New Class Scheduling System
Class Scheduling System...
Chapter 1 INTRODUCTION Background of the Study Technology is the making, modification, usage, and knowledge of tools,
organization, in order to solve a problem, improve a pre-existing solution to a problem, achieve a goal, handle an applied input or output relation or perform a specific function. It can also refer to the collection of such tools, including
(Williams, 2012). One of the remarkable and much known products of technology advancement is the conversion of manually-operated system into automated system. Automation produces a great impact in the lives of man, particularly in the field of industry, business, medicine, and education (Williams, 2012). A scheduling system is usually a form of software that allows someone to construct schedules in an easier, faster and error minimized
way. It is very time consuming and sometimes leads to a disaster if output is not efficient. Northern Philippines College for Maritime Science and Technology (NPCMST) as an educational institution offers services to the clientele more particularly the students and to the community. The primary operations of the school are non-stop starting from pre-enrolment up to the post-graduation activities. These activities require money, labor force and time. It is a fact that arranging class schedules, instructor’s load and room utilization for the students and faculty in every department is one of the many activities that each department heads must prepare before classes start. But the school used the manual way of preparing the class schedule. With the manual system, more time and labor force is required to plot, arrange, and revise the class schedules, room utilization and instructors’ load provided by the department heads. This process is a very large, complex, and time consuming task with many inputs to take into consideration. The quality of the output has a immense impact on students, faculty, and the department as a whole. Poorly planned offerings pose a great impact on students’ ability to take courses, class utilization, and students’ ability to fulfill prerequisites, time to graduation, budget, and more. Poorly assigned
faculty has a big impact to the quality of instruction, the satisfaction of faculty members, student retention, and department policies. Poorly scheduled timetable can also affect students’ ability to take courses due to conflict, course utilization, lab utilization, time to graduation, student satisfaction, faculty satisfaction, department policies, and it can lead to undesirable last minute changes. This study is proposed with the aforementioned reasons as stated. This process partially defines the lives of students and faculty members in terms of schedule and should not be taken lightly. Because of the impact of this process, it is important to incorporate individual and group preference into as many areas of this process as possible and to create a robust process that generates close to optimal solutions. There has been a research around course assignment and course timetabling and many operations research techniques have been utilized to address these problems, However often the techniques are tested, but rarely implemented as shown by Carterand Lamporte (1998). While some solutions have been fully implemented and there area couple products available in the market, those weren’t thoroughly investigated due to the software and implementation cost associated with them. Since much of the research focuses only on generating a feasible schedule and appears to lack the preference drivers that are valuable in creating a highly desirable
schedule I felt there was room for further research in this area. We have taken into consideration 3 types of preferences in this research: faculty preference to teach a course, faculty preference for teaching time of day, and student/general department preference for each timeslot. Additionally, this approach is unique because it takes a systems approach by looking at the entire process instead of just one piece of the puzzle. With these problems, the researchers had come up to an idea of creating an computerized class scheduling system of NPCMST in a web based form using HTML, MySQL database PHP programming language. Through this advancement, it is hoped that errors in operations be minimized and time and manpower be conserved. Figure1.1 Conceptual Paradigm of the Proposed System INPUT PROCESS
. Class Scheduling
Username and Password. Class Time, Room
Viewing Student schedule.
All Users including
Viewing all subject offerings for the upcoming semester.
Administrator must key in their username and password to access the system
System of Northern Philippines College for Maritime, Science and Technology, Inc
Figure 1.1illustrate the conceptual paradigm of the proposed system which serve as a basis for requirements specification and analysis of the existing system for a more responsive and efficient way of building a system. The system requires users to login first. The system has two power users, the administrator and the registrar. The admin controls the accounts of the registrar and the registrar is the one who enters schedules. The system processes time as specified in a certain subject determining its conflict. Statement of the problem This study aims to design a Class Scheduling System for the Northern Philippines College for Maritime Science and Technology. Specifically, this study aims to answer the following questions: 1. What is the existing procedure in the current Class Scheduling System of NPCMST?
2. What are the problems encountered in the existing Class Scheduling System of NPCMST? 3. What are the factors that affect the performance of the Class Scheduling System of NPCMST in terms of: a. Speed b. Accuracy c. Security d. Data Handling Objectives of the Study This proposed system is pursued in order to fulfill the following specific objectives: 1.
To identify the existing procedure in the current Class Scheduling System of NPCMST;
To identify the problems encountered in the existing class scheduling system of NPCMST and the solutions that will be provided to address these problems; and
3. To identify the factors that affects the performance of the NPCMST Class Scheduling system in terms of: a. Speed b. Accuracy c. Security d. Data Handling Importance of the Study The implementation of the proposed computerized class scheduling system would be beneficial for the entire NPCMST community, from Planning and Extension Office to the Registrars’ Office and to all Faculty members and Students. Effective class scheduling is critical to the academic mission of the School. It enables students to take the classes they need in a timely manner and contributes to on-going cost containment efforts through efficient space utilization and good stewardship of our valuable institutional resources. Throughout the year, general purpose classrooms are used for both classes and other key academic events, such as thesis defenses, faculty candidate job talks or department meetings. Both types of classroom uses are important to the
academic mission of each unit and the College, and this policy aims to ensure adequate space for both. For most departments, class scheduling occurs several months prior to the start of the term. Class scheduling requires significant advanced planning and coordination, not only within each department, but also often with other units to ensure that classes are sequenced appropriately to meet interdisciplinary program needs.
Scope and Delimitation The Class Scheduling System of NPCMST is broad in terms of areas being covered. The study to be conducted would limit its scope to the following: 1. Administrator Module. This module handles the accounts of registrar personnel. 2. Registrar Module. This module handles the system scheduling inputs. Detection of conflicts as well as printing of reports is processed. The database of the proposed computerized class scheduling system covers the records of a BS Information Technology subjects only. The reports module of this proposed computerized class scheduling system would generate the overall schedule of the BSIT Course, schedule by year and semester, and individual subject schedule.
Definition of Terms The following terms below provides for an operational definition that would aid the reader with a greater understanding on this study. Class Schedule. It refers to a specific time, room, instructor and subject of a certain class. Database Management System. It is a software system that manages the storage and access to data in the database. Information. It denotes data which is converted into a meaningful and useful context for specific users. Instructor's Workload. It signifies the instructor's information and workload with in semester. Students schedule. It shows the student's schedule from first year up to fourth year within the semester. User. It refers to a person who interacts with the system having their own account and privileges.
Chapter II MATERIALS AND METHODS Research Design
This study entitled "Class Scheduling System of NPCMST" is a qualitative research that attempts to accumulate existing information and data regarding the current class scheduling of NPCMST. Trochim stated that "a key reason for doing qualitative research is to investigate and become more experienced with a particular phenomenon of the researcher's interest in order to deliver a detailed description. The researcher decided to use the qualitative approach in order to verify current problems in the class scheduling that has become a big problem for students, faculties, registrar, and administrations as population of students increases.
Software Development Methodology
The proponents used the Rapid Application Development (RAD) as the software development methodology for this study and Prototyping as its specific model. In RAD methodology, development should be done in specified time frame. RAD methodology is suitable for the small project where all the requirements are gathered before starting development of the project and no any concrete plan
required. Development starts as soon as requirements are gathered and delivered the initial working prototype to the client to get the feedback. Once client gives the feedback, revision and changes are done. This process goes parallel with cooperation with client and developers. Each prototype is delivered to the client with working
Development moves faster in RAD methodology with minimum errors. Prototyping model is best used when you are developing something which is basically being built upon the foundations of an existing prototype. The reason of this model is the re-use of prototypes which reduces both the process of software development and the testing time required.
However it should not be used for new cutting edge functionality which has not been developed before. It is for this reason that RAD methodology is never used in New Media or Web 2.0 development projects. Since these usually consist of completely new functionality requirements. RAD simply wouldn’t work. And of course once a system has been built using say Agile principles, this will always be the approach used when looking to upgrade the functionality developed further down the line.
The guidelines that will follow in the analysis and implementation of this study are as follows: Using analysis and measurement as driers of the enhancement process is one major difference between iterative enhancement and the current agile development methods. It provides support for determining the effectiveness of the processes and the quality of product. It allows one to study, and therefore improve and tailor, the processes for the particular environment. This measurement and analysis activity can be added to existing agile development methods. Figure 2.1 Rapid Application Development Methodology
In figure 4.1, it shows the RAD methodology diagram that is used in the study. The activities taken in every phase are discussed as follows.
Analysis and Quick Design. We the researchers conduct interview to different personnel in the school who’s in charge of the scheduling process specifically the registrar personnel. Different scheduling system studies from other schools were also studied to gather more data and as referenced in building the system. Upon careful analysis of the different data, we formulated a quick design in a form of prototypes then have it presented to the personnel that are connected to class scheduling. Prototyping Cycles. Series of prototypes were presented to the scheduling personnel and registrar to examine and approve the proposed design. These part consist of demonstrate, refine and develop that take several loops until the prototype has been approved. Testing. Testing of the system was conducted only by the researchers in the design process. Since the time allotted in not sufficient enough, not all the phases were used. The testing phase is very short and the deployment phase was skipped. In using the prototyping model, the proponents made use of HTML, PHP, Cascading Style Sheets (CSS), and MySQL database. These programming language,
scripts and database are suitable in this projects making the development process faster and easier. Data Gathering Tools Considering that the Registrar, Planning and Extension Officer, and the Deans as the vital sources of data and information for this study. Other sources of data or information include books, published and unpublished researches or studies conducted, articles or journal published in the internet and the NPCMSTI school policy handbook or manual. Data Gathering Techniques The following data gathering techniques were used in the study as they are beneficial enough in building the system. The proponents interviewed all the persons involved in making the class schedule of subjects. Problems encountered and different suggestions gathered were carefully analyzed to improve the class scheduling system. Observation. Other schools have been using semi-automated class scheduling system already. The researchers went to different schools to observe the flow of their class scheduling as they prepare for their enrollment.
Research and Document analysis. The proponents gathered data from different books, magazines, published and unpublished materials regarding scheduling system in different libraries in La Union. Data gathered were carefully compared and examined to identify its efficiency in the enrollment process. Requirements Management The system requirements by the users and personnel involved in class scheduling must be monitored using progress reports and the changes of their project requirements. It also includes the process of determining and ensuring the effects of the specifications and diversity on product scope and quality. Allocation and property of risk factors were also noted. In the disposition of management processes, precise changes were done in the performance of the formations and the use of change of control panel. Schedule Control The proponents spent their free time building the project before the deadline. The proponents also spent a lot of effort to achieve their goal but it all depends on
the allotted schedule. The proponents mostly focus their time building the system to be successful.
Quality Control The proposed system is expected to work properly. The proponents will make sure that there is no error and the system is 100% working. Specifying quality control activities by knowing the procedures in using the following purposes: To be able to good stewardship of our valuable institutional resources. Know the knowledge, skills and experience of the person; To be able to verify if the system is working properly; and to be able to check the system before it will be deployed in school. Reporting The descriptions which will be used to display the result of the research and inquiry will be provided together with the project's formal documentation. Records that are written in the documentation will be comprised of a recognized output and conclusion. Significant report will also give the proponents an idea about the flow of the system. The proponents will specify status of each task for the development of the project management. Analyzing the needed progress for the system is required in order to accomplish a sufficient report. Risk Management Plan The proponents knew that there are some factors that might affect the proposed system and they understood the collision this may cause. The proponents
included in their project schedule, a time to develop an alternative solution if unwanted problems occur. The proponents gathered lots of information to work on the proposed system properly. Loosely defined requirements, difficulties in estimating the time and resources required for the software development, type of individual skills can be encountered during the project schedule. The quality of the software being developed by the group, can only assure that the research proponents all equipped with information and solutions. The following risks in developing the proposed system are: Database risk. The records will be saved in the database, but after a year, unused records must be deleted to prevent database collapse. The records in database are maintained by saving all the important records only. The proposed system needs to store great numbers of data, it is utmost important to have a backup and have secondary storage of data and reports for back up purpose and safety of records in case of corruption of data happened. Data will be ensured to be kept safe from corruption and to help ensure privacy. Personnel risk. The system administrator will train a hired person 2 to 3 days to familiarize the flow of the system. If this hired person will resign they will find first a replacement before he/she will permanently resign. The user of the system does
not necessarily need to be a technical expert but must have academic experience about computer. It is a necessity to have an average functional literacy and most importantly the user should be dedicated to learn how to use the system. Technology risk. The proponents will continue to update the system and adding features, regarding on upcoming new version of XAMPP. The proponents require replacing the existing system and adopting the new version. The proponents need to adjust for the upcoming software. Process risk. The system might hang if the user doesn’t know what the process. The proponents provide a user manual to help them how to use the system. The plan of this proposed system is to have an easy way in evaluating the professors of the school. Project Closeout Plan The proponents will do their best to finish the system. They learned that it takes months to create a system and difficulties are expected to arise. It is expected that system will benefit both the students and the school if the proposed Class Scheduling System of NPCMST is successfully applied.
Chapter III RESULTS AND DISCUSSIONS This chapter discusses the procedures of the existing class scheduling system of NPCMST. It also presents the proposed computerized class scheduling system. The Existing System: Procedure and Problems The existing Class Scheduling System of NPCMST has been functioning in a semi-computerized process. The preparation starts six months prior to the start of enrollment. In the initial stage of preparation, the Registrar’s Office provides the initial input for the Planning and Extension Office and for the HR Department when necessary. These inputs are the subject offerings for the coming semester. Other inputs would come from the Heads on the different departments. Only the Deans or heads the different departments
know the specific subjects with
laboratory attachments, actual number of students within the department, the number and availability of laboratory rooms to be used in the coming semesters, and the availability of faculty members qualified to teach on the available subjects.
Upon plotting the schedules for general education, the planning office integrates the schedules plotted by department heads with the corresponding faculty members assigned on every subject. After the integration, the registrar collects all the data for initial review and checking for conflicting assignments which is more common for the higher years due to students with irregular schedules. These students do not belong to any block section. Most irregular students who enrolled advance subjects and others might as well be taking these subjects the next semester. After the schedules are thoroughly checked for errors, the plotted schedules would be submitted to the VPAA for rechecking and approval. After it was approved, the plotted schedules will now be posted on all bulletin boards within the campus. In the meantime, plotting forms are prepared for students and faculty members to use during the enrollment. The widest downside of the manual scheduling approach is that the scheduler cannot look at every combination of schedules and evaluate which one is the best. Since the scheduler cannot look at every combination, it is likely that an overlap in courses is necessary in order to schedule all the courses into the timetable. Some quarter’s might work out with minimal overlap at the class level; however other
quarters would result in overlaps in critical courses. These overlaps affect the student’s ability to take their desired courses. Proposed Computerized Class Scheduling System Through the proposed computerized class scheduling system, the class scheduling would be easily manage and records would be easily tracked, processed and stored, because the proposed system will provide a module for the Planning and Extension Office (PEO) and the Registrars ‘Office that allows the personnel in-charge to generate or create a report or even make the necessary adjustments on specific records in real time. For the students, the proposed Class Scheduling System would provide an easy request for an updated class schedule where he/ she is enrolled. This would be possible, for the proposed system allows other departments, such as the office of the Deans and Department Head, to have an access with the system so that they could generate a copy of the student’s class schedule from the server. Using any web browser installed in the computer, personnel can view there students information in web base format. The proposed Class Scheduling System was designed and created using the PHP programming language. On this web based module it allows transactional
operations such as database access and interactive web interface. MySQL 5.0 was used as back-end of the proposed Class Scheduling System because it is one of the most popular Database Management Tools that can handle billions of records in a most complicated transactional database operation of many business organizations. Factors that Affects the Performance of the System Speed. Speed refers to the capability of the system to handle data in time that the user is satisfied. Many things must be considered in order to make the system execute faster. As records increases in the database, the performance of the computer decreases. In order to solve this problem, database backup must be done weekly and database cleaning to remove unnecessary records. Previous schedule are not needed anymore so it must be deleted. In terms of hardware, using the required computer hardware is necessary. Server computer must me used and clients must be the latest personal computer available in the market. Upgrading can be done every five years to level up with the increasing number of records. Accuracy. Accuracy refers to the capability of the system to produce desired output. In order to do this in class scheduling system, data formatting is needed. Data format sets guidelines for users to enter correct input. Time format must be
followed in the system to avoid errors and for the accuracy of the system. The system has been tested and presented to the registrar several times in order to check for its accuracy. Security. This refers to the safekeeping of records as they stayed in the database. Security is very important in systems. To ensure data security, login forms must be present. Login form requires users to enter their username and password. Password must be hidden so as to not be seen or hacked by others. Using Power Users is also effective security tool. Categorizing accounts and controlling individual features to ensure that correct functionality is provided. Database backup is also one way of security in systems. Using incremental or differential, the system administrator must decide what type of backup to be used. Data Handling. This refers to the ability of the system to efficiently handle or manage data as user uses the system. As data increases the computer computer’s performance decreases. Handling of data must be taken significantly to ensure the efficiency of the system. Every data must be categorized in the database together with its correct format and data types.
System Architecture The proposed Class Scheduling System will be deployed in the registrar’s office. Secondary accesses will be at the extension office of the registrar, and in all of the Dean’s Offices. As regards to the controls and security measures, the school LAN should be set-up as Class C network that would be divided into four (4) sub-networks or subnets. One of the four subnets should be dedicated to the server and all workstations that would be allowed to access the proposed class scheduling System. Figure 3.1 Class Scheduling System of NPCMST Architecture Client (Registrar Extension)
Server Xampp Server
Client 4 Hub
System Requirements For the system to be able to maximize its performance, it requires some hardware and software specifications. Hardware Specifications: Server Side (CPU Specifications) Hardware
I3 Second Generation
I5 or higher
4 GB or Higher(8 GB max)
100 GB of available
1 TB of available hard
hard disk space
At Least 4 ports USB
6 or more ports USB
Compatible with 750
800 MHz Front Side Bus Support 2 X DDR/SDR
1333 MHz Front Side Bus Support or Higher 4 X DDR2 or higher speed memory slot
On-Board LAN 100Mbps/1Gbps or
10/100 Mbps AGP 8X slot (for video
higher (for video card)
4 or more PCI Slot
4 PCI Slot Video Card
PCI express 16X or
AGP 8X (256 MB;64
PCI express 16X or
Higher (1 GB or higher; 128 bits)
Server Box Type
Front panel USB
4 in 1 Card Reader
Higher (Power Supply)
USB 2.0 ports
Support) 8 Reader
Workstation Side (CPU Specifications) Hardware
Dual Core (750MHz)
I3 (2.0 GHz) or Higher
2GB (400 MHz)
4 GB or more(800 MHz) or Higher
80 GB (7200rpm)
500 GB or Higher
At Least 4 ports USB
6 or more ports USB 2.0
Compatible with 750
MHz processor 800 MHz Front Side Bus Support 2 X DDR/SDR memory slot
1333 MHz Front Side Bus Support or Higher 4 X DDR2 or higher speed memory slot On-Board LAN
AGP 8X slot (for video
PCI express 16X or
higher (for video card)
4 PCI Slot
4 or more PCI Slot
AGP 8X (256 MB;64
PCI express 16X or
Higher (1 GB or higher;
128 bits) Casing
350 Watts or
(Power Supply) Front panel
Higher (Power Supply)
USB 2.0 ports
2.0 ports (FireWire
4 in 1 Card
Reader Other Peripherals Specifications Hardware
Front panel USB
8 in 1 Card Reader
Recommended Display 21” LED (Wide Screen)
Optical Mouse (USB)
Optical Mouse (USB)
Ink Jet Printer
Network Devices Specifications Hardware
Recommended 10/100 24
UTP cable CAT 5
UTP cable CAT 5e or Higher Category
Software Specification Some software needs to be installed for the proposed Class Scheduling. This softwares are needed to perform its functions to control the flow of operations and provide secured access to the database. On the server , Windows Server 2003 and XAMPP Server (latest version) for Windows must be installed. On the client side of the proposed system, Windows 7 professional service pack 2 with Web Browser (Chrome/ Mozilla/ Opera), must be installed. Anti-virus must be installed also for security purposes from viruses.
Chapter IV SUMMARY, FINDINGS, CONCLUSIONS AND RECOMMENDATION Summary This study is intended to design and develop a Class Scheduling System of NPCMST. It sought to find answers to the following specific problems: What is the existing procedure in the current Class Scheduling System of NPCMST? What are the problems encountered in the existing Class Scheduling System of NPCMST? What are the factors that affect the performance of the NPCMST Class Scheduling system in terms of: Speed, Accuracy, Security and Data Handling. Findings NPCMST uses the manual way of making class schedule. First, the registrar gets the previous schedule for revision. They revised it believing that, this is the fastest way of making a schedule. Adding schedules of another section is what they are doing. One error can lead to lot of problems if not seen by the registrar. Class schedule usually took two to three weeks to make the temporary schedule. The class schedule done is still temporary since alterations is done during
and after enrollment. This is due to inefficient scheduling. Rooms and instructors are changed due to conflicts and unavailability of instructors. Sometimes it is due to conflict in schedule itself that is not seen before the enrollment. Human error contributes a lot in this error. Rooms are not also used efficiently due to wrong scheduling. Rooms are not fully occupied during the day leaving spaces that no one uses it. The following are the factors that affect the performance of the system that can lead to system error if not considered significantly. In terms of speed, the system is programed in a web based form to increases the speed of transactions. Network configurations are managed by the operating system and not by the system. User training must also be conducted to familiarize user about how to use properly the system. In terms of accuracy, the system uses time format to ensure the correctness of output. In terms of security, the first page that will appear in the system is the login page. Username and password must be provided to access the content of the system. Two power users are presented to the system in order to restrict and divide functionalities. The administrator controls user accounts. In case the registrar forgets his/her username and password, the administrator can retrieve and show it. A hidden and fixed emergency username and password can show the username and
password of the administrator in case the he/ she forget it. PHP programming was also used in the system thus hiding codes if anyone wants to view the source code. In terms of data handling, records have been accessed using Standard Query Language (SQL). This is the fastest and most efficient way of data handling. With the use of PHP programming, data are also executed the fastest way. Conclusions The manual system is surely a traditional way of making schedules. However, the automated class scheduling system is more efficient because of the distinctive performance in the aspect of speed, project design, accuracy and stability of the system in the preparation of class schedules, room schedules and instructors’ load. With these features, the automated system can really solve the primary problems being encountered during the class schedule preparation. Recommendations With the foregoing conclusions, the researchers recommend the following:
1. Using Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) has to be implemented to improve the existing class scheduling system of NPCMST.
2. Security policies and other control measures must be adopted to ensure the security of confidential records. 3. An in depth training has to be given to the Registrar and all concerned employees directly involved in the usage of the CSS so that they will be oriented with the proper use of the proposed system. 4. Migration for the existing records to the proposed system has to be performed. 5. Implementation and maintenance of the proposed CSS should be in coordination with the IT department. 6. Assessment of the proposed system has to be conducted regularly. 7. Hardware and software specifications based on the system recommendation must be adopted for better performance.
Introduction| 37 Appendix D Questions 1. What are the problems that you encountered in the manual Class Scheduling System of NPCMST? 1.1What are the actions or
Answers a. Conflict of schedule of student, instructor and rooms. b. Lack of rooms. c. Lack of teachers. d. Changes in schedules. Immediate change in schedule.
solutions did you do to
Transfer of rooms, additional
solve these problems?
teachers. Re-scheduling students.
What are the materials
Pen and Paper, computer for
do you use in the
encoding of schedules, printer.
present scheduling 4.
system? How many persons are
Four to five personnel in the
involved or in charge
of the system? How many days are
2 to 3 weeks to create a
needed for you to
temporary schedule and changes
finish the scheduling
were done during the enrolment
of students and
instructors? What are the
See next page for the enrolment
processes involved in
the running of the system you are using?