts of particles have to be recirculated to maintain a stable system – “circulating fluidised bed”. Fluidization depends largely on the particle size and the air velocity. The mean solids velocity increases at a slower rate than does the gas velocity, The difference between the mean solid velocity and mean gas velocity is called as slip velocity. Maximum slip velocity between the solids and the gas is desirable for good heat transfer and intimate contact. If sand particles in a fluidized state is heated to the ignition temperatures of coal, and coal is injected continuously into the bed, the coal will burn rapidly and bed attains a uniform temperature. The fluidized bed O


combustion (FBC) takes place at about 840 C to 950 C. Since this temperature is much below the ash fusion temperature, melting of ash and associated problems are

avoided.The lower combustion temperature is achieved because of high coefficient of heat transfer due to rapid mixing in the fluidized bed and effective extraction of heat from the bed through in-bed heat transfer tubes and walls of the bed. The gas velocity is maintained between minimum fluidization velocity and particle entrainment velocity. This ensures stable operation of the bed and avoids particle entrainment in the gas stream.Bureau of Energy Efficiency 1426. FBC Boilers Combustion process requires the three “T”s that is Time, Temperature and Turbulence. In FBC, turbulence is promoted by fluidization.Improved mixing generates evenly distributed heat at lower temperature. Residence time is many times greater than conventional grate firing. Thus an FBC system releases heat more efficiently at lower temperatures. Fixing, bubbling and fast fluidized beds As the velocity of a gas flowing through a bed of particles increases, a value is reaches when the bed fluidizes and bubbles form as in a boiling liquid. At higher velocities the bubbles disappear; and the solids are rapidly blown out of the bed and must be recycled to maintain a stable system. Bureau of Energy Efficiency 1436. FBC Boilers Since limestone is used as particle bed, control of sulfur dioxide and nitrogen oxide emissions in the combustion chamber is achieved without any additional control equipment. This is one of the major advantages over conventional boilers. Types of Fluidised Bed Combustion Boilers There are three basic types of fluidised bed combustion boilers: 1. Atmospheric classic Fluidised Bed Combustion System (AFBC) 2. Atmospheric circulating (fast) Fluidised Bed Combustion system(CFBC) 3. Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion System (PFBC). Here we study the Pressurised Fluidised Bed Combustion System (PFBC).

Advantages of Fluidized Bed Combustion Boilers 1. High Efficiency FBC boilers can burn fuel with a combustion efficiency of over 95% irrespective of ash content. FBC boilers can operate with overall efficiency of 84% (plus or minus 2%). 2. Reduction in Boiler Size High heat transfer rate over a small heat transfer area immersed in the bed result in overall size reduction of the boiler. 3. Fuel Flexibility FBC boilers can be operated efficiently with a variety of fuels. Even fuels like flotation slimes, washer rejects, agro waste can be burnt efficiently. These can be fed either independently or in combination with coal into the same furnace. 4. Ability to Burn Low Grade Fuel FBC boilers would give the rated output even with inferior quality fuel. The boilers can fire coals with ash content as high as 62% and having calorific value as low as 2,500 kcal/kg. Even carbon content of only 1% by weight can sustain the fluidised bed combustion. 5. Ability to Burn Fines Coal containing fines below 6 mm can be burnt efficiently in FBC boiler, which is very difficult to achieve in conventional firing system. 6. Pollution Control SO2 formation can be greatly minimised by addition of limestone or dolomite for high sulphur coals. 3% limestone is required for every 1% sulphur in the coal feed. Low combustion temperature eliminates NOx formation. 7. Low Corrosion and Erosion The corrosion and erosion effects are less due to lower combustion temperature, softness of ash and low particle velocity (of the order of 1 m/sec). 8. Easier Ash Removal – No Clinker Formation o

Since the temperature of the furnace is in the range of 750 – 900 C in FBC boilers, even coal of low ash fusion temperature can be burnt without clinker formation. Ash removal is easier as the ash flows like liquid from the combustion chamber. Hence less manpower is required for ash handling. 9. Less Excess Air – Higher CO2 in Flue Gas The CO2 in the flue gases will be of the order of 14 – 15% at full load. Hence, the FBC boiler can operate at low excess air - only 20 – 25%. 10. Simple Operation, Quick Start-Up High turbulence of the bed facilitates quick start up and shut down. Full automation of start up and operation using reliable equipment is possible.

11. Fast Response to Load Fluctuations Inherent high thermal storage characteristics can easily absorb fluctuation in fuel feed rates. Response to changing load is comparable to that of oil fired boilers. 12. No Slagging in the Furnace-No Soot Blowing In FBC boilers, volatilisation of alkali components in ash does not take place and the ash is non sticky. This means that there is no slagging or soot blowing. 13 Provisions of Automatic Coal and Ash Handling System Automatic systems for coal and ash handling can be incorporated, making the plant easy to operate comparable to oil or gas fired installation. 14 Provision of Automatic Ignition System Control systems using micro-processors and automatic ignition equipment give excellent control with minimum manual supervision. 15 High Reliability The absence of moving parts in the combustion zone results in a high degree of reliability and low maintenance costs. 16 Reduced Maintenance Routine overhauls are infrequent and high efficiency is maintained for long periods. 17 Quick Responses to Changing Demand A fluidized bed combustor can respond to changing heat demands more easily than stoker fired systems. This makes it very suitable for applications such as thermal fluid heaters, which require rapid responses. 18 High Efficiency of Power Generation By operating the fluidized bed at elevated pressure, it can be used to generate hot pressurized gases to power a gas turbine. This can be combined with a conventional steam turbine to improve the efficiency of electricity generation and give a potential fuel savings of at least 4%.

boiler efficiency by direct method Boilerefficiency %=

Q (H-h) x100 q GCV

Where, Q = Steam flow rate in kg/hr h = Enthalpy of fed water kcal/kg H = Steam enthalpy in kcal/kg q = fuel firing rate kg/hr GCV = Gross calorific value of fuel, kcal/kg

Requirement of fbc boiler In Narmada galantine ltd too much amount of steam is needed only for the heating purpose. In campus have the low pressure boiler to generate the steam.

STUDY OF WATER TREATMENT PLANT IN NGL Industries because of their diverse nature release wide range of compounds into the aquatic environment. The untreated effluent from industry discharged into water bodies, damage the water quality. The undiluted effluents are toxic to aquatic organism and exhibit a strong mutagenic effect .Furthermore, some compounds in the aquatic food chain. The quality of such effluents can be determined by their physicochemical and biological analysis. Monitoring of the environmental parameters of the effluents would allow having at any time, a precise idea on performance evolution of the effluent treatment plant (ETP) and Narmada Gelatines Limited (formerly as Shaw Wallace gelatins Ltd) is a Gelatins, Di-calcium Phosphate (DCP) and industrial Gelatins (Glue) manufacturing industry at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh. Industry having an effluent Treatment Plant (ETP) to treat the wastewater generated during the production process in order to meet the permissible discharge limits. The unit discharges the treated wastewater on its own land. It also has a wastewater recycling plant (RP) where a part of wastewater is treated and recycled back in to the process. The unit approach national productivity council (NPC) to evaluate the performance of their ETP and wastewater recycling plant and suggest the modifications, if required accordingly, NPC consultants conducted filed study at M/S Narmada Gelatines Limited Jabalpur during 9th September, 2003 to 18th September, 2003. This report contains brief process description, assessment of quantity and characteristics of waste water, description of existing treatment scheme (ETP and RP), results of waste water monitoring, adequacy and efficiency of ETP and RP and recommendation for modifications of ETP and RP.

STUDY OF RAC PLANT IN NGL Refrigeration Cycle Heat flows in direction of decreasing temperature, i.e., from high-temperature to low temperature regions. The transfer of heat from a low-temperature to high temperature requires a refrigerator and/or heat pump. Refrigerators and heat pumps are essentially the same device; they only differ in their objectives. The performance of refrigerators and heat pumps is expressed in terms of coefficient of Performance (COP):

PROCESS OF PRODUCTIONS IN NGL Objective The primary objective of the model report is to facilitate the entrepreneurs in understanding the importance of setting up unit of gelatin manufacturing. This model report will serve as guidance to the entrepreneurs on starting up such a new project and basic technical knowledge for setting up such a facility. Raw Material Availability Cattle bone, Hydrochloric acid, Lime, Solvent are the main raw material required for the manufacturing of gelatin. If kept in its original container at ambient humidity and a controlled temperature, gelatin can last practically forever. Most manufacturers like to limit the shelf life to just two or three years; this has more to do with degradation of the packaging than the deterioration of the gelatin. Project description Applications Gelatin has traditionally been used in three major areas: food, pharmaceutical, and Photographic industries. Gelatin use in the food industry is probably best recognized in gelatin desserts and confectionery applications. It is also used as a binding and/or glazing agent in meats.In the pharmaceutical health industry, gelatin is used to make the shells of hard and soft capsules for medicines, dietary/health supplements, syrups, etc. It is highly digestible and serves as a natural protective coating for medications.The unique chemical and physical properties of gelatin make it an important component in the photographic industry. Gelatin serves many useful purposes in the preparation of silverhalide emulsions in the production of photographic film.A new, major application for gelatin is in the paintball industry. The classic-style "war games"are played out using projectiles constructed of gelatin. Gelatin is used in jellies, bakery products, ice creams. Capacity of the Project The total installed capacity of the unit is 1160 MT of gelatin per year. Manufacturing process The manufacture of gelatin has evolved from the simple digestion of animal bones in a steam heated pressure cooker to a well controlled technical process developed in the 1960s. As variety of products with desirable properties is available and special processing isrequired in each case. The steps in manufacture involve isolation and refinement of the insoluble soluble gelatin. The gelatin is further processed by chemical adjustment, filtration for clarification and drying to yield a product of some predetermined quality. Final specifications are usually arrived at by the calculated blending of unit batches; these have been analyzed in the laboratory for physical and chemical properties characteristics of gelatin for highly specified uses in food and technical applications.

Inspection and cutting When the animal parts arrive at the food processing plant, they are inspected for quality. Rotted parts are discarded. Then, the bones, tissues, and skins are loaded into chopping machines that cut the parts into small pieces of about Sin (12.7cm) in diameter. Degreasing and roasting The animal parts are passed under high-pressure water sprays to wash away debris. They are then degreased by soaking them in hot water to reduce the fat content to about 2%. A conveyer belt moves the degreased bones and skins to an industrial dryer where they are roasted for approximately 30 minutes at about 200° F (100° C). Acid and alkaline treatment The animal parts are soaked in vats of lime or some other type of acid or akali for Approximately five days. This process removes most of the minerals and bacteria and facilitates the release of collagen. The acid wash is typically a 4% hydrochloric acid with a pH of less than 1.5. The alkaline wash is a potassium or sodium carbonate with a pH above 7. Boiling The pieces of bone, tissue, and skin are loaded into large aluminum extractors and boiled in distilled water. A tube running from the extractor allows workers to draw off the liquid that now contains gelatin. The liquid is sterilized by flash-heating it to about 375° F (140° C) for Approximately four seconds. Evaporating and grinding From the extractor, the liquid is piped through filters to separate out bits of bone, tissue or skin that are still attached. From the filters, the liquid is piped into evaporators, machines that separate the liquid from the solid gelatin. The liquid is piped out and discarded. The gelatin is passed through machines that press it into sheets. Depending on its final application, the gelatin sheets are passed through a grinder that reduces them to a fine powder.

Flavoring and coloring If the gelatin is to be used by the food industry, sweeteners, flavorings, and colorings may be added at this point. Pre-set amounts of these additives are thoroughly mixed into the powdered gelatin. Packaging The packaging process is automated, with preset amounts of gelatin poured into overhead funnels through which the gelatin flows down into bags made of either polypropylene or multiply paper. The bags are then vacuumed sealed. 1.6 Plant and machineries Dry bone crusher Rotary extractor with longitudinal steam coils Solvent storage tank MS construction Vapour condenser and water evaporator Other storage tanks Solvent recovery plant Hammer mill Lime dissolver with stirrer CS Storage tanks for HCI Acidulating tanks rubber lined Washing tanks rubber lined Cooking tanks CS outlet shell SS 316 Storage tank light liquor, SS 316 Pressure filter Clear liquid storage tanks SS 316 Triple effect evaporators with vacuum pump & condenser. All stainless construction. Concentrated liquor storage tanks SS 316 Refrigerated chamber temp. 40C Grinder – for finished gelatin Air heater-with blower heater boxes maximum 1400C Exhaust Dryer Bone dryer Cage mill Boiler Calcium

Material handling system Other misc. equipment like bins, racks trolleys tools, weighing machines etc. Pipe line systems water, steam acid naphtha, air etc. Pumps, compressor oil storage tanks etc. Demineralizer plant

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