Textile Research Paper...
1. Introduction: Fabric as well as the garments or cloth is one of the basic needs of human being. From very early ancient world the concept of making fabric has come. At first ancient people used tree & leather of animal to cover themselves. But as the flow of time and to made their needs they discovered the technology of weaving. According to scientist & anthropologist woven cloth was first originated in Mesopotamia(Egyptian civilization) around 5000B.C.
2. Muslin: Muslin is a loosely-woven cotton fabric which was a brand name of pre-colonial Bengal textile, especially of Dhaka origins. Muslin was manufactured in the city of Dhaka and in some surrounding stations, by local skill with locally produced cotton and attained world-wide fame as the Dhaka Muslin. Muslin fabric was introduced to Europe from the Middle East in the 17th century. It became very popular at the end of the 18th century in France. Muslin is a plain woven cotton fabric made in various weights.It is a firm, medium to heavy weight plain weave cotton fabric made in variety of qualities. The better qualities of muslin are fine & smooth in texture & are woven from evenly spun warp & weft yarns. They are given a soft finish, bleached or piece-dyed, and are sometimes patterned in loom or printed.
Dacca Muslin handloomed Silk
Muslin is most muslin is actually a typical an unbleached or white cloth, produced from carded cotton yarn. It is often used to make sewing patterns, such as for clothing, curtain, or upholstery. Because air moves easily through muslin, muslin clothing is suitable for hot, dry climates.
3. Origin of the word ‘Muslin’: The origin of the word Muslin is obscure; some say that the word was derived from Mosul, an old trade centre in Iraq through which the fabric was exported from Middle East to Europe in the 17th century, while others think that Muslin was connected with Musulipattam, sometime headquarters of European trading companies in southern India. The East India Company built its first factory in India in Masulipatnam. It was a 17th-century port for French, British and Dutch trade. Interestingly, the true origin of this fabric was in Bangladesh and certain parts of West Bengal in Eastern India. Page | 1
View of Masulipatnam in 1676
Muslin is not a Persian word, nor Sanskrit, nor Bengali, so it is very likely that the name Muslin was given by the Europeans to cotton cloth imported by them from Mosul, and through Mosul from other eastern countries, and when they saw the fine cotton goods of Dhaka, they gave the same name to Dhaka fabrics. That the name Muslin was given by the Europeans admits of little doubt, because not only Dhaka cotton textiles, but cotton goods imported by the Europeans from other parts of India like Gujrat, Golconda, etc were also called Muslin. This fabric was created for the first time during Mughal rule, which was so refined, that only Queens and rich women wore these 6 yards of smooth sarees capable of passing through a ring. The British destroyed this art during their rule in a bid to stifle the widely popular muslin. However, Indian scientists revived the secret of making muslin in the recent years initiating Muslin production again. Now, weavers from Bangladesh as well as parts of eastern India have stated making Muslin Sarees as their forefathers made hundreds of years ago.
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4. Historical Background of Muslin: The textile industry of Bengal is very old. Bengal cotton fabrics were exported to the Roman and the Chinese empires and they are mentioned in Ptolemy's Geography and the Periplus of the Erythraean Sea, and by the ancient Chinese travellers. But Dhaka Muslin became famous and attracted foreign and transmarine buyers after the establishment of the Mughal capital at Dhaka. The Muslin industry of Dhaka received patronage from the Mughal emperors and the Mughal nobility. A huge quantity of the finest sort of Muslin was procured for the use of the Mughal emperors, provincial governors and high officers and nobles.
In the great 1851 Exhibition of London, Dhaka Muslin occupied a prominent place, attracted a large number of visitors and the British Press spoke very highly of the marvelous Muslin fabrics of Dhaka.
5. History of fine Muslin yarn & fabric production: Bengal’s once-famous muslin, which perished under British rule in the late 18th century, is poised for a glorious comeback. The forgotten art of the fine weave, which had once made Bengal muslin worth much more than its weight in gold, has been revived and is already catching the imagination of top fashion designers. Kalna, a small township in Burdwan about 125 km northwest of Kolkata, is cradling this resurgence, thanks largely to the efforts of one master weaver and help from government agencies like the Textile Ministry’s Weavers’ Service Centre, the Crafts Council of India and the state handloom commissioner. The 500-count yarn—the finest hand-spun in the world now—from kapas cotton that is being woven at Kalna now has won accolades and awards for the small group of weavers of the town who’ve, through a combination of technical skills and innovation, invented a spinning machine that churns out the super-fine thread. The muslin that’s being produced is so fine that when wet and laid over a patch of grass, it would be difficult to point out. The finest muslin sari from Kalna, for instance, weighs a hundred grams and fits comfortably into a small coconut shell. The muslin revival effort actually started at Nabadwip in neighbouring Nadia district in 1992. A group of weavers there managed to produce 500-count muslin—that is, a thousand metres of yarn spun so finely as Page | 3
to weigh only two grams—in the mid-1990s. But the cost of production was too high and the technique did not prove to be sustainable. It was then that Rabindranath Saha, a 13th generation master weaver from Kalna, decided to take up the challenge. “I had heard about the fine muslin that used to be made in Bengal till about 250 years ago from my grandfather, who had also been told about it by his great grandfather. There are many stories about Bengal muslin, including one about Aurangzeb, who on being told about the soft and near transparent muslin from Bengal by his daughter Jahanara, refused to believe her. She laid out a length of muslin on the grass one morning, and Aurangzeb, failing to spot the cloth, rode over it and was startled when she showed him his horse’s hoof marks on the muslin later. The Mughals and royalty from many parts of the Subcontinent extended patronage to Bengal muslin (or ‘Dhakai’ muslin, as it was known then, since Dhaka was the capital of Bengal) , which consequently flourished,” Saha, 64, tells Open. At that time, says Saha, Bengal muslin was finer than the 500-count one he makes now. “The finest muslin then (250 to 300 years ago) was of 1,000 count (cloth made from a yarn so fine that it is not only invisible to the naked eye, but a 1,000 metres of which would weigh only one gram). One ‘khanda’ (2.5 metres) of even 300 count muslin used to cost a princely one hundred rupees, at a time when the price of gold was Rs 15 a bhori (11.66 gram),”says Saha. The 1,000-count muslin was much more expensive: a document at the archives in Hazar Duari, seat of the Nawabs of Murshidabad, shows that Nawab Murshid Quli Khan (reign: 1717 to 1727) bought one khanda of the 1,000-count muslin from a weaver for Rs 400. At that time, a mid-ranking court official there would earn Re 1 a month and live comfortably on that. The sad decline of Bengal’s muslin, which finds laudatory mentions in Ptolemy’s Geography and accounts of ancient Chinese travellers, started with the advent of the British, which coincided with the decline of the Mughals and other rulers all over the country who were patrons of muslin. The death knell was sounded by the advent of mill-made cloth in Europe and its large-scale import from Britain. The British systematically destroyed the Indian handloom sector, even torturing master weavers and cutting off their thumbs (this happened to many muslin weavers in Bengal), so that British-made cotton cloth from their mills would find a good market in India. Since the coarsest mill-made cloth was considerably cheaper than the fabric made from the finest hand-spun yarn in India, the art of weaving started disappearing and slowly became extinct. The muslin revival efforts started in Bengal only in the late 1970s, and, interestingly, coincided with similar efforts in Bangladesh. The project was spearheaded by the state handloom commissioner’s office, which roped in the Union Textiles Ministry, the Crafts Council of India and the Khadi & Village Industries Commission (KVIC). Groups of weavers were provided technical help and monetary assistance to spin fine yarn from the best cotton to finally weave a fine cloth. “But in the initial years, the weavers were unable to spin the fine yarn necessary for making muslin. The spinning machines were not up to the task and the weavers also were inexperienced. It was only after more than a decade of hard work and constant technical upgradation and innovation by textile engineers commissioned by us and the other bodies, that the weavers could produce a 500-count muslin cloth in the early 1990s. However, that success was shortlived since the spinning machines could not produce consistently fine yarn and the whole process also proved to be very expensive and thus unviable,” says an officer at the state handloom commissioner’s office in Kolkata. Saha was aided by the KVIC, which provided technical expertise to him to make charkhas (hand-operated spinning machines) that were crucial to making the fine yarn. “After years of painstaking effort and a lot of innovation, not only with the charkha, but also the whole process of spinning and weaving, could I manage to produce 200 and 300 count cloth in 2002 and 500-count muslin in 2008,” says Saha, who has won many awards, including the Sant Kabir Award (annual award given to master weavers by the Union Textiles Ministry, beginning from 2009) earlier this year. Page | 4
A master weaver from Murshidabad, Kalicharan Sharma, had re-discovered the technique of spinning the fine yarn a few years ago, and Saha learnt it from him. Making the 500-count muslin sari— a 5.5 metre saree requires 60,000 metres of yarn to make—is a laborious process that takes more than two months for a team of three weavers. “Making muslin is a very sensitive and lengthy process that takes loads of
patience. The yarn breaks frequently. Spinning is done only early mornings and after dusk. The heat during the day breaks the thread. Earlier, very young girls aged about ten years or so would spin the yarn with their nimble fingers. I’ve modified the charkha to replicate those nimble fingers. I’ve modified the apron, rubber rollers, gears and other parts of the machine. I’ve also re-invented the original technique of weaving muslin,” he says. Saha sources his cotton from Guntur in Andhra Pradesh. His ambition now is to make 700 and 800-count muslin cloth before making 1,000-count muslin which, he admits, would be so fine and delicate that it cannot be worn. Saha has formed a weavers’ cooperative in Kalna that trains and offers expertise to other weavers from all over Bengal in the art of making muslin. A metre of Saha’s 500-count muslin sells for Rs 1,600; a plain sari, without any embroidery or embellishments, costs nearly Rs 10,000. But demand is very high and Saha can’t meet the requirements of his customers. The waiting period for a plain sari is over two years. Saha’s muslin has been worn by many, including Narasimha Rao, Jyoti Basu and a host of celebrities. He also presented a muslin turban to Prime Minister Manmohan Singh recently. “The muslin that this weaver makes is amazing. I’ve never seen such fine cloth. It’s almost transparent. I’m planning to get some muslin sarees from him and then engage my team of embroiders to make them into exquisite creations,” Shamlu Dudeja, the renowned ‘kantha’ revivalist, tells Open. Fashion designers Anamika Khanna and Kiran Uttam Ghosh are also planning to make garments from Bengal muslin. Sabyasachi Mukherjee is learnt to be working on embellished muslin saris that he plans to showcase in the near future. With Bengal muslin thus set to scorch the catwalks, the glorious days of this unique fabric seem to be back again.
6. Different types of cotton for making Muslin: The finest sort of Muslin was made of phuti cotton, which was grown in certain localities on the banks of the Brahmaputra and her branches. The other kinds of cotton called bairait and desee were inferior and were produced in different parts of Dhaka and neighbouring areas; they were used for manufacturing slightly inferior and course clothes. The persons connected with the manufacture of cloth, from the cleaner to the maker of thread and the person who did the actual weaving, belonged to a family of weavers, or if the family was small two to three families joined together to manufacture the cloth.
7. How Is Muslin Fabric Made? Muslin fabric has a varied history. Muslin fabric originated in India and the Middle East, and was introduced to Europe in the late 17th century. Muslin is a plain woven cotton fabric available in different weights and widths. In medieval times, muslin was often decorated with gold embroidery. Muslin has many uses and continues to be a popular fabric today. Page | 5
From Field to Factory:
A mature cotton boll is the basis of a muslin fabric. Muslin begins with the cotton boll. When mature, cotton bolls open revealing the plant's soft mass of white fibres. These are picked either by hand or by machine; hand-picking is labour-intensive but results in cleaner lint or fibres, while machine-picking is faster and more cost-effective. Once picked, the lint must be cleaned. This is done by the cotton gin, a machine that separates the lint from any cotton seeds that were picked. The lint is pressed into a large
bundle or bale and stored.
From Bale to Bobbin:
An industrial bobbin can be made of cotton thread. Once baled, the cotton is sent to be carded. Carding is the process in which cotton lint is aligned so that the fibres travel in one direction. From there, the cotton is ready to be spun into thread. For centuries, spinning was done by hand but machines now process the cotton, stretching the cotton fibres to a uniform thickness of thread. This thread is wrapped onto bobbins.
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Weaving Cotton Muslin
See the muslin weaver working at his loom? What elegant garments were made from this cloth
Plain white cotton warp threads on a loom are used to create muslin cloth.The cotton thread is now ready to be woven on a loom. The vertically threaded cotton, called the warp, is strengthened by adding sizing or starch. The warp is mechanically lifted while a shuttle, threaded with additional cotton called the weft, shoots across the gap produced as the wires of the loom lift and separate the warp threads. Muslin is a plain weave without any pattern; the warp and weft threads are identical.
Counting Threads When talking about cotton sheeting, counts come into play. Count refers to how tightly the warp and weft threads were woven per square inch of fabric. The higher the number, the softer and stronger the finished fabric will be. Counts generally run from 128 to 310; muslin is rated less than 180 count. When the weaving is complete, the warp threads are cut and tied. The cotton is wrapped on bolts and delivered to fabric stores or textile companies.
Finishing The woven muslin can be worked without any further processing. Traditionally, muslin has been sold as plain unbleached cotton and is often still stiff with sizing. Most at-home sewers wash the muslin before working with it to pre-shrink the material and remove the sizing at the same time. Some muslin producers bleach the fabric after the weaving process, removing any colour irregularities and the sizing before it reaches consumers, while others dye the muslin a light brown.
Working with Muslin With its smooth texture, cotton muslin fabric can be dyed and painted. It is commonly painted and used as a background by photographers, and as a backdrop in the theatre industry. Muslin found favour in Victorian times as a draping material for women's dresses, and designers today still use it. The use of muslin as a 'practice' fabric for cutting and draping before beginning to work on more expensive fabrics is common today among designers
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8. Properties of muslin fabric:
Muslin fabric is so soft and fine in nature. It has great characteristics that a muslin 6 yards of smooth sarees capable of passing through a ring.
A full muslin sari can be folded in such a way that it can fit into a match box Threads of Muslin fabric was produced through a special process. Most of the muslin fabric was unbleached. The count of Muslin fabric thread approximately 112-140count Number of threads in that fabric varied from 128-160per inch according to the fabric geometry. Muslin fabric was used as the ornamental part of woman dresses in Europe countries. It has the crisp texture. This muslin fabric is semi transparent.
9. Different types of Muslin:
Picture: early muslin cloth The productions of Dhaka weavers consisted of fabrics of varying quality, ranging from the finest texture used by the highly aristocratic people, the emperor, viziers, nawabs and so on, down to the coarse thick wrapper used by the poor people. Muslins were designated by names denoting either fineness or transparency of texture, or the place of Page | 8
manufacture or the uses to which they were applied as articles of dress.Names thus derived were 1.Malmal : The finest sort of Muslin was called Malmal, sometimes mentioned as Malmal Shahi or Malmal Khas by foreign travellers. It was costly, and the weavers spent a long time, sometimes six months, to make a piece of this sort. It was used by emperors, nawabs etc. Muslins procured for emperors were called Malbus Khas and those procured for nawabs were called Sarkar-i-Ala. The Mughal government appointed an officer, Darogah or Darogah-i-Malbus Khas to supervise the manufacture of Muslins meant for the emperor or a nawab. The Malmal was also procured for the diwan and other high officers and for JAGAT SHETH, the great banker. Muslins other than Malmal (or Malbus Khas and Sarkar-i-Ali) were exported by the traders, or some portion was used locally. 2. Jhuna’ was used by native dancers. 3. Rang’ was very transparent and net-like texture. 4. Abirawan’ was fancifully compared with running water. 5. Khassa’ was special quality, fine or elegant. 6. Shabnam’ was as morning dew. 7. Alaballee’ was very fine. 8. Tanzib’ was as the adorning the body. 9. Nayansukh’ was as pleasing to the eye. 10. Buddankhas’ was a special sort of cloth. 11. Seerbund’ used for turbans. 12. Kumees’ used for making shirts. 13. Doorea’ was striped. 14. Charkona’ was chequered cloth.
15. Jamdanee’ was figured cloth: The Dhaka Muslin serves as the base fabric into which the elaborate and ornate patterns of Dhaka Jamdani are woven. In a Jamdani, a single warp is usually ornamented with two extra weft (thereby creating the design) followed by ground weft. The Jamdani is therefore an inlay technique on lightweight cotton fabrics. Jamdani essentially introduces a thick thread work into a Muslin base to weave various patterns. Hence Jamdani can be called the “figured” or “embellished” Muslin. Jamdani weaving is akin to tapestry work, where small shuttles of thick coloured, gold or silver threads are passed through the weft to create designs on the plain base.
According the Chandra Shekhar Saha, a Bangladeshi textile expert, Jamdani is unique mainly due to two reasons. Firstly, it has distinctive and consistent use of geometric patterns that are inspired by Iranian motifs. Secondly, the opacity of the pattern woven into the transparent base mesh together during the Page | 9
weaving process in such a way as to make the Jamdani look supremely delicate, fine and beautiful. Though apparently the motifs used in Jamdani have an abstract look, these are actually the creative and geometric transformation of nature's elements such as creepers, leaves, flowers, animals etc. The predominance of Iranian motifs in Jamdani is attributed to the later day Mughal influences on the evolution of the aesthetics of the weaving tradition. Muslin and Jamdani reached their pinnacle of excellence during the Mughal period (16th to 19th century). In this period Jamdani was used extensively in “angarakhans” or attire for both women and men. At the same time, the use of Jamdani fabric was seen in women's dresses in Europe's capitals of fashion. From the middle of the 19th century, there was a gradual decline in the Jamdani industry. A number of factors contributed to this decline. Use of machinery in the English textile industry, and the subsequent import of lower quality, but cheaper yarn from Europe, started the decline. Most importantly, the fall of Mughal power in India, deprived the producers of Jamdani of their most influential patrons. Presently, the Jamdani industry is struggling to survive in approximately 150 villages of Rupganj, Sonargaon and Siddhirganj, under Dhaka district. Barely an hour and half drive from Dhaka, situated on the bank of the river Shitalakhya is the village Ruposhi -- popularly known as the Jamdani village. As you enter the village, you come across weavers who are busy at the looms, creating -- probably the most exquisite handloom weaves in the world. Men, women and children of the village are all involved in some stage of the production process. Most adult weavers work as long as 18 hours a day with breaks for meals or prayers. The work itself is very laborious and requires extreme concentration. These expert weavers can create the design mentally during the weaving of the saris. There is no mechanical technique involved. Jamdani weavers have remained largely illiterate or semi-literate. However, despite the lack of any primary education in its formal sense, the mental faculties of the weavers are as sharp as mathematicians. How so ever complex the pattern might be, it is imprinted in the minds of the master weaver and passed down from generation to generation through apprentices who eventually -through years of toil -- become master weavers. There are no written documents for the innumerable motifs used in Jamdani. The motifs are repeated with remarkable precision and there is hardly any inconsistency in the design. Nothing is sketched or outlined. The weavers just know the exact number of times to do a certain stitch to combine the yarns to come up with a particular motif.
Muslin sample Bangladesh mid-19th century Cotton muslin Sample piece from original, Width 86 cm x Length 914 cm; Weight 482 gm Series 1, Volume 7, No 255 Page | 10
Chikan embroidered muslin. This example is described by Forbes Watson as 'a very fine example of embroidery ? in diagonal stripes of flowers'. The white on white embroidery known as chikan was done on fine muslin. In Bengal, chikan was probably developed for the European market and some designs may have been European inspired. The flimsy material suited fashionable Regency dress styles, but was still popular among Europeans in the late 19th century, probably on account of the climate. Production later moved to Lucknow where it was very popular at the local court. The coarser modern chikan work is now made mainly for Middle Eastern and home markets. The designs are first printed onto the fabric, usually fine white muslin, with wooden or brass blocks using fugitive colours. The designs are then embroidered with untwisted cotton thread. Sometimes Bengali tussur silk was also used for variation of colour. By tradition, there is a particular discipline as to the type and method of application of the embroidery stitches relating to the fabrics and design used. Between 30 and 40 different types of stitch, including pulled- thread work or jali (meaning a pierced latticework window), can be used. Some stitches are reserved for specialist embroiderers. Some chikan patterns are similar to the woven jamdani cotton of Dacca and may have been developed as an embroidered equivalent to them.
Manufacturing areas of Muslin:
Weaving was prevalent in the Dhaka district in almost every village, but some places became famous for manufacturing superior quality of Muslins. These places were Dhaka, SONARGAON, Dhamrai, Teetbady, Junglebary and Bajitpur. Dhaka does not need introduction, it is the same place where the capital stands now; Sonargaon is now in Narayanganj district, it was once the capital of Sultan FAKHRUDDIN MUBARAK SHAH and his son (1338-1353), and again capital of ISA KHAN in the Mughal period; Dhamrai is still an important place on the Bangshi river, about 20 miles west of Dhaka; Teetbady is a village in the Kapasia thana of Gazipur district; Junglebary is now in the district of Mymensingh on the eastern bank of the river Brahmaputra; Bajitpur, 15/20 miles away from Junglebary is also in Mymensingh district; Junglebary was for long a residence of the family of Isa Khan. These places manufactured fine quality cloth, because they were situated near the places where cotton suitable for manufacturing Muslins was produced. These were also the places where Page | 11
the headquarters of ruling dynasties, Muslim or Hindu, were established. So the weavers of these places got support and encouragement from the aristocratic class.
National and International Markets for Muslin:
Dhaka Muslin was in great demand in the national and international markets. The traders were active at Dhaka. Local businessmen procured the cotton goods from the ADANGs or manufacturing stations and sent them to Dhaka, where foreign buyers were ready with cash in hand. The foreign traders came from far-off countries like Arabia, Iran, Armenia, in the west, and China, Malaya, Java in the east. Some traders were busy in inter-provincial trade, while others sent the Muslin to countries outside India. The government officials procured various types of Muslin, which they sent to Delhi for the use of emperors and ministers. When the capital was transferred to Murshidabad, the Muslins meant for the subahdar, diwan and other aristocratic people (like the banker Jagat Sheth) were sent there. In the 17th century, the European companies came and established their settlements in Bengal. Their principal settlements were located near HUGHLI, on the bank of the river Bhagirath; the DUTCH settled at Chinsura, the PORTUGUESE at Hughli, the ENGLISH settled first at Hughli but later shifted to Calcutta and the FRENCH settled at Chandernagore. The Ostend Company also came towards the beginning of the 18th century. They procured Dhaka Muslin, through dalals, paikars and also through their own officials. When they found their export of Muslin extremely profitable, they also established settlements at Dhaka. By the beginning of the 17th and certainly by the middle of that century, the Portuguese trade declined. The Dutch set up their factory at Dhaka in 1663, the English in 1669 and the French in 1682. Formerly Europe used to get the Muslin through Iranian and Armenian merchants, but with the coming of the European companies and the establishment of their settlements in Bengal the export of Dhaka Muslin increased enormously. The volume of the export trade of the European companies increased year to year, so much so that they had to establish settlements and factories at Dhaka proper to feed the increased volume of trade. The imports of European companies had no local markets, so the companies imported hard cash, bullion, to meet the growing demand of Bengal, and particularly of Dhaka. Available estimates show that in 1747 the export of Dhaka cotton goods (chiefly of the fine variety of Muslin), including those procured for the emperor, nawab etc was valued at rupees twenty-eight lakh and a half.
Declined after the Battle of Palashi:
The Muslin industry of Dhaka declined after the BATTLE OF PALASHI, 1757; by the end of the 18th century, the export of Dhaka Muslin came down to almost half of that of 1747, and by the middle of the 19th century was valued at less than ten lakh Rupees. The decline of Dhaka Muslin was due to loss of patronage from the Mughal emperors, nawabs and other high officials. The Mughals not only lost their power and prestige but also their buying and spending capacity. With the establishment of the EAST INDIA COMPANY's monopoly over the trade of Bengal after the battle of Palashi, the trade of other European companies and traders belonging to other nationals practically came to a stop. But the most important cause of decline and the ultimate extinction of the Muslin industry was the industrial revolution in England, which introduced modern inventions in manufacture. The costly Dhaka cotton goods, particularly the Page | 12
Muslin, lost in competition with the cheap industrial products of England.
Muslin can be used as a :
in a funnel when decanting fine wine or port to prevent sediment from entering the decanter to separate liquid from mush (for example, to make apple juice: wash, chop, boil, mash, then filter by pouring the mush into a muslin bag suspended over a jug) to retain a liquidy solid (for example, in home cheese-making, when the milk has curdled to a gel, pour into a muslin bag and squash between two saucers (upside down under a brick) to squeeze out the liquid whey from the cheese curd)
Muslin is the material for the traditional cloth used to wrap a Christmas pudding. Muslin is used by beekeepers to filter melted beeswax, making it clean and particle-free for sale.
Theater and photography Muslin is often the cloth of choice for theater sets. It is used to mask the background of sets and to establish the mood or feel of different scenes. It receives paint well and, if treated properly, can be made translucent. It also holds dyes very well. It is often used to create night time scenes because when it is dyed, it often gets a wavy look with the color varying slightly, such that it resembles a night sky. Muslin shrinks after it is painted, but it is widely used because it makes an excellent painting surface. In video production as well, muslin can be used as a cheap greenscreen or bluescreen, either precolored or painted with latex paint (diluted with water). It is commonly used as a background for the chroma key technique. Muslin is the most common backdrop material used by photographers for formal portrait backgrounds. These backdrops are usually painted, most often with an abstract mottled pattern. In the early days of silent film-making and up until the late 1910s, movie studios did not have the elaborate lights needed to illuminate indoor sets, so most interior scenes were sets built outdoors with large pieces of muslin hanging overhead to diffuse the lighting
Medicine Muslin gauze has also found a use in cerebrovascular neurosurgery. It is wrapped circumferentially around aneurysms or intracranial vessels at risk for bleeding. The thought is that the gauze reinforces the artery and helps prevent rupture. It is often used for aneurysms that, due to their size or shape, cannot be microsurgically clipped or coiled.
Muslin is our pride, our own wealth. Though we lost our pure Muslin fabric and its technology yet we have its derivatives. We need to protect our culture & make own production of those derivatives. Our technology becomes smart and developed. So we need to try to make Muslin fabric by our own effort. Page | 13
1. 2. 3. 4.
How Is Muslin Fabric Made?,Written by karen sweeny-justice | Translated by ehow contributor , James Taylor, A Sketch of the Topography and Statistics of Dacca, London 1840; JC Sinha, "The Muslin Industry of Dacca" in the Modern Review, April, 1925; Dhaka Commissioner's letter dated 2 may, 1844,Board's collection no. 100122, India office Records, London; 5. A Descriptive and Historical Account of Cotton Manufacture of Dacca, by former Resident of Dacca, London 1851; 6. answers.yahoo.com 7. http://scholar.lib.vt.edu/theses/available/etd-07232001225716/unrestricted/ThesisMasterDocument.PDF 8. http://www.yiheetextile.com/cotton_voile_fabric.htm 9. http://www.sos-arsenic.net/english/intro/Islamization.html 10. A Karim, "An Account of Dacca, dated1800" in the Journal of the Asiatic Society of Pakistan, Dhaka, vol. VII. No.2, 1962; 11. http://www.ehow.co.uk/about_6538669_muslin-fabric-made_.html 12. A Karim, Dhakai Muslin, Bangla Academy, Dhaka, 1965, Reprint, Dhaka, 1990.
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