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Boosting the



Indoor gardenING expo VANCOUVER BC, CANADA May 14-15

SAN FRancisco California, USA July 16-17

long beach california, usa october 22-23

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Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Boosting the Bloom


Growing Japanese


Strong Stems, Healthy Plants


Are You Ready for 4G Acceleration?

92 98


CONTENTS April 2011

by Lee McCall by Dr. Lynette Morgan by Matt LeBannister by Brian Chiang and Josh Puckett

Are Plants Conscious? by Peter Vakomies

In Search of the Perfect Grow by Casey Jones Fraser


How to Grow Mustard and Cress


Consider Using Citric Acid


Growing Plants in Organic and Inorganic Systems


Backyard Gardening Hydroponically


pH Management for Optimal Results


Composting: Is it Just a Load of Rubbish?

by Emma Cooper by Donald Lester by Dr. Carole Ann Rollins and Dr. Elaine Ingham by Jack Van Camp


by Bob Taylor by Steve Cownley

DEPARTMENTS 10 12 14 20 22 32

From the Editor Letters to the Editor Simon Says MAX Facts Product Spotlight

76 90 110 122 126 136

Beginner’s Corner Avant-Gardening Tips and Tricks Green Thumb Gardening Growing for Health

162 166 170 171 172

Talking Shop Max Mart Coming up in May Do You Know? Distributors

You Tell Us

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


FROM THE editor

jessica raymond

Welcome to our special 11th Anniversary issue of Maximum Yield USA and our Ultimate Denver Expo Guide. Over 186 pages await you with the latest new products and some of the best articles on organics, fourth generation LEDs, composting, conductivity and the perfect grow room. Over the last 11 years we have seen amazing growth in the industry, great advancement in products and technologies and more and more individuals who share our love and passion for growing their own healthy food. Industry education and awareness will continue to be our focus, along with sharing the latest advancements with gardening enthusiasts globally. This issue kicks off our 2011 Maximum Yield Indoor Gardening Expo tour and if you are unable to visit Denver, you need not worry as we have world-class events lined up

in Vancouver, British Columbia, Canada in May, San Francisco in July and Long Beach in October, which will offer a first hand look at the industry’s latest and greatest. Check out and make plans now to visit one of our expos, which will forever change how you grow.

Jessica Raymond, Editor

contributors Bob Taylor is the chief chemist of

Dr. Carole Ann Rollins co-owns

Matt LeBannister developed a

Dr. Lynette Morgan holds a B. Hort.

Donald Lester is the plant

Jack Van Camp has been working for Homegrown Hydroponics. He has years of hands-on hydroponic gardening experience and will answer all of your questions through the Homegrown Hydroponics website at He loves to share his knowledge with eager gardeners both locally and around the world.

Casey Jones Fraser owns Garden

Emma Cooper is the voice of the Alternative Kitchen Garden podcast and writes about kitchen gardening and environmental issues. An edible plant geek, she tries to grow her own food sustainably with the help of a reluctant husband and two pet chickens. Visit for more information.

Dr. Elaine Ingham is president of

Brian Chiang has worked for

Lee McCall graduated from Johnson and Wales University with a concentration in Culinary Arts. Culinary school opened the door to research and work with hydroponics and organic production. Currently, Lee attends business school in Denver and focuses on continuing advancements with Maximum Yield and indoor gardening technology.

Peter Vakomies, BSc, has 17 years

Flairform ( - an Australian based manufacturing company. Bob was an approved NATA signatory and an official registered analyst for the government’s chemical analysis monitoring program of all fertilizers registered in Western Australia.

Tech. degree and a PhD in hydroponic greenhouse production from Massey University, New Zealand. Lynette is a partner with SUNTEC International Hydroponic Consultants and has authored five hydroponic technical books. Visit consultants.htm and www.suntec. for more information. Grove Organics, in Northern Kentucky/ Greater Cincinnati. He has a degree in communications and electronic media. He believes that indoor gardeners can achieve the highest quality crops and maximum yields when proper science is applied. Since 1998, Casey has been testing various nutrients and supplements in search of outstanding harvests. DiCon Fiberoptics, Inc., an advanced technology company based in California, for the last 13 years. Brian received his bachelor’s degree in physics from UC Berkeley and master’s degree in physics from UC Davis. He is currently the managing director for Kessil Lighting, a DiCon business division.

Josh Puckett earned his bachelor’s

degree in biology with an emphasis on plant biology from Sonoma State University. He currently works at the UC Davis Foundation Plant Services. He has years of experience in the horticulture and agriculture industries. He also serves as an advisor for the Kessil Research team.


[email protected]

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Nature Technologies International LLC, producers of organic alternatives. She co-authored Adding Biology for Soil and Hydroponic Systems and has compiled and edited The Field Guide I and II for Actively Aerated Compost Tea. Contact 1-415-898-5895, [email protected], products manager at JH Biotech, Inc., a California based agricultural technology company with 27 OMRI certified products. Donald has a master’s degree in agronomy with an emphasis in entomology. He is an agricultural scientist with over 10 years of research experience and 50 scientific publications to his credit.

green thumb as a child, having been born into a family of experienced gardeners. During his career, he has managed a hydroponic retail store and represented leading companies at the Indoor Gardening Expos. Matt has been writing articles for Maximum Yield since 2007. His articles are published around the world.

Soil Foodweb Inc., an international laboratory system that assesses beneficial balance in materials. The major emphasis of her work is to return health to soil, so that natural nutrient cycling and disease suppression mechanisms are present. Contact 1-541-752-5066, [email protected], experience as a professional silviculture grower, vegetable grower and horticulturist. He graduated from Simon Fraser University where he studied photosynthesis in nursery and field settings. Living and working in British Columbia, Canada, Peter participated in growing over 550 million tree seedlings for reforestation programs.

Become a Maximum Yield contributor and have your articles read by 250,000 readers throughout USA, Canada, UK, Australia and New Zealand. Maximum Yield is the largest free-to-consumer indoor gardening magazine in the world. Every issue is available on, which has thousands of unique visitors monthly.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


LETTERS TO the editor

Win Big…Grow Big

Peat Moss in the Mix

This is awesome, plus today is my birthday! Thanks for having such a great contest. If you have any extra light bulbs around, send them my way. Namaste. - Jessica Potter, Broomfield, CO, USA

I really enjoy your magazine, especially the article that Casey Jones Fraser wrote in the January issue titled “Soilless Salvation.” The article stirred up some questions for me. As a fellow soil grower I’m always on the lookout for a good and easy recipe. My question is regarding the peat moss mentioned in the article. Can I pick up a peat moss mix at my local garden center?

Thanks so much! - Darin Sanddar, Whitehorse, YT, Canada This is awesome. - Anthony Jones, New Haven, CT, USA Thanks very much for your happy news. I am really excited; I never win anything. - Dave Bassi, Hamilton, ON, Canada I’m so excited. Much thanks to you Maximum Yield. Great magazine! - Catherine Lee, Oakhurst, CA, USA Wow, this is great news! - David Wilkey, Falls Church, VA, USA I am so excited to win. I can’t wait to try out my new grow pot. Your magazine is great and you have very informative articles. I really enjoy and look forward to reading your upcoming issues. I always learn something new. Well keep up the good work and thanks for having this contest and giving out some great free stuff. Going green in Cali. - Paul Garces, Modesto, CA, USA I wanted to thank Maximum Yield for the Geo Humus soil conditioner that I received as part of the Win Big...Grow Big contest. I have already put it to good use. Thank you once again. - Alfredo Cardoch, Raleigh, NC, USA My goodness! Thank you so much! - Curtis Ingleton, Hamilton, ON, Canada This is awesome! I am so excited I won. - Katie Hilton, Hilliard, OH, USA

And you can win too.Visit and enter by April 15 for your chance to win the latest grow gear.

via Facebook

Buzzin’ About Maximum Yield

“Man I love this mag. I work at a supply shop in Montana and the info from your mag helps me better explain procedures and products.” - Bo Stephens “Thanks for all of the great articles and valuable information! Education is the way to achieve maximum yields. Keep on keeping the growers on top of the latest industry news.” - SD Hydro “Just got the February USA issue and the Jan/Feb Canada issue in the mail today. Looking forward to reading both of them!” - Emily Walter “Stop in to Autumn Bloom Hydroponics for your free copy of this amazing magazine! We are Central Illinois premiere hydroponic/ organic gardening store!” - Autumn Bloom Hydroponics 12

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Anthony Arballo

In “Soilless Salvation” I list one of the ingredients as “a peatbased mix.” That means any potting mix that is largely made up of peat moss. If you use plain peat moss, the soil will hold much more moisture than if you were to use a peat-based mix. I prefer a well-draining mix, so I don’t use plain peat moss. Another detail I would like to point out: this is not soil, but rather a soilless mix. True soil comes out of the ground, and you never know what’s in it. With a soilless mix, you can check the ingredients list. Soil is all guesswork, but there is no guessing here. With this recipe, I have tuned in perfect levels of pH, water holding and drainage. No guessing...I know exactly what’s in it! Maximum Yield Contributor: Casey Jones Fraser

Studious Hydroponic Enthusiast I am interested in any and all literature that you have on hydroponics and getting started in hydroponics. Thank You Leah Larsen

Maximum Yield magazines are a wealth of knowledge on all things hydroponics, indoor gardening and organics. I encourage you to pick up the latest issue of Maximum Yield at your local indoor gardening shop for free (a distributor listing is available at the back of every magazine). All of our publications are available for free online at, including 12+ years of articles related to modern gardening topics. I also invite you to follow us on Twitter ( and on Facebook ( Maximum Yield reserves the right to edit for brevity.

We want to hear from you! Write us at: Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 or Email us at: [email protected]

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Coming up on the Web Upcoming Events

Maximum Yield’s 2011 Indoor Gardening Expo tour will be making a stop in vibrant Vancouver, British Columbia—the host of this past year’s world-class Olympic Games—May 14 to 15, 2011 at the PNE Forum. This event offers education and entertainment rolled into one. We look forward to seeing you all in Vancouver in May. Countdown with us to this first-class Canadian event on

Contests Just 15 days remain to enter for your chance to win Boldtbags 20 gallon, eight bag kit; Orca Grow Film, Sunshine Systems GlowPanel 45 LED and a subscription to Maximum Yield. Enter online at

Salad slaves, floating gardens, calorie crops and tomatoes that live longer on the shelf are highlighted in this month’s latest news online. Connect to instantly from your Smartphone with our Quick Response (QR) Code, found on the cover of every issue of Maximum Yield. Now you can access the best products, the most in-depth articles and information and the latest news, at high speeds. Simply download the QR Code Reader software compatible with your Smartphone, scan the QR Code and your phone’s browser will automatically launch, redirecting you to It’s that simple!

Publication Agreement Number 40739092 Printed In Canada.

PRESIDENT/PUBLISHER - Jim Jesson GENERAL MANAGER - Don Moores BUSINESS MANAGER - Linda Jesson EDITOR - Jessica Raymond [email protected] ADVERTISING SALES 250.729.2677 Linda Jesson - [email protected] Lisa Lambersek - [email protected] Ilona Hawser - [email protected] Ashley Heppell - [email protected] Christina Indseth - [email protected] PRODUCTION & DESIGN [email protected] Mike Linden - [email protected] Daniel Peters - [email protected] Tina Skujins - [email protected] Jennifer Duong - [email protected]

USA DISTRIBUTION Aurora Innovations BWGS, BWGS West and BWGS East General Hydroponics Hydrofarm Hydro International National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply R&M Supply Tradewinds CANADIAN DISTRIBUTION Brite-Lite Group Biofloral Eddis Wholesale Greenstar Plant Products Inc. Hydrotek MegaWatt Quality Wholesale UK DISTRIBUTION Growth Technology Hydrogarden Northern Hydroponic Wholesale Nutriculture UK AUSTRALIAN DISTRIBUTION House N Garden Futchatec Growth Technology Hydraspher

Tell us what you think at [email protected] We’d love to hear from you. Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield is published monthly by Maximum Yield Publications Inc. 2339A Delinea Place, Nanaimo, BC V9T 5L9 Phone: 250.729.2677; Fax 250.729.2687 No part of this magazine may be reproduced without permission from the publisher. If undeliverable please return to the address above.

ACCOUNTING - Lee Anne Veres [email protected]

Latest News



VOLUME 12 – NUMBER 1 April 2011

The views expressed by columnists are a personal opinion and do not necessarily reflect those of Maximum Yield or the Editor.

Vancouver, B.C. Expo 2011

Connect with Maximum Yield


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


SIMON says

Hey Simon, It’s my understanding that humic acid is a great source of carbon for plants and that it’s readily absorbed by plant roots. If one is using humic acid in their nutrient stock tank, can they cut back on the amount of CO2 injection in the grow room atmosphere? Thanks, Craig

An interesting question Craig, and I can see where you are coming from. The short answer is that humic acid cannot replace carbon dioxide.You are correct in the assessment that humic acid can provide carbon dioxide but it’s in an indirect manner, not directly from this carbon based substance. Humus is a degraded form of organic material high in carbon; in essence it is fully digested organic material that resists further decay. However, soil microbes can be stimulated by its presence and this activity will release low levels of CO2 as the soil life breathes. Continue adding carbon dioxide to your growing area in the range you are trying to achieve, and don’t adjust for the microbial increase. If you want to, it is possible to measure activity in the soil with specific equipment but in an indoor growing area


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

it is unlikely that microbe activity would provide more than a negligible level of CO2. It is absolutely correct that humic acid is beneficial to plants’ roots (and functions), but also to soil and microbes. Humic acid is an extract derived from ancient deposits of organic matter. In current top soils it exists as humus, and both humus and humic acid are great for plant roots. Humic acid has an extremely high cation exchange capacity and this alone is of great benefit. In its simplest terms humic acid gathers a variety of nutrients and then shuttles them into the plant very efficiently. On top of this, new research suggests that if the substance moves through the root system and into the plant it has similar effects to some plant hormones. Although the mechanism still eludes us, this is a very interesting development in understanding this complex substance. The biodiversity in the rhizosphere expands more rapidly in its presence, which provides vast indirect benefits due to microbial secretions such as growth regulating substance, organic acids, disease suppressing compounds and unique carbohydrates such as glomalin. On a related point, if you are trying to create an aerobic compost tea for disease prevention, new research suggests you should be taking out the molasses and using a blend of humic acid and kelp as the catalyst for bioactivity. When choosing a humic acid there are many options but for those of you running a true water system I would choose a low molecular weight humic fraction product generally referred to as fulvic acid. For more information be sure to check in at your local shop to review the variety of brands and extraction methods available. MY

botanicare FULL PAGE

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Calorie Crops: Planting a Garden to Feed a Family As more and more of us turn to local, small farms, CSAs or our own garden plots to fulfill at least part of our dietary needs, there are a few things we should all be growing to provide ourselves with more than just salads. Salads are great, but “calorie crops” are the way to go if the goal is feeding yourself and your family more often from your own garden. Calories crops include: • Potatoes • Corn • Beans • Wheat • Winter Squash What’s so great about calorie crops? 1. They fill you up: a potato or a half of a baked winter squash will give you more energy than a plate of lettuce. 2. They are generally less work: plant them, water them occasionally and harvest them; these crops work for the gardener. 3. They are endlessly versatile: Potatoes can be stored for quite a while and then used throughout the year in a variety of ways—even ground into flour. Corn can be eaten fresh, canned or dried and ground into corn meal or corn flour. Winter squash stores well for months and can be used in a variety of ways. Squash can even be dried to make for an even longer storage time. And beans will keep for years in jars in your pantry, ready to be cooked into soups, stews or as a meal unto themselves. (Source:

Plants and Pets Our gardens are places where our pets spend much of their time, but often the two do not go together. There are hundreds of commonly grown plants that are highly toxic to dogs and cats. Pets are curious, exploratory and they love chewing a large range of plant material. Just because we can eat something does not mean that it is safe for our pets. For example, Macadamia nuts, although delicious to us, are toxic to dogs. Check out these links: Plants toxic to dogs ( Plants poisonous to cats ( (Source:

Floating Garden A new system devised by horticulturists at the University of Florida makes growing vegetables hydroponically simple and easy. The Styrofoambased Floating Garden grows crops above ground for a grit-free harvest. Visit for more information on how to build a floating garden. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




hydroponic news, tips and trivia

A Fertile World Anniversary Celebration Humboldt County’s A Fertile World retail shop celebrated their anniversary with a high flying act from Humboldt Nutrients’ sponsored pro freestyle motocross rider, Julian Dusseau. A Fertile World was proud to make this a community event in Humboldt County. Leading industry reps from Hydrofarm, BWGS, Humboldt Nutrients, Smart Pots, Gold Label, Gavita Lighting, VermiCrop and many more were on hand for the extravaganza. A Fertile World has Julian Dusseau three convenient locations spread out in Humboldt County and has just recently opened their fourth shop in beautiful Marin County, CA. You can see this great new location from the major Interstate 580 in San Rafael, CA. Visit to learn more.

Ultraviolet Light Boosts Carrots’ Antioxidant Value Exposing sliced carrots to UV-B, one of the three kinds of ultraviolet light in sunshine, can boost the antioxidant activity of the colorful veggie, according to preliminary studies. The carrot investigation suggests that a moderate, 14 second dose of UV-B can boost fresh, sliced carrots’ antioxidant capacity by about threefold. The dose is energy-efficient and does not significantly heat or dry the carrots. Scientists have known for at least a decade that exposing plants to UV-B may cause what’s known as abiotic stress. That’s what probably happened with the sliced carrots. Plants respond to the stress by revving up their production of two natural enzymes, one with the tongue-twisting name of polyphenylalanine ammonia-lyase, and the other known as chalcone synthase. As production of those enzymes increases, levels of phenolic compounds—antioxidants synthesized by the enzymes—also increase. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Earth Will be “Unrecognizable” by 2050 A lot has changed in the last 40 years and according to researchers, in another four decades things will be markedly different, too— unrecognizable, even. Earth in 2050 will be home to an estimated nine billion people, and the planet will be forced to change in order to accommodate them all. What can we all expect from a future with more than a few additional planet-mates: • The swelling population will exacerbate resource depletion. • Incomes are expected to rise over the next 40 years, tripling globally and quintupling in developing nations, adding more strain to global food supplies. • People tend to move up the food chain as their incomes rise, consuming more meat than they might have when they made less money. (It takes around seven pounds of grain to produce a pound of meat, and around three to four pounds of grain to produce a pound of cheese or eggs). “More people, more money, more consumption, but the same planet.” -Jason Clay of the World Wildlife Fund (Source:

Tangerine Tomatoes Surpass Reds in Preliminary Lycopene Study Ounce for ounce, heirloom tangerine tomatoes might be a better source of a powerful antioxidant called lycopene than are familiar red tomatoes. (Source:

Live Happier by Living Healthier In Denton, Texas Colbie Dunn and Rachel Walker, owners of Organic Garden and Feed, are dedicated to spreading the incredible advantages of growing food and herbs sustainably with hydroponics and organics. Address: 3801 N. Interstate Hwy. 35, Suite #126 in Denton, Texas Web: Phone: 1-940-381-9890 26

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Quick-Growing Vegetables for the Impatient Gardener All of these quick-growing vegetables are sure to satisfy even the most impatient gardener. Best of all, by adding them to your garden, you ensure that you will always have something to harvest. Mesclun Great addition to salads Radishes Project for kids Asian Greens Exotic foliage Wheat Grass Super nutritious Bush Beans Perfect for containers (Source:

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Would Millennium Consumption Goals Help Rich Nations Reduce Their Eco-Impact? Millennium Consumption Goals, as suggested by Worldwatch Institute: 1. Halve obesity and overweight rates by 2020. This will reduce mortality, morbidity and economic costs, as well as reduce ecological pressures driven by overconsumption of food. 2. Halve the work week from the current 40+ hours per week to 20 hours per week. This will better distribute jobs, wealth, promote healthier living and reduce economic activity, which is essential in our ecologically taxed world. 3. Better distribute wealth by raising taxes on the wealthiest members of society. To those given much, much is expected in return. The days of extreme wealth spent on luxurious living must draw to a close. The Earth can't handle it any longer. 4. Double the rate of use of non-motorized transport (bikes, walking, etc.). Increasing these forms of transport will improve health, reduce fossil fuel and material use and make for safer cities. 5. Guarantee access to health care for all. A minefield in the USA, but standard procedure in most industrial countries so that'll be an easy goal for most countries to achieve. The goal for Worldwatch is to add three more to that list. Some already suggested are: creating new measures for assessing the economy; internalizing externalized environmental and social costs into consumer prices; halving the amount of meat consumed; halving the number of coalfired power plants; and more. (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




hydroponic news, tips and trivia

Finding a Polyamine Way to Extend Tomato Shelf Life Tomatoes spend so much time on shelves and in refrigerators that an estimated 20 per cent are lost to spoilage, according to the U.S. Department of Agriculture. (Source:

Demand for Greens Leading to Salad Slaves Last week The Guardian exposed one of the dirty secrets of Europe’s insatiable demand for fresh salads 52 weeks of the year. In the south of Spain, thousands of hectares of arable land are covered with greenhouses, and inside those greenhouses, the under-employed of Africa and Eastern Europe labor at low wages to help deliver those hothouse veggies to the colder cities of the North. It’s an industry worth €2 billion annually to Spain, making it unlikely that it will go away any time soon. But is it any different here in the U.S.? In any supermarket, even the beautiful, packed-with-organic markets, the acres of sparkling produce include lots of fruits and vegetables imported from hundreds, if not thousands of miles away. Generally, that produce is harvested by farm workers making a lot less than minimum wage in any of the countries the veggies and fruits are destined to end up in. MY (Source:


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

GUIDE TO THIS MONTH’S HOTTEST ITEMS YOUR Ask for them at your local indoor gardening store. Baseline Liquid From Vital Landscaping Baseline Liquid is an incredible, stand alone compost tea (in a bottle). It is a great microbial inoculant, as well as an excellent source of humic, fulvic and ulmic acids. Baseline Liquid will increase your beneficial micro-organisms, which will strengthen your plants’ immune systems and fight disease, pests and pathogens. When using Baseline Liquid you will notice the plant’s ability to uptake nutrients will increase, and therefore need less NPK based fertilizer to achieve better results. Baseline Liquid can also be added to an existing nutrient program and as an ingredient in compost teas or extracts. Visit an indoor/outdoor garden shop to learn more.

New 55 Gallon Drum Now Available at Authorized Hydrofarm Retailers

New From Nutriculture - EF100 Low Level Ebb and Flood System

Hydrofarm’s high quality multi-purpose 55 gallon blue drum comes with a solid natural cover and bolt ring closure. These drums are brand new and have never been used; they are undrilled and are excellent for storage purposes, reservoirs or even reverse osmosis systems. These drums have a 55 gallon nominal capacity and a 57 gallon actual capacity with a wall thickness of 2.2 millimeters. They are made of a high molecular weight high-density polyethylene and FDAapproved resin. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you.

From Europe’s #1 hydroponic system manufacturer comes a new take on the tried and tested four by four ebb and flood table. The EF100 system features a four by four table set directly on a low level, 22 gallon reservoir. At just nine inches tall the system offers maximum headroom under lights, allowing plants to grow big. The table features strengthening ribs for ultimate stability and security when using heavy pots and growing media. The EF100 is one of the most flexible systems on the market. You can set floods on a timer to suit the lifestage of the plants. EF100 is a great vegging system for large scale growers and the ideal full cycle system for smaller scale, one lamp growers. For more information visit your local indoor gardening shop.

Botanicare Launches Hydrolite™ Grow Media Amendment Botanicare’s popular nutrients and fertilizers provide commercial and urban growers with valuable, long-lasting nutrition resulting in vigorous yields. Now, Botanicare® has developed Hydrolite™, a new grow media amendment that works like a plant’s nutrient storage bank, helping manage the availability of nutrients essential for plant growth. Hydrolite is a highly porous, non-toxic and reusable aggregate grow media composed of natural crystalline structures that accelerate growth by optimizing root oxygen levels through absorption and release of nutrients as needed by plant roots. Available in 12 quart and one cubic foot bags in four to six millimeter and 15 to 20 millimeter stones. Ask your local indoor gardening shop for Hydrolite today. 32

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Expedite Filtration With the Small Cone Kit From Boldtbags The Boldtbags Small Cone Kit speeds up filtration with the total micron lining and tapered construction. They’re made with the same full micron spectrum as the regular Boldtbags. Available in three, four and eight bag kits, the small cones fit standard five gallon buckets. Order Boldtbags’ Small Cone Kit from your local gardening shop today.

Maverick Sun Puts its Biggest Foot Forward Size does matter. The long awaited Big Foot Reflector is here for 2011.The Big Foot is designed to give a big eight by eight foot footprint. The Big Foot features a 44 by 31 inch computer designed reflector system that will give users great cross penetration between plants. Designed for medium to large grow spaces. Hinged with heavy duty safety chains to easily change lamps and clean your reflector. Completely air tight for controlled environment grow rooms. Comes in six and eight inch ducts. The rubber silicon gasket gives years of quiet operation and no air leak. Glass and cord included. Visit your favorite gardening shop for more information.

Bucket-less Filtration With Boldtbags Suspension Kit The Boldtbags Suspension Kit is essential for easy bucket-less filtration using five, 20 or 32 gallon bag sets. Military-grade nylon webbing and reinforced stitching guarantee its strength. The three foot extensions simply connect to the grommets of Boldtbags, with a nine foot length to secure over your leverage of choice. Order Boldtbags’ Suspension Kit from your local gardening shop today. 34

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this month’s hottest items.

One Ounce Pump Dispensers Let us offer you a world of convenience with our one ounce Pump Dispensers. Offered in two sizes, simply attach the dispenser to your favorite one gallon or 2.5 gallon jug of nutrients or liquid plant food and pump away. A single pump dispenses one ounce of liquid. It’s as simple as that! Constructed from polypropylene and stainless steel for durability and maximum chemical compatibility, these dispensers offer a threaded body for easy disassembly and sanitary cleaning. These one ounce Pump Dispensers offer you the ultimate in flexibility for providing your plants with the perfect amount of liquid nourishment. Visit your favorite gardening shop for more information.

The New SunBlaster T5HO Lamps The new edition Sunblaster T5HO lamps have been reengineered incorporating the most advanced on-board electronics in the industry. T5HO lamps are now driven at optimum temperatures, lowering heat production and extending lamp life. These improvements ensure every SunBlaster T5HO provides maximum performance and light output. Plus, pair the new T5 High Output Lamp with SunBlaster’s NanoTech T5 Reflector and you have the most advanced T5HO lighting system available today. The end result? Bigger, healthier plants faster. Even we were amazed by their combined performance. Ask for the SunBlaster T5HO Lamps from your favorite indoor gardening store today.

Clear Royale From Microbrewed Fertilizer Clear Royale is a premium flushing product designed to aid in the correction of over feeding and salt buildup in your growing medium. The Microbrewed Fertilizer Company uses a special blend of chelating and sequestering agents that are combined in a formula to give our Clear Royale a claw-like effect that actually binds to minerals and allows you to flush them out. This specially blended solution allows other mineral ions to stick to its unique structure and carries them out of the plant or growing medium. When Clear Royale is used in a more concentrated form it is a perfect product to clean emitters, pumps and other growing equipment. Visit your local indoor gardening store for more information.

Gaia Green Joins Greenstar’s Line-up Greenstar Plant Products is always thrilled to promote organic products as a great alternative to the many chemical products currently on the market today. Gaia Green is an exciting addition to our organic fertilizer offerings. Gaia Green Products Ltd. has been manufacturing a complete line of premium organic fertilizers and soil amendments since 1990. Their fertilizer blends are formulated using the finest organic and mineral inputs to ensure a complete balance of nutrients, resulting in the ultimate in plant vitality. All products are free of synthetic fertilizers and pesticides. All Gaia Green Fertilizers are environmentally friendly, acceptable for organic certification and GMO free. Gaia Green’s top sellers include All Purpose 4-4-4, Power Bloom 2-8-4, Glacial Rock Dust and Living Soil. For more information visit your local indoor/outdoor gardening store.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this month’s hottest items.

For Xtreme Gardening® Odors Use Odor-X Carbon Filters Brite-Lite’s Odor-X carbon filters are made from RC-48, the largest granulate size of Australian activated certified carbon. Anything smaller adds weight and reduces airflow. With lightweight aluminum bases and tops and a slim, compact design, handling, installation and adjustments are a breeze. All Odor-X filters include a custom fit, high-quality pre-filter. Competitively priced and available in a large variety of sizes, the Odor-X eliminates all types of odors. If you want an odorless grow space, ask for the Odor-X brand of carbon filters from Brite-Lite. Visit your favorite indoor gardening shop for more information.

Vital Fish Hydrolyzate New From Vital Landscaping Our Vital Fish Hydrolyzate is an incredibly affordable and versatile nutrient. It is rich in omega fatty acids with a very high oil content. This fish oil is an incredible food for beneficial microorganisms in the soil. Having a balanced microbial population is obtainable when using a compost tea or biological extraction program. Our Vital Fish Hydrolyzate also has a 2.0–0.5–0.3 NPK, which provides nutrients that are readily available to your plant. You feed the microbes, which in turn makes the NPK more available for the plants to absorb. Visit your favorite indoor/outdoor garden shop for more information.

Oakton Enhances 6+ Series Handheld Meters Redesigned and even easier to use, these compact meters are an economical choice for testing the quality of wastewater, surface water, ground water or drinking water. The updated 6+ Series meters offer fast and accurate results in a light, compact design. The Oakton pH 6+ Meters feature up to five point push-button calibration with auto-buffer recognition and easy-to-use display of pH, mV and temperature. The Ion 6+ Meters offer a direct readout of ion concentration, with preprogrammed ion calibration points. The CON 6+, TDS 6+ and SALT 6+ Meters supply auto-ranging conductivity or TDS with temperature measurements. The DO 6+ Meters have a low-maintenance, galvanic probe that requires no warm-up time. Visit an indoor gardening retailer to learn more.

Hudson Bak-Pak® Four Gallon Sprayer Now at Authorized Hydrofarm Retailers The Hudson Bak-Pak® four gallon sprayer has many professional grade features including an extra large fill opening to prevent spills and a braided power sprayer style hose. The sprayer also boasts an extra long 20 inch spray wand a bonus nozzle system with four spray settings (single cone, double cone, single fan, double fan) and a large poly shut-off valve that’s comfortable and thumb operated for ease of use. Perfect for all your bigger jobs, the sprayer has a powerful piston pump that allows for left or right handed use. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you. 38

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Your guide to this month’s hottest items.

Sun Blaze® T5 Very High Output (VHO) Fluorescent Lighting Fixtures Sunlight Supply®, Inc. is pleased to announce the release of the new Sun Blaze T5 Very High Output (VHO) Fluorescent Lighting Fixtures. These four foot fixtures come in four and eight lamp configurations. Each fixture includes wire hangers and can be installed for vertical or horizontal operation. Both fixtures offer a 12 foot power cord and an on/off switch for easy operation. The eight lamp model offers two on/off switches to allow the user to run four or eight lamps at one time. Free pre-installed Spectralux 6500° K VHO Lamps are included with each fixture. VHO lamps offer 7,200 lumens at 95 watts each. Visit your favorite indoor gardening shop for more information.

Frosty Mug I.P.A. Frosty Mug I.P.A. from Microbrewed Fertilizer is a craft brewed formulation designed to give our customers a noticeable edge in overall finished quality and an increase in yield. This high end flowering booster uses natural plant stimulants to maximize the aroma and intensify the taste of fruits. Frosty Mug dramatically increases sugar production and noticeable results can typically be seen within three to four weeks from flower formation. The end result is a premium product with a savory taste. Frosty Mug combines perfectly with our flagship high powered Black Magic Extra Stout. A synergy is realized when the high energy value of the Black Magic is combined with the uncommon flowering stimulators found in our Frosty Mug. Visit your local gardening shop for more information.

The New NanoTech T5 Reflector by SunBlaster SunBlaster Lighting engineers used the most advanced reflective surface available for this reflector. Made possible only through the application of nanotechnology, this revolutionary reflective surface has the ability to capture lost light (99 per cent), and simultaneously convert that light into the brightest, most brilliant light we have ever produced. The metallic crystal layer within the reflective surface helps spread the T5 light across the plant canopy diffusing it deep into the plant foliage. The NanoTech T5 increases lumen availability up to 300 per cent. The NanoTech T5 Reflector is made exclusively for the New SunBlaster T5HO. Order the NanoTech T5 Reflector from your favorite indoor gardening retailer today.

Vital Earth 1-1-17 Kelp New From Vital Landscaping This soluble kelp extract is an amazing multi-functional ingredient that is a must for every gardener’s tool box. It can be used as a stand-alone foliar spray. It is a necessary ingredient in compost tea, and a perfect addition to your regular fertilization schedule. Ascophyllum Nodosum is a species of kelp found only in certain regions of the Atlantic Ocean. It is an incredible microbial food and also an extremely soluble source of potassium. Your plants will respond to the application of this kelp immediately. Simply add the dry kelp powder to your tea or reservoir and it will dissolve instantly. Visit an indoor gardening shop to learn more. 42

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

PWX240S Sequenced Power Expander From Solatel

Pure Food Gardening Introduces Brand New Microclone Rack Tray

Control six 1,000 watt, 240 volt lamps with the PWX240S Sequenced Power Expander from Solatel. A six foot, 10 gauge power cable connects to 240 volt 30 amp service. The six foot trigger cord plugs into 120 volt controller or timer (not included) drawing very little current. Trigger switches current from power cable to outlets. Outlets are sequenced with 20 second on and five second off delay between pairs. This reduces power line problems. Visit your favorite gardening shop for more information.

The Microclone Rack Tray fits into standard chrome and steel racks and holds prop trays neatly in rows of as many as four per shelf. Fluorescent fixtures, especially T5s, fit naturally in the plant shelves. Until now, growers watered and drained trays by hand. Clone trays can now be removed, replaced and moved with ease. The Microclone Rack Tray is 45 by 25.5 inches to fit all common rack units. The Rack Tray has a flat bottom and thin raised ridges for plenty of drainage and easy cleaning. Dual drain wells in the two front (or back) corners allow for optional drain/watering systems. A single shelf or an entire rack can be outfitted with rack trays, drain fittings and tubing for easy-drain watering. Ask your local indoor gardening shop to carry the new Microclone Rack Tray. Continued on page 154

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Boosting the

Bloom by Lee McCall


n “building the veg” (february 2011) I demonstrated how vigorous rooted cuttings could be encouraged to evolve into powerhouse adolescents with strong structure and flawless foliage. This article will take us to the next level—we’ll see how these same plants can now transition, stress-free, into flowering, supplemented with


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

only the highest quality nutritional elements engineered to stimulate overall fruit/flower mass and essential oil production. The end result, if carried out correctly, should be strong insect- and disease-free plants that possess healthy, dense foliage and plenty of potential fruit sites, and that will eventually yield heavy, copious harvests of high-quality, prime-grade produce.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Boosting the bloom

Transition The initial transition from vegetative growth into flowering may induce stress on certain varietals and hybrids. Grow room factors such as ventilation, carbon dioxide enrichment and lighting may influence various growth patterns as well. Flowering is often autonomous in many different crops, though, and these types may not exhibit shock symptoms from light deprivation, transplanting or switching base nutrients from grow formulas to those intended for flowering/fruiting/blooming. Initial root health is always a major contributing factor to what will be produced as a final product. Ensuring there is plenty of room for root expansion once a plant is induced into the flowering phase is imperative for allowing it to grow and mature, as bigger roots are needed to support the mass quantities of blooms and foliage that are produced during crop flowering cycles. If root growth is restricted, growth is stunted and yield may ultimately suffer. Growers using container gardening techniques with soil, coco or soilless mixes may benefit from conducting the initial (seedling or cutting) vegetative growth cycle in smaller volume containers (one half gallon to one gallon), and later upgrading to larger ones as needed for mature (three to eight week-plus) plants that become root bound. Once a plant is root or pot bound, overall growth is slowed dramatically. A variety of aeration containers are available in both fabric and injection molded types to prevent root circling, the main cause of root binding. These containers promote feeder root growth through root pruning, a technique that uses air to singe off root tips as they pierce through the fabric walls or into open pockets in the injection molded containers. As the root tips die off from the air, the resulting effect is dramatic feeder root stimulation. This technique is similar to topping and


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

cropping plants in order to achieve more tops and fruiting sites. Transplanting may be performed the same day that the crop is induced into

“Depending on the style of system and method implemented, transplanting completely unnecessary.”

flowering, or delayed so that the plant has time to adjust and settle into its ‘new home’ prior to beginning the bloom phase. Hydroponic growers making effective use of grow blocks, hydroton, silica rock or PET-1 as their choice of grow medium may achieve much larger plants and yields with much less grow medium in comparison to soil or soilless grow substrates. Depending on the style

of system and method implemented, transplanting may also be completely unnecessary. For example, many DWC (deep water culture) and aeroponic systems are engineered to harbor small and large (six foot-plus) plants without having to transplant at all, due to self-contained reservoirs able to hold adequate amounts of nutrient solution over a given period of time. In drip irrigation and the occasional flood and drain system, four inch and six inch grow blocks will usually accumulate prolific root masses over the course of a two to four week veg cycle.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Boosting the bloom

These root bound blocks may be placed on grow slabs, coco coir mats or PET-1 mats in order to allow the roots extra room for growth and to provide simultaneous protection from light and direct air. Mesh-bottom containers and net pots full of other grow mediums may also be placed on rooting mats in order to promote the same effect as grow blocks. A mycorrhizal inoculant or a compost tea heavy in beneficial bacteria, nematodes and protozoa should be incorporated in order to promote rapid root growth and healthy disease-free foliage and to deter transplant shock. Granular forms of Mycorrhizae are recommended for soil, coco and soilless container gardening applications, and powder forms are available for hydroponic systems. Always use a dechlorinator and a

sediment filter on the water source to preserve the activity and concentration of all microbial inoculants and teas. Tap water may not render these ‘live’ additives completely useless, but the chlorine, chloramines and heavy metals found in municipal water supplies will definitely ensure the possibility that the additive or inoculants being utilized might not perform to their fullest potential. Finally, shower the garden with a high quality seaweed (Ascophyllum nodosum) supplement when inducing the switch from veg into bloom. This luxuriant sea plant has been known to encourage fruit site development and bud sets in many crops—compared to controls without treatment—when first introduced into a flowering regimen. Many plants will triple in size once set into flowering as long as they are given desirable conditions and adequate space for the roots and foliage to grow into.

Bulking with P/Ks In weeks two through eight of the flowering stage it is important to be consistent and ensure that the crop does not fall victim to pest and mildew infestations, nutrient overdoses or deficiencies as their root masses grow.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Any one of these important factors— along with others—could be responsible for the failure of what might have been a bumper crop. Bloom-boosting products that incorporate plenty of L-amino acids and high-to-low ratios of phosphorous and potassium to nitrogen will fuel weight gain and aroma in blooms and stimulate sugar production in leaf tissue. ‘Carbo-loading’ is always beneficial during heavy fruiting phases. For growers using beneficial inoculants, these simple and complex sugars boost the levels of microbiological activity in the rhizosphere as they act as a food source for the micro-organisms. In sterile hydroponic

“Organic options may be derived from raw materials like sugar cane, fruit extracts, molasses or malt.”

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Boosting the bloom

“Synthetically treated’— but not necessarily inorganic—products...are some of my favorite products for bulking up produce and adding weight to the end result.”

applications, carbohydrates will enhance flesh density of the produce grown and encourage flavonoids, the metabolites in plants responsible for coloration that also act as antioxidants. Carbs are found in many different natural and synthetically processed forms. Organic options may be derived from raw materials like sugar cane, fruit extracts, molasses or malt. ‘Synthetically treated’—but not necessarily inorganic—products comprised from deoxyribose, lyxose, ribose, xylulose and xylose are some of my favorite products for bulking up produce and adding weight to the end result. Super-concentrated synthetic P/K boosting powder additives are also very popular for incorporating into the feeding during the last weeks before harvest. High percentages of phosphorous and potassium such as a 0-50-30 mix will encourage ripening and last minute bulking in flowers, fruits and vegetables. These additives ‘trick’ the plant (so to speak) by overdosing its system with high amounts of P/K. This effect encourages early flower set when used in the transition weeks of the flowering stage and stimulates essential oil production in the last weeks. Many of these formulas are extremely concentrated, sometimes calling for as little as one teaspoon per five gallons of nutrient solution. Organic guano-based additives will provide similar effects with lower concentrations of N-P-K, an option which might appeal to those who wish to garden completely free of synthetic additives and chemicals. In terms of atmospheric conditions, make sure that there is 52

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

always plenty of fresh air exchange and control over intake and exhaust of the growing space: the ability to control these factors allows the grower complete automation for fine-tuning crop production. CO2 enrichment is also always a plus if available. Whether using compressed gas in bottles or propane/natural gas generators, aim for approximately 1,500 PPM around the plants. Even inducing these conditions in the garden just once a day will benefit your crop—CO2 enrichment will generally increase factors such as growth and overall weight by upwards of 15 per cent. And although not mandatory to achieve incredible results, the introduction of CO2 never hurt anything if properly set up and utilized.

Conclusion In conjunction with simple routine maintenance— like regularly replacing grow lamps, keeping the grow room clean and above all being consistent— the information found in “Building the Veg” and “Boosting the Bloom” should prove to be a useful reference to increase your ability to execute bumper crop production. Moving forward, always conduct controlled experiments with plenty of documentation so that all influential factors can be recorded to determine any gains or losses from new techniques or products thrown into the mix. The information you record over the years as you learn from your mistakes and figure out what works and what’s a waste of time and money will be your most important tool as a grower—and one you might just be asked to pass down to your kids or grandkids one day! MY Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Along with wasabi there are a number of other Japanese herbs and vegetables that are quick and easy to grow indoors and just a little bit unusual. Fiery green wasabi paste is well known to many a sushi lover, and its flavor and heat can become almost addictive. This exotic and expensive Japanese herb has a reputation as being difficult to grow, requiring high-quality cool running water, specific conditions and just the right climate to thrive. In reality, however, wasabi is an almost perfect crop


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

for hydroponics, as in its natural habitat it grows on stony riverbanks and is considered to be semi-aquatic. Hydroponics set-ups that include flowing nutrient (which can be chilled if necessary), coarse-grade growing mediums and control over the environment are just about ideal for this eastern delicacy.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Growing Japanese

to get the greatest kick of flavor from the distinctive volatile compounds before oxidation occurs.

Misome plants growing in an NFT system.

GROWING WASABI Both the leaves and smaller, lowerWasabi japonica, also known as Japanese quality stems of the wasabi plant can be horseradish, is a member of the crucifer or processed into a paste, while the largmustard family, which contains other commonly grown plants such as “Fresh wasabi needs to be watercress, cabbage, cauliflower, broccoli, mustard eaten within 20 minutes of and horseradish.Wasabi preparation, as the volatile has the typical mustard compounds released by or horseradish heat, but it grating dissipate rapidly.” also has a subtly different and distinctive flavor, which is released from the stem tissue when it’s prepared or grated for eating fresh. est, higher-quality and thicker stems are The flavor of freshly grated wasabi is far usually sold whole, with three to four superior to that of the processed product top leaves still attached. Fresh wasabi sold in ready-to-use tubes, but fresh wasabi needs to be eaten within 20 minutes of stems are an expensive (often over US$100 preparation, as the volatile compounds per pound!) item with a limited shelf life. released by grating dissipate rapidly. It is also thought that wasabi contains the Since fresh wasabi has such a limited cancer-fighting isothiocyanate compounds shelf life, wasabi lovers want to be able common to the cruciferous family, many to harvest a suitably sized stem from of which may have medicinal and pharmatheir hydroponically grown plants and be ceutical applications. consuming this within an hour in order 58

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

HYDROPONIC SYSTEMS FOR WASABI For a small wasabi system growing just a few plants, the ideal set-up is one that replicates the natural environment wasabi plants evolved in.Wasabi prefers conditions similar to those we might provide for orchids or ferns: a cool shady area with good air movement under and through the plant’s foliage, and moderate humidity levels with no direct sunlight or bright overhead lights. For those growing indoors this means that wasabi is a crop that doesn’t need a lot of expensive high-intensity grow lamps, and production under compact fluorescents is usually ideal.Think of the conditions under a dense canopy of well-developed trees on a moist, cool riverbank, and that’s what wasabi will thrive in.Wasabi prefers temperatures in the 50 to 68°F range, as conditions warmer than these result in leaf wilting during the day and reduced growth rates, with the plants tending to decline as a result of temperature stress. Wasabi prefers a relatively low EC in the nutrient of 1.0 to 1.2, or slightly lower during warmer weather. Standard grow or vegetative nutrient formulations are usually fine, although this is a crop that needs regular complete solution changes every week for optimum growth. It seems that wasabi is one of those crops that

“For a small wasabi system growing just a few plants, the ideal set-up is one that replicates the natural environment wasabi plants evolved in.”

produces a lot of organic root exudates, which accumulate in recirculating systems, and growth seems to be boosted when the nutrient is replaced regularly. PROPAGATION OF WASABI Once there are mature plants in the system, propagation is relatively easy—mature plants usually produce a number of small offshoots around two to three larger main stems.These can be gently cut or pulled away from the main plant and planted up for new stock. Many of the young wasabi plants or plantlets being sold are grown from these offshoots when the main stems have been harvested.Wasabi can also be grown from seed, although this can be slow and unpredictable as the seed is dormant at harvest and needs a period of cool storage before germination will begin.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Growing Japanese

“Perilla is raised from seed, but the seed must be relatively fresh as viability falls with age and older seed may have low germination rates.”

Wasabi plants can also be raised in tissue culture, which is particularly good for preventing some of the fungal pathogens which can be transferred when offsets are used for propagation. Large-grade wasabi stems suitable for harvest develop over an 18 to 24 month period; however, smaller stems and leaves can be harvested before that for immediate use, and will still have that distinctive wasabi flavor—although not the same degree of heat as a mature stem. As the older leaves develop and age they fall from the stem of the plant, leaving a leaf scar, and it is this increasing length of leafless stem that is the harvestable portion of the plant. Stem thickness ranges from 0.4 to 1.2 inches, and length at harvest is usually at least 5.9 inches. OTHER JAPANESE HERBS AND GREENS Fast-growing greens such as mizuna, mibuna, misome, komatsuna and mustard are all well suited to the same hydroponic systems and conditions that are used for lettuce and other salad crops. Generally these greens are all incredibly

Red and green perilla or `sushi herb’.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Wasabi plants at 10 months old.

fast growing—producing dense clumps of attractive green foliage within a few weeks—and are a nice complement to have alongside wasabi. Perilla, also known as shiso, or the sushi herb, is available in attractive green and reddish purple forms with its appearance resembling that of ornamental coleus plants. Perilla is an essential Japanese herb commonly used as a garnish of whole leaves, sprouted seeds or seedling leaves with cooked dishes, pickles and raw fish. The flavor of perilla is similar to basil, although often milder, with overtones of cilantro. Unlike many other Japanese greens, perilla is not cold-tolerant and requires warm conditions and reasonably high light levels for maximum color development. Temperatures in the 64 to 79°F range produce good growth rates, and in Japan the crop is produced in winter in greenhouses with heating and artificial light. Perilla is raised from seed, but the seed must be relatively fresh as viability falls with age and older seed may have low germination rates. Seedlings for hydroponic systems can be grown in much the same way as basil transplants; in grow cubes or small pots of media with between two to six seedlings per cube being sown. Perilla crops grown hydroponically also need a higher EC than would be used for most herbs: EC levels of 1.6 to 2.0 help Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Growing Japanese

develop and maintain intense red coloration and help keep the plants compact and well flavored. In Japan, perilla is commonly grown as a seedling crop and cut at the 35 to 40 day stage, but plants grown for home use can be cropped for longer, so that the edible flowers can also be used in Japanese cuisine.

“In good growing conditions, smaller Japanese radishes can be harvested in as little as 50 days from sowing, and can then be used grated, steamed, pickled or stir fried for a distinctive hot/sweet flavor.”

Mature wasabi plant showing main harvestable stem and small off-shoots, which are used to propagate new plants.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Other intriguing Japanese vegetables include the radishes, which hold a special place in Japanese cuisine and have multiple uses. Daikon, aomaru, koshin and minowase are all large radish types that can be grown hydroponically, and generally the flesh is succulent, crisp and well flavored if grown rapidly. The long white daikon radish is a large plant, with the root reaching over two pounds in weight in many cases, and is best suited

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Growing Japanese

Young wasabi plantlets being propagated from seed.

Japanese radishes make a great condiment.

Harvested hydroponic wasabi stem ready for use.

to large, deep media beds of coco fiber or similar material, which won’t restrict the expansion of the root. The smaller, round green- and purple-fleshed Japanese radishes take up less space and will grow well in temperatures of 61 to 79°F at shorter day lengths or lighting cycles, as the plants are prone to going to seed (bolting) if long days are encountered. In good growing conditions, smaller Japanese radishes can be harvested in as little as 50 days from sowing, and can then be used grated, steamed, pickled or stir fried for a distinctive hot/sweet flavor. We are no longer restricted to growing

those plants and vegetables suited to the climate and the soil of the area we live in—indoors we can now create pretty much any growing environment a plant is likely to need. Now we are able to

replicate the conditions of a cool, shady Japanese mountain stream, where we can grow succulent wasabi and fresh exotic greens as well as ferns and many other beautiful and relaxing plants.MY


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Sources of information and plantlets:

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


by Matt LeBannister

STRONG STEMS, HEALTHY PLANTS The three main culprits of weak or stretched stems and ways to toughen them up. There are many variables that must be considered when setting out to grow consistently healthy plants. When growing indoors, gardeners must take responsibility for meeting all of their plants’ needs. However, having the right knowledge can give indoor gardeners a big advantage over outdoor growers, because while traditional outdoor gardeners are more or less at the mercy of their local soil and weather conditions, indoor growers have the ability to maximize crop potential by customizing the growing environment to meet their plants’ specific requirements.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Strong stems, healthy plants

Controlling temperature indoors means there are no unexpected spring frosts or protracted heat waves, while having the ability to feed plants frequently with a nutrient solution specifically designed for each stage of growth allows the indoor gardener to fully meet the plants’ nutritional needs. Natural sunlight is replaced by light bulbs designed to mimic the sun, but also to give plants the perfect intensity and spectrum for their particular stage of growth. Plants can be watered frequently and allowed to drain, keeping them from drying out or drowning. The only real disadvantage facing indoor gardeners, in fact, is that they are in complete charge of their crops—if something goes wrong, it’s because they did something wrong, and they can’t blame it on the weather. Weak, limp, discolored or stretched stems are major symptoms that indicate one or more of the needs of your plants are not being met. Weak stems will not transport water and nutrients efficiently throughout the plant, greatly diminishing potential yield. They cannot support large leaves, fruit or flowers and can be damaged easily. Certain conditions affecting the overall health of the plant tend to manifest themselves as afflictions of the plant stem. Most stem problems can be treated and all can be prevented, though—with a little knowledge and foresight.

The most common cause of weak or stretching stems is an inadequate source of light. When plants do not receive light of sufficient intensity for their growing phase they can begin to grow thin and spindly as they stretch towards the light source. The stems of plants left growing on the furthest edge of the range of a light source will often begin to reach toward the middle, and will be noticeably weaker than those directly under the light. This can be remedied a number of ways. Rotating the plants periodically so that they each get equal time directly under the light can help keep stems from stretching. Sometimes just adding reflective material—either mirrored or flat white—around the edge of the growing area can help to keep light in, or you can install an apparatus called a light mover to move the light source around over the garden, effectively distributing light evenly to all your plants. Sometimes all your plants can begin to stretch. This is most likely because the “Weak stems will not transport water light is simply not strong enough. Fastgrowing plants in their vegetative stage and nutrients efficiently throughout require lights that can provide them with the plant, greatly diminishing 2,500 lumens/foot candles of light for potential yield.” 18 uninterrupted hours a day in order to maintain vigorous health and strong stems. Flowering plants need 10,000 lumens/foot candles of light for 12 uninterrupted hours


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Strong stems, healthy plants

a day to produce fruit and flowers to their maximum potential. Each different wattage and type of bulb will have a different output, and since light diminishes exponentially over distance, these two variables must be factored in when determining the right bulb for you and the correct distance to hang that bulb from in order to effectively light your plants. For example, plants growing two feet away from the light source are receiving four times less light than plants one foot away from the light source receive. To tell how much light in lumens your plants are actually receiving from the light source, divide the light output by the distance squared. Nitrogen is another factor that is highly important in leaf and stem development as well as overall plant health. It is a macronutrient that plants need in relatively large amounts—although less so when fruiting or flowering. Nitrogen is largely responsible for the chlorophyll in leaves, making it essential for photosynthesis, and also plays a significant role in the production of certain amino acids and enzymes.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

“Nitrogen is largely responsible for the chlorophyll in leaves, making it essential for photosynthesis.”

When nitrogen reaches toxic levels within the plant, however, certain adverse symptoms may become pronounced. Plants may appear overly green and lush, yet growth will be stunted and fruit may have trouble setting. Stems will become weak and can be easily damaged. They will also be able to be bent over with little resistance, and the tissue in the stem that transports water throughout the plant will begin to break down, restricting the uptake of water by the plant. There are a few causes of nitrogen toxicity. There could be too much nitrogen present in the growing medium or hydroponic solution, in which case flushing the growing medium with straight pH balanced water or with a clearing solution can help rid the medium and plant of the built-up nitrogen. You should also use a quality plant nutrient formula like pine tree oil extract, which is a natural source of nitrogen and relatively safe compared to other nitrogen-rich nutrient additives because the risk of toxicity is low. There is another relatively common disorder that affects the stems of plants during their seedling phase, known as Pythium wilt or damping-off. Seedlings that are afflicted will seem to rot at the point where the stem and the growing medium meet. This is a fungal infection of the plant tissue that will eventually cause the stem to be unable to take up water and nutrients from the roots, causing the seedling to eventually fall over and die.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Strong stems, healthy plants

“Keeping your grow room well ventilated and making sure plants are not spaced too closely together can also reduce the risk of verticillium wilt.”

To prevent Pythium wilt from afflicting your seedlings, plant them in well-drained soil with plenty of light. If the air becomes too stagnant or humid, damping-off is likely to occur. Humidity domes can be used to keep the air and root zone humid while seedlings or cuttings grow, helping to prevent the fragile roots from drying out. Humidity domes should be ventilated or removed once a day for 10 minutes to allow the seedlings or cuttings to be exposed to some dryer air, thus reducing the risk of them damping-off. Using a sterile growing medium can also help prevent Pythium wilt. To sterilize your own soil— this is best done in mid-summer—simply place it in a clear plastic bag and leave it in direct sunlight. The sun will heat up the soil, killing any harmful pests and bacteria. Soil can also be baked in an oven at 350°F for 10 to 15 minutes. Adding a layer of dry material along the soil line will help to keep the surface dry and also reduces the likelihood of fungal growth. Sand, perlite or fine sphagnum moss is ideal for this. Once a couple of weeks have passed, plant stems will toughen up enough for them to no longer be at risk of contracting the damping-off fungus. Another fungal infection that can cause stems to be weak and droop is verticillium wilt. This disorder can affect plants in every stage of growth, although the symptoms of verticillium wilt will most often first appear on the lower and outer parts of the plant. Stems and leaves will become weak and begin to droop, and the interior of the stems may become discolored. Cleanliness is the best way to prevent verticillium wilt. Thoroughly cleaning equipment between crop rotations can help, and sterilizing tools when taking cuttings is essential to prevent the spread of the fungus from one plant to another. This is important since plants are at their most vulnerable when being cut—with the stress involved, and the fact that there is an open wound created, through which the fungi could find easy access to the plant’s vital systems.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Keeping your grow room well ventilated and making sure plants are not spaced too closely together can also reduce the risk of verticillium wilt. There is no cure for this infection, so plants that are noticeably afflicted must be destroyed in order to prevent the transfer of the disease to the remaining healthy plants. There are a number of reasons your plant stems may seem stretched or weak, although insufficient light intensity, nutrient toxicity and disease are the most common culprits. Keep these factors in check and you’ll go a long way toward preventing plant stem problems from ever occurring—which will lead to generations of healthy plants with strong stems. MY

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




How to


Indoor Gnats B Y M i k e T a tt e r s a l l


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Gnats. These tiny yet harmless insects are a common pest nuisance inside the home, especially during warm weather of spring and summer when conditions are ideal for their survival. While there may not be a way to avoid them completely, you can treat the problem once these uninvited guests set up camp in your home. Gnats are commonly found in houseplants and are attracted to ripe fruit and vegetables in your kitchen. In fact, they are in the same family as fruit flies. To keep pesky gnats at bay, follow these simple guidelines. Houseplants that are infested with indoor gnats need to be taken outside. Once outside, take off the top layer of soil and replace with new soil. Gnats breed in the soil, so once you remove the old topsoil, you are effectively eliminating the eggs that will otherwise become more hungry little gnats. Be sure not to overwater your houseplants, unintentionally creating the conditions that gnats love to breed. To kill the indoor gnats that are hanging around your kitchen, there are several things you can do. First, place any fruit and vegetables inside your refrigerator and do not leave food on your counters. Food, especially fruit and vegetables that are left out in the open, are like a big, flashing welcome mat for

gnats. Simply put, gnats need food to survive. If you take it away, they will die. Be sure to store your trash in a sealable container or within a cabinet. If gnats can easily access the food located in your trash, they will continue to feed and thus stay happily satisfied in your home. Take the trash out regularly to keep the old food out of your home and away from tempting hungry gnats. To trap and kill persistent gnats that are still indoors, fill a bowl with vinegar. Gnats love the smell of vinegar and are attracted to it. Seal plastic wrap over the bowl and poke a few holes into the wrap, to create a trap for the

gnats. They will find their way into the vinegar but not be able to get out and will soon die. Refill the bowl with new vinegar as needed. Ammonia can be effective for keeping gnats away from the drain in your kitchen sink where rotting food is likely to be. Pour a little down the drain and do not use your sink for a few hours so the scent is not washed away. Indoor garden stores sell sprays that are specifically formulated to kill indoor gnats. Because these sprays contain pesticides, be extra cautious where you spray them and avoid spraying them in areas where food is served or consumed. (Source: Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


4G Acceleration? Are You Ready for

Spectral Halo Brings LEDs up to Speed by Brian chiang and josh puckett

Advancements in LED technology are moving forward at lightning speed. As LED light output records are broken in rapid succession, it’s no wonder that LEDs are swiftly overtaking traditional methods of lighting across various industries. In fact, LEDs are now projected to eventually become the primary illumination source for most lighting applications.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | March 2011



Four 4G LED grow lights over cucumber plants.

So what is the history of the LED movement and where is it heading? More importantly, though—what does all this mean for the indoor gardening industry? Moore’s Law and Haitz’s Law Today’s LED lighting revolution is often compared to the digital revolution that started in the late ‘60s. Intel’s co-founder Gordon Moore predicted in 1965 that integrated circuits (or computer CPUs) would go on to double in complexity about every two years. This prediction later became known as ‘Moore’s Law’, and 45 years later it remains the standard that manufacturers in the semi-conductor industry strive for. Consumers enjoy the benefits of this ever-increasing digital processing power on their desktop PCs, their laptops and now their numerous mobile devices such as smartphones, tablets and miniscule digital music and video players. Dr. Roland Haitz, a scientist from Agilent Technologies, made a similar prediction for LED technology. He proposed in 2000 that LED light output efficiency would double roughly every two years. Known by people in the LED business as ‘Haitz’s Law’, this prediction is being closely monitored by industry insiders. Haitz’s Law has held up in the past decade, and countless companies have rushed into the LED field for a chance to stake out this new frontier. The energy crisis, in addition to other environmental concerns, has caused governments worldwide to invest in this LED ‘gold rush’. Many governments are now setting policies and allocating research funds to aid in the development and acceleration of this advanced technology. Four important factors—the amazing potential of the technology, enormous market opportunity, massive private-sector investment and public incentive programs—have contributed to 80

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



LED grow lights are at the top end of spectrum-specific LED lights. Not only does wavelength mix matter, light intensity is also critical. On top of that, the environment the lights are expected to perform in may not be the most ideal, so there are many engineering considerations that must be taken into account when designing an LED lighting product for the indoor gardening industry.

Great expectations

Vegetative experiment set-up involving Husky Red cherry tomatoes.

unprecedented and explosive growth in the LED industry. With better, brighter and more cost-efficient LED lighting products appearing every day, consumers everywhere are now able to reap the fruits of this movement.

LED grow lights for indoor gardening LED lighting can be roughly divided into four different levels of applications: decorative lighting (Christmas lights), general lighting (white light), professional-level lighting (stage and theatrical lights) and spectrum-specific lighting (bio and machine vision applications). Each level has its own set of requirements and technical challenges. For decorative lighting, light output is not as much of an issue as cost. When considering general lighting, LED efficiency is the main concern. In professional-level lighting, uniformly mixed colors from different LED chips is a must. And finally, for spectrum-specific lighting, industry requirements come right down to the precise calibration of each wavelength of light. 82

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Most indoor gardeners are extremely passionate about optimizing the efficiency of their operations, and their influence has caused the industry to drastically improve hydroponic growing methods in the past 30 years. When LED grow lights first appeared on the market a few years ago, in fact, it was chiefly the indoor growers who quickly and bravely embraced this new innovation because of their strong desire to see meaningful progress in the science of growing. Unfortunately, many LED grow light sellers understood this mentality and took full advantage of it by making outrageous claims about LED grow light performance. Some vendors published marketing slogans that promised gardeners would be able to “replace a 1,000 watt HID with a 90 watt LED!” Many growers jumped on board with high expectations, but after the LEDs did not perform as warranted, they were left brokenhearted. Not only did these LEDs not save on energy, many were poorly made, causing them to break down quickly instead of lasting the expected thousands of hours. Growers who bought products in this first wave of interest in LED grow lights were often left with such a bad taste in their mouths that many swore never again to use another LED product. Hydroponics storeowners started to call LED salespeople ‘snake oil salesmen’ because LEDs could not possibly live up to the marketing hype. However, the industry is currently undergoing a rapid transformation, with better companies and vastly improved products now beginning to dominate the market.

What’s next? From Christmas lights to 4G spectral halo The personal computer (PC) revolution of the ‘80s went through many stages. Intel came out with countless generations of processors: x286, x386, x486, Pentium, Pentium II and so on. Each new CPU represents another upgrade in computing power

When considering general lighting, LED efficiency is the main concern. In professional-level lighting, uniformly mixed colors from different LED chips is a must.


Husky Red cherry tomatoes under deep purple tomatoes.

and requires a new set of hardware (motherboard, memory chip, etc.) to work with. The same holds true for wireless communications. From the little pager/beeper of the ‘90s, we now have a fully integrated smartphone that can run HD videos on the next generation 4G network. Commercially available LED grow lights have also undergone significant generational changes. The first generation (1G) of LED grow lights in the market were little more than decoration. A mom-and-pop company put together some red and blue LEDs while citing NASA’s LED grow light experiment results and proclaimed a new, energy-efficient way of growing. Growers who experimented with this 1G light were uniformly disappointed with the poor results. When one watt high-brightness LEDs started to appear on the market, a few more companies joined in. These second generation (2G) LED grow lights offered better light output, but the higher-wattage LEDs also gave off more heat. Many of the poorly designed


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



With more reputable companies in the market, growers are also now better able to distinguish the good apples from the bad ones.

grow lights had not taken this into consideration and would burn out quickly, often in a few months. Growers who tried the 2G lights were able to see some benefits in using them, but were frequently discouraged by their unreliability. Through field trials and grow experiments, LED grow light suppliers have now begun to accumulate a better understanding of spectrum as a concept. Together with technology improvements, the third generation (3G) grow light made a drastic leap. Changes were seen in two key areas: larger companies brought in higher-wattage LEDs with active fan cooling, and the concept of spectrum instead of color alone became the focus. In this generation, dense matrix LED technology emerged on the market and became an option for growers who required highintensity lighting. At this point growers really started to pay attention to LED grow lights, noting positive results during the vegetative phase in particular. With more reputable companies in the market, growers are also now better able to distinguish the good apples from the bad ones. The shift to LEDs really got started in this third generation and now it seems they’re poised to dominate the industry. Many are asking, what is after 3G? Is there something new coming out? What will a 4G LED grow light bring? The new dense matrix LED platform is now here. In the 4G LED grow light, a much higher-powered dense matrix LED will deliver significantly greater light output and penetration. To

Husky Red cherry tomatoes from the fruiting experiments.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Results of the vegetative experiments.

manage this high-power device, a brand new cooling system has been introduced and is integrated into the grow light. A specially designed vapor-cooling chamber quickly removes excess heat from the LED core to achieve maximum thermal efficiency. Just as a turbo engine in a car requires an advanced cooling system, the thermal design in the 4G LED grow light must be extremely sophisticated. In addition to this advancement in technology, the range of color in 4G LED lighting has been further refined, with more optimized spectra for different stages of plant growth.

Using the 4G grow light, a deep purple spectrum was created for the vegetative phase. This spectrum has a higher concentration of blue wavelengths, to promote vegetative performance. We used four deep purple LED grow lights and compared the results against conventional lighting systems of higher wattage. Plants grown beneath these LED units displayed larger stem widths, higher rates of branching, higher vegetative biomass and reduced plant height due to internode shortening— which all equates to denser vegetative growth. By emitting PAR-specific wavelengths that cater to chlorophyll production, plants growing beneath these units exhibit a healthier, darker green color than usual. For the reproductive tests, we selected 4G LED grow lights using an optimized magenta spectrum. In the performance comparison against conventional lighting systems of more than twice the wattage, results under 4G LED grow lights showed increased flower production and higher rates of fruit onset and came out ahead in overall yields. In some cases fruit ripened at a faster rate in crops growing under the 4G LED grow lights; in another experiment, bigger fruit was generated.

4G LED grow light experiment We did several experiments using 80 watt 4G LED grow lights with Husky Red cherry tomatoes. Featuring the special vaporcooling technology to draw heat away, this light puts out more than 2.5 times the light intensity of the grow lights we used in previous studies. For this lab study, we grew the Husky Red cherry tomatoes and collected data during both the vegetative and reproductive phases of growth. Experiments were conducted in standard four foot by four foot grow tents, and conditions were monitored on a daily basis.

Plants grown beneath these LED units displayed larger stem widths, higher rates of branching, higher vegetative biomass and reduced plant height due to internode shortening— which all equates to denser vegetative growth.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

A 4G LED grow light. The green represents the new vapor chamber.

The results from growing under 4G LED lighting systems have been very promising, and these successes have encouraged researchers and lighting manufacturers to forge ahead with steps to usher in the next generation of LED grow lights.

The spectral revolution We’ve written quite a few articles on LEDs in the past 12 months. Some readers might be wondering—are you guys done yet? Not only are we not done, we’re just at the beginning! Take hydroponic growing—30 years from its inception, manufacturers still come out with new and better nutrients every year. Growers everywhere continue to test and refine novel growing techniques. By the same token, there are infinite possibilities to be explored with the wavelength-tuning ability of LEDs. LED light output efficiency will continue to increase, and useful new spectrum combinations will continue to be discovered and implemented. So what are you waiting for? Get on board and join the spectral revolution! MY

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




The following easy-to-implement eco-solutions will help you prepare your garden for spring. Although the calendar tells us that every new year begins in January, it’s hard to argue that from a gardener’s point of view the year begins with the first new buds of spring. But everything good that comes out of your garden at harvest time grows from the careful planning and hard work you put in months before, and early spring is the perfect time to put in the effort to ensure success in the months ahead. A small amount of planning now can help provide a continuous flow of food from your garden this coming season. This month also begins the season of dormant pruning of your fruit trees, cane berries, bush berries, grapes and roses. I recommend researching correct pruning techniques for each variety before cutting anything, due to the variety of responses from species to species and the different types of cuts to be made. Take the opportunity of plant dormancy to do hard woodcuttings. This method is the most cost-effective and foolproof way to propagate deciduous woody perennials. Try lilacs, roses, figs and grapes, to name a few. Winter is the best time to mulch and top dress but early spring works too—a thick top dress is always a good idea during late winter rains. A blend of humus concentrates, guano mix, earthworm castings and organic compost will provide your soil and plants with the nutrients they need when getting ready for a new season.You can prevent erosion and protect


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

soil structure by mulching exposed soil, especially if it is sloped. Wood chips, cardboard, straw and newspaper can all help protect bare garden soil from the power of Mother Nature. Environmentally conscious gardeners should be aware of the effects of their garden additives. With miles of aisles of synthetic pesticides and fertilizers to choose from it can sometimes be hard to resist quick and easy answers, but there are solutions out there for healthy non-toxic garden systems. The biologic method of making compost extract and active aerobic compost extract

Take the opportunity of plant dormancy to do hard woodcuttings. This method is the most cost-effective and foolproof way to propagate deciduous woody perennials.

Extractor bags enable you to instantly make compost extract in any type of container. Comprised of quality mesh screen, extractor bags are sized for microbial and nutrient extraction. If active aerobic compost extract is what you’re after, complete kits for making your own compost extract in seven, 15, 55, 300 and 1,000 gallon sizes are available on the market now. These kits include durable, easy-to-clean components that are effective at extracting the most from your compost. Spring is in the air all around us, and now is the time to get your garden ready for the warm weather and abundant harvests ahead. A well-prepared gardener is usually a successful gardener—and isn’t that the kind of gardener you’d like to be? MY will enliven any soil, from an urban backyard to mono-cropped industrial agricultural acreage. Any reputable local grow store should be able to provide all of the proper equipment for producing your own compost extracts to ensure the best results. Extractor bags enable you to instantly make compost extract in any type of container. Comprised of quality mesh screen, extractor bags are sized for microbial and nutrient extraction. Directions and recipes are usually included with these long-lasting durable products.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Are Plants


by Peter Vakomies

Most gardeners would agree that plants are influenced by their environment, but how many of us feel that plants are also conscious of their surroundings? 92

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Animals move quickly, have emotions and react instinctually. Animals—to a greater or lesser degree, depending on their sophistication—think and plan, remember and respond. What do plants do to demonstrate similar levels of awareness?

Are plants “awake” in the day and “asleep” at night? Consider how a plant reacts to day and night. “Waking up” is a big change for a vascular plant. The moment the lights turn on in a greenhouse or grow room, crops undergo a grand shift in molecular and anatomical processes. In C3 plants’ stomata are closed in the dark, so after sunrise they open wide and begin to release moisture into the air. Transpiration starts in the morning, and this could be considered a physiological sign that plants are now awake. At night the stomata close, and the humid exhalation of water vapor stops. Once light levels are high enough, the green photosynthetic membranes inside cells repolarize and metabolic pools recharge and replenish. Chloroplasts heat up and become photoelectric battery (i.e. ATP) chargers and, with the first morning light, daytime biosynthesis begins. At night, with stomata closed, plants cease making proteins that consume energy and enzymes that drive photosynthesis and most other biosynthetic pathways—they reduce metabolism to almost zero as they “sleep”.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Are Plants conscious?

Many of us have seen how sunflowers will track the sun westward until sunset, but did you know they reorient themselves to face eastward before dawn?”

One of the biggest contrasts between day and night for plants involves the concentrations of hormones called phytochromes. These are light-sensitive hormones found in all leaves that essentially wake up the plant’s genetic mechanisms to face the new day when the lights come on. They also control the genetic switches that direct growth by plants, and determine all growth responses such as when plants grow vegetatively or whether they bloom. Phytochromes are the time-keeper hormones in plants, just as melatonin secreted from the pineal gland regulates the sense of time in animals. Although plants have not evolved endocrine glands and neurons, they do sense time in a remarkably similar way using their phytochromes. We can see by this similarity that at least on some level plants share with animals the ability to tell night from day and to measure time in a meaningful way—certainly both basic functions we recognize in “conscious” organisms.

Communication We know that plants can communicate using chemical signals, but does this signify actual consciousness? The ability to communicate—information being sent, received and processed—would seem to imply at least a basic level of chemical awareness in plants. There are two kinds of plant communication that operate by the exchange of chemical signals—above-ground and below-ground. Above-ground communication happens when a wounded shoot causes the release of volatile phenolic compounds such as jasmonic acid and water-soluble salicylic acid. When a plant is attacked by an insect predator it signals


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

to other plants via these airborne biochemicals to increase their immune defences before the pests reach them. This is an example of how plants are aware of what is happening above ground in their whole ecosystem. These volatile compounds have a direct effect on gene expression—new proteins and molecules are made in response to these volatile cues. It seems clear that in this way plants have a broadcast method of communicating to the whole community of plants around them. Below ground as well, a similar exchange of molecules is going on all the time at a very intimate level between individual plants and Mycorrhizae, which are the symbiotic fungi growing inside and between the roots of plants. Separate plants exchange metabolites and chemical resources through their roots using the bridges created by the mycelial growth of Mycorrhizae. These include biomolecules made in the leaves of one plant that are carried via the subterranean network to another plant’s roots. This below-ground movement of biosynthesized molecules between plants is a second form of biochemical communication—the exchanges represent expressions of active growth from the canopy above the ground and are plant-secreted signals that are broadcast underground.

Plant hormones versus neuotransmitters Plant neurobiology, a new field of scientific research, assumes plants possess most of the same fundamental capacities animals use to be conscious. Plant neurobiology is the study of how plants transmit information via fast-acting electrical signals, vessicle-mediated auxin

transport from cell to cell and long-distance communication via volatile phenolics. Plant hormones like auxins, cytokinins and giberellins are used by plants in ways that are identical to how neurotransmitters or neurohormones are involved in animal nervous systems. Auxins are especially comparable to plant neurotransmitters—the molecular structure of the auxin molecule is very similar to mammalian tryptamine neurotransmitters such as serotonin, melatonin and others secreted by the brain. Interestingly, plants also synthesize melatonin and serotonin, which are key animal neurotransmitters. Plant neurobiologists study how hormones like auxins travel up the plant’s cellular network in concentrated waves, forming zones of high auxin content separated by gaps of less auxin, moving at measurable rates of inches per hour. These waves of auxin are perceived by the target tissues all along the distance they travel. After travelling many feet, auxin-waves reach the tips of shoots as pulses of information—information that was sent from the root tips concerning how to grow. Imagine the entire root system as an underground network that communicates to its shoot tips by a variable frequency of slow auxin pulses. Deep underground, the root system’s meristematic tips communicate to the organism’s extreme other end with pulses of hormones, all the way down the stem to where fruits and flowers will eventually form. In higher plants these two ends of the organism are linked by a watery vascular system in which the cellsap, the cytoplasm, is often fused into a continuous apoplasm, a long and very electrically conductive gel, separated by vascular elements and sieve-plates. This vascular network both inside and outside cells is the plant’s nervous system, conducting both neurohormone and electrical signals.

Plants cells as nerves It’s easy to imagine auxin-waves slowly moving up the plant as a primal type of neurotransmission that is “slow” relative to animal nerves. However, plants also use electrical action potentials to send signals. Because of the constant stimuli present in nature, plants are riddled with electrical impulses communicating between cells and tissues. Studies have shown that the fast electrical impulses travelling from a stressed point on a root or leaf cause the genes in other cells in the plant to turn on and make more protective kinase enzymes. These electrical messages are sent within the injured plant and communicate danger along vascular tissues all over the plant from root tip to shoot tip well in advance of the volatile jasmonate warning signals soon to follow in the air.

Plant movement Any intentional movement—such as growing towards or away from stimuli—suggests plants are at least to some degree conscious. Plants move toward light and are affected by gravity and touch through the mechanisms we have worked out called positive phototropism, geotropism and thigmotropism, and each of these movements and growth responses by plants involves the pulsating redistribution of hormones like auxin. Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Are Plants conscious?

The most invasive plant species, like bamboo and morning glory, send exploratory roots through house foundations and under streets and grow shoot meristems all along their length.”

Many of us have seen how sunflowers will track the sun westward until sunset, but did you know they reorient themselves to face eastward before dawn? In

July, when the buds are just starting to form, they are especially phototropic. After midnight, when it is still fully nighttime and dark, Giant Russian

Sunflowers already know to swing their apical floral buds to face 180 degrees the opposite way. It is the auxin pulses in the stem that control this movement, and this vivid example of phototropism does suggest that sunflowers know where to be looking for the sun long before it appears.

Do plants remember? Other expressions of plant growth form massive storage reserves underground— imagine perennial roots as a plantconsciousness memory bank. A type of vegetal “brain” would be multiple plants growing close together, such as a greenhouse crop or a natural ecosystem of


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

plants. Any biodiverse ecosystem sustained by plants has a vegetal brain, and the more species present, the smarter the vegetal brain in that area. Root growth underground is often the longest-lasting part of the plant organism, the last part to die or fade. Could roots be like a kind of memory? Root tips are also exploratory sense organs, looking for water, nutrients and symbionts, and over time this map of root exploration forms a gradually increasing trace or “knowledge” of the soil substrate. Roots could be “learning” about their subsoil environment as they grow, and using their exuded chemical signals to cooperate with symbiotic creatures and to avoid stress and pests as they memorize the area underground for exploitable resources.

Are they conscious? The most invasive plant species, like bamboo and morning glory, send exploratory roots through house foundations and under streets and grow shoot meristems all along their length. Single plants or colonies of clones form a vegetal network of “plant experience” in all environments they are connected to— some trees even send roots into our homes following drainage water courses. Do they “know” what they are after, can they tell friend from foe or are they just blindly reaching for resources? If plant consciousness is like ours, then we should see something that resembles consciousness in their growth habits. For example, can we see something like a plant memory? Do they sleep, do they communicate, are there fast electrical and neurohormonal types of cell-to-cell signaling systems in plants? It would seem that plants do in fact possess all of these traits to some degree. But what about the higher functions of consciousness? Do plants show any ability to predict the future, and do plants “decide” the best choice or course of action? We just don’t know. After growing a few plants anyone might feel intuitively that consciousness is present, but for now it’s in the hands of the plant neurobiologists. MY Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


by Casey Jones Fraser

In Search of the Perfect Grow

(indoor garden beds, soilless mixES and saving money)

If you are looking to simplify your gardening experience while simultaneously producing outstanding yields, keep reading.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



“Most indoor gardeners grow annuals (plants that don’t come back each year), such as tomatoes, peppers and basil. The nature of annual plants involves rooting for one season.” Have you ever noticed how plants grow in nature, versus the way we grow plants in gardens? You won’t find any plastic buckets in a field or a forest. Plants certainly don’t require the containers and pots we grow them in—we only place plants into individual containers for moving and sorting reasons. People are always asking me what is the best size of container for flowering. The answer is almost always, “Bigger than what you are using!”

So let’s talk about the ‘perfect container’. It depends on how you grow your plants. For ebb and flow gardens and for those who prefer aeroponic or deep water culture, the ideas discussed here will not apply. Most indoor gardeners grow annuals (plants that don’t come back each year), such as tomatoes, peppers and basil.The nature of annual plants involves rooting for one season.Trees and other perennials create long, deep root systems to survive the

harsh winter, but annuals root differently. In nature, your annual plants would typically produce roots that grow one foot or more down into the ground, but which might grow several feet outward in diameter. When we place these plants into small containers, or containers that are taller than they are wide, we are fighting nature. Another aspect of allowing wider root growth is the development of branches. When a plant has wide roots, it will respond by putting more weight onto

Overhead view of soilless bed. Four by four foot flood tray with four by four by one foot tray liner.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

sun land garden products half page

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



“Some growers use a small container of soil or soilless mixes, while others use fibrous blocks.”

A four by four foot flood tray lined with a four by four by one foot soft-sided fabric container and filled with commercial soilless mix.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

the outer areas. Growers who use tall skinny pots tend to grow taller, narrower plants. The plant structure somewhat mimics the root structure, so if a plant doesn’t have wide roots, it won’t produce wide branches. In order to survive, the plant concentrates growth on the center to keep from falling over. With a wider root system, large bushy plants can be grown without that concern. So don’t fight evolution—allow the roots to grow in all directions, and the plant will grow that way as well. Now let’s consider practical applications. How do you grow roots in all directions inside your grow room? That’s where the garden bed comes in. I’ve explained why this will give you bigger, shorter, fatter plants—now I’ll show you how to build it, get bigger yields and save money. You will continue to grow your young plants as you normally would in the vegetative phase. Some growers use a small container of soil or soilless mixes, while others use fibrous blocks. Once vegetative plants are ready to be transplanted for flowering, then you can plant them into

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



garden beds. The beds will be the same length and width as your normal garden space, and require eight to 10 inches of well-draining soilless mix. One of the easiest ways to construct this is with a large reservoir. I had a three foot by three foot table with a 35 gallon reservoir for ebb and flow. The reservoir was about three feet by three feet by one foot. With a quarter inch drill bit, I put 100 holes in the reservoir bottom. I sat the reservoir into the ebb and flow table—instead of underneath—and filled. Once in place, I grew successful harvests in that system for two years! Every time I harvested I would pull the root balls, treat the soil and replant in the same reservoir.Yes, you can reuse the same soilless mix, but we’ll


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

A hydroponic flood tray with a four by four by one foot tray liner. Tomatoes vegged for three weeks in an ebb and flow system and now it’s time to flower in the soilless bed.

get to that later. You could build the same garden for a four foot by four foot space using a 75 gallon reservoir, although you would only need about 50 gallons of soilless mix. Just drill out the bottom of the reservoir for drainage and set it into a four foot by four foot flood tray. You will need to use drains and a bucket to catch the runoff. There are some popular 40 gallon reservoirs that fill out a two foot by four foot area, and I have drilled these out and used them successfully as garden beds. In fact, after years of use, they are still churning out high-yield harvests today. I have also drilled out two foot by four foot flood trays and dropped them into identical two foot by four foot flood trays to catch the runoff. Another option is to create a drainage

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



A hydroponic flood tray with a four by four by one foot tray liner. Tomatoes vegged for three weeks in an ebb and flow system and now it’s time to flower in the soilless bed.

layer at the bottom of the bed, with a drain on one end. For example, take a 75 gallon reservoir (48 inches by 48 inches by 12 inches) and add a couple of ¾ inch drains on one end. Then add a two inch layer of perlite and a coconut mat or fabric tray liner. From there, add the eight to 10 inches of soilless mix. Make sure the bed sits at a slight incline so all of the runoff goes down the drains.

Reusing the Mix Gardeners who use beds should take their vegetative plants (in small containers or soilless blocks) and insert them into the bed before the first week of flowering.Vegetative plants will then quickly root out into the soilless mix and begin flowering. After harvest, remove the large root balls at the base of each stem.Your soil must be rinsed of old nutrients and salts before the soilless mix can be reused. Using a rinsing supplement, run gallons upon gallons of water through the bed, then catch some of the runoff and test the ppm with a digital meter. The total dissolved solids should be less than 300 ppm—keep rinsing the soilless mix until it is clean. After thoroughly rinsing the mix, let it drain for several hours. From here you will need to add an enzyme product to break down the leftover root matter. Use the enzymes at twice what the label recommends. This would be a waste for live plants, but you need high concentrations of enzymes to break down the leftover roots. After watering in the enzymes, till the entire bed with a shovel or hoe, turning the mix thoroughly. Complete this 106

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

same process once a day for three days. Now you are ready to replant a fresh crop.

Saving Money Gardeners who use a hydroponics system in a four foot by four foot area will typically use 40 gallons of nutrients or more, and change that 40 gallons once a week. A four foot by four foot soilless bed will require only 10 gallons of nutrient solution once or twice a week. Your total nutrient usage will be cut in half! With that kind of savings, you can afford the highest-quality nutrients and supplements for the best results. With regard to the cost of the soilless mix, although you might be spending twice what you would on soil or hydro mediums for the same size garden, you can continue using that same batch of soilless mix, harvest after harvest. After a couple of harvests, you are now saving serious cash on your growing medium. Instead of buying a whole new batch of soil or soilless media, all you have to buy is a bottle of enzymes. As far as disposal goes, only the central root ball is thrown away. This makes gardening easier and more friendly to the environment. No one likes throwing away trash bags full of soil or hydro growing mediums. So you save money, you work less and you get bigger plants. What’s not to love? I haven’t even mentioned the fact that pH adjustment and checking your reservoir have become history. You mix up your batch of nutrient solution

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



right before you water it into the bed, so its not sitting around fluctuating. Instead of holding the solution in a reservoir, there is enough soilless mix to hold gallons of water. So instead of daily pH adjustment, you are mixing a nutrient solution once or twice per week. The best soilless mixes for a garden bed are loaded with perlite, up to 50 per cent. My favorite mix includes one part each of the following items: coco coir-based potting mix, peat-based potting mix, mini grow cubes and chunky perlite. This mix will give you perfect pH and excellent drainage, while still holding plenty of water. I started with a small bed in the corner of a large indoor garden. The results were so amazing that I soon converted the entire flower garden to soilless beds. Try it out—I am convinced you will love the results! MY


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Conductivity in

Hydroponics 110

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Electrical Conductivity (EC) is a parameter that gets ignored quiet often among growers in North America who tend to use parts per million (PPM) more than they do EC. In fact, EC is the true measure of electrical conductivity whereas PPM is the quantity of what’s being measured. EC meters can’t actually read PPM. Get a jump start on further understanding conductivity.

Conductivity is the total soluble salts contained within a liquid solution. Pure water has a conductivity measurement of zero because it does not contain salts. By adding soluble elements to the water, electricity is able to move through the solution giving it a conductivity rating. So why is conductivity important? Using hydroponics as an example, different crops grow well at different nutrient strengths (Electrical Conductivity - EC or CF). Controlling this nutrient strength is all important in providing the best conditions for your crop. Without proper measurement your crop could fail from root burn brought on by too high a nutrient level, or death by natural causes from not receiving the vital elements they need to grow. To the left is a list of crops with the ideal EC value the crop is grown at in a hydroponic system for optimum performance. Although there are ideal EC values for each plant type, this does not mean that a range of plants, all technically requiring different strength nutrients, cannot be grown in a home situation together. The grower simply lists the range of EC values and picks an average value. For most home systems this value is between 1.2 EC and 2.0 EC depending on the requirements of the predominant crop types being grown. MY Article contributed by Bluelab Corporation Limited


ec value


ec value

African violet

1.0 - 1.2


1.0 - 1.4


1.4 - 1.8


1.6 - 2.0

Avocado PEar

1.8 - 2.6

Lettuce - Fancy

0.3 - 0.8


1.0 - 1.4

Lettuce - Iceberg

0.6 - 1.4


1.8 - 1.4


1.0 - 2.2


1.0 - 1.4


1.0 - 1.4


1.8 - 2.5


1.2 - 2.4


1.4 - 2.2


1.8 - 2.2


1.8 - 2.0


0.8 - 1.8


1.0 - 1.4

Passion Fruit

1.6 - 2.4


1.4 - 2.4


1.4 - 1.8

brussel sprout

1.8 - 2.4


1.4 - 2.4


1.4 - 1.8


1.2 - 2.2


2.0 - 2.7


1.6 - 2.0


1.4 - 2.2


1.8 - 2.6


1.4 - 2.4


1.0 - 1.6


1.5 - 2.4


1.8 - 3.5


1.2 - 2.2

Silver Beet

1.8 - 2.4


1.6 - 2.4


1.8 - 2.4

dwarf roses

1.6 - 2.6


1.8 - 2.5

egg plant

1.8 - 2.2


1.2 - 1.6


0.8 - 1.5


2.2 - 2.8


1.0 - 1.4

turnip, parsnip

1.8 - 2.4


1.8 - 2.2


0.4 - 1.8

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


How to Grow

Mustard and Cress

by Emma Cooper 112

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Grow easy salad greens without even going outside It’s early spring and still cold outside with not much going on in the vegetable garden and you want some easy and ultra-fresh salad greens; or you want a rainy day project to help keep the kids occupied; then try growing mustard and cress. These are easy plants to grow with the help of the tips found in this article. You’ll have a flavorful salad mix in no time.


Buy some seeds.You need garden cress seeds or mustard seeds. Both plants have quite a lot of flavor, with mustard being hotter than cress. If you want something a bit milder, look for oilseed rape (canola) seeds—they are grown the same way.


Find a tray.You’ll need a plastic tray to sow your seeds, without drainage holes.You can recycle one that was used as food packaging, as long as it is clean.


Find some tissue. Mustard and cress are usually grown on damp tissue rather than compost. You can use cotton wool, too.


Put them together. Put a layer of tissue in the bottom of the plastic tray and make it damp.You can dribble water in, or use a plant mister, but you don’t want too much water—no puddles.

5. Sow your seeds. Sprinkle your mustard and cress seeds onto the surface of the tissue.You can crowd them in—they’re not going to grow big enough to need any space— and you want plenty to harvest.

How to grow mustard and cress

If you want to grow mustard and cress to harvest them at the same time, then you need to sow the mustard three to four days ahead, because mustard seedlings grow faster.

6. Check back in a few hours. If you sow your seeds in the morning then they may have started to germinate by bedtime—small white roots will be visible. By the next morning, some of the seeds will be growing tiny shoots as well.

7. Keep an eye on the water levels. If the tissue dries out then your seedlings will die. Check in the morning and the evening, and add more water if necessary.


Check for mold. Cress seedlings sometimes go moldy before they’re ready to harvest. If they do, throw them on the compost heap and start again. Keep things nice and clean and if it’s chilly in your house, try a warmer room.


In a week your seedlings will be an inch and a half tall and ready for harvesting.


Snip the stems to harvest your cress when you want to use it; it doesn’t keep long once it has been cut. Mustard and cress are great in sandwiches and salads or as a garnish. If you’re growing them with kids, then try using some unusual containers. If you wash out empty eggshells, you can draw faces on the front and grow ‘egglings’ with cress hair.MY

About the Author: Emma Cooper produces a weekly internet radio show called “The Alternative Kitchen Garden”. You can read regular updates on her garden on her blog at


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Consider Using

Citric Acid by Donald Lester

by Donald Lester

Knowing the ways citric acid works in a variety of situations can bring you closer to understanding its benefits in greenhouses, indoor gardens or protected cropping systems. Citric acid has many uses in hydroponics and greenhouse environments. In greenhouses and farming operations, citric acid can be used to acidify water or nutrient solutions—and remove calcium deposits, scale and other hard water buildup from tubing, pipes, drippers, tanks, cooling pads, nozzles, glass, equipment and other surfaces. If run through the irrigation or drip system citric acid not only clears and removes hard water, calcium and scale deposits, but over time it can reduce the pH of the soil as well. 116

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Consider using Citric Acid

Citric acid is responsible for the sour taste we experience when eating lemons, limes, grapefruits, oranges or other citrus fruits. As an ingredient, citric acid is used in many industries you would not expect. Citric acid is a good general cleaner, and is the active ingredient in many bathroom and kitchen cleaning solutions—a solution with a citric acid content of six per cent will remove hard water stains from glass without the need for scrubbing. In industry, citric acid is also used to dissolve rust from steel. Here is another example: tobacco is a leafy green plant with high levels of chlorophyll, which is alkaline or high pH. This alkalinity gives cigarette smoke a harsh flavor. Citric acid is added to tobacco during processing to reduce the alkalinity of the leaves. Citric acid is also added to cigarette paper to control the rate at which it burns, allowing the paper and tobacco to burn at the same rate. Many people confuse citric acid with Vitamin C (ascorbic acid), but the two are different, if only slightly. Chemically, the only difference between ascorbic acid and citric acid is that citric acid has one additional oxygen atom.Vitamin C tastes very bitter, just like most vitamins, so citric acid is used as a flavoring in many preparations of Vitamin C to mask the bitter taste of ascorbic acid.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

“At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline powder that resembles table salt and readily dissolves in water.”

At room temperature, citric acid is a white crystalline powder that resembles table salt and readily dissolves in water. Acids have different strengths. The acids commonly used in hydroponics and greenhouses—nitric acid, phosphoric acid, sulfuric acid and hydrochloric acid—are all considered to be strong acids, whereas citric acid, acetic acid (vinegar) and ascorbic acid (Vitamin C) are considered to be weak acids. Citric acid may be weak, but the citric acid in a lemon is strong enough to power a clock. Those LED clocks plugged into a lemon at children’s science fairs are powered principally by citric acid reacting with the metal in the wires to create a crude battery. Citric acid is also used in beverages and candies, and although it is considered to be a weak acid, it is known to be capable of dissolving away tooth enamel over time. In fact, it is said that the citric acid in lemon juice will even dissolve a pearl.

There have been several articles written about the basic principles of pH—how low pH is acidic and high pH is alkaline (or basic)—so I will not review that here. But if a solution (or the water for the solution) is high in pH, then the way to reduce that pH is to add an acid. Citric acid products for growers and greenhouse applications usually come as pH-reducing additives, with tables supplied to assist in approximating the amount of product needed to adjust the pH from a given level to the desired level. These tables are helpful, but it is generally better to use a pH meter to ensure accuracy. Perhaps the central issue in mixing any nutrient solution is the pH or acidity of the water and finished mix. Citric acid is ideal as an acidifier for nutrient stock solutions and pesticide solutions because it is much less likely to react with fertilizer salts or pesticides than other acids. Use citric acid for acidifying water used to make concentrated fertilizer stocks and pesticide solutions, because high-pH water can hydrolyze or degrade pesticides that are added. By adjusting the pH beforehand, pesticide solutions last longer and their effectiveness is maintained. Some acids used for water acidification also supply a plant nutrient in conjunction with the acid. For example, nitric acid supplies nitrogen and phosphoric acid supplies phosphorus.The nutrient supplied can be beneficial to plant growth if not supplied in excess, but it can also react with fertilizer salts in concentrated stock solutions or with pesticides if mixed into spray solutions. Growers who acidify their water should adjust their fertilization program to account for any nutrient supplied by the corresponding acid. For example, if using phosphoric acid, growers need to make sure to reduce the phosphorus fertilizer they add

accordingly to account for the phosphorus supplied by the acid.These calculations may be too complicated for a beginner, so using citric acid can simplify the process. With the growth of the organics market over the years, citric acid has become popular because it is principally made from natural sources and certified as suitable for use in organic food production. Industrialscale citric acid production originally began in 1890, based on the Italian citrus fruit industry. However, microbial production of citric acid did not become important until

Citric acid helps reduce the buildup of lime scale.

“Growers who acidify their water should adjust their fertilization program to account for any nutrient supplied by the corresponding acid.”

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Consider using Citric Acid

“Citric acid is relatively safe to use, inexpensive, versatile in its uses, natural, widely available and certified for use in organic food production.” World War I disrupted Italian citrus exports. Today, most citric acid is produced commercially on a large scale by feeding sugar to the bacteria Aspergillus niger. Citric acid is a weak acid that is relatively safe compared to the strong acids like nitric acid, phosphoric acid and sulfuric acid. Because citric acid reduces the pH of solutions it is also a good disinfectant, and it is sometimes used as a cut-flower preservative in vases to reduce the pH of the water to 3.5 to prevent the growth of micro-organisms. Citric acid is relatively safe to use, inexpensive, versatile in its uses, natural, widely available and certified for use in organic food production.With all of these benefits shouldn’t you consider using citric acid in your greenhouse, indoor garden or protected cropping system? MY


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


To Fertilize or Not to

Fertilize? by Larry Gildea

Whether to fertilize an organic garden or not is always going to be a debate in many organic gardening circles. Concentrated fertilizers have always served as a bone of contention between purists. The two groups are firmly divided on this issue. The one side claims that adding fertilizers to organic gardens is unnecessary if soil conditioning, planting and cultivation and crop rotation principles are adhered to. The other side feels that


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

fertilizing will enhance and improve their crops, and staunchly use only organic products for fertilization. Every gardener, whether organic or not, agrees that at times, plants need a little extra help, and that certain nutrients need to be present in soil in order to produce desirable results and crops. The main principle in organic gardening is feed the soil, not the plant, and such high fertility soils are achieved by regular

addition of organic matter from a wide variety of sources. Plants utilize materials as they are required.


Fertilizers are needed for a number of situations and circumstances. Some of these reasons may include: • You may not have access to manure or compost materials • Your soil may be extremely deficient in one or more vital nutrients. •  Organic gardeners may wish to increase the amount of fruits or vegetables they produce.

Hoof and Horn

There is nothing wrong with using fertilizers in your organic garden as long as those fertilizers are of organic nature. Below is a list of the most common types of organic fertilizer and how they work.

Organic gardening purists have always argued the subject of concentrated fertilizers. Adding fertilizers to organic garden is unnecessary if soil conditioning, planting, cultivation and crop rotation principles are adhered to. The other side says that fertilizing will improve their crops, and staunchly use only products for fertilization that are organic in origin. MY MY

Bone Meal

Promotes root growth because it is high in phosphate.

Supplies calcium to the soil, without altering pH. Slowly releases nitrogen. Rock Phosphate

Addresses phosphate deficiency. Seaweed Meal

Helps to increase humus levels in the soil. Wood Ash

Is rich in potassium.

Calcified Seaweed

Raises oil pH and adds calcium. Fish, Bone and Blood

General fertilizers that are usually applied in the spring to encourage root and shoot growth. Ground Limestone

Also raises pH and supplies calcium.

About the Author:

Dr. Larry Gildea has authored several articles on gardening as well as these gardening websites, and

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Cooking Greens FOR Greens Haters BY Barbara Pleasant

From arugula to turnips, every season is a great season for growing beautiful and nutritious cooked greens, indoors or out. Is there someone at your house who hates greens? The 10 ways to cook greens outlined here may convert them. Even if they are not swayed by Sicilian-style polenta with kale or Swiss chard strata, we greens lovers can always use fresh ideas to make their plates a little more flavorful.

A casserole bound together with egg and stale bread, called a strata, is easy and delicious when made with fresh garden greens. Layer stale bread with chopped wilted greens, caramelized onions and fontina (or another nice melting cheese) in a buttered casserole dish. Pour in a mixture of three eggs and one cup milk, with a little cheese and bread crumbs on top. Bake until bubbly and set, and you have a great one-dish meal. Making the most of the soft texture of cooked greens, Italians often enjoy them over polenta. My version of polenta is a half and half mixture of grits and coarsely ground whole cornmeal, cooked in lightly salted water until it stiffens; it makes a fabulous bed for a mound of greens, roasted sweet peppers and grated hard cheese. Medium-sized leaves picked from chard, kale and some types of mustard can be used as wrappers for green wraps (similar to cabbage rolls). Make a mixture of rice and meat, or rice and beans, or bulgur and mushrooms; roll it up in trimmed greens leaves; and place the rolls seam side down in a greased baking dish. 126

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Cover tightly, bake for about 45 minutes, and serve with a spicysweet condiment or mustard. Speaking of condiments, fruits like apple, pear, raisins or currants make great flavor companions for cooked greens, or you might serve homemade chutneys with your greens. When making warm dressings for wilted salads, use balsamic vinegar to add a touch of sweetness. When you’re short on time, try one-pot pasta or rice. Have a bowl of clean, chopped greens ready to stir into hot pasta or rice just as it gets done. Put on the lid, let it steam a few minutes, and add additional ingredients (like chopped olives or roasted

walnuts), maybe some salad dressing or simply top with feta cheese and maybe some crisp crumbled bacon. My last tip is to gob on the garlic. Three big cloves are not too many.You may want four or five when seasoning a large pot of greens or a casserole. Don’t want garlic? Try a half teaspoon of fennel, dill or anise seeds instead. In addition to adding flavor, they tame the aroma of simmering greens, which is greatly appreciated by people who hate them. Finally, why not mix and match your greens? Chard, turnips, arugula, mizuna and other greens can be chopped and cooked together in endless combinations. MY

About the Author:

Barbara Pleasant is a garden writer who lives in Floyd, Virginia. Visit to learn more.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Growing Plants in Organic and Inorganic Systems by Dr. Carole Ann Rollins and Dr. Elaine Ingham

There are fundamentally two types of systems for growing plants in soil and soilless media. Inorganic/Synthetic Systems Organic/Biological Systems There are endless permutations of both systems, because many site-specific factors will result in tweaking the timing and kinds of applications. However, the basic philosophy of the two systems needs to be understood and recognized and only then can the most sustainable option be easily chosen. Inorganic/Synthetic Systems In synthetic or inorganic soil or soilless growing systems, the view is the nutrients that the plants take up are strictly inorganic salt-based ionic forms such as ammonium nitrate, potassium nitrate, calcium sulphate (gypsum) and all the micronutrients that come in completely inorganic preparations. Macronutrients such as nitrogen, phosphorus and potassium; micronutrients such as calcium, iron, sodium; and trace minerals such as boron, copper and zinc have to be complexed as a salt form as they are extracted and purified from a source material. When inorganic nutrients are added to water, the inorganic compounds disassociate in the water, thus reducing the availability of water to the plant.The concentration of salt, in whatever form that might happen to be, can reduce the availability of water for the plant.Then that plant will suffer from lack of water, even if the plant is sitting in a pot that is dripping water out of the bottom. Dissolved inorganic nutrients enter the plant through the root cell wall via a process of simple diffusion. The inorganic 128

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

approach takes the view that nutrients can be mixed together precisely to provide the plant what it requires to meet its nutritional demands during growth. Of course, since we can’t know on a day-to-day basis what the plant actually lacks, as growers we do not do a good job of supplying exactly what the plant needs, and in the form that the plant requires. If a plant needs nitrogen and the only form of that nitrogen is potassium nitrate supplied as an inorganic salt fertilizer, then the plant will take up that potassium nitrate, whether the plant needs that potassium or not. This can lead to uptake of excess potassium, which is toxic to the plant. The plant will develop symptoms of browning around the edges of the leaf, wilting leaves and susceptibility to disease. People interpret these symptoms as the plant lacking water and begin to over-water the plant, making the problem worse instead of better.

Laurie Keit of Seasonal Celebrations Landscaping applied organic biological products to this fuji apple tree in Pacifica California. On the left is the apple tree before treatments, and on the right, after treatments with leaves starting to come out. (Photo courtesy of Seasonal Celebrations).

Camillas: Before (top) and after (bottom) organic applications of compost tea, worm castings, humate and sea kelp. Notice the improvement in fullness of leaves and branching. Seasonal Celebrations, a landscape management company in Pacifica, supervised these treatments (Photo courtesy of Seasonal Celebrations).

To avoid this situation, it is better to add chelated nutrients. Chelating a nutrient means that instead of complexing the inorganic nutrient to another inorganic substance, and thus making a salt, the nutrient is complexed with a protein, which is a better form of the nutrient for the plant to uptake. Nutrients in a chelated form can be more efficiently taken up by the plant. Proteins are biological in origin, but they can be extracted and purified to make a more beneficial form of plant food. Chelated nutrients can’t be called fertilizers because the legal definition of fertilizer requires strictly inorganic forms. But, they do the same things for plants that fertilizers do, with much less damage. In addition, a much lower amount of a nutrient in a chelated form is needed than the strictly inorganic form. This is because the chelated form is much less likely to leach and be lost from the soil. This means there is an overall savings for the grower who uses chelated nutrients. Considering that chelated forms of nutrients are what is the norm in a healthy soil, where do these chelated forms come from in the natural world? These chelated forms come from the interactions of bacteria with protozoa, and from the interactions of fungi with nematodes and micro-arthropods. Is there really a reason to have to constantly add plant foods, or the lessdesirable inorganic fertilizers? If you maintain a healthy set of soil food web organisms that interact with and work with your plant, then they will provide the constant production of chelated forms of nutrients that are healthier for your plant. Normal nutrient cycling in soil, done by bacteria, fungi, protozoa, nematodes and micro-arthropods, provide the plant with everything it needs. This occurs as long as the plant feeds the bacteria and fungi by releasing exudates into the root system. Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Growing Plants in Organic and Inorganic Systems

Problems with Inorganic/Synthetic Systems The inorganic approach seems very straightforward and simple. Except that excessive amounts of nutrients typically have to be placed into the non-biological root system in order to force the plant to take up nutrients that aren’t in the right form for the plant. Imagine if you wanted to eat chocolate, except the only form of chocolate available was wrapped in a layer of jalapeno peppers inside something that tasted like the shell of pecan? Something very similar to that is what is going on with inorganic fertilizers. Since people don’t really know what balance of nutrients the plant precisely needs on a daily basis, we just put down excessive combinations of nutrients.What if your plant doesn’t need more sodium, but it does need more nitrogen? For example, if the only form of nitrogen fertilizer applied was sodium nitrate, the plant has no choice but to take up something it doesn’t want (sodium), and will be harmful to it, in order to get the nutrient it does need (nitrogen).The plant has to figure out something to do with this excess sodium. So it stores that excess in the leaves, or fruit or seed.What effect does that have on the people that eat that chemically grown plant material? We use excessive amounts of any inorganic fertilizer because we know it will leach as water moves through the soil.This means there will be known losses of nutrients into surface and ground waters. Eventually, that translates into enormous problems as that salt-laden water moves through the environment. Because the plants are being force fed in inorganic systems, they take up excessive amounts of some nutrients and not enough of others.The plant becomes weak and highly susceptible to disease and pest attacks.While the plants may visually look tasty - weak, stressed and nutritionally imbalanced plants lack the nutrients required by the animals and humans who eat them.

Microarthropods: Microarthropods can carry nematodes, protozoa, bacteria and fungi from place to place, serving as taxicabs for beneficial organisms. Microarthropods also feed on fungi, or on other arthropods, and release nutrients in plant-available forms in organic systems. The arrows point to nematodes riding on the back of microarthropods in both the left and right photos. (Photo courtesy of Soil Foodweb, Inc.)

The response to the disease and pest problems that develop in inorganic systems is to apply more and more toxic chemicals to try to kill the pests and diseases that continue developing.These approaches do not solve the disease or pest issues.What happens is that the pests and diseases are selected to become resistant to that 130

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Growing Plants in Organic and Inorganic Systems

toxic chemical. If all of the susceptible pest and disease organisms die, but the resistant ones survive, then the next generation will be resistant also. As a result, nastier and stronger toxic chemicals have to be found to deal with these ever-increasingly resistant pests and diseases. The toxic chemicals that kill the pests and diseases do not stay just where they are applied though. These toxic chemicals are moved into other systems by water. These toxics enter the groundwater, lakes, streams and rivers and move into drinking water systems. The impact is an ever-increasing concentration of stronger toxic chemicals in our environment and food crops. If inorganic fertilizers are used, which are toxic in high concentrations, damage to the environment occurs.The initial damage is not highly noticeable, because in a healthy system, reduction of 10 to 20 per cent of the beneficial organisms may not be highly apparent right at first. But after 10 years, or 20 years and certainly by 30 years, most of the beneficials are gone, and serious problems develop.The proper scientific tools have to be used to measure the loss of these beneficial organisms. The tools used in the previous generation were incapable of detecting the damage, but just because damage was not observed using those inappropriate tools does not mean the damage did not occur. The different types of damage that can occur without the correct balances of beneficial organisms in soil or soilless media are: Ability to Hold Water Decreases Water is no longer held in soil or soilless media. This means organic matter and the structure that the organisms build in soil or soilless media is gone. With no structure and/or no organic matter, the water drains rapidly out of a sandy soil or extremely slowly in a clay soil, to the compaction zone. Erosion then results as that water moves laterally along the compaction layer and soil, nutrients and water loss increases. Ability to Hold Nutrients Decreases Without the proper set of organisms in the soil to hold nutrients and build structure to keep nutrients in place, nutrients no longer cycle normally.When nutrients are not cycled into the right forms for plants to take up, the only way to grow plants is through the use of inorganic fertilizers. Except, you never really know how much, or which kind of inorganic fertilizer to use. Flats in a Greenhouse: Flats of flowers and vegetables in a greenhouse in Northern California in a completely organic/biological growing system maintained with compost tea and compost. There were no disease or pest problems and great roots developed. No pesticides or synthetic nutrients were used. (Photo courtesy of Nature Technologies International, LLC.)


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Growing Plants in Organic and Inorganic Systems

Excess is the practical solution, except this hinders the ability to hold those nutrients in the soil because the beneficial life in that soil is gone. Of course in this scenario, the disease organisms aren’t gone, resulting in environmental damage to everything downstream. Pests, Diseases and Toxic Conditions Increase Habitats developed through the use of inorganic nutrients cater to disease organisms, pests and weeds. Conditions develop that select for disease, pests and early successional,“disturbance-selected” or weedy, species. Plants in chemical systems must be put into intensive care to even grow, if the beneficial organisms are not present. The consequences are stressed, unhealthy plants, which will not contain the nutrition that animals or humans require to stay healthy. Make no mistake - poisons and toxic chemicals will kill diseases and pests, but they also kill the beneficial organisms. If the normal controllers of pests and diseases are killed, the natural nutrient cycling system cannot function.Those organisms that supply nutrients from natural sources cannot do their jobs if killed by the toxic materials used in inorganic systems. Organic Systems/ Biological Systems Biological systems address disease and insect pest problems through the natural system of control. As long as the food web remains intact, outbreak conditions will not occur. All non-beneficial organisms are controlled via a number of mechanisms: (1) through competition for food, water and nutrients, (2) by occupying space where the pest would normally grow, (3) by maintaining environmental conditions such as plenty of air, water in balance and nutrients cycling that select against disease and pest growth and (4) by inhibiting growth by making compounds that suppress growth of the non-beneficial organisms. Consumption of non-beneficial organisms, through management of the 134

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Ciliates: These micro-organisms are a type of protozoa that graze bacteria, but tolerate reduced oxygen conditions. Therefore, high numbers of ciliates in plant growing systems indicate conditions where the competitive aerobic protozoa are not present, and thus the ciliates can reach extremely high numbers. (Photo courtesy of Nature Technologies International, LLC.)

habitat, is an important factor for growers to recognize and use. Instead of just trying to mask symptoms of stressed plants by using poisonous chemicals to kill the un-desired pests and diseases, we need to understand that it takes a whole village of healthy soil organisms to raise a plant, just as it takes a whole village to raise a human child in a healthy fashion. Beneficial organisms have to be fed properly. Plants must, therefore, be in the system in order to provide the food, either through root exudates, or through dead plant material that will be decomposed by the bacteria and fungi. The balance of beneficial bacteria and fungi, protozoa and nematodes/microarthropods, determines: (1) the soil pH, (2) the pre-dominance of form of nitrogen and (3) how much plant available potassium, phosphorus, calcium and boron there is present in the soil. Making nutrients available for plants to take up is an environmentally friendly, biologically mediated process. It is not a question of whether this organic/biological system can work, but rather the practical stumbling blocks of how to achieve the goal of having the right sets of organisms present. Research in this area is accelerating rapidly. Organic/biological nutrient cycling systems have been in existence ever since predators of bacteria and fungi developed about three billion years ago, according to the fossil record. But, human understanding of these biological processes of turning nutrients into the proper plant-available forms was not understood until a few years ago.With this new understanding, biological cycling systems combine the best of chemistry, physics and biology with sound soil and hydroponics management practices. MY

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


YOU TELL US Maximum Yields talks with Global Garden Friends’ founder and CEO Mike Donaldson about their patented Ultimate Plant Cage™, biodegradable plastics and greener products for a cleaner planet.

Mike Donaldson Founder and CEO

Jeannie VandeWeg

Maximum Yield (MY): What made you decide to develop the Ultimate Plant Cage™? Mike Donaldson: I spent years in the trenches of the indoor and outdoor gardening, frustrated with the lack of products that supported and nurtured plants. After about seven years of research and development, I created and patented the Ultimate Plant Cage™ (UPC) and its accessories. Once the product was developed, I wanted to be sure that the UPC, and future products, would be earth sensitive. I researched green certification eventually partnering with ENSO Plastics LLC, manufacturers of ENSO™, an organic, non-starch based and nondestructive additive that renders plastics biodegradable. Synthetic plastics don’t easily break down in the environment because they are made from organic compounds called monomers. 136

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Scientists found a way to combine monomers into long molecular chains, called polymers. Polymers do not exist in nature, and this is what makes plastic so useful. But it also creates a problem. As a result, regular plastic does not easily biodegrade and will last in the environment for centuries, maybe forever. Until now. MY: What material is the Ultimate Plant Cage made from that makes it so environmentally friendly? Mike: Global Garden Friends’ premier product, the Ultimate Plant Cage ™, is made of high density polyethylene with ENSO, which is added to help Mother Nature accelerate degradation of the plastic in a two to five year period when placed in an active landfill. This product is revolutionary in its design and material, plus it’s 100 per cent American made and 100 per cent certified biodegradable.

When ENSO™ is mixed with raw plastic at one per cent mixture rate; it allows the plastic to break down when placed in a microbe rich environment, such as our landfills. MY: What is ENSO™ technology? Mike: ENSO™ technology is a process that enables the microbial organisms in our landfills to metabolize the molecular structure of most common plastics into an inert humus-like form that is harmless to the environment. ENSO™ process takes organic compounds, mixed with nutrients to enable the biodegradation of polymers. After space is created within the plastic’s matrix, ENSO™ attract colonies of micro-organisms that metabolize and neutralize the plastic through intense quorum sensing rapidly increasing the time frame of biodegradation.

MY: What features of ENSO™ will excite end-consumers? Mike: It provides the best of both worlds. The plastic is useful, durable, safe and convenient, which customers appreciate. At the same time, they can rest assured they are not leaving a nightmare for their children’s children. We have to remember that what we do today does matter tomorrow. MY: What makes ENSO™ a “green” material? Mike: First ENSO™ is made of a renewal natural resource. Second after the product has completed its useful life, if it is not recycled, which we hope it is, it gets thrown into the trash. Then it begins biodegrading and ENSO™ begins to work. It allows microbes to break down those synthetic polymer chains into organic monomers that they can feast on. It does this by expanding the molecular structure of the plastic, scissoring the polymer chain and adding in nutrients that attract the microbes to colonize in and around the plastic. These microbes secrete acids that further break down the long molecules. Like any organic material that is biodegradable, the plastic creates

by-products, including humus and methane. In fact, landfills all over the country are beginning to tap the methane from the natural breakdown of organic materials to reduce our dependence on foreign energy sources. This biodegradation process can take place aerobically or anaerobically. It can take place with or without the presence of light, heat or moisture. The physical properties of plastic products remain the same during their useful life. Only when disposed of does the difference manifest itself. MY: How can you be so sure this eco plastic works as you say? Mike: The American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) and ISO test the biodegradable plastics. These tests show that under anaerobic and aerobic conditions, ENSO™ biodegradable additive works in most major polymers. MY: What makes ENSO™ different from other degradable plastics in the market?

Mike: Many of these products use catalysts that are heated up at variable rates. These products do not attract microbial communities to the plastic in order to break down the polymer’s molecular structure, but rather are broken down by light, heat, mechanical stress and moisture. This can take ages depending on the polymer’s weight and mass. Other products are starch based plastic substitutes that simply do not have the same superior characteristics of plastics, and some depend on raw materials that must be grown on farm land that could be used for food production. ENSO™ biodegradable plastics are the answer to environmental concerns related to traditional plastics. Now manufacturers can make products with the same physical properties, tensile strength and in some cases improved performance of their current products. It’s exciting stuff! MY Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


How to Grow rosemary indoors Growing rosemary indoors can be tricky. Many good gardeners have tried and, despite their best efforts, end up with a dry, brown, dead rosemary plant. Knowing the secrets to proper care of rosemary plants grown indoors will help you keep your rosemary plants growing happily indoors all year long.

Once your rosemary moves indoors, make sure that you place it in the brightest window in your house.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Once The fouryour mostrosemary common reasons moves indoors, rosemary plants diemake when grown indoors are: you place it sure that in the brightest win-

• lack of your sunlight dow in house • poor watering practices • powdery mildew • pests If you can avoid these issues, your rosemary plant will live happily inside. Let’s look at how to avoid each.

Lack of sunlight Lack of sunshine is the most common reason for a rosemary plant growing indoors to die. Often rosemary plants are brought indoors without any acclimation. They go from six to eight hours of strong, direct light to four to six hours of weak or indirect light. The rosemary plant is unable to produce enough energy to stay alive on this amount of weak light and simply dies. The first step to preventing rosemary light starvation is to put your rosemary on a sunlight diet before you bring it indoors. Several weeks before you bring the rosemary inside, move the plant to gradually shadier areas of your yard. This will force the rosemary plant to grow leaves that are more efficient at turning light into energy, which will help it cope with weaker indoor light when it moves inside. Once your rosemary moves indoors, make sure that you place it in the brightest window in your house, which is normally a south facing window. If your rosemary plant is not getting at least six to eight hours of light a day, place an indoor lamp as close as possible to the plant to help supplement the sunlight. Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


How to Grow Rosemary Indoors

Poor watering practices The second most common reason for an indoor rosemary plant to die is poor watering practices. Often, indoor rosemary plants are watered too little or too much. Make sure that the drainage on the container with the

The best way to drive away powdery mildew on rosemary plants is to increase the air circulation around it.

rosemary is excellent. Only water the soil when the top is dry to the touch. That being said, never let the soil dry out completely. In the winter, rosemary plants grow much more

slowly and need much less water than they do in the summer. Watering too often will cause root rot, which will kill the plant. On the other side, if the soil of the rosemary plant is allowed to dry out completely, the roots will die back and the plant will not have enough roots to support itself.

Powdery mildew

Indoors or outdoors, rosemary plants are very susceptible to powdery mildew. Most homes do not have the same air circulation as the outside world, which makes this an even worse problem for the plant inside. The best way to drive away powdery mildew on rosemary plants is to increase the air circulation around it. Letting a fan blow on it for a few hours a day or taking it out of more high humidity rooms, like the bathroom or kitchen, will help improve the air circulation.You can also treat the plant with a fungicide to help keep away the powdery mildew.


While pests may get the blame for killing a rosemary plant, most pests will only infest a plant that is already weakened. Unfortunately, most rosemary growing indoors, despite all best efforts, are growing in a somewhat weakened state. The more strict you are about making sure your rosemary plant is watered properly and gets enough light, the less likely pests will bother the plant. If your rosemary plant is infected with pests, use a houseplant pesticide to remove them. Since rosemary is an herb and it is mainly grown to be eaten, look for organic pesticides. One that is growing in popularity is neem oil, as it is very effective against pests but is completely harmless to humans and pets. MY For more gardening tips and Rosemary tricks visit or check out their Q&A section at 140

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Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


Backyard Gardening HYDROPONICALLY by Jack Van Camp

Every once in a while someone comes along and shows you that something you thought was complicated, is really quite simple. Lane Burman is one of these people. Lane lives on a quiet street on the north side of a moderate city. A 30 foot by 11 foot area in his backyard is where he built his hydroponic garden. Lane approached me in the winter of 2009 and asked what I thought of his plan for a backyard hydroponic garden. I thought it was brilliant and offered my advice and donated materials—such as fittings and nutrients—for the project. The first thing to do was choose the plants for the garden. He chose seven different types of heirloom tomatoes, cucumbers, loufa, pumpkins, beans and orange Blenheim melon. Four varieties 142

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of lettuce were also sown to be grown remotely in soilless mix in a styrofoam cooler. All the seeds were started in April 2010 and physically planted into the system in the middle of May as there was no frost present in the hydroponic system, yet frost was still in the ground. The system Lane chose was a drip system with an 80 gallon garbage container for 10 tomatoes and a 30 gallon container for the rest of the plants. Friends donated three and a half gallon kitty litter containers and eight - four gallon pails as

Lane Burman

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Backyard Gardening Hydroponically

growing vessels. The drippers would be pushed by 600 gallon per hour submersible pumps and they would run 12 hours


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

a day. One dual electrical outlet was needed to run both pumps. Next on the agenda was to build a

bench around the perimeter of the garden against the fence. The bench ran along the fence on two sides of the garden for the four gallon pails to sit on. Two saw horses held a two by four frame for the kitty litter pails to sit in and one kitty litter pail was placed inside another with a brick set inside for countering the weight of the tomatoes with fruit. Three quarter inch holes were drilled in the bottom containers and half inch fittings were installed and the hoses attached. The kitty litter containers were filled with pea gravel and two gallon per hour drippers were attached to the top hose. (You could also use expanded clay pellets, perlite or vermiculite and sand). The rest of the garden was assembled with half inch fittings (straights “Ls” and “Ts”), gardening twine, trans barbs and various three quarter inch clamps. The whole process of building the garden

took approximately 20 to 25 hours. The garden was set up and ready by the middle of May. All he had to do was add water. The garden area was positioned north to south and was well lit all day. The spring of 2010 was pretty normal but the summer was brutally hot at times. There were sustained temperatures of over 99°F for days at a time. The containers were white for this reason. The reservoir was hidden under the tomato plants and kept cool in the shade. If the containers or the reservoirs are dark in color the water will become far too hot for the roots to handle and the plant will shut down. The reservoirs were topped up when needed and the nutrient refreshed weekly. He used a two part nutrient solution full strength with a vegetative fortifier. The A and B nutrient formula was used half strength

“If the containers or the reservoirs are dark in colour the water will become far too hot for the roots to handle and the plant will shut down.”

for the lettuce and peppers in the soilless mix. The A and B nutrient can be used in any hydroponic system very successfully. The tomatoes were all heirlooms and were purchased at the local market from a co-op as cuttings. The tomato varieties were Margo, delicious, green zebra and black krim. These tomatoes are all non-hybrids and are not GMO (genetically modified organisms). At one point in the summer Lane spotted blossom end rot on the bottom of the tomatoes and added extra calcium to the reservoir and it cleared up immediately. The only other problem was the weight of the tomatoes and keeping the plant upright, especially on windy days. Trying to set tomato cages in the

pea gravel proved problematic because they did not dig in deep enough to be effective. This year he will lower the garden and try some sort of trellis system with gardening twine to physically tie the plant to. As the hot and sunny summer wore on, Lane realized he would have to construct some sort

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Backyard Gardening Hydroponically

of shade cover for those extreme days when the plants would visibly suffer in the heat. Being closed in on three sides of the garden made stagnant air a bit of a problem on calm, hot days, so some sort of fan arrangement will be set up in this year’s garden. Ideally solar fans and pumps could be run on 12 volts for all the energy they use. All in all, the garden was a great success. All the plants produced copious amounts of quality fruit the whole summer. The tomato plants averaged 16 pounds of fruit per plant. This is not surprising. Plants in hydroponic systems can produce two to three times more produce than in soil. Plants absorb and transpire ⅓ less water than a field crop and use less space overall. Reservoirs were topped up every two 146

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or three days at the most and only four or so gallons at a time. In a sunny corner on his deck, Lane grew six or seven types of hot peppers in containers with soilless mix. These peppers thrived and produced lots of hot fruit. He gave me a couple of plants that I grew in my yard. They were called “friars hat” from Portugal and they were very hot. Over the winter he has been buying pepper seeds on E-Bay. Here you can purchase rare seeds from around the

world. Planting these seeds in the drip containers this year should give him a good harvest. He plans to retain the seeds from what he grows and in turn, sell them on E-Bay. Lane knows a farmer who grows lavender near a lake in the southeast of town. This fellow expressed an interest in growing lavender hydroponically after seeing pictures of Lane’s results from last year. He wants to use a combination of French and English lavender to attain a

“Plants in hydroponic systems can produce two to three times more produce than in soil. Plants absorb and transpire ⅓ less water than a field crop and use less space overall.”

unique fragrance to be used in perfumes and aromatic oils. They will be getting together in the next few weeks to firm up plans for his system. A total of 95 per cent of all greenhouse vegetables are grown hydroponically here in North America. Field crops run generally about 40,000 to 60,000 pounds per acre. Top growers in the United States and British Columbia using hydroponics can get upwards of 650,000 pounds per acre. A small area on someone’s backyard can help feed a family and friends and neighbors quite easily. With plenty of sun energy, no drought and no searching for nutrients, edible plants can’t help but thrive. And besides, there’s no weeding. MY Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


pH Management

for Optimal Results by Bob Taylor

This article explains how to keep the pH of nutrient solutions between 5.0 and 6.5. This helps make sure all nutrients are available for root up-take, and minimizes the risk of plumbing blockages.

Optimum pH for Nutrient Solutions For nutrients to remain dissolved and, therefore, available for uptake by roots, it is critical to maintain the pH between 5.0 and 6.0 - with an absolute maximum of 6.5 (figure one). High pH values, or those above 6.0, are to be avoided more than low values of 4.5 – 5.0. The effect of low pH upon the stability of nutrients is relatively insignificant. The precise pH at which precipitation of macro-nutrients starts is determined by the combined concentrations of calcium and sulphate. Except for fertilizers low in calcium and sulphate this problem commonly occurs at pH 6.5 where the net* EC is 2.5 mS, or pH 7.0 for 1.5 mS solutions. Hence, to avoid precipitation, higher nutrient concentrations generally must be held at lower pH values. *Assume make-up water has nil EC. 148

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In spite of this precipitation problem, some references advocate pH values well above 6.5 for some plant varieties - conditions which risk depleted concentrations of the above mentioned elements.This is incorrectly justified by quoting the chart in figure two as proof.

pH recommendation of 6.2 - 6.3? Although this is a popular recommendation, it has no scientific basis. It appears to have gained mythological status from the early days of hydroponics when the only cheap means of measuring pH was the common ‘bromothymol blue’ pH indicator used for testing fish tank water. Interestingly, the lowest pH value able to be determined by that indicator is about 6.2. Hence, this value has unfortunately become an entrenched recommendation in some sections of the hydroponic industry.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


ph management for optimal results

Figure one: This is what can happen to a working nutrient solution when pH is above 7.0: Calcium, sulphate (and the trace elements copper, iron, manganese and zinc) can precepitate and become unavailable to the roots, and cause plumbing blockages. This freshly made ‘bloom’ nutrient solution (EC 2.5mS) was at pH 7.5 for less than one hour. To help prevent this, use a nutrient that possesses a high ph buffering capacity.

Adjusting Nutrient pH The working nutrient pH should be checked at the following times: 1. When working nutrient solutions are first made. 2. After the addition of top-up water or additives - especially if they are highly alkaline. 3. In re-circulating systems, pH should be checked on a daily basis because the uptake of water and nutrients causes pH to change. It is best to adopt a pH maintenance regime that prevents pH from getting too high. If pH is too high for a long enough period of time, the resultant precipitate usually cannot be redissolved (figure one).


If your pH tends to continuously rise (the most common trend), then at each adjustment reduce the pH to about 5.0 using a pH down product. This will give you a much larger pH “safety” margin than if adjusting to, for example, 5.8. If pH tends to continuously fall, at each adjustment increase the pH to about 6.0 using a pH up product.

How to Minimize pH Fluctuation 1. U  se a nutrient brand that is highly pH buffered, particularly when using highly alkaline water. 2. Supply at least two gallons of nutrient for each large plant. Failure to do this will magnify pH (and EC) fluctuations, especially during hot and dry weather where water uptake and evaporation are excessive. Note, to avoid excess water uptake and evaporation; keep air temperature below 86°F and relative humidity above 50 per cent.

How to Adjust pH Step 1. Measure the pH: Use either a liquid pH indicator or an electronic pH meter. Before measuring the pH, ensure that the nutrient is well stirred and that the sampling container is clean. Step 2. Choosing a target pH: Note that it is inconvenient and unnecessary to hold pH at a single point value. Therefore, choose a target pH that minimizes the amount of pH maintenance: Step 3. Adjusting the pH: Add a small amount of pH down or up product*. Then stir well and check pH. Repeat this process 150

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until the target pH is achieved. *Important: Pre-dilute the dose into one quart (or at least 100 fold) of water before adding to nutrient, then rapidly stir the nutrient as you add this mixture. Failure to do this may cause permanent precipitation of essential nutrients. Also, if accidental overdosing to above 6.5 occurs, reduce the pH back to below 6.0 as quickly as possible using pH down.

Handy Hints for Adjusting Nutrient pH


Add “high pH” (alkaline) additives before adding nutrient: Most additives will affect nutrient pH at least slightly. The best technique to adopt with those that elevate pH significantly is to add them to the water and adjust the pH down to 6.0 prior to adding the nutrient. The less preferred but simplest alternative is to pre-dilute the additive in a separate volume of raw water. Then once this solution is added to the nutrient solution, quickly lower the pH to below 6.5. Note that a white cloudy precipitate (calcium sulphate) may form when the pre-diluted additive initially merges with the nutrient solution. However, because the initial particle size of the precipitate is small, it will usually re-dissolve if the pH is immediately re-adjusted.



Figure four: This is what can happen when an undiluted high pH additive is added to the working nutrient solution (left). Unless pH is quickly corrected to below 6.0-6.5 the precipitate will remain (right).

working nutrient. Step 2. Add a few drops of pH indicator (figure five ‘a’). Step 3. While stirring this solution, measure the volume of acid required to turn this solution yellow – figure five ‘b’ (Yellow indicates a pH of 6.0 with most broad range liquid indicators). Step 4. Multiply the volume of acid by the volume of nutrient in your reservoir. That calculation will give you the volume of acid required to adjust the entire volume down to pH 6.0, for example.

Measuring pH with ‘Indicators’ pH indicators are undoubtedly the simplest and most reliable method of measuring nutrient pH. Although they will

not distinguish between, for example, a pH of 5.2 and 5.3, wide range indicators with good colour resolution can be: •  fast and user friendly •  extremely accurate and reliable •  economical In comparison, pH meters require constant up-keep (i.e. cleaning, calibrating and correct storage), but even then may not give reliable readings. pH indicators work on the principle that the color produced by the particular dye used in the indicator formulation is dependant on the pH of the solution (figure six). Experience shows if you are aiming to adjust pH to 5.5 (orange) then an accuracy of +/- 0.2 is achievable. Because of their fundamental accuracy, reliability


Do not pre-adjust pH of raw water: Note that the pH values being discussed here are the values of the working nutrient solution - not your make-up water. Unless your make-up water has a high alkalinity, do not bother attempting to adjust its pH prior to the nutrient being added. If you attempt this procedure you will typically get wild pH swings either side of the pH target without ever landing on the target value.


Estimating the volume of acid (especially for larger systems): Step 1. Take a one quart subsample (or known volume) of Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


ph management for optimal results

Figure five: pH indicator’s are useful for determining how much acid needs to be added to the nutrient reservoir.

and easy of use, wide range pH indicators are the preferred method for measurement of pH in nutrient solutions. Note that pool and aquarium pH indicators are usually not suitable because unlike broad range indicators, they do not operate below pH 6.0.

Taking pH Readings

Total volume of nutrient ÷ Volume of sub-sample x volume of acid

TIP If this volume is very small (most likely if a highly concentrated acid is used), to ensure accuracy you will require the use of a finely graded pipette. A better method is to allocate a portion of acid specifically for conducting this calculation and dilute it by a known amount - for example 10-fold. Ensure to compensate for this dilution when calculating how much of the concentrated acid to add to the reservoir.

Step 1. Before measuring the pH ensure that the nutrient is well stirred, especially after pH up or down products are used. This is one of the most common mistakes made when testing pH (or conductivity). Also, ensure that the sampling container is clean. Step 2. Using the sampling vial, remove a small sample of nutrient from the nutrient reservoir, add a drop of the indicator, mix, and then compare the final solution colour with those on the coloured reference chart (figure six). Step 3. If the pH is not between 5.0 and 6.5, adjust it immediately.

Measuring pH with pH Meters

Figure six: This is the colour range produced by a wide range pH indicator within the optimum pH range 5.0 to 6.5. Note the ease with which pH change can be detected.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

pH meters employing a glass electrode are useful for precise pH measurement in nutrient solutions but require frequent calibration, proper storage and handling to ensure accuracy and reliability. The principle on which such meters operate is based on the fact that when glass of a certain composition separates two aqueous solutions having different hydrogen ion concentrations, a voltage is developed between the two faces of the glass. The electronic meter is simply a very sensitive voltmeter which measures that voltage but is calibrated in terms of pH units instead of volts.

Obtaining pH Readings Step 1. Make sure the meter is calibrated. Step 2. Remove a ‘representative’ sample from the nutrient reservoir (figure seven): • Stir the nutrient thoroughly prior to sampling. • Ensure the sampling container is clean. Step 3. Rinse electrode in distilled water before immersing in the sample.Wait a few minutes before switching the meter on and recording the pH.Wait longer if the sample’s temperature is significantly different from 77°F. Step 4. If the pH is not between 5.0 and 6.5, adjust it immediately. Step 5. When complete, rinse the electrode

with distilled water. Store the electrode in a proper storage solution when not in use. MY

Figure seven: Thoroughly stir nutrient reservoir before sampling. Then leave the electrode in the sample for a few minutes before switching the metre on and taking the measurement. Do not immerse the electrode deeper than ~20mm.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


PRODUCT spotlight

Continued from page 43

Your guide to this month’s hottest items.

Brighten Your Lights With the Rebel Magnetic Ballast Series, New From Brite-Lite Group The Rebel magnetic ballast series from Brite-Lite has arrived. Available in an open box, closed box or as a ballast kit, these economical ballasts provide high quality UL components, materials and workmanship to ensure optimum lamp performance and longevity. Rebel switchable ballasts allow you to run 1,000 watt MH or HPS lamps; simply screw in the bulb and flip the switch. All units are dual voltage compatible (120 or 240 volts), and assembled with high temperature capacitors in the U.S.A. to keep things cool. For more information visit an indoor gardening retailer near you. For strength, durability and performance, try Rebel magnetic ballasts; they’re the new black.

Biofloral Introduces FloraSun HPS 1,000 Watt Bulb

Stay Clean With Boldtbags Utility Aprons

FloraSun is a super horticultural lamp, specially designed to provide maximal lumens to your plants from the blooming stages through to maturity. This bulb’s exclusive and innovative spectral distribution (color repartition) makes it the most efficient product of its kind on the market. For more information visit your favorite indoor gardening shop.

The Boldtbags Utility Apron is the ultimate splashguard made of durable PVC-lined material that’s just a wipe away from clean. It features a large pocket and loop to keep a filter sheet and mixer handy and rustproof nickel plated grommet details for long-lasting strength. Order Boldtbags’ Utility Aprons from your local gardening shop today.

Hudson Weed’n Bug Eliminator Sprayer Now at Authorized Hydrofarm Retailers For home, lawn and garden rely on Hudson Sprayers to protect against insects, weeds and plant diseases. The Weed’n Bug Eliminator one gallon compression sprayer is Hudson’s most economical, light-duty sprayer. It features a translucent poly tank for easy viewing of liquid levels and has a wide, deep funnel for faster, no-spill filling. It also comes with a standard locking on/off switch control valve, 12 inch poly spray wand and an adjustable poly cone nozzle, which adjusts from fine mist to long distance stream and a T-handle pump. For more information visit an authorized Hydrofarm retailer near you. 154

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Sun System® Digital Grow Light Fixture The Sun System® Digital Grow Light Fixture is the newest addition to Sun System’s complete system line-up. This state-of-the-art digital fixture offers an integrated Galaxy® electronic ballast allowing operation of both metal halide (MH) and high pressure sodium (HPS) lamps. This proprietary Smart Volt® ballast operates at either 120 or 240 volts (120 volt cord included) and with the flip of a switch, the Sun System® Digital will run either a 250 watt or 400 watt bulb. Vented ballast housing allows for effective heat dissipation and the highly reflective aluminum insert keeps light focused where it matters most—on your plants. Lightweight and easy to set up, the Sun System® Digital offers powder coated steel housing that is attractive and durable. Visit your favorite indoor gardening or hydroponics retailer for more information.

The Rest is Just “Dust in the Wind” Who doesn’t want the gale force of a celestial being in their grow space? Maverick Sun introduces their new line of fans, The Wind Gods. With CFMs that match up to or exceed the best of brands out there, this amazing product more than lives up to its name. With features like excellent decibel ratings and industry quality bearings, these fans will run quietly and deliver the CFMs we list, as well as provide years of reliable service. The Wind God features an exterior junction box with a 120 volt power cord attached. The handy mounting bracket makes fan placement a breeze. Comes in four, six, eight and 12 inch ducting. Don’t let this item blow past you. Give your grow space the air it deserves, give it the Wind God!

Liquid Mojo Liquid Mojo is a high strength, concentrated plant fertilizer that contains all the required elements for optimal vegetative and reproductive growth. This microbrewed formulation blends a high powered NPK ratio with pure organic stimulants to produce a healthy balanced feeding regime for your favorite variety. The addition of organic bio-stimulants in our craft brewed base nutrient formulation gives the grower that extra punch that seems to be missing in most of the mass produced product lines of today. The concentration of this product makes it very economical for large farm operations and the high quality plants it produces makes it very desirable for boutique hobby gardeners. Visit your favorite gardening shop for more information.

Growing Accessories New From Future Harvest Development (FHD) FHD square growing pots provide greater capacity for growing mediums, and fit better in flood and drain tables. These commercial greenhouse quality pots are made of durable and recyclable black polypropylene. Available in one, two and three gallons. An eight inch square saucer is available to help retain your valuable nutrients. Round saucers are also available in eight to 14 inch diameters to fit most containers. Complimenting these new products is our heavy duty 1020 trays, with twice the thickness of standard 1020 trays. Available with a reusable 1020 vented dome. Order the new FHD growing accessories from your local indoor gardening shop. MY Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Is it Just a Load of Rubbish? by Steve Cownley

To compost or not to compost, that is the question. There’s no doubt about it, composting is a beneficial practice that any selfrespected gardener should know how to do. We have been told that composting can be done with any organic material. However, there are a several organic materials that should not be included in the compost pile unless you know how to do it properly and there are other materials that should never be added. To compost or not to compost, that is indeed the question.


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Home composters have a variety of “Even though grasses can be used for composting, it is best compostable to avoid weeds like morning glory, ivy, sheep and kinds of materials grasses that could grow in your compost pile.” available in our own homes and backyards. Let’s begin with someUsing sawdust from such treated wood thing our front lawn is always dyproducts is a no-no since the chemical ing to dispose off: excess grass. Grass will leak into the soil causing more harm clippings from our lawn can be put to than good. Plants that died due to a disbetter use in a backyard compost pile. ease should not be included. There is still Hay clippings are also acceptable. Be a possibility that the disease that caused sure to use green hay, which still has a death might infect your future plants. lot of nitrogen in it. Similarly, human, dog and cat wastes Other compostable materials include should not be composted because they kitchen wastes such as vegetable peels, contain organisms that could cause disfruit rinds, tea bags, eggshells and cofease. Such disease might cause sickness fee grounds. These substances contain in people or they might negatively affect high levels of nitrogen. Make sure to your plants. keep pests away from your kitchen Even though grasses can be used for wastes. A compost bin intended for composting, it is best to avoid weeds like kitchen waste works great or you morning glory, ivy, sheep and kinds of can simply bury your waste in eight grasses that could grow in your compost inches of soil. It is best to avoid scraps pile. The weed’s seeds can survive the of meat, milk products and leftover composting pile, which can be carried bones because they attract pests. to your new garden. Choosing the right Wood chips, wood shaving, saw dusts, materials will determine how successful paper and other wood products are your compost pile will be. generally acceptable for a compost pile. However, be sure to stay away Top Reasons for Composting from chemically-treated wood products. Arsenic is a highly toxic chemical 1. The materials are free and readily available. that is sometimes used to treat wood. 2. Compost provides nutrients and minerals needed by my plants. 3. Compost benefits the soil structure. When applied to soil, compost improves the soil’s resistance to erosion, improves its retention of water, and in some types of soil (like clay), it can reduce the chance of compacted soil. This is also important for farmers since compost can make the soil easier to till, conserving time and fuel.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

composing is it just a load of rubbish

With the right composting technique, you can kill troublesome weeds, pests and disease-causing organisms. High temperature composting will do the trick. However, this technique is not meant for backyard compost piles but rather a laboratory or industrial-type pile. Studies indicate that using compost can suppress the growth of diseases in crops. Other studies show that crops grown over compost-rich soils can better resist pests and insect attacks. Observations in the field also show that crops grown using compost bare produce that can be stored longer. Using compost together with the soil can build soil carbon, which will eventually reduce the carbon dioxide in the atmosphere. Compost works well as an antidote for soils that are toxic with agricultural chemicals. Compost can balance the levels of soil acidity, and help farmers switch to organic after years of using synthetic agricultural products. Composting Myths

Composting is a natural and simple process and yet it has been complicated by fallacies, misinformation, myths and misunderstandings. Let’s discuss some of the more widely known composting myths. Myth: Composting requires a lot of work Truth: Composting is a natural process. All you need to do is gather the materials and let nature do her job. Composting is a low maintenance activity as well.You only need to turn the compost pile every once in a while to keep the air flowing to quicken the decomposition process.

“Compost works well as an antidote for soils that are toxic with agricultural chemicals. Compost can balance the levels of soil acidity, and help farmers switch to organic after years of using synthetic agricultural products.”

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


composing is it just a load of rubbish

Myth: Composting is limited to farms and wide open spaces Truth: On the contrary, people living in urban areas with limited space can create their own composting bin from a trash can. How much space would that take up? Another technique you can use is vermicomposting, which involves feeding your table scraps to red worms that are kept in a contained bin. Myth: Composting needs precise measurements Truth: Even though composting ideally is best achieved with the right combination of green and brown elements, exact measurements is not necessary. Compost piles work the same if you pile them haphazardly. Myth: You need specially formulated chemicals as starters or activators Truth: Despite claims that applying chemicals or activators to the compost pile speeds up the decomposition process, they are not necessary. Simply adding some finished compost into the newly formed compost pile serves as an activator to get things started. Myth: Adding yeast will boost the compost’s performance Truth: This is not true. By adding yeast to your compost pile, you are simply wasting your money. Myth: Compost smells Truth: Compost should not smell. If your compost smells bad, then you likely did a poor job picking the materials for the compost pile.MY

Enjoy your composting About the Author:

Steve Townley is an experienced salesperson and marketer and web designer and blogger. Learn more about Steve by visiting his blog at Read more at

“Simply adding some finished compost into the newly formed compost pile serves as an activator to get things started.”

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Onwers o

f Acme H

AT A GLANCE Company: Acme Hydroponics Owners: Kristen Biron and Jason Pozzi Location: 300 Nickel Street, Suite Broomfield, Colorado Phone: 1-720-524-7306 Email: [email protected] Web: Motto: “Grow healthy.”


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


s, Kristen

Biron and

Jason Po


Kristen Biron and Jason Pozzi, owners of Acme Hydroponics in Broomfield, Colorado, reveal the history behind their love of gardening and share their wise words to live—and grow—by. When people think of ‘ACME’, they typically think of the Roadrunner and Wile E. Coyote cartoons—Wile E. Coyote would open a crate labeled ‘ACME’ and produce any number of mechanical contraptions designed to help him capture Roadrunner. At Acme Hydroponics in Broomfield, Colorado, they too strive to provide a myriad of products and services to the growers in the Denver area. The word ‘acme’ means ‘the highest point’, and in 2010 that was the guiding vision of owners Kristen Biron and Jason Pozzi when they established their grow shop. They wanted to be the best in every aspect of the business. Kristen and Jason, both East Coast transplants, came from corporate customer service careers prior to opening the store. Both were used to working long hours and developing strong relationships with their customers. Kristen, a former manager at Enterprise Rent-a-Car at Denver International Airport, and Jason, a general manager for Centerplate at Folsom Field in Boulder, were eager to focus their passion for excellent customer service on a business of their own. Their vision became a reality when they found the location at 300 Nickel Street in Broomfield, Colorado, and opened the doors to Acme. Kristen grew up on a farm in Connecticut. Her uncle, Wayne Hackney, was well established in the pumpkin growing industry in New England, where he was also a pioneer in the field of competitive giant pumpkin growing. An innovator in introducing hydroponic growing techniques to the field as far back as the 1970s, he has been a constant source of expertise and support for Acme. Jason developed his appreciation for the value of organic foods while working for Whole Food Markets. His belief

in the importance of eating and living in a healthy way was behind his desire to start providing the necessary supplies and latest technology for the rapidly expanding hydroponic growing layout. Focusing market—so the phrase ‘Grow healthy’ was a perfect fit for Acme. on customers’ needs is crucial in today’s Acme carries seeds from Botanical Interests—who retail economy, and Acme understands that customers want their organic and non-gmo seeds—and also offers organic nutrients, dollars to go as far as possible. That’s why they offer a customer the latest name-brand products and the newest innovations to loyalty program, growing classes and a delivery service, and hit the industry. Kristen and Jason are constantly learning in they’re always willing to help customers load up their vehicles. an effort to keep their product knowledge current, and they Acme is a welcoming and family-friendly retailer where cuscontinue to keep their customers informed as new products are tomers are encouraged to bring their children and dogs as they introduced. Most of see to all their gardening needs. Jason’s “[Jason’s] belief in the importance of eating and living in the products in the two children (ages eight and six) love to a healthy way was behind his desire to start providing the store have been hang out in the store. necessary supplies and latest technology for the rapidly stocked due to Kristen and Jason really enjoy helping expanding hydroponic growing market.” customer requests, both novice and expert growers set up and Acme solicits viable gardening environments, and they and respects customer feedback on everything they sell, making love hearing customer success stories of how good it feels to a point of sharing successes and challenges with various new feed their families food that they know is safe and healthy. We products with all of their clientele. all know that eating healthy, organic foods results in natural When they first opened their doors there seemed to be plenty energy, which in turn produces energetic children, stronger of room in the store, but they quickly set to work stocking the adults and better lives for all. Better health naturally. shelves with everything it would take in order to satisfy their During the first year of operation Acme evolved to meet the customers’ needs. Now Kristen and Jason enjoy customer input ever-changing needs of the growers they serviced, but as with on their great selection, and are especially gratified to hear any new business, they faced many challenges—some expectcomments from growers like “you really filled this place up” ed and some unforeseen. However, they were up to the task, and “you guys have great prices!” and as a response to ongoing technology they have designed, Exceeding customers’ needs has been the ultimate focus for developed and implemented an e-commerce website to help Jason and Kristen since the store’s inception. They know that customers take advantage of their services and products. each grower has a unique garden, and they listen carefully to Kristen and Jason have really enjoyed their first year in busidiscover what is needed to bring each customer’s crops to the ness. “We are extremely thankful to all of our customers who next level. It is not uncommon for them to ask customers to have helped support us through our first year, and we are sketch a diagram of their equipment and garden layout to see looking forward to expanding our customer base.” where improvements can be made. For new or novice custom‘Grow healthy’ with Acme Hydroponics. MY ers, they are able to assist with a conceptual drawing of the ideal

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011



Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

GRowco indoor Garden supply

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011





Phone: 510.903.1808 Fax: 510.764.1246 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577

Using Bumblebees in the Greenhouse

Honeybees are generally thought of as the most common pollinator but bumblebees may be better for pollinating seed and food crops. Find out what makes them effective indoor pollinators.

Plant Steering

The principles of crop steering—a useful technique employed by many commercial greenhouse growers that balances the vegetative growing phase with the generative phase—is examined.

Hybrid Hydroponics

Indoor growers in Europe have devised a system that produces fat plants in small spaces. This hybrid hydro set-up could be the ideal system for you.

LEDs – Making Your Investment Worthwhile

Spend your grow light dollars wisely with these tips that serve to help you navigate the LED maze with ease. Maximum Yield USA May will be available May 1 for FREE at selected indoor gardening retail stores across the country and on Subscriptions are available at 170

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011




know? 6

Fast-growing plants in their vegetative stage require lights that can provide them with 2,500 lumens/foot candles of light for 18 uninterrupted hours a day in order to maintain vigorous health and strong stems.

emitting PAR-specific wavelengths that cater to 7 By chlorophyll production, plants growing beneath these units exhibit a healthier, darker green color than usual.

8 Moore predicted in 1965 that integrated 1 Gordon circuits (or computer CPUs) would go on to double in complexity about every two years. Over 45 years later this prediction remains the standard that manufacturers strive for in the semiconductor industry. japonica, also known as Japanese 2 Wasabi horseradish, is a member of the crucifer or mustard family. and other perennials create long, deep root 3 Trees systems to survive the harsh winter; in nature, annuals typically produce roots that grow one foot or more down into the ground, but can grow several feet outward in diameter.


Despite being considered a semi-aquatic plant, Wasabi japonica does not seem to thrive in a continually submerged system or where the nutrient stagnates and excludes oxygen, which the root system needs in abundance.

You might spend twice the amount on a soilless mix than what you would on soil or hydroponic mediums for the same size garden. However, you can continue using that same batch of soilless mix harvest after harvest.

is said that the citric acid in lemon juice will 10 Itdissolve a pearl.

75 per cent of the nation’s food is 11 InnowJamaica, imported from other countries. There is over 50 per cent unemployment in Jamaica, and the average family spends over 50 per cent of their income on food.

the only difference between ascorbic 4 Chemically, acid Vitamin C and citric acid—is that citric acid has one additional oxygen atom.

form Mycorrhizae are recommended 5 Granular for soil, coco and soilless container gardening applications, and powder forms are available for hydroponic systems.

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

ALABAMA Alabama Organics 3348 Bethel Road, Hammondville, AL 35989 256-635-0802

ALASKA Brown’s Electrical Supply 365 Industrial Way, Anchorage, AK 99501 907-272-2259 Far North Garden Supply 2834 Boniface Parkway Anchorage, AK 99504 907-333-3141 Holmtown Nursery Inc. 1301 - 30th Avenue, Fairbanks, AK 99701 907-451-8733 Anuway Hydroponics Suite #1 2711 W Walnut Rogers AK 72756 USA 479 631 0099 Far North Garden Supply 300 Centaur Street, Wasilla, AK 99654 907-376-7586

ARIZONA Sea of Green Flagstaff 204-C E. Route 66 Flagstaff, AZ 86001 928-774-SOGF(7643) Homegrown Hydroponics 2525 West Glendale Ave Phoenix AZ 85051 602-368-4005 Sea of Green West 2340 W. Bell Road, Suite 116, Phoenix, AZ 85023 602-504-8842 ACI Hydroponics 1325 South Park Lane, Tempe, AZ 85282 800-633-2137 Homegrown Hydroponics 601 East Broadway Road, Tempe, AZ 85282 480-377-9096 Sea of Green Hydroponics 1301 E. University Dr. Tempe AZ, 85281 800-266-4136 Gonzo Grow 10297 W Van Buren Street, Tolleson, AZ 85353 623-780-GROW Natural Pools & Gardens 2143 North Country Suite C, Tucson, AZ 85716 520-323-2627 Sea of Green Hydroponics 402 North 4th Avenue, Tucson, AZ 85705 520-622-6344

ARKANSAS Mickey’s Mercantile 1303 Highway 65 South, Clinton, AR 72031 501-412-0214 Old Soul Organics and More 1771 Crossover Road, Fayetteville, AR 72701 479-444-6955 Growfresh Organics & More 2600 S Zero St, Suite C Fort Smith, AR 72901 479.648.8885 Fermentables 3915 Crutcher Street, N. Little Rock, AR 72118 501-758-6261

CALIFORNIA Greenleaf Hydroponics 1839 W Lincoln Avenue, Anaheim, CA 92801 714-254-0005


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Grow It Yourself Gardens 401 Sunset Drive, Suite L, Antioch, CA 94509 925-755-GROW High Desert Hydroponics 13631 Pawnee Road, #7 Apple Valley, CA 92308 760-247-2090 American Hydroponics 286 South G Street, Arcata, CA 95521 800-458-6543 Humboldt Hydroponics 601 I Street, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-3377 Let it Grow 160 Westwood Center, Arcata, CA 95521 707-822-8733 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 639 6th St. Arcata, CA 95521 707-826-9998 Sweet Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 1041 E. Grand Ave. Arroyo Grande,CA 93420 (805) 473-0004 Auburn Organic 4035 Grass Valley Highway, Auburn, CA 95602 530-823-8900 High Street Hydro 180 Cleveland Avenue, Auburn, CA 95603 530-885-5888 Quail Mountain Ranch 230 Palm Ave Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-2390 Tell 2 Friends Indoor Gardening 62 Sutherland Drive, Auburn, CA 95603 530-889-8171 Bakersfield Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B Bakersfield, CA 93304 Green Leaf Hydroponics 3903 Patton Way #103 Bakersfield CA 93308 661-245-2616 Kern Hydroponics 2408 Brundage Lane, Suite B, Bakersfield, CA 93304 661-323-7333 The Hydro Shop 3980 Saco Road Bakersfield, CA 661-399-3336  Better Grow Hydro Los Angeles 5554 Bandini Boulevard, Bell, CA 91106 323-510-2700; 877 640 GROW Super Starts PO Box 732, Bellmont, CA 94002 650-346-8009 Berkeley Indoor Garden 844 University Avenue Berkeley, CA 94710 510-549-2918 Berkeley’s Secret Garden 921 University Avenue, Berkeley, CA 94710 510-486-0117 Brentwood Hydroponics & Organics 560 Valdry Ct #85 Brentwood, CA 94513 925-634-6704 Advanced Garden Supply 3113 Alhambra Drive, Unit F, Cameron Park, CA 95682, 530-676-2100 Precision Hydroponics 132 Kennedy Avenue, Campbell, CA 95008 408-866-8176

Elite Horticulture Supply 22330 Sherman Way, C13, Canoga Park, CA 91303 818-347-5172 Hydro International 7935 Alabama Avenue Canoga Park, CA 91304 Advanced Hydroponics 17808 Sierra Highway, Canyon Country, CA 91351 Myron L Company 2450 Impala Drive, Carlsband, CA 9210-7226 760-438-2021 661-299-1603 San Diego Hydroponics North County Coastal 6352 Corte Del Abeto #J Carlsbad CA, 92011 760-420-8934 NorCal Creations PO Box 28, Cedar Ridge, CA 95924 Garden Connection, The 2145 Park Avenue, Unit 2 Chico, CA 95928 530-342-7762 Hydro King 2540 South Whitman Place, Chico, CA 959282 530-893-GROW (4769) Grow4Less garden Supply & Hydroponics 320 Trousdale Dr., Suite L Chula Visa CA 91910 619-425-GROW Citrus Heights Hydrogarden 8043 Greenback Lane Citrus Heights, CA 95610 916-728-4769 Conrad Hydroponics Inc. 14915 Unit E, Olympic Drive, Clearlake, CA 95422 707-994 3264 Under The Sun 12638 Foothill Boulevard, Clearlake Oaks, CA 95423 707-998-GROW (4769) Gro More Garden Supply 2937 Larkin Avenue, Clovis, CA 93021 559-348-1055 G & G Organics and Hydroponics 901 W. Victoria Street Unit D, Compton, CA 90220 310-632-0122 Concord Indoor Garden 2771 Clayton Road, Concord, CA 94519 925-671-2520 Hydroponics Plus 2250 Commerce Avenue, Suite C Concord, CA 94520 925-691-7615 Beginning Hydroponics PO Box 1232, Corona, CA 92787 951-735-4446 Hydrostar Hydroponics & Organics 1307 W. Sixth Street, #211, Corona, CA 92882 951-479-8069 A+ Hydroponics & Organics 1604 Babcock Street, Costa Mesa, CA 92627 949-642-7776 The Hydro Source 671 E. Edna Place Covina, CA 91723 877 HYDRO 82; 626-915-3128 Let it Grow 1228 2nd Street, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-9086 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1070 Highway 101, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-464-1200 Seaside Hydrogarden 1070 Highway 101 North, Crescent City, CA 95531 707-465-3520

Pacific Coast Hydroponics 4147 Sepulveda Boulevard, Culver City, CA 90230 310-313-1354 Dr. Greenthumbs Hydroponic Garden Supplies 566 San Ramon Valley Blvd. Danville, CA 94526 925-314-9376 Constantly Growing - Davis 123 D Street Davis, CA 95616 530-756-4774 Constantly Growing 6200 Enterprise Drive, Suite A Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-642-9710 Harvest Hydroponics 6650 Merchandise Way Suite B, Diamond Springs, CA 95619 530-622-5190 Victory Garden Supply 1900 N Lincoln St #100 Dixon CA 95620 707 678 5800 Watch It Grow Hydro 9453 Firestone Blvd. Downey, CA 90241 562-861-1982 Garden Warehouse 6355 Scarlet Court, #2, Dublin, CA 94568 925-556-3319 Grow A Lot Hydroponics, San Diego 1591 N. Cuyamaca Street, El Cajon, CA 93612 619-749-6777 El Centro Hydro & Brew Supply Inc. 591 main Street, Suite N-2 El Centro, CA 92243 760-235-4985 Go Green Hydroponics 15721 Ventura Boulevard, Encino, CA 91436 818-990-1198 A Fertile World (Eureka) 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-0200 Humboldt Nutrients 65th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 888-420-7770 Humboldt Electronics 2547 California Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-9408 Humboldt Hydroponics 1302 Union Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-443-4304 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 60 West 4th Street, Eureka, CA 95501 707-444-9999 Constantly Growing 4343 Hazel Avenue, Fair Oaks, CA 95628 916-962-0043 Tulare County Growers Supply 435 W. Noble Avenue, Unit A, Farmersville, CA 93223 559-732-8247 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - North 6241 Graham Hill Road, Felton, CA 95018 831-335-9990 Eel River Hydroponics & Soil Supply 164 Dinsmore Drive, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-726-0395 The Shop 6542 Front Street, Forestville, CA 95436 707-887-2280 Dirt Cheap Hydroponics 17975 H Highway 1, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-964-4211 Hydrogarden Mendocino County 1240 North Main Street, Fort Bragg, CA 95437 707-962-9252

A Fertile World (Fortuna) 610 7th Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-0700 Western Auto 1156 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-1189 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 357 Main Street, Fortuna, CA 95540 707-725-5550 Nature’s Secret Garden and Supply 41469 Albrae Street, Fremont, CA 94577 510-623-8393 Roots Grow Supply 1330 North Hulbert, #101 Fresno, CA 93728 559-840-0122 Tower Garden Supply & Organic Nursery 403 W. Olive Avenue, Fresno, CA 93728 559-495-1140 Valley Hydroponics 207 E. Sierra Ave. Fresno, CA 93710 559-449-0426 Grow Wurks Hydroponics 765 S. State College Boulevard. Suite J Fullerton, CA 92831 SB Hydro 1109 W. 190th Street, Unit #F, Gardena, CA 90248 310-538-5788 Golden Gecko Garden Center, The 4665 Marshall Road, Garden Valley, CA 95633 530-333-2394 Probiotic Solutions 20889 Geyserville Avenue, Geyserville, CA 95441 707-354-4342 South Valley Hydroponics 320 Kishimura Drive, #3 Gilroy, CA 95020 1-866-848-GROW Stop N Grow 340 Pine Avenue, Goleta, CA 93003 805-685-3000 All Seasons Hydroponics 17614 Chatsworth Street, Granada Hills, CA 91344 818-368-4388 AG Natural 403 Idaho Maryland Road, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-274 0990 Grass Valley Hydrogarden 12506 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-477-2996 Vital Landscaping Inc. 12817 Loma Rica Drive, Grass Valley, CA 95945 530-273-3187 West Coast Growers Hydroponics 13481 Colifax Highway, Grass Valley, CA 95945 888-924-4769 M.G.S. 22540 D Foothill Boulevard, Hayward, CA 94541 510-582-0900 Thrive Hydroponics 70 A West North Street, Healdsburg, CA 95446 707-433-4068 Emerald Garden 13325 South Highway 101, Hopland, CA 95482 707-744-8300 Surf City Hydroponics 7319 Warner Street, Suite B Huntington Beach, CA 92647 714-847-7900 Dutch Garden Supplies Park Circle Suite 12 Irvine CA 92614 949-748-8777

West Coast Hydroponics, Inc. 27665 Forbes Road, Unit 10 Laguna Niguel, CA 92677 949-348-2424 La Habra 1301 S Beach Boulevard, La Habra, CA 90631 562-947-8383 Grass Roots Hydroponics 31875 Corydon, Suite 130 Lake Elsinore, CA 92530 951-245-2390 South County Hydroponics 22511 Aspan Street, Suite E Lake Forest, CA 92630 949-837-8252 Clover Hydroponics & Garden Supply 43 Soda Bay Road, Lakeport, CA 95453 707-263-4000 San Diego Hydroponics East County 11649 Riverside Drive, Suite 141, Lakeside, CA 92040 619-562-3276 Total Hydroponics Center Inc 4820 Paramount Blvd Lakewood, CA 90712 562-984-GROW (4769) Weather Top Nursery 44901 Harmon Drive, Laytonville, CA 95454 707-984-6385 CNG Garden Supplies 22 Ricknbacker Circle, Livermore, CA 94551 925-454-9376 DL Wholesale 6764 Preston Ave. Suite D Livermore CA 94551 510 550 0018 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 6485 Brisa Street, Livermore, CA 94550 888-570-4678 (Southern CA) Garden Depot, The 203 Commerce Street, Suite 101 Lodi, CA 95240 209-339-9950 Valley Rock Landscape Supply 2222 N H Street Lompoc CA 93436 P: 805 736 0841 805 735 5921 Green Coast Hydroponics 2405 Mira Mar Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-627-5636 Grow Light Express 5318 East Second Street suite 164, Long Beach, CA 90803 888-318-GROW Long Beach Hydroponics & Organics 1772 Clark Avenue, Long Beach, CA 90815 562-498-9525 Atwater Hydroponics 3350 Glendale Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90039 323-663-8881 Green Door Hydro and Solar 830 Traction Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90013 212-625-1323 Hardman Hydroponics 3511 Youree Dr., Shreveport Los Angeles 71105 318-865-0317 Hollywood Hydroponics and Organics 5109 1/2 Hollywood Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90027-6105 323-662-1908 Hydroasis 2643 S. Fairfax Avenue, Los Angeles, CA 90232 888-355-4769 LAX Hydro 10912 S. La Cienaga Boulevard, Los Angeles, CA 90304 310-337-6995

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Sunland Hydroponics 4136 Eagle Rock Blvd, Los Angeles, CA 90065 323-254-2800 Green Giant Hydroponics 7183 Hwy 49 Unit B Lotus CA 95651 530 622 4465 Deep Roots Garden Center & Flower Shop 207 N. Sepulveda Blvd. Manhattan Beach, CA 90266 Telephone: 310-376-0567 B & S Gardening Supplies 590 Commerce Court, Manteca, CA 95336 209-239-8648 Monterey Bay Horticulture Supply 218 Reindollar Avenue Suite 7A, Marina, CA 93933 831-38-HYDRO Two Chix Garden Supply 1230 Yuba Street, Marysville, CA 95901 530-923-2536 Northcoast Horticulture Supply 1580 Nursery Way McKinleyville, CA 95519 707-839-9998 Thunders Hydroponic Center 1729 Yosemite Boulevard, Medesco, CA 95354 Mendocino Garden Shop PO Box 1301, 44720 Maint Street (at Hwy. 1), Mendocino, CA 95460 707-937-3459 Grow Zone 718 Willow Rd. Menlo Park CA 94025 650-326-4769 Merced Hydroponics 1809 East 21st Street, Merced, CA 95340 209-726-4769 The Urban Farmer Store 653 E. Blithedale Avenue, Mill Valley, CA 94941 415-380-3840 Mission Viejo Hydroponics 24002 Via Fabricante Suite 502 Mission Viejo, CA 92691 949-380-1894 Coca’s Central Valley Hydroponics 116 West Orangeburg Avenue, Modesto, CA 95350 209-567-0590 Growers Choice Hydroponics 1100 Carver Road, Modesto, CA 95350 209-522-2727 Year Round Garden Supply 11000 Carver Rd. #20 Modesto, CA 95350 Tel: 209 522 2727 Green Light Hydroponics 2615 Honolula Ave. Montrose, CA 91020 818-640-2623 Grodan Inc. Moorpark, CA 93021 541-646-8245 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 850 Shasta Avenue, Suite B Morro Bay, CA 93442 805-772-5869 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - Mtn. View 569 East Evelyn Avenue, Mountain View, CA 94041 650-968-4070 Redwood Garden Supply 55 Myers Avenue, Myers Flat, CA 95554 707-943-1515 Endless Green Hydroponics 25 Enterprise Court, Suite 3 Napa, CA 94558 707-254-0200 Conejo Hydroponics 3481 Old Conejo Road #106 Newbury Park, CA 91320 805-480-9596 Stop N Grow 640 S. Frontage Road, Nipomo, CA 93444 805-619-5125


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Valley Garden Solutions Inc. 15650 Nordhoff Avenue, Suite 104, North Hills, CA 91345 818-336-0041 Foothill Hydroponics 10705 Burbank Boulevard, N. Hollywood, CA 91601 818-760-0688 One Stop Hydroponics 12822 Victory Boulevard North Hollywood, CA 91606 818-980-5855 Lumatek Digital Ballasts 33 Commercial Boulevard, Suite B Novato, CA 94949 415-233-4273 Marin Hydroponics 1219 Grant Avenue, Novato, CA 94945 415-897-2197 Roots Grow Supply 40091 Enterprise Dr. Oakhurst CA 93644 559 683 6622 3rd Street Hydroponics 636 3rd Street Oakland, CA 94607 510-452-5521 Bloom Hydro 1602 53rd Ave. Oakland CA 94601 707 980 0456 Medicine Man Farms 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Plant-N-Grow 1602 53rd Avenue, Oakland, CA 94601 707-980-0456 Hydrobrew 1319 South Coast Highway, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-966-1885; 877-966-GROW Socal Hydroponics 1727-B Oceanside Boulevard, Oceanside, CA 92054 760-439-1084 Cultivate Ontario 2000 Grove Ave #a110 Ontario, CA 91761 909-781-6142 Flairform 1751 S Pointe Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 213-596-8820 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 1950 C South Grove Avenue, Ontario, CA 91761 888-888-3319 Palm Tree Hydroponics 2235 E 4th St,Suite G Ontario, CA 91764 909-941-9017 RH Distribution 1751 S. Pointe Avenue Ontario, CA 91761 888-545-8112 Green Coast Hydroponics 496 Meats Avenue Orange, CA 92865 714-974-4769 Natural Pest Controls 8320 B Hazel Avenue, Orangevale, CA 95662 916-726-0855 Igrow Hydro 2280 Veatch Street, Oroville, CA 95965 530-534-4476 Orville Organic Gardens 5250 Olive Hwy Ste 1 Oroville, CA 95966 530-589-9950 US Orchid & Hydroponic Supplies 1621 South Rose Avenue, Oxnard, CA 93033 805-247-0086 America’s Best Hydroponics & Gardening Center 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. Unit D Palmdale, CA 93551 661-266-3906

Hydroponics Unlimited 641 W. Palmdale Blvd. “D” Palmdale, CA 93550 661-266-3906 Palm Springs Hydroponics 4651 Ramon Road, Palm Springs, CA 92264 760-327-ROOT New Leaf Hydro 34150 123rd Street, Parablossom, CA 93553 661-944-2226 Alternative Hydro 3870 East, Colorado Boulevard, Pasadena, CA 91107 888-50-HYDRO Better Grow Hydro Pasadena 1271 E. Colorado Boulevard, Pasedena, CA 91106 626 737 6612 Supersonic Hydroponic and Organic Garden Supply 3850 Ramada Drive, Unit D2 Paso Robles, CA 93446 805-434-2333 Foothills Hydrogarden 3133 Penryn Road, Penryn, CA 95663 916-270-2413 Funny Farms Hydroponics 963 Transport Way, #12 Petaluma, CA 94954 707-775-3111 House of Hydro 224 Weller Street, #B, Petaluma, CA 94952 707-762-4769 Turbo Grow 1889 San Pablo Avenue, Pinole, CA 94564 510-724-1291 Best Yield Garden Supply 3503 West Temple Avenue, Unit A, Pomona, CA 91768 909-839-0505 Emerald Garden 8249 Archibald Avenue, Ranch Cucamanga, CA 91730 909-466-3796 GreenLeaf Hydroponics 2212 Artesia Boulevard, Redondo Beach, CA 90278 310-374-2585 Shadow Valley Aquatics 75 Kimick Way, Red Bluff, CA 96080 530-526-0479 Bare Roots Hydroponics 1615 East Cypress, #5 Redding, CA 96002 530-244-2215 Dazey’s Supply 3082 Redwood Drive, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3002 Humboldt Hydroponics 2010 Tunnel Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-1402 Redway Feed Garden and Pet Supply 290 Briceland Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-2765 Sylvandale Gardens 1151 Evergreen Road, Redway, CA 95560 707-923-3606 Humboldt Hydroponics 2174 Pine Street, Redding, CA 96001 530-241-7454 Hydro King 105 Hartnell Avenue, Suite C and D, Redding, CA 96002 888-822-8941 Orsa Organix 111 Willow Street, Redwood City, CA 94063 650-369-1269 Mendocino Greenhouse & Garden Supply 960 East School Way, Redwood Valley, CA 95470 707-485-0668

EZ Green Hydroponics 7017 Reseda Boulevard, Reseda, CA 91335 818-776-9076 Hydro Hills Hydroponics 19320 Vanowen St. Reseda CA 91335 Box Of Rain Inc. Po Box 302, Rexford, CA 59930 406-755-7245 Hi-Tech Gardening 5327 Jacuzzi Street, #282, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-4710 The Urban Farmer Store 2121 San Joaquin Street, Richmond, CA 94804 510-524-1604 Discount Hydroponics 4745 Hiers Avenue, Riverside, CA 92505 877-476-9487 All Ways Hydro 2220 Eastridge Ave. Suite C Riverside CA 92507 888-HYDRO98 Calwest Hydroponics 11620 Sterling Avenue, Suite A Riverside, CA 92503 800-301-9009 Hydro Depot 5665 Redwood Drive, #B, Rohnert Park, CA 94928 707-584-2384 Igrow Hydro 9000 Atkinson Street, Roseville, CA 95678 916-773-4476 Green Acres Hydroponics 1215 Striker Avenue, Suite 180, Sacramento, CA 95834 916-419-4394 Greenfire Sacramento 3230 Auburn Boulevard, Sacramento, CA 95821 916-485-8023 Green Thumb Hydroponics 35 Quinta Court, Suite B, Sacramento, CA 95823 916-689-6464 KY Wholesale 8671 Elder creek Rd. #600 Sacramento, CA 95828 916 383 3366 Mystic Gardens 8484 Florin Road, #110, Sacramento, CA 95828 916-381-2464 Sac Hydroponics 9529 Folson Boulevard, Suite C Sacramento, CA 95827 916-369-7968 Skywide Import & Export Ltd. 5900 Lemon Hill Avenue, Sacramento, CA 95824 916-383-2369 Tradewinds Wholesale Garden Supplies 1235 Striker Avenue #180, Sacramento, CA 95834 888-557-8896 Green Joint Ventures 61 Tarp Circle, Salinas, CA 93901 831-998-8628 Reforestation Technologies International 1341 Daton Street, Units G&I Salinas, CA 93901 831-424-1494; 800-RTI-GROW National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 1900 Bendixsen Street , Bldg. 1, Samoa, CA 95564 800-683-1114 (Northern CA) Greenmile Hydroponic Garden Supply 1480 South E. Street, Suite D, San Bernardino, CA 92408 909-885-5919 Garden Shed, The 1136 El Camino Real San Carlos, CA 650-508-8600

Pure Food Gardening/Microclone 830 H Bransten Rd. San Carlos,CA 94070-3338 Green Gopher Garden Supply 679 Redwood Avenue, Suite A, Sand City, CA 93955 831-899-0203 Modern Gardens 26620 Valley Center Dr. Santa Clarita, CA 91351 661-513-4733 Best Coast Growers 4417 Glacier Avenue Suite C, San Diego, CA 92120 800-827-1876 City Farmer’s Nursery 4832 Home Avenue, San Diego, CA 92105 619-284-6358 Green Lady Hydroponics 4879 Newport Avenue, San Diego, CA 92107 619-222-5011 Home Brews & Gardens 3176 Thorn St San Diego, CA 92104 619 630 2739 Indoor Garden Depot 1848 Commercial St. San Diego CA 92113 619-255-3552 Innovative Growing Solutions (IGS) 5060 Santa Fe St. Ste.D San Diego, CA 92109 858-578-4477 Mighty Garden Supply 4780 Mission Gorge Pl. #A-1, San Diego, CA 92120 619-287-3238 Miramar Hydroponics & Organics 8952 Empire Street San Diego CA 92126 858-549-8649 Oracle Garden Supply 5755 Oberlin Drive, Suite 100 San Diego, CA 92121 858-558-6006 Pacific Beach Hydroponics 1852 Garnet Avenue, San Diego, CA 92109 858-274-2559 San Diego Hydroponics Beach Cities 4122 Napier Street, San Diego, CA 92110 619-276-0657 Wai Kula Hydrogardens 5297 Linda Vista Road, San Diego, CA 92110 619-299-7299 Direct Hydroponics Wholesale 1034 W. Arrow Hwy#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Liquid Gardens 1034 West Arrow Hwy.#D San Dimas, CA 91773 888-924-9376 Extreme Hydroponics 11479 San Fernando Road C, San Fernando, CA 91340 818-898-0915 Grow Your Own 3401 Traval Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-731-2115 Hydroponic Connection Warehouse, The 1995 Evans Avenue, San Francisco, CA 94124 415-824-9376 Nor Cal Hydroponics 4837 Geary Boulevard, San Francisco, CA 94118 415-933-8262 Plant It Earth 2279 Market Street, San Francisco, CA 94114 415-626-5082 Urban Gardens Unlimited UrbanGardens 704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133 415-421-4769 advanced hydroponics and gardening

704 Filbert Street, San Francisco, CA 94133

San Francisco Hydro 123 Tenth Street, San Francisco, CA 94103 The Urban Farmer Store 2833 Vicente Street, San Francisco, CA 94116 415-661-2204 US Garden 417 Agostinio Rd San Gabriel Ca 91776 626 285-5009 Inland Empire Hydrogarden 1301-C South State Street, San Jancinto, CA 92853 Hahn’s Lighting 260 E. VA Suite 1, San Jose, CA 95112 408-295-1755 Plant Life 32 Race Street, San Jose, CA 95126 408-283-9191 South Bay Hydroponics and Organics - San Jose 1185 South Bascom Avenue, San Jose, CA 95128 408-292-4040 D&S Garden Supplies 17-130 Doolittle Drive San Leandro, CA 94577 510-430-8589 Hydrogarden Delight 13762 Doolittle Drive, San Leandro, CA 94577 510-903-1808 Central Coast Hydrogarden 1951 Santa Barbara Street, San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805-544-GROW Healthy Harvest Hydroponics and Organics 2958 S. Higuera St. San Luis Obispo, CA 93401 805.596.0430 San Diego Hydroponics North 802 N. Twin Oaks Valley Road #108 San Marcos, CA 92069 760-510-1444 H20 Gardening 355 West 7th Street, San Pedro, CA 90731 310-514-1416 Pacific Garden Supply 128 H Carlos Drive, San Rafael, CA 94903 San Rafael Hydroponics 1417 Fourth Sreet San Rafael, CA 94901 415 455 9655 Green Coast Hydroponics 3560 State Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93105 805-898-9922 Nutes Int’l 204 N Quarantina Street, Santa Barbara, CA 93103 805-687-6699 Santa Clarita Valley Hydroponics 25835 Railroad Ave. #26 Santa Clarita CA 91350 661 255 3700 661 255 3701 California Hydroponics 310 Coral Street, Suite C Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-423-4769 Hydro-Logic Purification Systems 370 Encinal St, Suite 150, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 888 H2O LOGIC Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - West Side 815 Almar Avenue, Unit K, Santa Cruz, CA 95060 831-466-9000 Full Sun Supply 3535 Industrial Drive, Unit B-3 Santa Rosa, CA 95403 877-FULL-SUN Gonzo Grow 2550 Guerneville Road,Suite C, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-546-1800

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Gottagrow Garden Supply 769 Wilson Street, Santa Rosa, CA 95404 707-544-7782 Green Logic Garden Supply 860 Piner Road, #38, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 707-843-3156 Organic Bountea 1919 Dennis Lane, Santa Rosa, CA 95403 800-798-0765 Pro Gardening Systems 3715 Santa Rosa Avenue #2, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-585-8633 Sun-In Hydroponics 1257A Cleveland Avenue, Santa Rosa, CA 95401 707-578-5747 Sweet Leaf Hydroponics 1611 Sebastobol Road, Santa Rosa, CA 95407 707-575-GROW (4237)  Santee Hydroponics 7949 Mission Gorge Road, Santee, CA 92071 619-270-8649 Gardening Unlimited 60 Old El Pueblo Road, Scotts Valley, CA 95066 831-457-1236 Pro Gardening Systems 765 Petaluma Avenue, Sebastopol, CA 95472 707-829-7252 Better Choice Hydroponics 610 S. Washington Street, Senora, CA 95370 209 533 2400 Go Big Hydroponics 4501 Van Nuys Boulevard, Sherman Oaks, CA 91403 818-789-3341 We Grow Hydroponics 3350 East Los Angeles Avenue, Simi Valley, CA 93063 805-624-4566 Abundant Hydroponics LLC 1611 Shop Street, #1-A, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-54 HYDRO Advanced Garden Supply 2660 Lake Tahoe Boulevard, Building C, Unit 9, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-4769 Farm Hydroponics, The 1950 Lake Tahoe Boulevard #3, S. Lake Tahoe, CA 96150 530-541-3276 Santa Cruz Hydroponics & Organics - East Side 4000 Cordelia Lane Soquel, CA 95073 831-475-9900 Orange County Hydroponics 12797 Beach Boulevard,  Stanton, CA 90680 714-893-9493 Golden Harvest Hydroponics & Garden Supply 8626 Lower Sacramento Road #48, Stockton, CA 95210 209-951-3550 M&M Garden Supply 2509 West Lane, Suite B Stockton, CA 95205 209-939-0664 Pacific Ave Indoor Garden Supply 4633 pacific Ave Stockton , CA 95207 209-955-0945 City Farm Hydroponics 8903 Laurel Canyon Boulevard, Sun Valley, CA 91352 818-767-2076 Sunland Hydroponics 8300 Foothill Boulevard, Sunland, CA 91040 818-352-5300 Anthony’s Garden & Lighting Supply 30 Ridge Road, Suites 8 & 9 Sutter Creek, CA 95685 209-267-5416


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Tahoe Garden Supply 645 Westlake Boulevard, Suite 2, PO Box 487 Tahoe City, CA 96145 530-581-3200 The Otherside Hydroponics 19425 Ventura Blvd Tarzana CA 91356 818 881 hydro (4937) Hydroponics 4 Less 41669 Winchester Avenue, Temecula, CA 92590 800-A1-HYDRO Inland Empire Hydrogarden 28822 Old Town Front St. #206 Temecula, CA 92590 886-74-HYDRO 805 Hydroponics & Organics 1785 E. Thousand Oaks Boulevard Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-494-1785 Art of Hydro 2636 E. Thousand Oaks Blvd. Thousand Oaks, CA 91362 805-230-2227 Green Thumb Lighting & Garden 1647 W. Sepulveda Boulevard, Unit 5, Torrance, CA 90501 888-326-GROW Los Angeles Hydroponics and Organics 3007-3009 W. Artesia Blvd. Torrance, CA 90504 310-323-4937 Anything Grows 10607 W. River Street, Building 3 Suite C, Truckee, CA 96161 530-582-0479 Hooked Up Hydroponics 339 S. Golden State Boulevard, Turlock, CA 95380 209-668-1300 Emerald Garden 307 East Perkins Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-463-2510 HydroPacific - Hydroponics & Garden Supplies 351 C Hastings Av., Ukiah, CA 95482 707-467-0400 Northcoast Hydrogardens 3450 North State Street, Ukiah, CA 95482 707-462-7214 Atlantis Garden Supply 2851 A Whipple Road, Union City, CA 94587 510-487-8007 Evergreen Hydroponics 923 N. Central Avenue, Suite B, Upland, CA 91786 909-946-7100 TNC Supply 9490 Main Street, P.O. Box 763 Upper Lake, CA 95485 707-275-9565 Everything Green 448 Georgia Street, Vallejo, CA 94590 707-647-0774 Hydroponics Market 15816 Arminta St Van Nuys, CA 91406 818-305-6261 886-72-HYDRO Stop N Grow 4160 Market Street, Unit 11 Ventura, CA 93003 805-639-9489 BWGS-CA 7530 W. Sunnyview Avenue Visalia, CA 93291 888-316-1306 The Green Shop 66420 Mooney Boulevard, Suite 1 Visalia, CA 93277 559-688-4200 Kaweah Grower Supply 1106 1/2 N. Ben Maddox Way, Visalia, CA 93293 559-625-4937 Greentrees Hydroponics Inc. 2581 Pioneer Avenue, Unit D Vista, CA 92081 760-598-7551

Home Life Hydroponics and Organics 1745 East Vista Way, Vista, CA 92084 760-643-2150 Specialty Garden Center 1970 East Vista Way, Suite 10, Vista, CA 92084 760-758-4769 Monterey Bay Hydroponics and Organics 81 Hangar Way, #1, Watsonville, CA 95076 831-761-9999 California Hydro Garden 1043 South Glendora Avenue, Suite A West Covina, CA 91790 626-813-0868 No Stress Hydroponics 7543 Santa Monica Boulevard, West Hollywood, CA 90046 323-845-9874 Hydronation 2491 Boatman Drive, Suite B West Sacramento, CA 95691 916-372-4444 Flower Hut Nursery 603 4th Street Wheatland, CA 95692 530-633-4526 Green Coast Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard Whittier, CA 90601 562-699-4201 GreenWay Hydroponics 11510 Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90601 Lazy Gardeners Hydroponics ‘N’ More 14626 East Whittier Boulevard, Whittier, CA 90605 562-945-0909 Garden Spout, The 260 Margie Dr Willits, CA 95490 707-456-0196 Sparetime Supply 208 E. San Francisco Avenue, Willits, CA 95490-4006 Urban Gardens 22516 Ventura Boulevard, Woodland Hills, CA 91364 818-876-0222 Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 Garden Highway Garden Supply 598 Garden Highway #22 Yuba City, CA 95991 530-755-2877 Southern Humbolt Garden Supplies 34919 Yucaipa Boulevard, Yucaipa, CA 92399 909-797-6888 707-459-6791

COLORADO National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 3550 B Odessa Way, Aurora, CO 80011 866-877-4188 (Northeast) Nick’s Garden Center 2001 S. Chambers, Aurora, CO 80014 303-696-6657 Family Hydroponics-Boulder 2125 32nd Street Boulder, co 80301 303-996-6100 Polar Ray 5171 Eldorado Springs Dr. Boulder, CO 80303 303 494 5773 Way To Grow 6395 Gunpark Drive, Boulder, CO 80301 303-473-4769 Deep Roots Garden Supply 1790 Airport Road, Unit 1 Breckenridge, CO 80424 970-453-1440 Mile High Hydroponics 37 Strong St. Brighton, CO 80601 303 637 0069

Brighton Hydroponics 839so.Kuner rd., Brighton Colorado 80601 303-655-1427 ACME Hydroponics  300 Nickel St Suite 3 Broomfield, CO 80020 720.524.7306 Colorado Grow 3400 Industrial Lane, Unit 10A Broomfield, CO 80020 (303) 465-GROW (4769) J&D Organic Growing Solutions 217 1/2 Clayton Street Brush, CO 80723 970-310-5408 BIG BloomZ 1005 Caprice Drive, Castle Rock, CO 80109 303-688-0599 Indoor Garden Warehouse 8100 S Akron St., Suite 322, Centennial, CO 80112 720-496-2110 Garden Tech 737 Garden of the Gods Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-278-9777 Greenhouse Tech 917 East Fillmore, Colorado Springs, CO 80907 719-634-0637 Hydro Grow Supply 644 Peterson Road, Colorado Springs, CO 80915 719-596-2600 Olympic Hydroponics Supply LLC. 1530 S Nevada Avenue, Colorado Springs, CO 80906 719-635-5859 High Tech Garden Supply 5275 Quebec St. Commerce City, CO 80022 720-222-0772 Roll-N-Green Farms Horticultural Supply 25797 Conifer Rd #A-8 Conifer, Co 80433 303-838-5520  BWGS-CO 11685 E. 55th Avenue Denver, CO 80239 888-316-1306  Chlorophyll 3801 Mariposa St. Denver CO 80211 303-433-1155 Denver Hydroponic & Organic Center 6810 North Broadway, Unit D Denver, CO 80221 303-650-0091 Rocky Mountain Lighting and Hydroponics 7100 N. Broadway, Suite 3D Denver, CO 80221 303-428-5020 The Grow Outlet 4272 Lowell Boulevard Denver, CO 80211 303-586-5543 Way To Grow 301 East 57th Ave. Denver, CO 80216 303-296-7900 All Seasons Gardening 434 Turner Drive, Suite 2B Durango, CO 81303 (970) 385-4769 Blue Sky Hydroponics 1301 Florida Road Unit C Durango, CO 81301 970-375-1238 Grow Store South, The 5050 S. Federal Boulevard, #37, Englewood, CO 80110 303-738-0202 Alpenglow Garden Supply 2712 South College Ave Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-266-8888 Bath Nursery & Garden Center 2000 E. Prospect, Fort Collins, CO 80525 970-484-5022

Indoor Paradise Hydroponics 309 S. Summit View, Unit 17, Fort Collins, CO 80524-1462 970-221-3751 Way To Grow 3201 E. Mulberry Street, Fort Collins, CO 80524 970-484-4769 Hydro Shack, The 220 Main Street, Suite E Frisco, CO 80443 970-668-0359 GWS Hydroponics 7025 Highway 82 Building 4B, Glenwood Springs, CO 81601 970-384-2040 Hydro Planet 711 Washington Avenue, Golden, CO 80401 303-279-6090 Rocky Mountain Hydroponics and Organics 15985 S. Golden Road Golden, CO 80401 720-475-1725 Desert Bloom Hydroponics 445 Pitkin Avenue, Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-245-6427 Primo Gardens 1600 North Ave. Suite B Grand Junction, CO 81501 970-241-1209  Greeley Nutrients 700 11th Street Unit 101 Greeley CO 80631 970 673 8302 GroWize 3225 S. Wadsworth Boulevard, Lakewood, CO 80227 303-986-2706 Grow Store, The 8644 W. Colfax Avenue, Lakewood, CO 80215 888-510-0350 Ever Green Hydroponics Inc. 1131 Francis Street, Suite A, Longmont, CO 80501 303-682-6435 Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 Victory Hydro Gardening 1387 E. South Boulder Rd. Louisville, CO, 80027 Tel: 303-664-9376 Lyons Indoor Gardening 138 Main Street, Lyons, CO 80540 720-530-3828 Head Start Hydroponics & Organic Gardening Emporium 34500 US Highway 6, Unit B-9, North Edwards, CO 81632 970-569-313 Cultivate Hydroponics & Organics 7777 W. 38th Avenue, A120A, Wheat Ridge, CO 80033 303-954-9897

CONNECTICUT Harvest Moon Hydroponics 775 Silver Lane, East Hartford, CT 06118 860-568-4067 LiquidSun® CT 10C South Main Street, East Windsor, CT 06088 860-254-5757 Organix Hydroponics 749 Saybrook Road, (Tradewinds Plaza) Middletown, CT 06457 860-343-1923

FLORIDA Urban Sunshine 1420 E. Altamonte Dr Altamonte Springs, FL 32701 407-830-4769 Best Hydro 4920 Lena Road, Bradenton, FL 34211 941-756-1928


Palm Coast Hydroponics 4490 N Hwy US1 Ste. 108 Bunnell FL 32110 386 246 4119 East Coast Hydroponics & Organics 461 Forrest Avenue, Suite 105 Coca, FL 32922 321-243-6800 GreenTouch Hydroponics Inc. 5011 S State Road 7, Suite 104 Davie, FL 33314 954-316-8815 Absolute Hydroponic Garden Center Inc 1607 Old Daytona Steet Deland, FL 32724 386-734-0696 Gold Coast Hydroponics 1539 SW 21st Avenue, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33312 1-800-780-7371 Biofloral 6250 NW 27th Way, Ft. Lauderdale, FL 33309 877 735 6725 Green Thumb Hydroponics Supplies 13482 North Cleveland Avenue, Fort Meyers, FL 33903 239-997-4769 Gardener’s Edge Gainesville 5000 NW 34th Street, Suite 13, Gainesville, FL 32605 352-375-2769 Florida Garden Wholesale 2692 W 79 Street, Hialeah, FL 33016 1-800-931-5215 Hydro Terra Corp. 924 North Federal Highway, Hollywood, FL 33020 954-920-0889 Simply Hydroponics & Organics (North) 3642 South Suncoast Boulevard, Homosassa, FL 34448 352-628-2655 Hydroponics International Inc. 7029-10 Commonwealth Avenue, Jacksonville, FL 32220 904-693-6554 Grower’s Choice & Hydroponics 11855 North Main Street, Jackonsonville, FL 32218 904-683-4517 Urban Organics & Hydroponics 5325 Fairmont Street, Jacksonville, FL 32207 904-398-8012 Simply Hydroponics & Organics 7949 Ulmerton Road, Largo, FL 33773 727-531-5355 GrowSmart Indoor Garden Centers 14587 Southern Boulevard, Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561-429-3527 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – West 14703 Sothern Blvd. Loxahatchee, FL 33470 561 296 8555 Atlantic Hydroponics 430 Count Street, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-1535 High Tech Garden Supply 2975 West New Haven Avenue, Melbourne, FL 32901 321-821-0853 Advanced Hydro Gardens 4960 NW 165 Street, Suite B-4, Miami, FL 33014 866-97-HYDRO Blossoms Experience, The 7207 NW 54th Street, Miami, FL 33166 866-452-4769 Florida Garden Wholesale 9545 Sunset Drive, Miami, FL 33173 800-931-5215 Future Farms Inc., The 14291 SW 120th Street, Suite 105 Miami, FL 33186 305-382-2757

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Gold Coast Hydroponics 4241 SW 71st Avenue, Miami, FL 33155 1-800-780-6805 Growing Garden Inc., The 12811 SW 42nd Street, Miami, FL 33175 305-559-0309 VitaOrganix 7921 NW 67th St Miami, FL 33166 786 845 8633 3D Hydroponics and Organics 7139 US Highway #19, New Port Richey, FL 34652 727-847-3491 Florida Garden Wholesale 8442 Tradeport Drive, Unit 200, Orlando, FL 32827 Urban Sunshine 6100 Hanging Moss Rd ste 50 Orlando, FL 32807 407-647-4769 Urban Sunshine 6142 S. Orange Ave Orlando, FL 32809 407-859-7728 Green Winters Inc. 147 Tomoka Avenue, Ormond Beach, FL 32174 386-235-8730 800-931-5215 The Healthy Harvest Ste. 126 21113 Johnson St. Pembroke Pines, FL. 33029 Tel: 954-538-1511 Eden Garden Supply 5044 N. Palafox Street, Pensacola, FL 32505 850-439-1299 Healthy Gardens and Supply of Florida, Inc. 196 East Nine Mile Road, Suite F, Pensacola, FL 32534 850-912-4545 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 455 S. Andrews Avenue, Pompano Beach, FL 33069 877-649-3567 (Southeast) Hydroponic Depot II 2395 S Tamiami Trail #19 Port Charlotte FL 33952 941 255 3999t EZ Grow Green 604 S.W. Bayshore Blvd. Port St. Lucie, Fl 34983 772-807-7755 Esposito Garden Center 2743 Capital Circle NE, Tallahassee, FL 32308 850-386-2114 Evershine Hydroponics 1519 Capital Circle NE Unit #35 Tallahassee FL 32308 850-765-0040 Grace’s Hydro-Organic Garden Center 8877 North 56th Street Tampa, FL 33617 813-514-9376 Harvest Time Hydroponics 14414 N. Florida Avenue, Tampa, FL 33613 813-264-7101 Hydroponics of Tampa 120 W. Bougain Villea, Tampa, FL 33612 813-333-6828 Stoney Hydro @ Schiro’s Barn n Garden Supplies 7812 Causeway Boulevard, Tampa, FL 33619 813-626-0902 Worm’s Way Florida 4412 North 56th Street, Tampa, FL 33610 800-283-9676; 813-621-1792 Monkey Hydroponics 940 West Oakland Ave. Unit A1 Winter Garden FL 34787  407 574 8495


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Cultivating Eden Hydroponic Supplies 946 18th Avenue SW, Vero Beach, FL 32962 772-564-8880 Florida Garden Wholesale 8020 Belvedere Road,Unit 4, West Palm Beach,FL 33411 800-931-5215 Palm Beach Discount Hydroponics – East 968 North Congress Ave. West Palm Beach, FL 33409 561 296 6161

GEORGIA Atlantis Hydroponics 1422 Woodmont Lane, #4, Atlanta, GA 30318 404-367-0052 Flora Hydroponics Inc. 2475 Jefferson Road, Suite 600 Athens, GA 30607 866-404-0551 Atlantis Hydroponics 2561 West Point Avenue, College Park, GA 30337 678-510-0032 Savannah Hydroponics & Organics 4107 Eighth Street, Suite C Garden City, GA 31408 912-349-4030

HAWAII Eco-Island Supply 810 Haiku Road, #394 Haiku, HI 96708 808-575-9171 Aqua Plant Hawaii / Kahala Hydroponics 4224 Wailae, Suite 1A, Honolulu, HI 96816 808-735-8665 Green Hands of Aloha 1713 Mary Street, Honolulu, HI 96819 808-847-4263 Ohana Greenhouse & Garden Supply 300 Hukilike Street, #2M, Kahalui, HI 96732 808-871-6393 Aiyah’s Garden 3-3122 Kuhio Hwy. unit B-2 Lihue, Hi. 96766 808 245 2627 Pahoa Feed & Fertilizer 15-2754 Old Government Road, Pahoa, HI 96778 808-965-9955

IDAHO Boise Hydroponics 614 North Orchard Street, Boise, ID 83706 208-344-3053 Greenthumb Greenhouses 5895 Ensign Avenue, Boise, ID 83714

ILLINOIS Aerostar Global 824 South Kay Avenue, Addison, IL 60101 Brew and Grow 181 Crossroads Parkway, Bolingbrook, IL 60194 847-885-8282 Let it Grow - Carbondale West Main Street, Carbondale, IL 62908 573-450-5401 Alternative Garden Supply 615 Industrial Drive, Unit A Cary, IL 60013 800-444-2837 Brew and Grow 3625 N. Kedzi Avenue, Chicago, IL 60618 773-463-7430 Fertile Ground 463 West MacArthur Drive, Cottage Hills, IL 62018 618-259-5500

Hydrocork 20647 Renwick Road, Crest Hill, IL 60435 815-838-0100 Goldman’s Grow Shop 910 Greenwood Road, Glenview, IL 60025 847-657-7250 Grow Masters 4641 Old Grand Ave. Gurnee, Il. 60031 (224) 399-9877 Big Grow Hydroponics 9225 Trinity Drive, Lake In The Hills, IL 60156 847-854-4450 Grow Big Hydroponics 7817 B North 2nd Street, Manchesney Park, IL 61115 815-637-4769 Gardinside 618 S. Rt. 59 suite 104 Naperville, IL 60540 630-276-9885 Green Fields 8137 N. Milwaukee, Niles, IL 60714 847-965-5056 Autumn Bloom Alternative Indoor Gardening 1020 Derby Street Pekin, Illinois 61554 309-642-6943 Prairie House Garden Center 15151 South Harlem Avenue, Orland, IL 60462 708-687-3131 Brew and Grow 3224 South Alpine Road, Rockford, IL 61109 815-874-5700 Brew and Grow 359 W. Irving Park Road Unit E, Roselle, IL 60172 630-894-4885 Brew and Grow 2379 Bode Road, Schaumburg, IL 60440 630-771-0555 Organic Garden Center 9223 Skokie Blvd. Skokie, IL 60077 (847) 675-2722 Kreation’s Indoor Gardening Center 3427 Old Chatman Road, Springfield, IL 62704 217-341-0821 Water Works Indoor Gardening 1900 South Dirksen Parkway, Springfield, IL 62703 217-553-6929

INDIANA BWGS-IN 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-316-1306 Sunleaves Garden Products 7854 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 888-464-9676 Worm’s Way Indiana 7850 North State Road 37, Bloomington, IN 47404 800-598-8158 Worm’s Way Mail Order 7850 North State Road 37 Bloomington, IN 47404 800-274-9676 Frogs Lilly Pad, The 706 Citation Road, Carmel, IN 46032 317-846-4610 Hops & Harvest 4616 E. DuPont Road, Suite Q, Fort Wayne, IN 46825 260-918-3035 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 1336 East Washington St. Indianapolis, IN 4620 317-780-8070


Magic Bulb Garden Center 6229 Allisonville Road, Indianapolis, IN 46220 317-202-2852 Five Point Gardens 56555 Oak Road, South Bend, IN 46619 574-287-9232

KANSAS Green Circle Hydroponics 6890 W. 105th Street, Overland Park, KS 66212 913-642-3888

KENTUCKY Garden Grove Organics 29 East 7th Street, Covington, (Cincinnati Metro), KY 41011 859-360-1843 Worm’s Way Kentucky 1360 Donaldson Hwy. Suite A, Erlanger, KY 41018 800-669-2088 Grow Shop, The of Lexington 2320 Palumbo Drive, Suite 130, Lexington, KY 40509 859-268-0779 Louisville Hydroponics 3471 Taylor Boulevard, Louisville, KY 40215 502-366-4000 New Earth Garden Center 9810 Taylorsville Road, Louisville, KY 40299 800-462-5953

LOUISIANA Geaux Hydroponics! 2126 O’Neal Lane, Baton Rouge, LA 70816 225-751-4769 Laughing Buddha Nursery 4516 Clearview Parkway, Metairie, LA 70006 504-887-4336 Urban Organics 285 St. Claude Avenue, New Orleans, LA 70117 504-352-4709 Ourcrazydeals Hydroponics 201 Angus Drive, Yungsville, LA 70592 337-303-6146

MAINE Evergreen Garden Center 301 Forest Avenue Portland, ME 04101 207-761-2800 High Tech Garden Supply Maine178 Rand Rd. Portland, ME 04102 Phone 207-899-4387 Green Thumb Indoor Gardening 19 Stage Road, St. Albans, ME 04971 207-938-5909 Urban Garden Center 235 Lewiston Road, Toposhan, ME 04086 207-373-0990 Greenlife Garden Supply 611 US Rt. 1 York, ME 03909 978 262 9966

MARYLAND East Coast Organics 2800 Sisson Street, Baltimore, MD 21211 Healthy Gardens and Supply 5001-F Harford Road, Baltimore, MD 21214 443-708-5144 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 10051 North 2nd Street, Laurel, MD 20723 301-490-9236

Meadowview Feed & Garden Center 1202 Meadowview Road, Pasadena, MD 21122 443-817-0018 Maryland Hydroponics Inc. 12130 Nebel Street, Rockville, MD 20852 240-551-4625 Purple Mountain Organics 100-7010 Westmoreland Avenue, Takoma Park, MD 20912 877-538-9901

MASSACHUSETTS Greenlife Garden Supply 481 Boston Road, Unit 4, Billerica, MA 01821 978-262-9966 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 29 Washington Street, Route 1 Foxboro, MA 02035 800-660-6977 LiquidSun® MA 8 Lynwood Avenue, Holyoke, MA 01040 413-539-6875 Green Path Garden Supply 276 West Main Street, Northborough, MA 01532 508-393-4181 High Tech Garden Supply 560 Boston Turnpike (Rt.9) Shrewsbury, MA 01545 508-845-4477 New England Hydroponics 15 D College Hwy. (Rt. 10), Southampton, MA 01073 888-529-9025 Worm’s Way Massachusetts 121 Worc-Providence Turnpike, Sutton, MA 01590 800-284-9676

MICHIGAN Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 6540 Allen Road, Allen Park, MI 48101 313-383-1766 Gro Blue Indoor Gardening Supplies 270 W. Liberty Street, Ann Arbor, MI 48104 734-913-2750 Grow Show, The 4095 Stone School Rd. Ann Arbor, MI 48108 (734)-677-0009 (734)-677-0509 HotHydro® 5245 Jackson Road, Suite F Ann Arbor, MI 48103 734-761-5040; 877-893-0716 Homelight Gardens 3471 S. Huron Road, Bay City, MI 48706 989-922-0088 J&L Growco 206 S. Michigan Avenue, Big Rapids, MI 49307 231-796-1528 Cultivation Station 3 Inc. 46912 Gratiot, Chesterfield, MI 48051 586-949-7453 H2O Grow Supply 3364 Arent Ct Coloma, MI 49038 269-468-3890 Van Hydro 7480 N State, Davison, MI 48423 810-653-8267 Hydro Giant 14455 Ford Rd, Dearborn, MI Hydro Giant 21651 W. 8 Mile Rd. Detroit, MI (8Mile & Lahser) 313-387-7700 313-216-8888

Hydro Heaven 73647 W 8th Mile Road, Detroit, MI 48235 313-861-0333; 877-823-2076 Ultra Lo Hydro 937-252-8224 Urban Gardening Center, The 2520 22nd Street, Detroit, MI 48216 313-898-0200 Superior Growers Supply 4870 Dawn Avenue, East Lansing, MI 48823 517-332-2663 Sunnyside Hydroponics 24930 Gratiot Avenue, Eastpoint, MI 48021 586-777-2528 Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 799 S. Wisconsin Avenue Gaylord, MI 49735 989 731 8800 Growco Garden Supply 1042 Michigan Street, NE, Grand Rapids, MI 49503 877-939-6900 Horizen Hydroponics 1614 Leonard Street, NW, Grand Rapids, MI 49504 866-791-1664 Flower Factory, The 2223 East Highland Road Highland, MI 48356 248-714-9292 Hydro Vision 2858 E Highland rd Highland, MI 48356 Holland Hydroponic Outlet 587-40 East 8th Street Holland, MI 49423 616-298-7395 Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 9091 W. Lake City Road Houghton Lake, MI 48629 989-422-2800 Hydro Vision 1247 e Grand River Howell, MI 48843 Green Forest Indoor Garden Supply, LLC. 2555 N. State(M-66) Rd. Ionia, MI 48846 616-523-6111 Horizen Hydroponics 4646 W. Main Street, Kalamazoo, MI 49006 269-567-3333 Kalamazoo Indoor Garden 450 W. Maple, Kalamazoo, MI 49001 269-344-2550 Superior Growers Supply 19582 Middlebelt Road, Livonia, MI 48152 248-473-0450 Northern Lights Hydroponic and Garden Supply 29090 Campbell rd. Madison Heights, MI 48071 248-439-6269 BIg Creek Hydroponics 555 Old Little Lake Road, Marquette, MI 49855 906-249-5297 Growing Consultant 2260 Apple Avenue, Muskegon, MI 49442 231-773-5600 Sunshine Supply Co. 5800 East Pickard Street, Mt. Pleasant, MI 48858 989-775-3700 Flo-N-Grow. 214 N. 2nd Street, Niles, MI 49120 269-683-1877

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Green Earth Hydroponics 8127 Portage Rd. Portage, MI 49002 269-342-4190 Home Grown Hydroponics 8075 Gratiot Road, Unit C, Saginaw MI 48609 989-781-1930 Hydro Giant 19363 Eureka Rd, Southgate, MI 734.281.8888 Cultivation Station of Michigan Inc., The 23529 Little Mack Avenue, St. Clair, MI 48080 586-775-9485 High Tech Garden Supply 7889 Telegraph Road. Taylor, MI 48180 313-908-7554 Hydro Grow, The 8210 Telegraph Road, Taylor, MI 48180 313-633-0641 Grow Store, The 721 W. Blue Star Drive, Traverse City, MI 49684 231-421-5191 Wild Child 7740 M 72 East, Traverse City, MI 49690 866-711-GROW Hydro Vision 1910 West rd Trenton, MI 48183 24500 Dequindre, Warren, MI 48091 800-461-8819 Indoor Garden Superstore 2570 Dixie Highway, Waterford Twp., MI 48328 248-673-2200; 877 22 HYDRO Light Green Water 3661 Highland Road, Waterford, MI 48329 248-681-0001 Hydrospot 34236 Michigan Avenue, Wayne, MI 48184 734-722-1285 Synthetic Sun Hydroponics, LLC 3218 W. Houghton Avenue West Branch, MI 48661 989-345-8800 Stealth Hydro 15 E. Cross Street, Ypsilanti, MI 48198 866-998-1916

MINNESOTA Duluth Hydroponics 26 W 1st Street Duluth, MN 55802 218-341-7253 Indoor Gardening 10 NE 3rd Street, Faribault, MN 55021 507-209-1546 Brew and Grow 8179 University Avenue, Fridley, MN 55432 612-780-8191 Interior Gardens 115 -1620 Central Avenue NE, Minneapolis, MN 55413 800-498-4178; 612-870-9077 Midwest Hydroponics 3440 Belt Line Boulevard,Suite A, Minneapolis, MN 55416 888-449-2739


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Eden Indoor Organic Gardens 831 Highway 75 North Moorhead, MN 56560 218-477-EDEN (3336) American Garden Supply 601-6th Avenue, North, Princeton, MN 55371 763-631-0543Q Still-H2O Inc. 14375 North 60th Street, Stillwater, MN 55082 651-351-2822 Eco Garden Supply 800 Transfer Door 25 in rear St. Paul, MN 55114 651-647-1896

MISSISSIPPI Indoor Garden Shop LLC 1310 Bienville Boulevard, Ocean Springs, MS 39564 228-875-3725

MISSOURI Let It Grow - Girardeau 879 S. Kings Highway, Cape Girardeau, MO 63703 573-803-0628 Heartland Hydrogardens 705 Vandiver Drive, Suite G HYDROGARDENS Columbia, MO 65202 573-474-4769 Green Circle Hydroponics 12 East Missouri, Kansas City, MO 64106 816-421-1840 Grow Your Own Hydroponics 3617 Saint John Avenue, Kansas City, MO 64123 816-241-2122 Let It Grow - Springfield 2519 E. Kearney Street, Springfield, MO 65803 417-862-GROW U-Grow 1724 North, 13th Street, St. Louis, MO 63106 314-452-6368 Worm’s Way Missouri 1225 North Warson Road, St. Louis, MO 63132 800-285-9676 Green Thumb Organics 249 Mid Rivers Mall Drive, St. Peters, MO 63376 636-397-4769 (GROW)

MONTANA Heightened Harvests 2018 Main Street #4, Billings, MT 59105 406-252-4311 Magic City Organic & Hydroponic Supply 812 Central Billings, MT 59102 (406)-245-LEAF(5323) One World – Life Products 906 Broadwater Billings MT 59101 406 839 9969 Heightened Harvests 3103 Harrison Avenue, Suite B Butte, MT 59701 Alpengrow Nursery Supplies 238 Highway 93 S., Eureka, MT 59917 406-882-4496 Big Sky Garden Supply 528 West Idaho, Kallispell, MT 59901 406-755-1465 Cornucopia Grow Your Own 127 Stoner Creek Road Lakeside, MT 59922 406-709-1076 Dr. Green Thumbs 1106 West Park, Livingston, MO 59047 406-222-7440

Bizzy Beez LLP 5875 Highway 93 S, Whitefish, MT 59937 406-863-9937

NEBRASKA Patio-Ponics 3255 Cornhusker Highway, Suite 4 Lincoln, NE 68504 402-466-9218 Advanced Hydro-Ponics 10711 Mockingbird Drive, Omaha, NE 68127 (108th and L-Q) 402-991-6630 Paradigm Gardens 8949 J Street, Suite 5, Omaha, NE 68127 402-339-4949

NEVADA Carson Valley Hydroponics 2520 Empire Ranch Road, Carson City, NV 89701 775-884-4769 Lorraine Ink 290 Spear Court, Fernley, NV 89408 775-575-7757 Hydro Store, The 1014 W. Sunset Road, Henderson, NV 89014 702-434-7365 AAA Indoor Organic Garden SuperCenter 2101 S. Decatur Boulevard, #21, Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-450-4769 Advanced Gardens Hydroponics 3111 South Valley View, (on Desert Inn West of Valley View) Suite V103 Las Vegas, NV 89102 702-257-4769 All American Hydroponics 2675 East Patrick Lane, Unit 8, Las Vegas, NV 89120 702-894-9888 Best Hydroponic Supply 6818 W Cheyenne, Las Vegas, NV 89108 702-750-9300 Hydro Store, The 7145 W. Ann Road, Las Vegas, NV 89130 702-434-9376 Nevada Hydroponics 4700 B Maryland, Suite 1, Las Vegas, NV 89119 702-798-2852 Anything Grows 190 West Moana Lane, Reno, NV 89509 775-828-1460 Everything Green Hydroponics P.O Box 34869 Reno, Nevada 89533

NEW HAMPSHIRE Hydro World 17 White Birch Lane, Lincoln, NH 03251 603-745-3030

NEW JERSEY Garden State Hydroponics 511 Avenel Street, Avenel, NJ 07001 888-300-8711 Green Touch 2 Hydroponics Inc. 888 Route 33, Unit 1, Hamilton, NJ 08619 HYDROPONI C S 609-570-8829 East Coast Horticultural Supply 1652 Hurffville Road, Swewell, NJ 08080 856-228-5290 77HYDRO 37 Fairfield Place, West Caldwell, NJ 07006 877-774-9376 Claraqua 4 Redwood Court, West Windsor, NJ 08550

greentouch2 I NC .

NEW MEXICO AHL Year Round Garden Supply 1051 San Mateo Blvd. SE, Albuquerque, NM 87108 505-255-3677 AHL Year Round Garden Supply 9421 Coors Blvd. NW Suite K, Albuquerque, NM 87114 505-899-0592 All Seasons Gardening 3600 Osuna Road, Suite 406 Alburquerque, NM 87109 505-508-4292 Common Shaman 1319 San Mateo N.E., Albuquerque, NM 87110 505-255-6463 All Seasons Gardening 1228 Parkway, Suite E Sante Fe, NM 87507 505-438-GROW Santa Fe Hydroponics 821 W. San Mateo Road, Suite 4, Santa Fe, NM 87505 505-467-8454 

NEW YORK Saratoga Organics & Hydroponic Supply 19 Front Street, Ballston Spa, NY 12020 518-885-2005; 800-850-4769 The Grape Vine 4020 Hempstead Turnpike Bethpage,NY,11714 516-731-1100 Bronx Hydro & Garden 39 Bruckner Boulevard, Bronx, NY 10454 718-993-3787 Bklyn Hydro & Garden 3116 McGuiness Blvd Brooklyn NY 11222 718-383-0095 Brooklyn Farms 51Hicks Street St. Brooklyn, NY 11231 347-725-3491 Indoor Outdoor Gardener 8223 5th Avenue, Brooklyn, NY 11209 718-836-2402 Hydroponics of Buffalo 1497 Hertel Avenue, Buffalo, NY 14216 716-838-3545 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 340 West at 59, Central Nyack, NY 10960 California Hydroponics 27 Corporate Circle, East Syracuse, NY 13057 315-432-9387 Upstate Hydroponics 2026 Lake Rd unit B Elmira, NY 14903 607 483 9199 FutureGarden Inc. 59 Central Avenue, Farmingdale, NY 11735 516-420-0884 East Coast Hydroponics 14649 Horace Harding Exp, Flushing, NY 11367 718-762-8880 Healthy Harvest Organics and Hydro 163 Broadway, Fort Edwart, NY 12828 518-480-4698 Greentree Nursery 308 Elmira Road, Ithaca, NY 14850 607-272-3666 Hudson Valley Hydroponics 217 Route 32 North, New Paltz, NY 12561 845-255-3633

Sunlight Solutions Hydroponics 2045 Niagara Falls Boulevard, Suite 13, Niagara Falls, NY 14304 888-GROWBOX Grow Room, The 8 Bridge Street, Nyack, NY 10960 800-449-9630 Revolution Hydroponics 309 West State St. Olean NY 14760 716.373.Grow (4769) Environmental Gardens 8 John Walsh Boulevard, Suite 310 Peekskills, NY 10566 800-254-0507; 914-736-6676 Harvest Moon Hydroponics Henrietta Townline Plaza, 3047 West Henrietta Road, Rochester, NY 14623 716-865-7353 Hydro Garden Center 1069B Lyell Avenue, Rochester, NY 14606 1-800-277-1322 Sunset Hydroponics & Home Brewing 1590 West Ridge Road, Rochester, NY 14615 866-395-9204 KG Garden Supply 1327 Floyd Avenue, Rome, NY 13440 1-877-KG-HYDRO Hydroponics Shops of America 2606 Erie Boulevard, Syracuse, NY 13224 315-251-2516 Green Zone Hydroponics 2148 Niagara Falls Blvd. Tonawanda, NY. 14150  716-693-9663 Harvest Moon Hydroponics 147 Fourth Street, Troy, NY 10960

NORTH CAROLINA Fifth Season Gardening Company 21 B Westside Dr. Asheville NC 28806 828-225-5007 Fifth Season Gardening Company 45 Banks Avenue, Asheville, NC 28801 828-253-4112 Fifth Season Gardening Company 106 South Greensboro Street, Carrboro, NC 27510 919-932-7600 Be Well Hydroponics & Urban Gardening 4732 Monroe Road, Charlotte, NC 28205 704-344-8010 BWGS-NC 4045 Perimeter West Drive,Suite 400, Charlotte, NC 28214 800-316-1306 High Tech Garden Supply 2712 B Freedom Drive Charlotte, NC 28208 704-697-0911 Flow & Grow Hydroponics & Organic Garden Center 4521 Cumberland Road, Fayetteville, NC 28306 910-423-FLOW (3569) Fifth Season Gardening Company 1616 D-3 Battleground Avenue, Greensboro, NC 27408 336-271-3373 Good Harvest Garden Center 629 Oakridge Farm Hwy. Mooresville NC 28115 704-658-9136 Fifth Season Gardening Company 5619-A Hillsborough Street, Raleigh, NC 27606 919-852-4747

New Age Gardens 2236A US Highway 70, Swannanoa, NC 28778 828-299-9989 All Season Hydroponics 890 South Kerr Avenue, Wilmington, NC 28410 Progressive Gardens 6005 Oleander Drive, Wilmington, NC 28403 910-395-1156

OHIO Akron Garden Center 434 W Wilbeth Road, Akron, OH 44314 330-724-2700 Summit Hydroponics 1030 Kenmore Boulevard Akron, OH 44314-2114 330-753-5222 Campbells Indoor Gardening Supplies 1721 Greenville Road Bristolville, OH 44402 330-889-0049 Magic Home Gardens 209 Cemetery Road, Canal Winchester, OH 43110 614-837-2440 Eastside Hydroponics 550 Ohio Pike Cincinnati, OH 45255 513-528-GROW Kissed by the Sun Hydroponic 10740 Reading Road, Cincinnati, OH 45241 513-769-0159 Cleveland Garden Center Inc. 727 East 185th Street, Cleveland, OH 44119 216-481-7868 Grow Wizard, The 5700 Denison Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44102 216-961-2500 Herb-N-Garden Center 14901 Puritas Avenue, Cleveland, OH 44135 216-252-2001 Garden Indoors of Ohio 4720 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 800-833-6868 Magic Home Garden 4538 Indianola Avenue, Columbus, OH 43214 614-263-2440 Garden Connections 3341 Centerpoint Dr. Grove City OH 43123 614 871 0707 Advanced Hydrorganics Indoor Garden Center 5204 Darrow Road, Hudson, OH 44236 234-380-1287 Sweet Greens 5540 Brecksville Road Independence, OH 44131 800-421-7084 Hydro Gardens and Lights 1144 N Memorial Drive Lancaster, OH 43130 705-65 Hydro Carefree Garden Center 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 CropKing 134 West Drive, Lodi, OH 44254 330-302-4203 Urban Gardens 671 E. Center Street Marion, OH 43302 740-375-2800 Indoor Gardens 1222 Hill Road, North, Pickerington, OH 43147 614-866-6065

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

Trinity Hydro Organics 465 Woodman Drive Riverside, OH 45431 937-252-GROW Toledo Hydroponics Ltd. 855 S. Holland-Sylvania Road, Suite 2 Toledo, OH 43615 1-877-893-0716 Greenleaf Hydroponics 1805 Elm Road, Warren, OH 44483 330-372-1039 Dayton Hydroponics 3856 Miamisburg-Centerville Road, West Carrolton, OH 45449 937-859-3999 Harvest Moon 9215 Market Street, Youngstown (North Lima), OH 44452 800-776-8399 Indoor Garden Worx 906 Blue Avenue, Zanesville, OH 43701 866-900-9679

OKLAHOMA Tulsa County Hydro-Organics 1928 W. Albany, Broken Arrow, OK 74012 918-259-HYDRO AAAAHA! Hydroponics Unlimited P.O. Box 74, Oakhurst, OK 74050 Organics OKC Garden Supply 3620 N Pennsylvania Avenue, Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-528-GROW The OKC Urban Gardener 3711 N. Western Ave. Oklahoma City, OK 73118 405-521-9300 Urban Garden 3141 E. 15th Street, Tulsa, OK 74104 918-289-0018

OREGON Aqua Serene 465 Applegate Way, Ashland, OR 97520 541-482-7600 Rogue Silicates Inc. POB 21, Azalea, OR 97410 541-837-8590 B.I.G.S. 155 SW Century Drive, Suite 401, Bend, OR 97702 541-385-5222 Herb N’ Jungle Hydroponics 930 SE Textron Drive, Bend, OR 97702 541-382-4010 Northern Light and Garden Beaverton 9290 SW Beaverton-Hillsdale Highway, Beaverton, OR 97005 503-297-7331 Westcoast Organic and Hydroponic Supply 12410 SE 282nd Avenue, Unit C Boring, OR 97009 503-766-4106 The Good Earth Organics 30088 Redwood Highway, Cave Junction, OR 97523 541-592-4496 Anthony’s Garden & Light Supply 93779 B Troy Lane, Coos Bay, OR 97420 541-266-8822 Corvallis Hydroponics & Organics 5490 SW Philomath Boulevard, Corvallis, OR 97333 541-738-2820 Aqua Serene 2836 W. 11th Avenue, Eugene, OR 97402 541-302-9073 Aurora Innovations PO Box 22041, Eugene, OR 97402 866-376-8578


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

SunInside Gardening Co. 665 Conger, Unit F, Eugene, OR 97402 541-686-9966 Northern Light and Garden Grants Pass 1203 Rogue River Highway, Grants Pass, OR 97527 541-474-1700 Paradise Supply LLC 560 NE. “F” Street, Unit C, Grand Pass, OR 97526 541-955-7293 Vital Organix 932-B SE “M” Street Grants Pass, OR 97526 541-226-9283 Oregon Rainforest Co. 19949 E. Burnside Street, Gresham, OR 97233503-465-9909 In & Out Gardens 93484 Hwy 99 South Junctin City OR 97448 541-234-2342 Basin Indoor Gardening 1221 Main Street, Klamath Falls, OR 97601 541-273-2023 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 1845 S W Hwy. 101 Ste. 3 Lincoln OR 97367 USA 541 994 7070 Liquid Sun 1845 Southwest Highway 101, Lincoln City, OR 97367 541-994-7070 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Green Thumb Hydrogarden and Organic Supply 2021 West Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-779-8600 Growing Crazy (Hooked On Hydroponics) 817 W. 2nd Street, Medford, OR 97501 In & Out Gardens 1574 Skypark Drive Medford, OR 97501 541-858-3333 Ladybug Indoor Gardens 3960 W. Main Street, Medford, OR 97501 541-618-4459 Advanced Organics & Garden Supply 290- B Merlin Avenue Merlin, Oregon 97532 541-659-1466 Indoor Garden Depot 15828 SE McGloughlin Boulevard, Milwaukie, OR 97267 503-786-2445 H2organic LCC 620 NE 3rd Street, McMinnville, OR 97128 503-434-6107 Wizard’s Garden, LLC 621 Spruce Street, Unit C, Myrtle Point, OR 97458 541-572-2333 Green Zone Garden Center & Hydroponic Supplies 454 S.W. Coast Hwy Newport OR 97365 USA P: 541-265-8252 Gorilla Garden Supply 1810 Virginia Avenue, Garden Supplies North Bend, OR 97459 541-756-5005 American Agriculture 9220 Southeast Stark Street, Portland, OR 97216 800-433-6805 Bloom Garden Supply 518 NE 20th Ave. Portland, OR 97232 (971)255-1336 Everybody’s Garden Center 2701 SE 14th Avenue, Portland, OR 97202 800-669-5483

Garden Spout, The 4532 South East 63rd Avenue, Portland, OR 97206 503-788-4769 Homegrown Garden Supply 7112 NE Gilsan Street, Portland, OR 97213 877-EZ2-GROW Island Flowers & Indoor Garden Center 909 N. Tomahawk Island Drive, Suite 103, Portland, OR 97217 503-546-3185 Lights Distributing 9843 SW 55th Avenue, Portland, OR 97219 Rain or Shine 13126 NE Airport Way, Portland, OR 97230 503-255-1981 Roots Garden Supply 5426 North Gay Avenue, Portland, OR 97217 503-285-4768 Urban Flora 2865 South East, Portland, OR 97214 503-236-3344 BIGS Warehouse 2606 SW 4th Street, Unit B Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-8886 Indoor Garden Supply 536 SW 6th Street (rear alley), Redmond, OR 97756 541-504-7750 Indoor Garden Center 1697 SE 25th Street, Salem, OR 97302 503-566-7888 Northern Light and Garden Salem 1915 Lancester Drive, Salem, OR 97305 503-364-4769 Cascade Horticulture 39570 Pioneer Boulevard, Sandy, OR 97055 503-668-8242 Moonshine Park Farm 135 South East 62nd, Unit F South Beach, OR 97366 541-444-2298 J-N-B Hydro 2 Go 155 West Central Avenue, Sutherlin, OR 97479 541-459-9211 Roseburg Hydroponics 853 SE Stephens Street, Roseburg, OR 97470 541-229-1420 Grow America Garden Supply LLC 11511 SW Pacific Highway, Tigard, OR 97223 503-841-6868 Forever Green Organic Hydro Gardens 7530 Crater Lake Highway, White City, OR 97503 541-826-2946

PENNSYLVANIA Oakworld Garden Center 39 West Street, Barrington, RI 02806 401-245-5705 Pocono Hydroponic Solutions 25 Route 611 Bartonsville, PA 18321 Tel: 570-730-4544 Garden Indoors of Pennsylvania 208 Route 13, Bristol, PA 19007 800-227-4567 422 GROW 1775 North Main Street Extension Butler, PA 16001-1327 724-561-3777 High Tech Garden Supply 20232 Route 19, Unit 6, Cranberry Twp., PA 16066 724-473-1113

Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 830 Route 119, Greensburg, PA 15601 724-836-1118 Buds to Blooms Garden and Supply Co., LLC 509 Orchard Avenue Kennett Square, PA 19348 484-860-8056 Flairform POB 1417, Lansdale, PA 19446 215-395-6353 RH Distribution POB 1417 Lansdale, PA 19446 888-545-8112 Hydro Ponics of Harrisburg 310 South 10th Street, Lemoyne, PA 17043 877-684-3808 New Stanton Hydro 150 Post Ave. New Stanton, PA. 15672 724-635-0297 Full Bloom Hydroponics 84 South 24th Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15203 888-872-3602 Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 2008 Smallman Street, Pittsburgh, PA 15222 412-232-7030 Healthy Gardens and Supply 1012 Lincoln Avenue, Prospect Park, PA 19076 866-32-HYDRO Home Hydroponics of Pittsburgh 9 North Main St. Washington, PA 15301 724-222-0200 Western Pennsylvania Innovative Gardening 1177 Pittsburgh Road, Suite 103 Valencia, PA 16059 724 - 903 - 0800 Organic Garden Center 800 Washington Blvd. Williamsport, PA 17701 570-322-3120 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 450 Grim Lane, York,PA 17406 877-779-7111(Northeast) PA Hydroponics & Home Gardening Supply 20 Quaker Church Road, York Springs, PA 17372 717-528-4175

247 Garden Supply 535 D Clemson Road, Columbia, SC 29229 803-788-4445 All Good Hydroponics & Gardening 6729 Two Notch Road, Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 All Season Hydroponics 6729 Two North Road, 10B Columbia, SC 29223 803-708-4819 All Season Hydroponics 1350 Hwy. 501 Business, Store 3&4 Conway, SC 29526 843-347-9266 Green Thumb Unique Gardening & More 1230 Rutherford Road, Greenville, SC 29609 864-271-8830 Greenspirit Hydrogardens 3600 Unite 1 Hwy.17 S. North Myrtle Beach, SC 29582 843-361-7777

SOUTH DAKOTA Green Earth Products Inc. 5700 Highway 79 S.,Unit 1, Rapid City, SD 57702 605-342-1307

TENNESSEE Atlantis Hydroponics 1800 Rossville Avenue, #3, Chattanooga, TN 37408 423-752-5400 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 783 French Mill Road, Dandridge, TN 37725 800-521-1643 Perpetual Harvest 75 Riverport Drive, Jackson, TN 38301 877-422-3391 Advanced Hydroponic Garden 6912 Clinton Highway, Knoxville, TN 37921 866-938-3318 Sun City Hydroponics 2235 Whitten Road, Suite 104, Memphis, TN 38133 901-372-8100 National Garden Wholesale/Sunlight Supply 126 Belinda Parkway, Mt. Juliet, TN 37122 888-265-9005 All Seasons Gardening and Brewing Supply Co. 924 8th Avenue, South, Nashville, TN 37203 800-790-2188 Worm’s Way Tennessee 901 Main Street, Nashville, TN 37072 800-397-4153

RHODE ISLAND Solar Seed Hydroponics, Inc. 2406 Putman Pike, Chepachet, RI 02814 401-710-9010 Organically Grown 768 Atwood Ave Cranston, RI 02920 401-944-0549 Hydro-Earth 1243 Mineral Springs Avenue, North Providence, RI 02904 401-305-5520 LiquidSun® RI 1179 Central Avenue, Pawtucket, MA 02861 401-722-2724 Good To Grow 34 Nooseneck Hill Road West Greenwich, RI 02817 401-392-3100 Growin’ Crazy 93 Kingston Road Wyoming, Rhode Island 02898 401-284-0810

SOUTH CAROLINA GreenSpirit Hydrogarden 1864 Meeting Street, Charleston, SC 29405 843-225-1GRO;



Abundant Harvest Hydroponics & Organics 3101 Avenue E East, Marshall, TX 76011 817-649-0100 Brite Ideas Hydroponics & Organics 4360 S.Congress Avenue, #310, Austin, TX 78745 512-444-2100 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Central Austin) 5126 Burnet Road, Austin, TX 78756 512-459-4769 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (South Austin) 2125-A Goodrich Avenue, Austin, TX 78704 512-440-4769 Happy Harvest Hydroponics & Organic 1500 C rescent Drive, Suite 202 Carrollton, TX 75006 972-466-1300

GroGreen Hydroponics 4015 Main Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-370-9984 Jolly Green Hydroponics (Greenhouse Horticultural Supplies) 13628 Neutron Road, Dallas, TX 75244 (866) WE-JOLLY; 469-341-5555 Lone Star Hydroponics and Organics 1302 Motor Circle, Dallas, TX 75207 214-634-9376 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Dallas) 3400 Elm Street, Dallas, TX 75226 214-744-4769 Organic Garden & Feed 3801 N Interstate Hwy 35,Suite126, Denton Texas 76207 940-381-9890 Earth Organics 1360 Lee Trevino Drive,Suite 105 El Paso, TX 79936 915-591-9500 Airline Hydroponics P.O. Box 980904, Trader’s Village #363, Houston, TX 77098 713-942-0484 Botani Garden 15120 Bellaire Blvd Houston, TX 77083 281-575-1999 Houston Discount Hydroponics 9384 Richmond Avenue, Houston, TX 77063 713-464-9406 Hydroponic Nation 9700 Almeda Genoa Road, Suite 108, Houston, TX 77075 281-501-9636 Texas Hydroponics & Organics (Houston) 7730 A Park Place Boulevard, Houston, TX 77087 713-641-4769 Ultimate Hydroponic Garden Supply 6125 West Sam Houston Parkway, North Suite 206 Houston, TX 77041 713-856-8425 Texas Growers Supply 5990 N. Sam Houston Pkwy. E. #602, Humble, TX 77396 281-441-3739 Field of Dreams Indoor Growing Supplies 5302 Slide Road Unit B,Lubbock, TX 79414 806-793-2901 Hydro Mart 3841 Main Street, Rowlett, TX 75088 972-475-6114 Sol Organics & Hydroponics 1634 Babcock Road, San Antonio, TX 78229 210-366-9082 GreenMaker Nursery 3030 Northwest Loop, Stephenville, TX 76401 254-965-7273 Innergrow Hydroponics 24451 Interstate Highway 20, Wills Point, TX 75169 866-475-4769

UTAH Salt Lake Plant & Hydro 60 West 3300 S. #6 South Salt Lake, UT 84115 801-488-3200


VERMONT Greenthumb - Vermont 394 Route 15, Jericho, VT 05465 802-899-4323 Peak Hydroponic Garden Supplies 20 School Street, Plainfield, VT 05667 802-454-8000

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


MAXIMUM YIELD distributors

LiquidSun® VT 1 Bellows Falls Road, (Route 5 North) Putney, VT 05158 802-387-1100 Green Thumb Gardening P.O. Box 235, Route 15, Underhill, VT 5489 800-564-9376

VIRGINIA Fifth Season Gardening Company 900 Preston Ave. Charlottesville VA 22903 434-293-2332 Clean & Green Technologies 196 Corning Drive, Christiansburg, VA 24073 866-694-1628 I Love Hydroponics 612 N. Sheppard Street, Richmond, VA 23221 804-377-3020 Blue Ridge Hydroponics & Home Brewing Co. 5524 Williamson Road, Suite 11 Roanoke VA 24012 540-265-2483 Inside-Out Garden Supply 6517 Backlick Road, Springfield, VA 22150 703-451-3259 I Love Hydroponics 368 Newtown Road, #105, Virginia Beach, VA 23462 757-490-5425 Hydroponics & Growlights 13400 Occoquan Road, Woodbridge, VA 22191 703-490-0700

West VIRGINIA Panhandle Hydroculture 800 East Moler Ave. Martinsburg, WV 25401 304-240-7587

WASHINGTON Island Horticulture Supply 8608 S March Point Rd. Anacortes WA 98221 360 293 0000 Mike’s Indoor Garden Supply 6121 172nd Street NE #A, Arlington, WA 98223 (360) 474-1900 Green Gardens Distributing 12738 Bel-Red Road, Bellevue, WA 98005 425-454-5731 Northern Lights Gardening 4159 Hannegan Road, Bellingham, WA 98225 360-715-8585 Liquid Sunshine Hydroponics 5087 Lincoln Road, Blaine, WA 98230 Kitsap Garden & Lighting 2130 6th Street, Bremerton, WA 98312 360-377-1277 M & R Lighting Unit C 22914 Highway 410, Buckley, WA 98390 253-891-4190 Indoor Tropics 5930 Sunburst Lane #B Cashmere, WA 98815 509-470-7782 Garden Smart 500 Bond Drive, Castlerock, WA 98611 360-274-7960


Maximum Yield USA | April 2011

Retail Stores listed alphabetically by city in each state.

Grow Center, The 615 South Fir DeerPark WA 99006 509-276-GROW Healthy Grow Indoor Garden Supplies 10 SE Everett Mall Way Suite B Everett WA 98208 425-374-2227 Indoor Garden Depot 1401 S. 324th Street, Federal Way, WA 98003 253-874-1112 North West Hydro Supply 1355Pacific Pl Unit 117 Ferndale WA 98248-7824 360-778-3254 Good 2 Gro 3507 W Clearwater Ave. Kennewick WA 99336 509 737 1313 Indoor Garden & Lighting 714 South Central Avenue, Kent, WA 98032 253-373-9060 Kent Garden Supplies Ltd. 18817 East Valley Highway, Kent, WA 98032 425-251-9299 KP Indoor Garden Store 8912 Key Peninsula HWY N Suite B Lakebay, WA 98349 253-884-SURE (7871) InDoor Gardening 1158 Commerce Longview WA, 98632 360-353-3851 Indoor Garden & Lighting 20505 Highway 99,, Lynnwood, WA 98036 425-673-2755 Go-N-Green Hydroponics 1241 State Ave Suite #102 Marysville, WA 98270 (360)386-8230 Island Hydroponic & Supplies 1515 5th Street #B, Marysville, WA 98271 425-299-5855 M & R Lighting 17238 Memorial Drive, Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-848-1080 Northern Lights Gardening 1524 Riverside Dr #2 Mt. Vernon, WA 98273 360-982-2217 Indoor Garden & Lighting 8606 Preston Fall City Rd. SE Preston WA 98050 425 222 9661 Linda’s Gardening & Hydroponics 11522 Canyon Road East, Puyallup, WA 98373 253-531-9641 Renton Indoor Garden Center 207 Sunset Blvd. N, Building A, Renton, WA 98055 425-917-9000 Eco Enterprises 1240 NE 175th Street, #B Shoreline, WA 98155 800-426-6937 Aqua Serene 3839 Stone Way North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-GROW (4769) Grogro Hydro 12316 32nd AVE NE #103 Seattle, WA 98125 Hydro-Tech 2121 Aurora Avenue, North, Seattle, WA 98103 206-547-2202

Sodo Hydro 1727 1st Ave. South, Seattle, WA 98134 888-904-9376 Northwest Horticulture Supply 161 Hooker Road, #1, Sequim, WA 98057 360-582-0702 509 Grow 2718 N Division Spokane, WA 99207 509-327-GROW(4769) Grow Center, The 2808 W Sprague Spokane WA 99202 509-456-GROW River City Hydroponics 1514 East Francis Avenue, Spokane, WA 99208 509-464-0246 Spokane Organic and Hydroponic Supply 4823 East Sprague Avenue E., Spokane Valley, WA 99212 509-534-4055 Green Tree Hydroponics and Garden 12316 Pacific Ave South Tacoma, WA 98444 253-495-6757 Indoor Garden & Lighting 3839 6th Avenue, Tacoma, WA 98406 253-761-7478 Solar Shop 306 West 4th Street, Tonasket, WA 98855 509-486-4508 Indoor Garden Depot 6400 NE Highway 99, Suite H, Vancouver, WA 98665 360-993-7779 National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 4525 NW Fruit Valley Road, Vancouver, WA 98660 888-478-6544 (Northwest) National Garden Wholesale / Sunlight Supply 5408 NE 88th Street, Building A, Vancouver, WA 98665 888-478-6544 VM Indoor Garden Supply 2903 NE 109th Ave Ste. D Vancouver, WA 98682 P: (360) 256-2933 Indoor Garden Supply LLC 1250 Atlantic Ave, Woodland, WA 98674 360-841-8055

WISCONSIN Aric’s Indoor Garden Supply 1104 West Wisconsin Avenue, Appleton, WI 54914 920-574-3258 Grow BIG Hydroponics 954 S. Westland, Appleton, WI 54914 920-749-4769 Brew and Grow 285 N. Janacek Road, Brookfield, WI 53045 262-789-0555 Brew and Grow 3317 Agriculture Drive, Madison, WI 53716 608-226-8910 Paradigm Gardens 4539 Helgesen Drive, Madison, WI 53718 608-241-3800

PUERTO RICO Tecno-Hydro Ave Campo Rico GJ17, Carolina, PR 00982 787-752-8252

Maximum Yield USA | April 2011


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