Music of Mindoro
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MUSIC OF MINDORO MINA DE ORO – is the oldest name given to Mindoro because it is the center for goldmining. Most of the Hanunuo – Mangyans are wanderers. They travel from different places where there is food to eat. Mangyan is the general term for people who live in the mountainous region of Mindoro. The music of the Mangyans is characterized by its chanting song style called Ambahan. It has no specific tone style but it is monophonic in texture. Basically, it made up of seven syllables in one line. The Ambahan ranges from three to 134 lines. It is expressed in an allegorical manner. The Ambahan is a means to encourage the parents in guiding their children, in expressing their love to them and in sharing valuable experiences that can be applied to their day to day living. The Mangyans write the lyrics of the Ambahan in a bamboo tube called Luka as a means to preserve their music. The term Hanunuo means “ true “ or “ genuine “. This word is used to describe the Mangyans who have remained faithful to their traditions. This tribal group possess a system of writing which is a descendant of the ancient Sanskrit alphabet. They use this form of writing to compose the chanted poetry called Ambahan. Mangyans write their newly discovered ambahan in a portion of a bamboo pole. They take care of it, teach it and pass it on to the next generation. They are taught how to write the ambahan at a very young age even though they could hardly read its script. Mangyan music is a way of life. It is used for courting, merrymaking, relaxing and worshipping. The vocal style used is leader-chorus type and is often accompanied by musical instruments. Their songs include: *Lullabies like the iyaya *Recollection of war exploits *Documentation *love lyrics *ritual chants like the ayung or ngayung The musical joust done during merrymaking is participated in by both men and women of the tribe.Musical instrument like the kudyapi, gitgit and wind instruments are played to accompany the Ambahan. Sometimes the Ambahan is used as a tool for courting women. To accompany the festive Hanunuo music are the gongs of Mindoro. These are smaller and lighter suspended gongs with bosses facing each other. The rhythm of the gongs together with the other instruments is used to accompany the Ambahan and the post harvest of merry making. The Mangyan musical instruments are classified into three sections: string instruments or the chordophones, wind instrument or aerophones and percussion instruments or idiophones. These instruments are played in various festivities, rituals and daily activities. The xylophones, drums,bamboos or sticks are used for improvisation of accompaniments.
STRING INSTRUMENT OR CHORDOPHONES Gitgit – an indigenous three-stringed violin with human hair string Batiwtiw – a bamboo instrument Kudyapi - a lute Kudlung – a bamboo zither with parallel strings Gitara – a home-made guitar WIND INSTRUMENTS OR AEROPHONES Bangsi – an external pipeflute Badyung – a bamboo trumpet Cantuy – a nose flute Plawta – a mouth blown transverse flute Tangkop- a bamboo whistle PERCUSSION INSTRUMENTS OR IDIOPHONES Buray – dipay – a bend pod rattle Kalutang – percussion stick Agung - brass gongs Kinaban – a bamboo Jew’s harp Subing – a Jew’s harp Barimbaw – a bamboo slit gong
MUSIC OF PALAWAN Palawan is one of the most popular tourist attractions in the Philippines. It is known for its beautiful beaches and caves. The tribes living in this island are the Cuyunon, the Tagbanua and the Palaw’an. They created music through the sound that they hear around their environment like the sound of different animals, insects, the wind, the rain and even the river. An example of this kind of music is the Laplap Bagit, a bird song. The culture of the Tagbanuas is characterized by their rituals. One of this is the Pagdiwata,a cleansing ritual performed by the Babaylan, a folk healer who initiates worship, healing, and thanksgiving. This ritual is accompanied by instruments made of bamboo and strings. Palawan’s music is largely influenced by three important inhabitants of the island. The Cuyunon who originated from Cuyo Island Group are known to be original inhabitants of Palawan. They are highly – developed ethnic group rich in folklore, traditions, music and dances. The Cuyunon instrumental music is based from the traditional “Tipanu Band” that is made up of various kinds of bamboo flutes with different tonal ranges. Accompanying these flutes are snare drums called Redoblante, bass drums or Tambor and the Batingting or triangle. The music played using these instruments usually accompanies the Ati, Sinulog Inocentes and the Comedia. There songs for various events. Sandaw , the most simple, is a lullaby. Erekay is an event like a balagtasan where a male and a female try to out do one another in an on-the –spot composition of melodic verses, usually in a teasing manner. There are also singing games like the Kotaw-Kotaw. The Tagbanuasin Palawan have always practiced in certain ancient rituals since the early times up to now. They are the most cultured people in Palawan. They hold elaborate funeral celebrations where the participants chant the Bactal, a lengthy song that tells about the significant adventures of a mythical being called Dumaracol. This tribe has always believed that music has the power to cure the sick by driving off evil spirits using drum beats. This is observed in the ceremonial dance called Pagdiwata. The Palaw’an cultural minority is composed of people with fair skin and slender built. They use songs to tell about their closeness to nature especially to animals. This tribe also uses instruments like the gongs,the Babandil and the Gimbal. Most instruments from Palawan are made of bamboo,wood,strings and metals. Here are some instruments found in Palawan. TAGBANUA MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Aruding – Jew’s harp Beberek – nose flute Tipanu – mouth flute Pagang and Tubuldu – bamboo zithers Kudling – boat flute Gimbal – drum CUYUNON MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Batungtung – bamboo slit drum Palakupakan – stickwith bamboo clappers Subing – Jew’s harp Lantoy – nose flute TIPANU INSTRUMENTAL ENSEMBLE Two drums Different size of mouth flute Redoblante – snare drum Bombo – big drums Platilyo – c
MUSIC OF VISAYAS The Visayan region is considered as one of the most beautiful region in the Philippines. The Chocolate Hills in Bohol, the Ati-Atihan of Aklan and the Sinulog of Cebu are only a few of the many attractions that give a strong impact to the people in all walks of life. The music itself speaks of its culture and tradition from the different types of festivities and occasions. The Visayan folk music is different from other cultures because of the massive changes in musical styles through the influences of the Spaniards. The Spaniards introduced new styles of music which is evident in their display of Western musical traditions. They educated the Visayans in reading and writing notes, in playing musical instruments skillfully, and in reformatting the new content of the folk music. They created various types of seasonal songs, serenade songs (harana) and Zarzuelas. Religious songs and Catholic Liturgical music were also developed as part of the Visayan musical traditions. The Visayan region is home to some of our country’s best singers. It is also home to our favorite folk music like Si Pilemon, Pakitong-Kitong, matud Nila and Rosas Pandan. The varied musical styles and forms of the region are attributed to Spanish influences. One popular musical style which the Spaniards have influenced is the Balitaw. The Balitaw is a song-and-dance debate between a man and a woman. It deals with topics on love and marriages. Pinalangga Ko is a children’s song in 4/4 time time signature. Visayan natives are known for being skilled musicians. Majority of them know how to play the guitar, the famous string instrument introduced by the Spaniards. The other native instruments are generally made of bamboo, wood and animal skins. VISAYAN MUSICAL INSTRUMENTS Buktot – four-stringed Visayan instrument Lantoy – small flute Tulali – a flute made of bamboo with holes for the fingers Tugo – drum Litguit - violin