Muscular Development Iunie 2009

July 13, 2017 | Author: OvidiuVoicu | Category: Strength Training, Sports, Wellness
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Muscular Development June 2009...




Volume 46, Number 6, June 2009


TRAINING 276 Blood & Guts By Dorian Yates NEW!


310 Power BodybuildingRx By Justin Harris, BA NEW!

116 Research: Supplements By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD

Research: Training By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD

314 Muscle Form+Function By Stephen E. Alway, Ph.D., FACSM 126 Research: Nutrition By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD 358 Extreme Muscle Enhancement

176 Supplement Performance Creatine Does Not Cause

By Carlon M. Colker, MD, FACN

Muscle Cramps or Overheating! By Robbie Durand, M.A.

366 Iron Mike: ‘The Liberator’ By Mike Liberatore NEW! 178 Nutrition Performance Casein or Whey Protein: Which Protein Is Best for Long-Term Fat Loss? By Robbie Durand, M.A.

374 The Predator By Kai Greene

180 Sports Supplement Review MuscleMeds eNOXIDE

378 The True Victor By Victor Martinez

By Robbie Durand, MA

382 Mass With Class By Branch Warren

362 MuscleTech Research Report

392 Telling It Like It Is By Shawn Ray


400 Road To The USAs By Branden Ray 404 Big Bad Wolf: The People’s Choice By Dennis Wolf


408 Erik ‘The House’ Fankhouser By Erik Fankhouser

162 Fat Attack Sleep Your Way to Fat Loss By Dan Gwartney, MD

412 National Hero By Evan Centopani

Research: Fat Loss By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD


418 Contest Guru By Chad Nicholls 422 Trainer of Champions By Charles Glass

136 Research: Drugs By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD

428 The Pro Creator By Hany Rambod

158 Future Pharmacy By Douglas S. Kalman, Ph.D., RD, FACN 294 Testosterone Nasal Testosterone Spray By Dan Gwartney, MD 306 Shred of Evidence By Anthony Almada NEW! 332 The ‘Clear’ Chemist By Patrick Arnold 336 Anabolics Q&A By William Llewellyn NEW! 340 Anabolic Research Update By William Llewellyn 346 Anabolic Edge By Jose Antonio, Ph.D. 352 MD Walk-In Clinic By Dr. X NEW! 364 Busted! Legal Q&A By Rick Collins, JD

HEALTH & PERFORMANCE 106 Research: Health & Performance By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD

146 Research: Sex By Steve Blechman & Thomas Fahey, EdD 170 Muscle Growth Update By Robbie, Durand, M.A. NEW!


302 Bodybuilding Science Catecholamines Reduce Muscle Tissue


Breakdown By Robbie Durand, M.A.

328 No Juice Bodybuilding By Eric Broser NEW! With Layne Norton 354 Ask The Doc By Victor Prisk, MD NEW! June 2009




Editor’s Letter By Steve Blechman


Mail Room Where Our Readers Rave & Rant


Who’s Hot! By Mike Yurkovic


MD People Team MD’s Latest Industry Sightings!


The Gospel According To Lee By Lee Priest NEW!

66 By Gregg Valentino

282 Major Distraction: Ziville Raudoniene By Cheri Owen 292 Women’s Bodybuilding By Cheri Owen NEW! 320 Ramblin’ Freak By Gregg Valentino 432 Hot Shoppe By Angela T. Frizalone 436 Web Directory 438 MD Marketplace By Angela T. Frizalone & Manda Machado


466 Last Writes By Lee Priest NEW!








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editor’s letter By Steve Blechman Publisher & Editor-in-Chief

THE MAN WHO WILL BE KING always knew he’d be a superstar. That’s why I featured him in the ’90s, when MD covered natural bodybuilding; that’s why I offered him an MD contract in 2007. That’s why Kai Greene, winner of this year’s Arnold Classic, is on MD’s cover in his signature ‘hands on hip most muscular’ pose— crazy wheels and unrivaled detail, muscle separation and clear striations, in all their freaky glory. Kai Greene’s win at the Arnold this year is a triumph on so many complex levels that it’s hard to know where to begin. As I write this, knowing how far he’s come and to what great lengths he has gone to finally hold this welldeserved place in bodybuilding history, I naturally look back at our combined history. I reflect on the man I have come to know as an artist, entertainer, philosopher, deep thinker, and at the same time, a kind, compassionate, honest man with more heart than I’ve probably ever seen before. Kai has had so much to overcome, beginning with his childhood in an orphanage and as a ward of the state of New York, and right on through his long journey up to that moment when he took his rightful place onstage as the 2009 Arnold Classic Champion. I first met Kai in 1996 when he was a four-time World Natural Bodybuilding Champion (WNBF). I knew then that he was destined for greatness. In 1999 he became the Team Universe Champion; then in 2008, he became


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Champion for the second time, thus becoming an IFBB Pro. Then in 2007, Kai placed a disappointing 6th place at the New York Pro. I can still remember the look in his eyes when I went backstage to shake his hand and chat; it seemed as though he’d lost his soul. I can clearly recall the moment when he said the unthinkable; that he wouldn’t be competing anymore, because he simply could not afford to. And that, my friends, was unacceptable. Kai Greene would not be leaving the world of professional bodybuilding if I had anything to say about it! I told him to call me that Monday— and the rest, as you know, is bodybuilding history. I offered Kai a publishing contract with MD and also snagged him a supplement deal. Kai Green is without a doubt one of the greatest bodybuilding sensations to come along in quite some time. He is huge, thick and the freakiest thing we have seen since Ronnie at his peak! Kai has proven to be one of the top bodybuilders in the world today and with his dedication, hard work, and the sacrifice he has employed thus far, along with his coach and mentor Oscar Ardon, it is certain that he will one day be crowned KING!! So, watch out for him at the Olympia, bros, he’s hungry and a real threat! Kai has undoubtedly one of the best sets of legs and back in bodybuilding today, and he provides an amazing package of mass, shape, incredible conditioning and detail with striated deep muscle separa- June 2009

tions. His freaky lats are insane, with low insertions that go all the way into his hips. He may also be the best poser of all time, as Arnold acknowledged at the Arnold Classic. Kai’s presentation is par none; he carries himself like the King he is destined to be, confidence in his smile and in every step he takes. In a word, Kai is electrifying. But words will never do Kai justice; the proof is in the pictures— and we’ve got a feast for your eyes, within these pages, as well as on our website. Beginning on page 188, in “2009 Arnold Classic: Team MD Trophy Winner!” Kai strikes the poses that won him the trophy— and they’ll leave you in no doubt as to why he is the man! The East Coast Hardcore Bodybuilding Mecca owned by my dear friends Steve Weinberger and Bev Francis is a focal point this month for our MD bodybuilders, and “Branch Warren Chest Training at Powerhouse Gym” begins on page 218. Kai is also featured with Kevin English as they pummel delts at the Mecca in Syosset, NY, at the home of champions on the east coast, on page 232. Then catch up with Victor and Kai back training at the Mecca on page 200. Check out Dennis Wolf: Road to the Olympia, Part II— Triceps on page 250. When he started training, Wolf was 160 pounds at 5’11’’ and he struggled with weak arms. Read up on the ‘Big Bad Wolf’s’ own formula for arm growth; find out how he amassed those guns! We’ve got all three trophy winners from the Arnold Classic in the “MD’s Classic Top 3,” starting on page 266. Read what Flex Wheeler has to say when he critiques the physiques of Kai, Victor and Branch. Cheri Owen joins us this month with a new monthly column: “Women’s Bodybuilding”. Who are the “Hungry in 2009?” Find out on page 292. Cheri also interviews Ziville Raudoniene, this month’s Major Distraction, on page 282. And we’re thrilled to welcome Jr. USA superheavyweight bodybuilding champion Justin Harris to the team, with “Power BodybuildingRx,” starting on page 310. Justin is 29 years old and holds a bachelor of science degree in kinesiology and is now working towards his Ph.D. in theoretical physics. As an elite competitive powerlifter, he has squatted 876 pounds, bench presses 537 pounds, and deadlifts 700 pounds. Wow! A very impressive, superhuman resume— what a beast! Welcome aboard, bro! The rest of the book is packed as it always is with the latest breaking research and cutting-edge information on bodybuilding and building your body, by the very best in the business. See you next month!

Publisher/Editor-In-Chief Steve Blechman Senior Science Editor Robbie Durand, MA Managing Editor Angela T. Frizalone Creative Director Alan Dittrich, Jr. Associate Editor Alan Golnick Associate Art Director Stephen Kolbasuk Assistant Editor Louise Powell Contributing Editors Carlon Colker, M.D.,Thomas Fahey Ph.D. Dan Gwartney, M.D. Executive Assistant Michele Gampel Photographers Chief Photographer: Per Bernal Bill Comstock Illustrators Bill Hamilton, Jerry Beck Advertising Advertising Director—Angela T. Frizalone (239) 495-6899 Corporate Office 800-653-1151, 631-751-9696 Circulation Consultants Irwin Billman & Ralph Pericelli

To Order a Subscription: (888) 841-8007 Customer Service & Subscription Inquiries: (631) 751-9696; 1-800-653-1151 Advanced Research Press, Inc. reserves the right to reject any advertising at its discretion. MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT (ISSN 0047-8415) is published monthly by Advanced Research Press, 690 Route 25A, Setauket, New York, 11733. Copyright ©2008 by Advanced Research Press. All rights reserved. Copyright under the Universal Copyright Convention and the International Copyright Convention. Copyright reserved under the Pan Am Copyright. Rate: $49.97 per year (USA); $79.97 per two years (USA); foreign: $79.97 per year. Nothing appearing in MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT may be reprinted, either wholly or in part, without the written consent of the publisher. Send editorial submissions to: MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT, 690 Route 25A, Setauket, New York, 11733. Stamped, self-addressed envelope must accompany all submissions, and no responsibility can be assumed for unsolicited submissions. All letters, photos, manuscripts, etc. sent to MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT will be considered as intended for publication, and MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT reserves the right to edit and/or comment. Periodical postage paid at Setauket, N.Y. 11733, and at Glasgow, KY 42141. Postmaster: Send address changes to MUSCULAR DEVELOPMENT, Box 834, East Setauket, NY 11733-9704. Advertising Office Phone: (239) 495-6899. PRINTED IN USA

Cover photos of Kai Greene and Ziville Raudoniene are by Per Bernal

June 2009

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mailroom Best Hardcore Bodybuilding Mag I am a lifelong lifter who has recently fallen in love with MD. I spend all day reading articles online. When I get home from work, I pick up my print issues and start reading and becoming inspired— inspired so much that I want to have some of the MD ’toon images inked on me. Yesterday was my 33rd birthday and the best present that I got was a yearly subscription to MD. I love the site and mag. The video blogs with Branch and Kai are awesome motivators. The training videos are amazing and I love to kill my entire workday getting worked up for the workout. Thank you for your time and don’t ever stop giving us, the reader and lifter, the best damn source of hardcore information out there. Jason Williams, e-mail

Never Too Early To Get In Shape

Erik ‘The House’

My husband and I love your magazine and apparently, so does our 5-month-old daughter. We handed her the magazine and she held it and stared at it attentively. We laughed so hard and snapped a picture. It just proves that caring for your body can start at any age!! Jennifer and Colin Schneider Warman, Saskatchewan, Canada

Ramblin Freak Is the Best I love your magazine— but as soon as I open it up each month, I have to read “The Ramblin Freak.” Gregg Valentino is the best! You all need to give this guy more recognition for being ‘real.’ The sport needs him, for sure! John Grueneic Houston, Texas

I just would like to tell you that I really enjoy reading Muscular Development. I find the magazine to be informative, research-based, and also a very fun and enjoyable magazine to read. I especially like the articles by Erik ‘The House’ Fankhouser. I think his column is one of the best in the magazine, and I really enjoyed reading his last leg-training workout article. Thanks for everything that you do for bodybuilding. Saul Hinojosa Jr., e-mail

Amazing Kai Greene Major props to Kai Greene for snagging a win at the Arnold Classic. I just got the news, and I’m beside myself. Kai is an amazing bodybuilder, and his posing routines could stop traffic! Not only is it a well-deserved win for Kai, but it’s a bittersweet victory. Kai struggled through many issues during his life, but he never lost focus, drive, or his desire to be the best bodybuilder he could be. Good things come to those who wait. Wanda Meehan, e-mail

MD Website Rocks

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Just a quick note to say that I’m glad to see Robbie Durand at the helm of Robbie has a unique a passion for scientific research as it applies to bodybuilding. This is obvious from his thoughtful and wellresearched articles in MD, and he has continued that trend on the MD website. MD is number one in print and on the web. You guys rock! Marvin Pallerstrom, e-mail

June 2009

Photographed by Mike Yurkovic

Kristal Richardson: IFBB Figure Pro, Florida


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Yenny Polanco: Fitness America Figure Pro, Massachusetts

Mindi O'Brien: IFBB Fitness Pro, Canada June 2009

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Sherlyn Roy: IFBB Figure Pro, California 40 MD June 2009

Juliana Malacarne: IFBB Figure Pro, Brazil Felicia Romero: IFBB Figure Pro, Arizona June 2009

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AccordingtoLEE By Lee Priest

Conversing with the Mysterious ‘Predator’ This was the first time I ever got the chance to really talk to Kai Greene. We talked about life in general. Anyone who’s had a similar conversation with Kai knows that he’s a deep, philosophical type of guy. After awhile you tend to get confused and wonder what the hell you’re even talking about! But it was fine. Kai said he respected me and all I have done over the years in the sport. He really wanted to know why I still wanted to compete, since I have done so much already (44 pro shows, but who’s counting?). I told him I just don’t feel my time is over quite yet. Like Rocky said in “Rocky Balboa,” there’s still a little more in the basement. Kai loved Australia and says he would love to come back again.

AUSTRALIAN PRO REVIEW Once again, Tony Doherty put on a first-class event in Melbourne. Kai made the trip over and joined the list of past winners that includes me, Dexter and Chris Cormier, who both won this show three times, and Ronny Rockel. Here’s how I saw things from the press pit.

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First Place: Kai Greene I wasn’t at the Arnold Classic, but a few people here in Australia who had seen Kai the weekend before in Columbus agreed that he actually looked better here— a bit drier and harder overall. He does need to watch his stomach when he relaxes onstage, though. I understand it’s not possible to carry that much mass on a frame like his without expanding the midsection, but he should still make every effort to keep it sucked in whenever he’s up there. I’m also going to go against popular opin-

! W N E M N U L O C

Skipped the Show, and No Regrets!

I would have loved to have done the show, but I know I made the right decision getting my biceps repaired rather than go in with two differentlooking arms. A few people came up to me after prejudging and wanted to know how I thought I would have done in this lineup. I don’t play that game. Did they mean with the torn biceps, with my biceps the way it was before, or what? We’ll never know anyway. Maybe I would have been Kai’s toughest competition, or maybe I would have been a few places down. I leave all that ‘fantasy football’ type of speculating to the guys on the forums who find it so thrilling.

Healing Time I have to keep my right arm in a sling for a total of six weeks, which should be over with by the time this issue comes out. In the meantime, I have been working legs twice a week and also doing everything I can for upper body with only my left arm. Surprisingly, I have been getting some pretty good workouts. For chest and shoulders, I am able to press a 120-pound dumbbell. I can do dumbbell curls, triceps pushdowns and rows, pulldowns, and various types of lateral raises with one hand. It’s really been sort of fun to see how much I can do, using only one arm. I’ve even managed to make up a few exercises of my own. Of course I would much prefer not having to do all this, but even before the surgery I was determined to do as much as I could to maintain my size while I healed.

ion and say that I am not a fan of his posing routine. It’s very entertaining and he does things nobody else in the sport is able to, but I don’t think he hits enough actual poses; therefore he doesn’t really display his physique the way he should. I know a classical routine wouldn’t be as exciting, but you would be able to see and appreciate his physique better.

consistent than Dexter. We talked about his goals and what he is trying to do with his physique. Silvio knows he needs to be bigger to beat the guys who are beating him right now, but he is taking little steps and trying not to do it all overnight. He’s playing it smart. I’ve seen my share of guys ruin their shape by packing on too much mass too fast.

Second Place: Silvio Samuel I had the chance to talk with Silvio before the show and he’s a great guy— very down-to-earth and laid back. He’s always in shape and in that respect is even more

Third Place: Toney Freeman Toney looked good, that’s all I will say. I was a bit disappointed in the attitude he showed at this show, and so were many others. That’s all I will say about that. Fourth Place: Michael Kefalianos Just a week before, this guy had placed third in the heavyweights at the Arnold Amateur show. Apparently he was able to get cleared for pro status in record time! He looked pretty good here. Michael needs polishing, but that will come with time. In his first pro show he managed to qualify for the Mr. Olympia, so congratulations to the guy. Fifth Place: Ivan Sadek This was Ivan’s first pro show. He’s a big guy, and if he comes in harder and drier he can do even better. Ivan is still a raw rookie, so he has plenty of time to learn what he needs to do and improve.

June 2009

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THE GOSPEL–ACCORDING TO LEE The Media Fucks Up Again This retraction appeared in the New York Daily News,Thursday, February 26th 2009, 9:03 p.m.:

“Bodybuilder Victor Martinez Not Dominican Republic Store Owner A February 22 Daily News article about purchasing the steroid primobolan in the Dominican Republic (“Dominican Drug Dilemma”) reported that Dominican-born bodybuilder Victor Martinez is the owner of the Santo Domingo supplement store Gurabo. The store sells protein powders, supplements and steroids. Many steroids are legally sold in the Dominican Republic without a prescription. Martinez is not the owner of Gurabo, does not live in the Dominican Republic and has not lived there for at least 18 years, according to his attorney, Mike Wilens. The Daily News regrets the error.” This whole story was just a lame effort to get more mileage out of that whole Alex Rodriguez steroid ‘scandal.’ Tabloid newspapers and TV shows are always trying to milk stories as long as they possibly can by seeking out the most obscure connections. This time they were totally wrong, as is often the case when your story is flimsy in the first place. What I don’t get is how this was even newsworthy in the first place if it is legal to sell steroids in the Dominican Republic? If Victor lives in the USA and owns a store in another country that was following the laws of that country— where is the controversy? It’s not his fault that this ‘third world nation’ happens to be more enlightened than the USA when it comes to anabolic steroids. And if it ever turns out that he really does own the place, who cares?

Kai Finally Clicks His Ruby Slippers Together and Says, “There’s No Place Like Home!” Like so many others before him, Kai Greene made his pilgrimage to the Mecca, Venice Beach, to be trained by Charles Glass. Here’s what he had to say about the experience to my good friend Shawn Ray: SHAWN: “Was it everything you hoped it would be?” KAI: “Yes and no. It’s kind of like the “Wizard of Oz” or “The Wiz!” I traveled this road to California in search of something I thought I needed. When I got here I simply found a man— someone no more important to me than people I already had in my life. He wasn’t a magician or ‘The Almighty,’ but a

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Catching Up with Rusty My good friend Rusty Jeffers came out from Arizona and stayed with me for two weeks before the contest. It was great to train with him again for the first time in almost a year. His wife Francy also traveled out for the contest and then they both stayed on another week to do some sightseeing. Rusty didn’t make top five, even though I thought he should have been around fourth or fifth. He’s got a very classical type of physique and his posing is along the lines of the great Ed Corney. Not only does he hit some unique poses that you hardly see anymore, but he’s also a master at the transitions. This is the type of posing I would like to see Kai do. But what do I know? I’m not a judge.

She Say, “In Sickness and In Health!” My wife has really come in handy since my biceps surgery! Certain things are pretty much impossible for me to do with only one arm, like getting shirts on or cutting my steak or chicken into pieces. Being right-handed, it’s been tough doing other things with my left hand, but I am managing. I can type on the computer, brush my teeth, and so on. The only thing I really hate trying to do with one hand is drive. From all my racing experience, I simply feel far more in control with both hands on the wheel. I suppose I could just let my wife drive instead, but that could prove to be even more dangerous!

person like me. I discovered things about myself along the way that I didn’t know were there, but in a good way. Now the Mecca or Gold’s may be ‘The Emerald City’ and my journey similar to Dorothy, the Scarecrow, Lion and the Tin Man, but Charles, for all the great things he has done and continues to do, is not The Wizard of OZ! While it was a different approach to what I had done in the past regarding training, I discovered there is no such thing as one person who can change who I am. I want to be the best— then I have to take control.” Kai went to Venice to see what it’s all about, because for most of his life he had heard all about how great it was and had seen all the photos in the magazines showing what an amazing place it is. It wasn’t what he expected, of course.

How can any real place live up to all those fantasies and dreams that the average bodybuilder has about it? You would think that everyone is a bodybuilder, and chicken breasts and steroids grow on trees! At night while you sleep, the Muscle Fairies visit all the good boys and girls and they wake up with no more weak body parts. And as excellent of a trainer as I’m sure Charles Glass is, nobody knows your body like you and those who have been close to you for years. It’s all well and good to seek out advice from someone new, but you can’t even think that one person knows everything. Bodybuilding is a learning experience and takes years of trial and error to get it right. The things that work for you getting ready for one contest often don’t even work the same way a

June 2009

THE GOSPEL– ACCORDING TO LEE year later when you try them again. All you can do is make slight changes and note the results. There are some very smart people in the industry who work with the athletes, but in the end nothing beats your own experience. It’s all about

making mistakes and learning from them. The guys who do this consistently usually end up at the top of the sport. Those who continue to repeat the same mistakes— well, you tend not to hear so much about them!

Stupid Question of the Month! Lee, I was just at the Arnold Classic expo a couple weeks ago, and I am still getting over the shame. I thought I was in good shape, but so many guys there totally showed me up. I admit my cycle was pretty basic and I hardly even dieted. Now I’m really kicking myself in the ass. For the Olympia Expo I am determined to look incredible. Would you please suggest a good cycle for both mass and cuts? I can get pretty much anything and about the only thing I can’t afford for now is GH. But anything else you can recommend I can probably get. Looking forward to your response, bro! Oh my Lord. This is something that has always bothered me about the big shows. There are so many idiots strutting around in their tight Affliction shirts that are two sizes too small, or even worse, string tank tops. Clearly, they have planned an entire drug cycle and diet around the event. The problem is, they aren’t the pros competing— they’re supposed to be the fans! These are classic attention whores. Look at me, look at me! Take my picture! I can understand their desire for recognition among so many of their fellow bodybuilders. They probably come from places where they are the only big bodybuilders around, and the novelty has worn off in terms of people being amazed and heaping compliments on them. Now they have a whole new audience. But audiences are what you call the people sitting in the theater looking at athletes onstage. That’s the appropriate time and place to be on display. To walk around an expo like you’re one of the top pros like Kai or Victor is just plain stupid. The really sad thing is when you see guys who were clearly never meant to be very big, and they have juiced their brains out in a desperate plea for attention. They don’t show many of the desired effects from drugs, like extreme muscle mass and fullness. What they do have are all the nasty side effects: red, shiny skin from the high blood pressure, raging acne, and hair loss. Some of them have convinced themselves that they are the size of Jay or Ronnie, though they weigh a good 75-100 pounds less. You can tell by the ILS— Imaginary Lat Syndrome. They don’t so much walk as waddle, because it’s not possible to walk like a normal human when you carry so much ungodly muscle mass! To be fair, I have to call out the women at these expos, too. They really take the whole attention whore thing to another level. Don’t get me wrong now— as a red-blooded male I don’t mind seeing mostly-nude women with great bodies strolling around. But again, there is a time and a place for everything. Late Saturday night at the strip club would be the more appropriate venue for the way some of these women dress. If they’re working a booth and their job is to get guys to come over, that’s one thing. But there are always at least as many scantily-clad women at any expo showing a lot of skin, purely for their own amusement. It’s all about insecurity; the girls just want guys to stare and tell them how hot they are, and take pictures. Like the wannabe pro men, they just want their starving little egos to be fed. Anyone is free to dress as they please, but in my opinion, a little bit of modesty and class goes a long way. If your physique is truly exceptional, you don’t need to work that hard to call attention to it. ■

June 2009


muscular By Gregg Valentino “I don’t know the key to success, but the key to failure is trying to please everybody.”… Robbie Durand… GREAT QUOTE, ROBBIE!!!... HEY, SPEAKING OF ROBBIE DURAND, HE MADE A GREAT VIDEO CALLED “Victor Martinez: A Day In The Life!!!!”… YO, THIS VIDEO IS AWESOME, IT SHOWS AN INTIMATE SIDE OF VICTOR MARTINEZ’ LIFE, JUST 2 WEEKS OUT FROM THE ARNOLD CLASSIC… HERE IS A QUOTE FROM ROBBIE ABOUT HIS TIME WITH VICTOR…“I know he was eating about every 2-3 hours. I thought I had an appetite weighing around 265,


but Vic is an eating machine. We stopped for steak— sirloin steak (twice)— chicken, and he kept a bowl of white rice with him that he ate frequently throughout the day. He was doing cardio two times a day. One thing the video will show is how people just don’t understand the life of a bodybuilder. We went to a restaurant and the waitress was constantly screwing up the meal, which we had to send back. Example, adding salt to his meals and putting dressings on the meals, which he did not ask for. Being with Vic for the day really made me realize the frustration a bodybuilder had to go through… and this was just one day. “Also, we went to the gym.

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EXPERT VIDEO GUY Vic is a people person. The gym owner commented on how Vic helps out younger lifters in the gym. We also interviewed his workout partner. He said Vic never became discouraged after the injury. His drive to win is amazing. Vic talks about the visualization techniques to heal his knee and really talked about his mindset. Basically, it was like talking to a Navy SEAL… he said failure was not an option!”... Supplements: He used MHP’s Activite, Probolic-SR, DREN, Dark Rage before exercise, A-Bomb and Glutamine-SR (every few hours)… YO’, ITS DEFINITELY A MUST-SEE VIDEO FOR ANY HARDCORE BODYBUILDING FAN!!! VICTOR SPEAKS AFTER HIS AWESOME SHOWING AT THE ARNOLD CLASSIC, IN A NEW MD FORUM JUST FOR HIM CALLED “VICTOR’s JOURNAL” > Check out Victor’s daily regimen to find out his supplements, food choices, meal times, workout schedule and much more! Ask questions, review


answers and get insight into bodybuilding’s greatest athlete, Victor Martinez!!!!... Originally Posted by vshape aka VICTOR MARTINEZ > “Thank you all for the overwhelming support I have received during this long recovery process! I am happy with my placing and felt that I did very well. I am looking forward to continuing my training for the Olympia and continuing to improve my physique. Rehabilitating my knee was a long journey but the work is not over! Thanks again for all my fans support”… YO, THERE IS ONLY ONE PLACE YOU CAN TALK


WITH VICTOR MARTINEZ ON A PERSONAL BASIS > YOU KNOW WHERE YA GOTTA GO, TO THE BODYBUILDING INTERNET HOME OF VICTOR MARTINEZ aka OF COURSE, WHERE Mental Health is overrated. OOOPS NOW, SPEAKING OF MENTAL HEALTH BEING OVERRATED, HERE IS A POST BY A YOUNG FAN TO SHAWN RAY, > Q: Shawn, I was wondering how you handled going to school and bodybuilding at the same time... S. Ray’s REPLY > Easy, when I wasn’t doing one, I was doing the other. I trained “BEFORE” school and again “AFTER.” I ate my meals between classes and slept through the night. Where there is a will, you will find a way!

June 2009 “I prefer to continue to promote the sport and its athletes.”

AND IN CASE YOU HEARD RUMORS BUT YOU’RE NOT READING THE CUTTING-EDGE INFO ON THE MD BOARDS (SHAME ON YOU), THEN HERE IT IS, SHAWN RAY’S ANSWER TO THE BIG QUESTION > Shawn, I was just wondering if you had already disclosed any more details in regards to your comeback, which I’ve heard on the No Bull shows… S. Ray’s REPLY > I thought I was pretty clear, that after a couple of weeks of trying and thought, the interest for me as an athlete isn’t there. I prefer to continue to promote the sport and its athletes. Thanks Shawn Ray!... THERE YA HAVE IT FROM HIS LIPS TO YOUR EYES, HERE IN MD AND TAKEN FROM THE MD FORUM WHERE SHAWN RAY RESIDES EVERY DAY, CHATTING WITH THE OTHER MD MEMBERS… OH AND BY THE WAY, IF YOU WANNA KNOW SHAWN RAY’S AB ROUTINE FROM BACK IN THE DAY, HERE IT IS >>> I did my abs 3 x’s a week. 3 exercises, 3 sets, 25-30 reps. Nothing special or out of the ordinary. Crunches, leg raises, incline, hanging raises, etc… ONCE AGAIN FROM SHAWN RAY TO THE FORUM MEMBERS… IT’S GREAT TO TALK TO A LEGEND LIKE SHAWN RAY… ONLY ON MD.COM!!!! NOW TO ANOTHER PRO FROM THE MD FORUM WHO I LIKE A LOT, A GUY WHO I REALLY RESPECT AND GET ALONG VERY WELL WITH >> EVAN CENTAPONI... >>> I LOVE EVAN’S ATTITUDE, THE WAY HE CARRIES HIMSELF AND HIS OUTLOOK ON THINGS… HERE IS A GREAT POST FROM EVAN, TAKEN FROM HIS

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Q&ATHREAD… I think that how people perceive you has everything to do with how you carry yourself. Some would say that being bigger than normal or more muscular than average would make most people assume you’re a dickhead. But I don’t think that’s true. I think if you carry yourself with an arrogant air about you or you act cocky then yeah, people are gonna think that. But that goes for pretty much anyone. I will agree that if you’re out at a bar or club (places I don’t go anymore), people who are drunk and have their beer balls are more likely to try and test you. And I have gotten into fights with people before because I had no patience for their shit but I’ve learned a couple things. For the most part, if I go out somewhere I keep my eyes to myself and if I make eye contact with people I may smile slightly (I just try not to look so serious because people often mistake that as you trying to be tough or intimidating). In short, I mind my own business and try to be as courteous as possible. And I don’t go out in tight shirts or shirts with the sleeves chopped off or anything like that! If you look like a meathead then people will perceive you that way. I think that if you keep to yourself and are polite and friendly if approached, people respect you regardless of your build… EVAN CENTAPONI… THIS IS WHY I LOVE THIS GUY!! YA KNOW, STEVE BLECHMAN IS ALWAYS PREACHING HOW MUCH HE BELIEVES IN FAMILY STICKING TOGETHER… ON THE MD WEBSITE ONE OF OUR MD FAMILY MEMBERS, IFBB PRO ERIK ‘THE HOUSE’ FANKHOUSER’S WIFE aka THE LANDLORD IS A VERY ACTIVE MEMBER… SHE SUPPORTS ERIK AND STANDS BY HER MAN… I FIND HER TO BE A VERY REFRESHING WOMAN WITH A GREAT OUT-

LOOK ON HER FAMILY LIFE AS WELL AS VERY UNDERSTANDING TO ERIK’S BODYBUILDING NEEDS… I MET HER PERSONALLY AND I MUST SAY SHE IS ALL THAT, FOR REAL… HERE IS A POST FROM MRS. HOUSE aka THE LANDLORD IN WHICH SHE SHOWS HER DEVOTION TO HER HUSBAND, MR. HOUSE… Originally Posted by The Landord > You all have no idea how hard Erik actually works... he is on a seven-day stretch finishing that up Thursday and then we are driving straight to Columbus, about a two-hour drive from our home, and then he gets to work the entire weekend at the Arnold and then Monday back to work for another sevenday stretch. He is truly one hardworking man! And he does this all for our family and never complains. He sat in the emergency room with me last week from 7:30 pm till 2 am and wouldn’t leave me although he had to be back up at 4 am to go to work. I told him to call off but he refused. Just another great characteristic of his! He is a great husband and father and I cannot thank him enough for what he does for our family!!!!!!... WOW!!!!.. AND BY THE WAY, ERIK IS A DADDY OF A 4-YEAR-OLD SON BUT HE IS ABOUT TO BE A DADDY AGAIN BECAUSE THE LANDLORD IS PREGNANT… YUP, I AM HOPING IT’S A GIRL, AND IF SHE IS ANYTHING LIKE HER MOM SHE WILL BE A REAL WINNER IN MY BOOK… HEY ERIK CONGRATS, I CAN’T BELIEVE I’M GOING TO BE AN UNCLE AGAIN… wink… ANYWAY, SO NOW I’M GOING TO SHUT MY PIEHOLE AND LET YOU PINHEADS FEEL THE LOVE… HEY, YOUR FELLOW FANS ARE TALKING, MINGLING WITH THE PROS, IT’S THAT COOL… READ FOR YOURSELVES, BUT AS FOR ME, I’M GOING TO GRAB SOME REST… I BEEN SPENDING WAY TOO MUCH TIME ON THE FORUM, I’M TOO DAMN ADDICTED… You all need to learn not to interrupt me when I’m talking to myself… HOW RUDE!!!!!!!!!!

June 2009 TALK ABOUT > Gorgeous, intelligent, kind, sweet, charming, witty, hilarious, friendly... well, enough about ME!… I NOW BRING YOU THE BABE OF THE MONTH… OH YEAH, BABE…YUM!!!! Name: Kelly Baker Forum name: connstellation Age: 30 Zodiac sign: Virgo Hometown: Cleveland Height: 5’2” Measurements: 34-24-35 Eyes: Brown Off-season weight: 114 lbs Competition weight: 106 lbs Favorite food: Steel-cut oats with a little bit of honey Favorite junk food: Totos (an Italian cookie, glutenfree of course!) Favorite quote: We are what we repeatedly do. Excellence, then, is not an act, but a habit. —Aristotle Favorite makeup: Bare Escentuals Favorite body part to train: Legs Your best asset: (body part): Shoulders Future plans/goals: Continue to compete in the Women’s Tri-Fitness event. My times improved drastically last year between July and November, so I can’t wait to set some new PRs! I am one of those people who is interested in doing too much! I have a high-stress job as a workers’ compensation claims manager, I teach spinning, I’m an orchestral musician, and I’m a Women’s Tri-Fitness competitor! Tri-Fitness requires certain skills, so my training focuses on a more sport-specific style to allow me to negotiate the obstacle course and fitness skills (box jumps, shuttle run and bench press) portions of the competition. I have to try to maintain

a combination of strength, speed, agility and explosive power. There’s nothing like standing on the starting line after months of training getting ready to go, and the feeling when you come sprinting across the finish line is incomparable! When I started my journey into fitness, it was because of looking at my family’s medical history and deciding I needed to be at my healthiest, if possible. As it turns out I enjoyed training so much that with the help of a few friends, I finally turned to competing. I have celiac disease, which is actually very, very common, and it keeps me much closer to my competition weight off-season than I might be otherwise. I have to be very careful to keep gluten out of my diet, so that eliminates a lot of favorite ‘cheat’ foods. Due to other intolerances that I have, I can’t really use supplements and have to rely on eating properly to support my training, so this journey has become a lot more interesting. You never know what you can do until you try!

Now a real lady-killer. YES IT’S TRUE, hot babes take one look at him and they die of shock. Name: Timothy Corscadden MD Forum member screen name: tkc1 Hometown: New York City Age: 36 Years bodybuilding: 18 Goal for the future: To make a living as a movie actor Favorite bodybuilders: Myself, my girl Andrea Giacomi, Sylvia Cowan, Victor Martinez, Craig Richardson, Kai Greene. Chronicles of a Tattooed Bodybuilder: Pride. I take pride in myself; pride in who I am as a man. Proud of the decisions I have made. I am sorry for the mistakes but if I had not made them I would not be me. I try my hardest to accept others as they are. I always try and

direct my thought to the ‘brighter’ side. I have hope. I have will. I have honor. I must honor myself by attempting to be the best person I can. Not better than anyone… but the best me. I am a bodybuilder. I am structured and driven. Bodybuilding has given this to me. Discipline, strength, integrity, vitality— all virtues of bodybuilding. I fuckin’ love bodybuilding. Thank you bodybuilding… I love you. ;- ) I MUST SAY, After hearing you talk, I now know that the really dead do contact us… NO REALLY, You are very smart. You just have brains you never used… ALL JOKING ASIDE HERE… TIM IS MY BOY AND I WANNA WELCOME HIM TO MD.

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DAMN Kelly, YOU’RE SO HOT I’ve been undressing you with my eyes all night long, and think it’s time to see if I’m right… OOOPS MY BAD, I GUESS I’LL JUST SAY >> WELCOME TO MD.

June 2009

_Word Essay



his month’s winning entry is an article that should cause us all to sit up and take notice. In a tightlycontested poll in the Muscular Development forums, DaveV managed to triumph by a measly two votes. Oh, I love it when it’s a tightly-fought battle!


As usual, I would like to thank all who participated in the contest, either by entering articles or by voting. Maybe Dave’s article will give you some inspiration and I will see some fresh new blood vying for the chance to see their words in the magazine. Time now to give it up for DaveV!!

Exercise Can Do What Medication Can’t By DaveV Tourette’s Syndrome… my nemesis. I was diagnosed at age 20 with this neurological disorder and it had controlled my life. I quickly fell into depression. I went from 180 to 245 in a year. All fat. I stayed this way for 7 years. I ended up shutting myself away from society. Relying on watching films at home and living vicariously through the characters in the films. My life was a dull void and it looked like nothing would stop it. Then I found the bodybuilding community of the Internet, the MD boards. I was quickly accepted and encouraged to stay on target. Even having one member message me every day to remind me to work out. Another member made me a diet and training schedule from the kindness of his own heart. At first it was hard but I stuck with it. I discovered something through exercise that no drug can do. That is to keep me calm, no tics, no twitches. For those 40 minutes on the elliptical I am a different person. For those 45 minutes with the iron I am a different person. I get to escape my harsh reality and live the life of a bodybuilder. It’s helped me in every aspect of my life. Knowledge of nutrition and exercise, keeping up and improving my appearance, pretty much killing my social anxiety. Pushing myself to the limit, then breaking the barrier and shooting for new heights. Now I have friends at the gym, whereas for the past 7 years I had none. I have confidence that I never had before. When I put on my lifting straps it’s like putting on a suit of armour. I’m ready for war, and I’m not afraid. I’ve found a goal, to compete, and will not let anything stand in my way. I will take what’s mine. I will never quit, because I am not scared anymore. I’ve only been working out for a few months but have lost quite a bit of fat. I needed to buy new jeans because my old ones fall off me. My shirts are now becoming loose where they were before tight. I get compliments from people now saying “wow, you’ve thinned out” and “you’re looking great.” Working out has renewed my interest in sports. I watched football this year for the first time in a long time and loved every minute of it. I can’t wait for baseball season. That is my favorite sport and I know I will be reminded of my glory days as a player when I was a kid. Those were times when my disorder didn’t affect me and I had friends and we played from sunup to sundown. I still remember those days whenever I walk by a park and hear a game being played. So to those who bodybuild, I salute you. Exercise is my miracle drug. Without it I wouldn’t be or be able to do what I am today. God Bless! Dave’s words are inspiring, yet they are also familiar. I myself and probably many other people reading this have been through tough personal battles in this war we like to call ‘life.’ Sometimes the only ceasefire is that time in the gym when a workout eases all the worries of the world and diverts our focus onto one thing: building muscle! Dave has only been a member of the Muscular Development forums for less than a year, but in that time he has come a long way, partly due to the guidance and camaraderie of our unique community, where we are brought together by our common interest. Along

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his journey, Dave has discovered what many of us already can attest to and that is that bodybuilding really is good for you! Dave’s experiences echo the scientific research that has shown that weight training can have a positive effect on a person’s mental state. I’d love to go into more detail but that would be a whole new article. However, anyone who is interested should go and pick the brains of the experts in the Bodybuilding Science section of our forums. Congratulations to DaveV for his excellent entry! I look forward to seeing another interesting battle of the articles next month! ■

June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Training Weight-Training Principles From ACSM The American College of Sports Medicine (ACSM) issued a position statement on resistance training principles for healthy adults. Recommendations include: • Optimal strength-training programs include concentric (shortening), eccentric (lengthening), and isometric (static) muscle contractions and include single and multi-joint exercises. • Maximize exercise intensity by training large muscle groups before small muscle groups; multiple joint before single-joint exercises; and high intensity before lower-intensity exercises. • Beginners should do 8-12 reps per set, two or three days per week • Intermediate and advanced weight trainers should vary their program between 1-12 reps per set using a periodized program that systematically varies the volume and intensity of the workouts. They should train three to five days per week. • Intermediate and advanced strength trainers should work toward using heavier loads (1-6 repetition maximum) with 3-5 minutes rest between sets. • Programs designed to promote muscle hypertrophy should use loads equivalent to 6-12 repetition maximum, with 1-2 minutes rest between sets. • Power programs should include strength training and light-load exercises performed at fast speeds with 3-5 minutes rest between sets. Almost any systematic program works. The important thing is to train regularly and consistently. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2009)

Training Methods of Elite Powerlifters Modern powerlifters use diversified training methods that include heavy overload, power training, Olympic lift-

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ing, and elastic bands and chains. Scottish researchers led by Paul Swinton surveyed 32 elite British powerlifters regarding their training methods. Most powerlifters train explosively when they lift maximal and submaximal loads. Approximately half use elastic bands and chains and 69 percent use modified Olympic lifts in their training. Modern powerlifters use a variety of training techniques to develop explosive power and maximum strength. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 23: 380-384, 2009)

Whole-Body Vibration Increases Power Output During Squats Vibration training is extremely popular in health clubs around the world and has been embraced by celebrities such as Sean ‘P. Diddy’ Combs, Claudia Schiffer, and Madonna. It involves doing basic exercises such as squats, push-ups, lunges, and modified pull-ups on a vibrating platform. Vibration is transferred through the feet, hands or butt, which are in contact with the vibrating plate or handlebars. Vibration activates stretch receptors in the muscles, which trigger thousands of small reflex muscle contractions. Arizona researchers Matthew Rhea and Joseph Kenn found that standing on a vibration platform for 2 minutes immediately before performing squats increased power output during the lift. However, two detailed literature reviews by Swedish researchers concluded that vibration training caused little or no additional effect above training alone. The placebo effect probably accounts for some of the benefits of vibration in untrained people. Placebos work by the power of suggestion (power of the mind). Vibration is unique and exciting; people want it to work— so it does. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 23: 58-61, 2009)

Static and Dynamic Stretching Do Not Decrease Maximal Strength Several recent studies showed that pre-exercise stretching decreased muscle strength, vertical jump performance, and might increase the risk of injury. Some researchers think that static stretching impairs proprioception (awareness of body position) and motor control. Barry Beedle and co-workers from Elon University in North Carolina, in a study on recreational-level weight trainers, found that static or dynamic stretching before strength testing had no effect on maximal performance in the bench press or leg press. These results agree with a recent study by Joel June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Training Cramer and colleagues from the University of Oklahoma, who found that light static stretching had no effect on calf muscle strength but increased range of motion for 10 minutes. Light stretching does not appear to decrease strength. Factors such as training status, type of sport, and stretching intensity and technique may influence the effects of stretching on performance. We need more studies before we can make definite recommendations. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 22: 1838-1843, 2008; Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 40: 1529-1537, 2008)

Stability Balls Less Effective Than Power Lifts For Building Core Strength Go to almost any gym in America and you’ll find a wide variety of exercise balls, balance discs, and wobble boards that are used to build core stability. The core muscles act like a corset around the spine to provide stability for lower and upper-body movements. For example, squatting on bosu balls (ball with flat surface on the bottom) requires activation of the core muscles so that you can maintain balance and perform the exercise. Unfortunately, training on unstable surfaces decreases the capacity to lift heavier weights. Consequently, stability training decreases the capacity to strengthen major muscle groups. James Nuzzo and colleagues from Appalachian State University in North Carolina found that common stability ball exercises were less effective than deadlifts or squats for activating core muscles such as the rectus abdominis, obliques, and back extensors. They concluded that stability ball exercises do not provide sufficient overload to increase strength and hypertrophy, and questioned their value in a conditioning program. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 22: 95-102, 2008)

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Interval Training Increases Anabolic Hormones and Inflammation Interval training involves a series of short, high-intensity bouts of exercise with rest periods between each repetition. Canadian researchers reported dramatic improvements in aerobic capacity after only two weeks of high-intensity interval training. Scientists do not fully understand the mechanisms behind these rapid changes. Israeli scientists found that anabolic hormones such as growth hormone and testosterone, in addition to inflammatory chemicals, increased during an interval-training workout consisting of four 250-meter runs with 3 minutes rest between repetitions. Anabolic hormones and inflammation trigger adaptive changes in physical fitness. The magnitude of these changes during a workout is a good marker of the intensity of training and the athlete’s response to exercise. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 23: 225-230, 2009)

Caffeine Decreases Muscle Pain During Intense Exercise As governor Arnold said in his first mainstream movie “Stay Hungry,” “You must burn to grow!” Your capacity for pain during exercise often determines if you win or lose and whether you make consistent training gains. Researchers from the University of Illinois at UrbanaChampaign and the Center for Sports and Health Sciences at the Iceland University of Education found that caffeine decreased thigh muscle pain during 30 minutes of high-intensity exercise on a stationary bike. The results were similar in chronic and

infrequent consumers of caffeine. Caffeine was removed from the International Olympic Committee’s banned substance list, even though it is an effective performanceenhancing drug. High levels of caffeine are still banned by the NCAA. Caffeine is a good training supplement because it allows athletes to train harder with less pain. (International Journal Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19: 150-161, 2009)

Inverted Rows Activate Upper Back Muscles Without Overloading the Spine Rowing exercises are popular with bodybuilders and other weighttrained athletes because they build upper back muscles, such as the lats and rhomboids, and strengthen spinal extensors and stabilizing muscles. Ideally, rowing exercises should overload the prime movers in the upper back while minimizing the load on the spine. Stuart McGill and colleagues from the University of Waterloo in Canada tested muscle activation and spinal loads during inverted rows, standing bent-over rows, and standing one-arm cable rows. The inverted row activated the lats, upper back, and hip extensor muscles best, while minimizing the load on the spine. Bent-over rows successfully activated upper back muscles but caused excessive loading of the lumbar (lower) spine. Standing one-arm cable rows were best for developing trunk rotation strength. Standing bent-over rows are excellent for developing upper body strength but might be inappropriate for people with back problems. The inverted row overloads upper back muscles without excessively stressing the spine. (Journal Strength Conditioning Research, 23: 350-358, 2009) June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Fat Loss Food Intake Not Influenced by Workout Time People burn about 100 calories for every 10 minutes of moderate-intensity exercise. That’s not a lot for people with busy schedules who want to get the most from an exercise program. Weight loss depends on taking in fewer calories in the diet than you burn through normal metabolism and exercise. Does the time of day that you exercise influence how much food you eat for the rest of the day? A study from the School of Sport Science, Exercise and Health at the University of Western Australia found that the time of day that people exercised had no effect on how much food they ate in 24 hours. Researchers measured daily food intake in people who exercised in the morning, afternoon, or when they didn’t exercise. Exercise involved running on a treadmill for 45 minutes at 75 percent of max effort. The subjects did not eat more food on exercise days than they did on rest days, which showed that the added physical activity contributed to weight control. The takehome message is that you should exercise when it is most convenient. (Meeting abstract #164, Australian Conference Medicine Science in Sport, December 2008)

Weight Loss Reduces Symptoms of Sleep Apnea People with sleep apnea stop breathing periodically during the night, which causes restless sleep and daytime drowsiness. This is an extremely dangerous condition that increases the risk of automobile accidents and fatal heart rhythm disturbances. Many bodybuilders snore or wake frequently during the night because their large neck muscles obstruct airflow in the mouth and throat. If you have these symptoms, you might have sleep

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apnea. Inadequate sleep caused by sleep apnea contributes to obesity. Obesity also contributes to sleep apnea because extra tissue and poor muscle tone in the throat block the airway during sleep. Excess body fat alters metabolism, which also interferes with normal sleep patterns. Sleep apnea is treatable through weight loss, surgery,

the answer to medical questions that have baffled humans for centuries. Genes act as controllers for all cell functions, such as storing and using energy, repairing damage, and making new proteins. Interfering with them disturbs basic body processes such as metabolism and immunity. Genes fight off challenges every day from such diverse sources as ultraviolet light from the sun, free radicals produced normally during metabolism, and environmental pollutants. Add viruses to that list. Several studies have linked viral infections to coronary artery disease. Now, scientists have found that viral infections may be linked to obesity. Animals infected with the adenovirus-36, which comes from the same family of viruses that cause colds, diarrhea and pinkeye, had more body fat than animals not infected. In humans, about 20-30 percent of obese people are infected with the virus, compared to only 5 percent of lean people. If viruses really contribute to obesity, scientists may be able to make a vaccine to combat them. (BBC News, January 26, 2009)

Gut Chemicals Turn Off Hunger

or continuous positive airway pressure devices (CPAP). A study from Finland found that weight loss eliminated most of the symptoms associated with mild sleep apnea. See your doctor if you have trouble sleeping or suffer from daytime drowsiness. Don’t take this problem lightly, because sleep apnea can kill you. (American Journal of Respiratory and Critical Care Medicine, 179: 320-327, 2009)

Virus Linked to Obesity Can a virus make you fat? The genetics revolution promises to reveal

The hypothalamus, an important center in the brain that controls appetite, satiety (fullness), temperature regulation, and hormone release, is influenced by chemical signals to increase or decrease metabolic rate and food intake. Scientists from the U.K., in a review of literature, described chemicals in the gastrointestinal tract that turn off hunger and promote satiety. These chemicals include peptide YY, pancreatic polypeptide, glucagon-like peptide-1, and oxyntomodulin. Drug companies are studying these chemicals to help them develop new approaches to obesity control. Current weight-loss drugs work by decreasing appetite (sibutramine) or fat absorption (orlistat). These drugs have unpleasant side effects that limit their effectiveness. (International Journal of Obesity, 32, S28-S31, 2008)

June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Fat Loss Growth Hormone Increases Fat Breakdown During Fasting Growth hormone promotes growth rates in children but is important for metabolic control in adults. Increased growth hormone levels boost protein synthesis throughout the body and promote fat use. A Danish study led by Louise Moller showed that growth hormone increased fat breakdown and blood sugar levels during fasting but suppressed the release of IGF-1, which is important for muscle protein synthesis and hypertrophy. This helps explain why it is so difficult to gain muscle mass during caloric restriction. During periods of low food intake, the body tries to preserve protein (e.g., muscle, blood proteins) and use stored fat for energy. It does this by increasing growth hormone levels that promote fat burning, while decreasing IGF-1 production, which is important for muscle tissue growth. (Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 94: 965-972, 2009)

Growth Hormone Prevents Muscle Loss After WeightLoss Surgery More than 30 percent of Americans are obese, and the numbers keep rising every year. Diet and exercise do not work for most obese people, so many resort to bariatric surgery to help them lose weight. Bariatric surgery refers to medical procedures that restrict nutrient intake. Depending on the type of surgery, weight loss ranges from 70 to 120 pounds. Unfortunately, people lose muscle mass as well as fat. A study led by Silvia Savastano from the University Federico II in Naples, Italy found that growth hormone supplements preserved lean mass following weight-loss surgery. Six months after surgery, patients taking growth hormone lost less lean body mass and bone mass, showed improved blood fat profiles, and normal blood sugar regulation com-

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pared to patients who didn’t take the supplements. Growth hormone supplementation is an effective way to boost the success rate of weight-loss surgery. (Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 94: 817-826, 2009)

Does Drinking More Water Promote Fat Loss? Recent nutritional guidelines issued by the U.S. Department of Agriculture advise people to drink water when they are thirsty. Research does not support previous recommendations that people should drink at least eight 8-ounce glasses of water per day. French researchers speculated that increasing cell water levels promotes fat loss. Increased water intake inhibits angiotensin-converting enzyme (ACE), which helps control blood pressure and thirst. In animal studies, inhibiting ACE led to increased water intake and fat loss. Drugs called ACE-inhibitors combined with increased fluid intake might contribute to weight loss. (International Journal of Obesity, 33: 385, 2009)

Decreased Sleep Linked to Higher Fat Intake Sleep-deprived people are fatter. Inadequate sleep is linked to obesity, but scientists aren’t sure why. Australian researchers found that fat intake was higher in people who got less sleep. Fat and carbohydrate intake increased with decreased sleep duration, but sleep time was not related to protein intake or blood sugar levels. People eat more fat when they don’t get enough sleep, which promotes obesity. The study examined data from nearly 3,000 people living in China. In the United States, average sleep duration decreased from 9 hours per day in 1960 to about 7 hours per day in 2009. The decrease in sleep duration has paralleled the explosive increase in obesity. Lack of sleep might make you fat! (International Journal of Obesity, 32: 1835-1840, 2008)

June 2009


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Health Exercise Prevents Destructive Effects of Alcohol Moderate alcohol consumption reduces deaths from all causes and prevents cardiovascular disease. Heavy alcohol consumption is another matter. Heavy drinking increases the incidence of domestic violence and automobile accidents, damages the liver, causes heart muscle abnormalities, and promotes cell membrane breakdown throughout the body. Japanese researchers, in a study on rats, found that the destructive effect of alcohol on cell membranes increases with age. However, exercise prevented cell membrane breakdown in young and older animals. It is not known if these results apply to humans. (Alcohol, 43: 59-64, 2009)

Polidocanol Decreased Knee Pain in a Bodybuilder

Surgery Repairs Distal Biceps Tendon Rupture

Patellar tendinitis is extremely common in bodybuilders and other weight-trained athletes who do squats. The injury can be caused by poor squatting technique (poor use of posterior chain muscles) or from overuse. Regardless of its cause, it hangs on for a long time and is difficult to treat. Researchers

Melanotan: The Underground Tanning Drug

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Medical Groups Recommend Finasteride to Prevent Prostate Cancer from the University of New South Wales in Australia reported the case of a 33-year-old bodybuilder with patellar tendinitis who was successfully treated with an injection of polidocanol. This drug is commonly used to treat varicose veins by cutting off the blood supply to the vessels. The researchers reported a remarkable recovery in the bodybuilder. The drug is currently not approved by the FDA, particularly for treating soft-tissue injuries. However, it might be a viable treatment for painful and debilitating tendon injuries. (Clinical Journal Sports Medicine, 19:145-146, 2009)

Finasteride is a drug that prevents the breakdown of testosterone to dehydrotestosterone. It is widely used to treat prostate cancer and male-pattern baldness. The American Society of Clinical Oncology and the American Urological Association are recommending that men over 55 take finasteride to prevent prostate cancer. Several studies found that prostate cancer risk decreased by 25 percent in men taking the drug. This recommendation is controversial because of the drug’s side effects that include decreased semen volume, reduced sex drive, and

June 2009

Illustrated by Jerry Beck/

Health experts in the United States and Europe are concerned about the unapproved use of the tanning drugs Melanotan I and Melanotan II because they can damage the immune system and promote cardiovascular disease. Melanotan I contains alpha-MSH that increases the release of the skin-tanning pigment melanin. Melanotan II also contains malanocortin that increases sex drive and controls appetite. Ten injections of the drug cause a deep, rich tan that is maintained with weekly injections. The drug is widely available on the black market in the United States and in Europe, as suggested by the existence of discussion websites such as The long-term side effects are unknown. (BBC News, February 18, 2009)

Rupture of the long head of the biceps in the upper arm is a relatively common injury in athletes who do bench presses or curls with high volume or intensity. The injury is obvious because of the abnormal-looking biceps bulge in the injured arm. The long head of the biceps is easily injured when breaking a fall with an outstretched arm, during heavy lifting (e.g., bench press, incline press), and while playing sports such as snowboarding, skiing, and football. Less common is an injury to the tendon on the insertion end of the biceps (distal biceps tendon rupture). This injury accounts for only 3 percent of biceps ruptures and often occurs in older athletes who participate in high-tension, upper-body activities. French researchers described a surgical technique for repairing this injury that has a high success rate. This is not a common injury but it can end your athletic career if not treated properly. (American Journal Sports Medicine, 37: published online January 23, 2009)


By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD

Health impaired cognitive ability. Many aging men take testosterone supplements to slow down some of the symptoms of aging. The blanket recommendation that older men take finasteride to prevent prostate cancer could enhance problems associated with andropause. (Reuters, February 24, 2009)

Some NSAIDs Linked to Heart Attack and Sudden Death Intense training hurts, and drugs like ibuprofen and naproxen help take the pain away. Many bodybuilders take nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs (NSAIDs) after almost every workout. That could be a mistake. A Danish study involving more than 1 million apparently healthy people showed that those who used high doses of these drugs had an increased risk of heart attack and heart-related sudden death. Some NSAIDs presented a higher risk than others. While drugs such as ibuprofen and naproxen posed no increased risk, celecoxib, diclofenac, and rofecoxib increased the risk by 50 to 200 percent above that of non-users. The researchers advised people to minimize the use of these drugs and avoid high doses. (Clinical Pharmacology & Therapeutics, 85: 190-197, 2009)

Value of PSA Test Questioned Prostate cancer is the second leading cancer-related cause of death in men. Screening for prostate cancer involves a digital rectal exam and measurement of blood levels of prostate-specific antigen (PSA). The PSA test was introduced in 1986. Before that, many men avoided prostate cancer screening because rectal exams are uncomfortable and embarrassing. Now, PSA screening is standard procedure during medical exams for men. Two recent large-scale medical studies questioned the value of PSA tests. Nearly 50 percent of positive PSAs were false-positives, which means that the test showed prostate cancer when

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none existed. Prostate cancer treatment can lead to impotence (erection problems) and incontinence (urine leakage); so false-positive tests have serious consequences. PSA screening resulted in seven fewer deaths from prostate cancer per 10,000 men screened. One of the studies found that the death rate from prostate cancer was actually lower in unscreened men. These studies have created a whirlwind of controversy about the value of the PSA test that will probably take years to settle. (The New York Times March 19, 2009)

Do Declining Testosterone Levels Cause Bad Health, Or Vice Versa? Total testosterone and the biologically-active free testosterone decrease with age, which is associated with muscle and bone loss, decreased sex drive, depression, insulin resistance and diabetes, and erection problems. In a review of literature, Dr. BB Yeap from the University of Western Australia School of Medicine suggested that low testosterone levels observed in older men might be the result of poor metabolic health and cardiovascular disease. In other words, failing health caused low testosterone levels rather than the other way around. A relationship between decreased testosterone levels and loss of muscle mass doesn’t mean that one caused the other. The merits of testosterone therapy have been controversial since 1934, when the hormone was first synthesized. Surprisingly, there have been few well-controlled, long-term studies in aging men on the effects of testosterone supplements on health. The exception has been a series of excellent studies by Shalender Bhasin and colleagues from Boston University. More than 15 studies by this group have shown the beneficial effects of testosterone supplements for aging men. (International Journal of Impotence Research, 21: 24-36, 2009)

June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Supplements L-Arginine Does Not Increase Muscle Blood Flow During Weight Training L-Arginine is an important amino acid for increasing nitric oxide release (NO) by the cells lining the blood vessels. Increasing NO levels could promote muscle blood flow during exercise and decrease arterial stiffness that typically occurs following weight training. Bo Fernhall and colleagues from the University of Illinois gave 7 grams of LArginine or placebo (fake arginine) before an upper body weight-training workout. Weight training caused a typical ‘pump’ effect in the exercise muscles that included increased arm circumference, muscle blood flow, and stiffness in the aorta (the large artery leaving the heart). L-Arginine had no effect on blood flow responses beyond those of exercise itself. (Medicine Science Sports Exercise, 41: 773-779, 2009)

Foods such as milk, orange juice, salt, and breakfast cereals are often fortified with important nutrients such as vitamin D, calcium, and iodine in an effort to improve public health. Leucine and branched-chain amino acids (leucine, valine, isoleucine) are important signaling chemicals that promote muscle protein synthesis and decrease fat.

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mote weight loss and weight maintenance after weight loss. Are the effects additive? A study from Maastricht University in the Netherlands found that people lost 15-18 pounds in four weeks by consuming low-calorie diets high in protein (110 grams per day) or low calorie, normal-protein diets (55 grams per day). Both diets were supplemented with either green tea-caffeine (GTC) or placebo (fake supplement). Increased protein intake or GTC helped people sustain weight loss after the diet, but the effect was not additive. Satiety (feeling of fullness) was greater in the highprotein intake groups. Increasing protein intake or GTC supplements promote and sustain weight loss, but combining the two methods provides no added benefit. (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89: 822830, 2009)

Why not fortify the water supply with leucine or branched-chain amino acids to promote ‘effortless’ weight control? Christopher Lynch and colleagues from the Pennsylvania State University College of Medicine, in a study on rats, found that fortifying water with either leucine or branched-chain amino acids had no effect on bodyweight, food intake, metabolic rate, movement capacity, body composition, or blood sugar regulation. Lacing the water supply with leucine or branched-chain amino acids is probably not the answer to America’s fat problem. (Journal of Nutrition, 139: 715-719, 2009)

Creatine Ethyl Ester Is Less Effective Than Creatine Monohydrate

Effect of Protein and Green Tea Plus Caffeine Are Not Additive Increased dietary protein and green tea-caffeine supplements pro-

Muscles have a limited ability to store creatine and creatine phosphate. These chemicals are vital energy stores that resynthesize ATP— an important high-energy compound that fuels muscle contractions and many other biochemical reactions. Muscles have a limited ability to store creatine and creatine phosphate. Some supplement makers claim that muscles absorb creatine ethyl esters (CEE) faster than creatine monohydrate. A Baylor University study showed that CEE, creatine monohydrate, or a placebo (fake supplement) had no more effect on strength, physical performance, bodyweight, or body fat than weight training alone. Creatine

June 2009

Illustrated by Jerry Beck/

Should We Put Leucine or Branched-Chain Amino Acids In The Water Supply?

Leucine stimulates the mTOR pathway and the release of leptin, which promotes satiety (feeling of fullness) and increased metabolic rate. America is in the midst of an obesity epidemic that gets worse every year.

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Supplements monohydrate increases strength and muscle mass in most people, particularly when accompanied by weight training. However, 20-30 percent of people don’t respond to the supplement and 20 percent fail to achieve peak levels of muscle creatine and creatine phosphate. Factors such as genetics, training status, and diet determine the effectiveness of creatine supplements. (Journal International Society Of Sports Nutrition, published online February 19, 2009)

Betaine Increases Squat Endurance Betaine is an amino acid compound found in wheat, spinach, shellfish, and sugar beets. It is an important regulator of body water and is useful in reducing homocysteine, an inflammatory chemical that is an important risk factor for coronary artery disease. Ranchers use betaine to increase muscle mass in domestic animals. It assists glutathione with detoxification reactions in the liver and prevents depression. Betaine is an important human nutrient that is rapidly absorbed and utilized as an osmolyte (fluid regulator) and participates in amino acid reactions that help maintain liver, heart, and kidney health. Betaine might improve athletic performance. Jay Hoffman and colleagues from The College of New Jersey found that 15 days of betaine supplementation improves squat endurance (rep capacity) in college-aged males involved in a weight-training program. Betaine may be an effective supplement for bodybuilders, but we need more research before we can recommend it. (Journal International Society of Sports Nutrition, published online February 27, 2009)

L-Ornithine Prevents Fatigue L-Ornithine improves nutrition and cell function in physically stressed people such as malnourished older adults and burn patients. It stimulates

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the production of amino acids, such as glutamine, proline, and arginine, and promotes the release of anabolic hormones, such as insulin and growth hormone. It also increases nitric oxide (NO) release, which enhances blood flow throughout the body and is important for sexual performance and muscle growth. Japanese researchers found that supplementing L-Ornithine for eight days (2,000 mg per day for seven days and 6,000 mg per day for one day) reduced fatigue during a two-hour ride on a stationary bike. Ornithine prevented fatigue by increasing energy efficiency and promoting the excretion of ammonia. LOrnithine shows promise as a supplement for bodybuilders, but we need more research before we can recommend it. (Nutrition Research, 28: 738743, 2008)

Some Weight-Loss Supplements Contain Dangerous Drugs The U.S. Food And Drug Administration found that the weight-loss supplement StarCaps contained a dangerous drug called bumetanide that can have serious side effects. The papaya-based supplement was enthusiastically promoted on “The Today Show” and sold in mainstream supplement outlets. The FDA also found that 69 weight-loss supplements imported from China and South America contained illegal drugs not listed on their ingredients that could cause high blood pressure, seizures, and have dangerous interactions with other medications. These substances included sibutramine (a prescription weight-loss drug), rimonabant (a weight-loss drug legal in Europe but not approved by the FDA), phenytoin (anti-seizure medicine), phenolphthalein (cancer causing chemical), and bumetanide (a diuretic or water pill). Be careful of what you put in your body! (The New York Times, February 10, 2009)

Whey Increases Innate Immunity Whey protein supplements promote gains in muscle mass and strength and suppress appetite. Canadian researchers found that whey might also improve innate immunity— a non-specific way that the body fights foreign organisms and heals injured tissue. Inflammation is a non-specific immune response to injury or infection that involves the release of chemicals such as histamine, serotonin, and prostaglandins that cause pain— increased blood flow to the area, and transportation of immune system cells to the injured tissue to promote healing. Beta-lactoglobulin and alpha-lactalbumin, components of whey protein, enhance the response of neutrophils (an important innate immune system cell) to infection and injury. Enhanced immunity is an important benefit of whey protein supplements. (Journal of Nutrition, 139: 386-393, 2009)

MD HAS THE WINNING FORMULA! The most cutting-edge, scientifically-based, nobullshit information on building muscle and burning fat—from drugs and supplements to training, nutrition and diet—from the top medical experts and bodybuilding champions and insiders!

June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Nutrition Protein Supplements Do Not Increase Muscle Mass In Older Adults Who Weight Train Pre-or post-weight training protein supplements promote protein synthesis in young people. The amino acids from proteins act as building blocks for muscle hypertrophy. Also, specific amino acids such as leucine act as chemical signals to turn on muscle protein synthesis. People lose muscle mass as they age. Typically, men lose 20 percent of their muscle mass between ages 40 and 60. The problem becomes progressively worse with age, so protein supplements might be valuable for preventing age-related muscle wasting. Dutch researchers from Maastricht University found that supplementing 20 grams of protein immediately before or after weight training did not increase muscle mass or strength beyond the effect of weight training alone. These results differ from recent studies conducted at the University of Texas Medical Branch in Galveston, which used greater amounts of protein. (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 89: 608616, 2009)

Protein Timing Has No Effect on Muscle Mass or Strength Many studies found that pre-and post-weight training protein supplements increase the rate of protein synthesis. However, few studies have examined the effect of this practice on strength and body composition.

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Jay Hoffman and colleagues from The College of New Jersey found that protein supplements or the timing of protein supplement administration had no effect on strength, power, or body composition in men involved in a 10-week weight-training program. Subjects consumed protein supplements in the morning and evening; immediately before and after workouts; or consumed no protein or nutritional supplement. This was a well-controlled study involving rigorous workouts in experienced weight trainers. (International Journal Sports Nutrition and Exercise Metabolism, 19:172-185, 2009)

ACSM Position Statement on Nutrition and Athletic Performance The American College of Sports Medicine, the American Dietetic Association, and Dietitians of Canada issued a joint position statement on nutritional factors important for athletic performance. • Athletes must consume enough

energy during high-intensity or high-volume training to maintain bodyweight, maximize performance, and sustain health. • Athletes should not be overly concerned with weight or body composition. Fat loss should occur during the offseason. • Carbohydrates are the main fuel for intense exercise and are important for maintaining blood sugar and replacing muscle and liver glycogen (stored carbohydrate). • Endurance and strength athletes should consume 1.2-1.7 grams of protein per kilogram bodyweight per day. • Fat intake should be 20-35 percent of the total caloric intake. Fats are important sources of energy, fatsoluble vitamins, and essential fatty acids. • Athletes who restrict energy intake are at risk for nutritional deficiencies. • Athletes should consume adequate amounts of fluid before, during, and after exercise. • Pre-game or pre-practice meals should promote hydration, include little fat or fiber, and contain high amounts of carbohydrates in moderate amounts of protein. • Nutrient consumption during exercise should maintain hydration and blood sugar levels. • Post-exercise meals should contain enough fluids, electrolytes, energy, and carbohydrates to promote recovery and replenish muscle and liver glycogen. • Athletes don’t need vitamin and mineral supplements if they consume enough energy to supply their needs. • Vegetarian athletes are particularly at risk for developing nutritional deficiencies and should consult a sports dietitian to avoid problems. (American College of Sports Medicine, 2009) June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Nutrition Does High Fructose Do Meat Eaters Die Intake Contribute Young? to Obesity? Many nutritionists advise people to The explosive rise in obesity since 1970 coincided with the increased use of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS) in highsugar soft drinks and many processed foods. HFCS is extremely sweet, inexpensive, and acts as an effective food preservative. Fructose consumption, mainly in the form of HFCS, represents up to 10 percent of the caloric intake of many Americans. George Bray from the Pennington Biomedical Research Center in Baton Rouge, Louisiana concluded that the sweet taste of HFCS encouraged a small but persistent positive energy balance in the majority of Americans that has contributed to the obesity epidemic. The high consumption of HFCS also increased the number of people suffering from Metabolic Syndrome— with symptoms that include high blood pressure, abdominal fat deposition, abnormal blood fats, insulin resistance, and abnormal blood clotting. (International Journal of Obesity, 32: S127-S131, 2008)

Moderate Fish Intake Reduces Risk of Heart Attack, But Not Cancer Moderate fish intake prevents sudden death from heart attack and abnormal heart rhythms, but its effects on other health problems are not well studied. A Harvard Medical School study showed that neither moderate fish intake nor consumption of omega-3 fatty acids in the diet were related to the incidence of major chronic diseases such as cancer and stroke. Also, omega-6 fatty acid intake (considered dangerous by nutritionists if consumed in excess) was not related to the incidence of major diseases. People can reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease by consuming between one and four servings of fish per week. (American Journal of Clinical Nutrition, 88: 1618-1625, 2009)

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avoid eating excessive amounts of red and processed meats. What is the evidence? A 10-year study of 500,000 people aged 50-71 conducted by the National Institutes of Health and the American Association of Retired People (AARP) showed that high intake of red and processed meats was linked to a slight increase in the risk of premature death from all causes, and deaths from cancer and cardiovascular disease. Compared to people with low meat intake, red meat eaters increased the risk of heart attack death by 36 percent and processed meat eaters increased the risks by 16 percent. Cancer deaths increased by 22 percent in red meat eaters, and by 12 percent in processed meat eaters. Eating more white meat, such as turkey and chicken, reduced the risk of death from heart attack and cancer. High intakes of red and processed meats moderately increased the risk of premature death from all causes, and from cancer and heart disease. (Archives Internal Medicine, 169: 562-571, 2009)

Eggs Are Good Sources of Essential Amino Acids

Choosing the Best Post-Workout Protein Supplement Many studies showed that postworkout protein supplements increase protein synthesis, slow protein breakdown, and promote muscle hypertrophy. Damon Welles from the United States Military Academy at West Point summarized important considerations in choosing a protein supplement. Protein sources from foods and supplements provide some benefit, but optimal effects require quality protein sources such as whey, egg, or casein. Make sure that the amount of high-quality protein in a supplement is clearly spelled out on the label. Choose a supplement that tastes good and mixes easily with milk, water, or juice. Ideally, the supplement should contain a blend of fast- and slow-digesting proteins. Consume 6-40 grams of high-quality protein after exercise for the best effect. (Strength and Conditioning Journal, 31(1): 27-30, 2009)


Eggs have been a pariah food for nearly 40 years because of their high cholesterol content. However, recent studies found that people could safely eat eggs almost every day without affecting blood cholesterol. Eggs are high in quality proteins that contain key amino acids important for activating muscle protein synthesis and preventing protein breakdown. They are particularly high in leucine, which is central to stimulating muscle hypertrophy. Eggs are rich in B vitamins thiamin, riboflavin, folate, B-12, and B-6. They are an excellent food for athletes because they help maintain blood sugar levels without triggering an abrupt

increase in insulin. This helps prevent hunger and promotes weight control. (Nutrition Today, 44: 42-48, 2009)

The most cutting-edge, scientifically-based, no-bullshit information on building muscle and burning fat—from drugs and supplements to training, nutrition and diet—from the top medical experts and bodybuilding champions and insiders! June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Drugs Platelet-Rich Plasma Therapy May Violate Doping Rules

Aromatase Inhibitors Lower HDL Cholesterol and IGF-1 Levels

Blood platelets promote clotting, but they also release growth factors, such as IGF-1, that speed healing following injury. Some reports cite miraculous healing rates from injections of platelet-rich plasma. The procedure involves recovering platelets from a person’s blood and injecting them into injured soft tissue such as tendons or ligaments. Technically, plateletrich plasma therapy is a form of blood doping because it involves re-infusing an athlete’s blood. Also, platelets secrete IGF-1, which is also on the banned list. Platelet-rich plasma therapy is an exciting new technology for treating athletic injuries, but it is technically illegal under present doping regulations. (The New York Times, February 17, 2009)

A portion of testosterone is converted (aromatized) to estrogen. Many bodybuilders who use anabolic steroids also take aromatase inhibitors such as Arimidex to prevent increased estrogen levels and reduce side effects such as gynecomastia (breast enlargement). A Belgian study showed that letrozole (an aromatase inhibitor) increased blood levels of testosterone by more than 100 percent in young and old men, and decreased blood estrogen levels by 50 percent. The drug decreased blood sugar by 7 percent in young men and 37 percent in older men, caused small increases in LDL (bad cholesterol), reduced APOA1 (part of HDL, the good cholesterol), but had no effects on body composition. Aromatase inhibitors increased testosterone, and decreased estrogen levels.Unfortunately they also lowered HDL cholesterol and IGF1 levels. (European Journal of Endocrinology, 160: 397-402, 2009)

block the negative effect of calcium, which prevents muscle breakdown and encourages hypertrophy. (Brazilian Journal Medical Biological Research, 42: 21-28, 2009)

Sympathetic Nervous System Prevents Muscle Protein Breakdown Deca Causes Aggressive Growth hormone, IGF-1, testosBehavior In Mice terone, and insulin are well-known ana-

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Are the mice in your pantry, garage, and attic more aggressive than normal? Perhaps they’re taking steroids. Brazilian researchers examined behavioral and central nervous system changes in mice given injections of nandrolone (Deca-Durabolin). In humans, Deca boosts muscle mass and strength but also increases aggressiveness and impulsive behavior. Mice given high doses of nandrolone for 28 days showed increased bodyweight, anxiety, and violent behavior. The animals also showed decreased brain activity in the hippocampus, which is important for psychological inhibition. This study may help explain why some steroid users are less inhibited and more aggressive. (Genes, Brain and Behavior, 8: 161-173, 2009)

Supplementing testosterone to prevent the effect of aging is highly controversial, in part because the hormone might promote prostate cancer. In fact, suppressing testosterone with drugs is a common treatment for men with prostate enlargement or cancer. Do testosterone supplements promote prostate cancer? Researchers from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Columbia University, in a review of literature, concluded that testosterone therapy did not increase the risk of prostate cancer or levels of prostatespecific antigen (PSA, a test to detect prostate enlargement and cancer).

June 2009

Illustrated by Jerry Beck/

bolic hormones. Beta-agonists, such as clenbuterol, are also anabolic and have similar effects to epinephrine (adrenaline) and other sympathetic nervous system hormones. This is confusing because epinephrine also increases the use of fat, carbohydrate, and protein for energy and inhibits glycogen storage during exercise (glycogen is stored carbohydrate). A Brazilian study showed that sympathetic nervous system hormones block muscle protein breakdown by interfering with the destructive effects of excess muscle calcium, which increases due to muscle cell damage during exercise. Intense weight training often causes muscle cell damage, calcium leakage, and inflammation, which triggers delayed onset muscle soreness. Drugs such as clenbuterol

Testosterone Supplements Do Not Increase Prostate Cancer Risk

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Drugs They evaluated 197 studies and made their recommendations based on 44 well-controlled experiments. Testosterone supplements do not increase the risk of prostate cancer. In fact, low testosterone levels are linked to an increased risk of the disease. (International Journal of Impotence Research, 21: 9-23, 2009)

Growth Hormone Supplements Effective in 10-Year Study Growth Hormone (GH) supplements are popular with middle-aged and older adults because they build muscle and cut fat. Physicians are reluctant to prescribe GH because few long-term studies demonstrate its safety or effectiveness. Swedish researchers found that 109 patients (61 men and 48 women; average age 44) given daily injections of GH for 10 years (0.47 to 0.98 mg per day) increased muscle mass and strength for five years. During years six through 10 of the study, subjects were also protected against the normal age-related decrease in strength. Typically, older adults gain fat and lose muscle mass as they age. GH reversed this trend. Men benefited from GH treatment more than women. This study did not include a control group (subjects who took a placebo, or ‘fake’ growth hormone), but the results look promising. Older adults gain substantial benefits from long-term growth hormone supplementation, with minimal side effects. (Journal Clinical Endocrinology Metabolism, 94: 809-816, 2009)

Anabolic Steroids and Immunity The immune system has been called the ultimate limiting factor of performance. A cold or flu can stop you in your tracks. Many bodybuilders take anabolic steroids because they build muscle mass, strength, and

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power. While many athletes believe that more is better, high doses of steroids depress the immune system. A review of literature by Australian researchers, led by Sonya MarshallGradisnik, concluded that long-term, high-dose steroid use has long-lasting, negative effects on the immune system. Steroids that closely resemble testosterone (e.g., testosterone esters such as testosterone enanthate) suppress the immune system. Steroids modified to slow metabolism (e.g., stanozolol) boost immune function, but increase the risk of liver toxicity. Many human and animal studies have examined the effect of steroids on key immune system cells, but few have looked at their influence on the incidence of communicable disease. Scientists do not fully understand the effect of anabolic steroids on the immune system. (Central European Journal Biology, 4: 19-33, 2009)

Testosterone Therapy Boosts Sex Drive In Postmenopausal Women Sex drive typically decreases after menopause and in women with surgically removed ovaries. Since 1938, many physicians have used supplemental testosterone or combinations of testosterone and estrogen to boost libido in these women. The Food and Drug Administration never approved these treatments because of fears of an increased risk of breast and endometrial cancers. A review of literature by Claudia Panzer and Andre Guay from the Rose Medical Center in Denver concluded that the benefits of androgen therapy for postmenopausal women outweigh the side effects. Testosterone supplements can boost sex drive without increasing the risk of cancer. Androgen therapy has become increasingly popular for postmenopausal women who want to continue a zesty sex life. (Journal Sexual Medicine, 6: 8-18, 2009)

June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Sex Will You Die In Bed Having Sex with a Hot Babe? If guys could choose how they die, many would pick having a heart attack in bed during sex with a beautiful woman. A 1996 Harvard Medical School study showed that less than 1 percent of heart attacks occurred during sex. That was before Viagra. The famous erection-promoting drug has given aging Romeos a sexual second wind. Erectile dysfunction is an early predictor of coronary artery disease and heart attack. Men who need Viagra for normal sexual function most likely have heart disease and are therefore at increased risk of heart attack during sex. However, the physical activity associated with sex enhances metabolic health, so the benefits outweigh the risks. (Health Magazine, February 2009)

New York to Tax Porno Movies The stock market is in the tank, real estate values have plummeted, and state governments are going broke. Politicians are frantically searching for new sources of tax revenue that won’t upset the voters. Governor David Patterson from New York has proposed a 4 percent tax on porno movies. This is a potentially gigantic source of income because adult film revenues rival those of mainstream Hollywood. The governor’s plan met with mixed reviews. Porno film makers and DVD store owners fear that the added tax could have a devastating effect on their business and drive porno fans to free Internet sites. Conservatives fear that the tax will help legitimize pornography. People will think that if the government taxes porno, it can’t be that bad. America has the most advanced porno film industry in the world. The tax could make adult videos go the way of American-made cars, televisions, and tennis shoes. Don’t let the

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American porno industry migrate to foreign shores! (New York Daily News, February 16, 2009)

Erectile Dysfunction Common In Obese Men With Low Testosterone Levels Erectile dysfunction (ED) is an early warning sign of coronary artery disease and heart attack. At least 50 percent of men with ED have heart disease. Obesity and low testosterone levels contribute to blood vessel abnormalities and ED. Fat cells release dangerous chemicals called cytokines that disrupt the inner lining of the blood vessels and promote hardening of the arteries. Adequate testosterone levels are also important for maintaining blood vessel health. Researchers from the Harbor-UCLA Medical Center concluded that erectile dysfunction, obesity, and low testosterone levels are important markers of poor metabolic health and each is a predictor of diabetes and coronary artery disease. (International Journal of Impotence Research, 21: 89-98, 2009)

glands. Mohit Khera from the Department of Urology at the Baylor College of Medicine, in a review of literature, concluded that testosterone plays an important role in normal erectile function and that supplements could benefit sexual performance in men following prostate surgery. Testosterone is important for blood vessel health and critical for normal erections. (Journal Sexual Medicine, 6 (Supplement 3): 234-238, 2009)

New Therapies for Premature Ejaculation Premature ejaculation (PE) is the most significant sexual problem in men— more prevalent than erectile

Testosterone Supplements Recommended After Prostate Surgery Physicians often suppress blood testosterone levels with drugs after prostate surgery because high testosterone levels have been associated with prostate cancer cell growth. This often leads to erectile dysfunction and loss of sex drive. Harvard researchers, led by Dr. Abraham Morgenthaler, found no relationship between blood levels of testosterone and prostate cancer or enlarged prostate

June 2009

By Steve Blechman and Thomas Fahey, EdD


Sex dysfunction, lack of sexual desire, delayed orgasm, or physical abnormalities of the penis. A review of literature by British scientists showed that help might be on the way. A drug called dapoxetine hydrochloride, which regulates a brain chemical called serotonin, prevents PE. Unfortunately, it only works in about 50 percent of men. Many physicians use antidepressants such as Prozac to treat premature ejaculation. Unfortunately, these drugs can also cause impotence, which substitutes one problem for another. Viagra combined with the antidepressant Paxil not only improved erections but prevented premature ejaculation.Viagra works by increasing the secretion of a chemical called nitric oxide, which increases blood flow to the penis. High levels of nitric oxide interfere with ejaculation, which prolongs the sex act. Also, Viagra produces a firmer erection, which gives men more confidence and control. Some men benefit from numbing sprays containing lidocaine and prilocaine, but these can be embarrassing and interfere with sexual spontaneity. (International Journal of Impotence Research, 21: 107-115, 2009)

Stretching Machine Increases Dick Size Most guys are inundated with spam e-mails touting supplements and techniques to increase the size of their penis. Nearly 75 percent of men wish they had larger dicks, so the potential market for an effective penis enlarger is enormous. Italian researchers from the University of Turin found that men who wore a penis extender for 4-6 hours a day for a year increased the flaccid size of their penis by 32 percent and the stretched size by 18 percent. Erectile performance improved by 36 percent, but there were no changes in penile girth. The extender caused bruising and soreness in some men, but most were satisfied with

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the treatment. Penile traction extenders are widely available on the Internet. Manual traction might be effective for men who can’t afford the devices. (British Journal Urology, 103:793-797, 2009)

Exercise and Weight Loss Improves Erection Capacity

in older men with low testosterone levels. However, the treatments increased sexual fantasies, sexual desire, and the frequency of sex. Testosterone supplements made older men want more sex without making them any better at it. (International Journal of Impotence Research, 21: 129-138, 2009)

Erectile dysfunction (ED) is usually caused by poor metabolic health and blood vessel dysfunction. Blood vessel disease disrupts the capacity of the cells lining the arteries to secrete a chemical called nitric oxide, which controls blood flow. Erection-promoting drugs, such as Viagra and Cialis, increased erectile capacity by boosting the release of nitric oxide. Canadian researchers, in a review of literature, concluded that weight loss and physical activity promote erectile function. Several long-term studies in Europe showed that increased physical activity and improved diet boosted erectile performance as well as drugs. Regular exercise is essential to optimal metabolic health and sexual performance. (Journal Sexual Medicine, 6 (Supplement 3): 254-261, 2009)

Testosterone Supplements Do Not Improve Sexual Performance in Aging Men Testosterone and the biologicallyactive free testosterone decrease gradually after about age 30. Low testosterone levels in middle-aged and older men contribute to poor metabolic health, cardiovascular disease, decreased muscle and bone mass, and depressed sexual desire. Dutch researchers from the University Medical Center in Utrecht found that testosterone supplements had no effect on sexual performance

June 2009

Future Pharmacy By Douglas S. Kalman, Ph.D., RD, FACN

Train Smarter To Get Stronger


very month, the National Strength & Conditioning Association (NSCA) publishes great studies that are of interest to bodybuilders, athletes and sports nutritionists. Other journals, which are also leading what I call ‘applied research’ or ‘translational’ (translational to the gym or workout), include the Journal of International Society of Sports Nutrition (, and the International Journal of Sports Nutrition & Exercise Metabolism. One goal of this column is to share data from studies that may be applicable to your training goals. An extension of this is the MD Research radio shows, hosted by Robbie Durand. I always suggest using science to help design your training, nutrition and seasonal plans. If there is a particular area that interests you, feel free to e-mail me, care of the editor.

tine-L-tartrate) examined whether a 2-gram daily dose supplementation over a two-week period would have any effect on how our bodies burn calories during exercise. This study examined how the body used carbohy1 drates, fats or protein for energy during exercise. After two weeks of supplementing with 2 grams per day of L-carnitine, no changes in carbohydrate oxidation, nitrogen retention, branch-chain amino acid metabolism were noted. After the two weeks of supplementation, those on the L-carnitine tended to suppress the retention or accumulation of ammonia during exercise. Preventing or slowing the accumulation of ammonia during exercise (this study used moderate cycling protocol) is one way to reduce metabolic stress and potentially enhance exercise endurance at higher intensities. Again, since this data and prior work in other labs indicates that L-carnitine has a buffering capacity, the potential ergogenic effect for those who engage in higher-intensity workouts is real and worth exploring.

While many (wrongly) think that soy is an inferior protein or one that should not be included in the male bodybuilders’ meal plan, new research is indicating that it may help with fat loss.


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Fasting Some people utilize various forms of fasting in order to ‘detoxify’ or ‘cleanse’ their bodies, while others fast for religious reasons. What if you are an athlete and you fast— how does this affect your ability to lose fat 2 and positively impact body composition? The holiday Ramadan (the holiest Islamic holiday) may affect athletes who observe this religious practice. The holiday is essentially celebrated by not eating during daylight hours; meals can be eaten during the

June 2009


Carnitine is an amino acid that is responsible primarily for transporting fat from one part of a cell to another (into the mitochondria), with an end result of fat being burned (oxidized) for energy. This is one of the means that our bodies use fat for energy. Some people believe that supplementing carnitine will increase or enhance the efficiency of beta-oxidation (transport of fat via carnitine into the mitochondria for energy production). Carnitine is also used inside cells as a buffer during high-intensity exercise (and this is one area of exercisenutrition that is ripe for exploitation). Recent research with L-carnitine (specifically L-carni-

Future Pharmacy nighttime. Thus, you fast all day and can eat only at night. Some athletes who are not religious also fast for their own reasons. The question then becomes: how does daytime fasting affect bodyweight, composition and hormones, or biomarkers of metabo3 lism? A study was done involving male rugby players. This study found that over a four-week period, ‘Warrior Diet’ eating led to weight loss, body fat loss and elevated markers of fat being burned for energy (lipolysis). This short-term fasting (controlled nighttime eating) may just be another means of fat loss. Thus, fasting might be something to explore as part of your fat-loss plan. In fact, alternative day fasting is gaining popular ground in certain ‘calorierestriction’ societies.

Soy for Fat Loss? Whoa— did I just write that? Yes, I did! While many (wrongly) think that soy is an inferior protein or one that should not be included in the male bodybuilders’ meal plan, new research is indicating that it may help with fat loss. The type of soy that is common in the food chain and in protein powders is one that contains isoflavones (plant-sourced estrogen). A new soy extract from the black soybean has been developed. This black soybean extract is known only as ‘novel isoflavone-free peptide mixture’ (BSP). This soy extract is not yet on the commercial supplement market— from what I can tell, no one is yet selling this black soy extract. The study with BSP found that it reduced food intake and gain of less bodyweight, compared to matched controls. Even when mixed with a high-fat diet, the BSP enabled reduced food intake in a dosedependent manner, with all doses 4 being effective. Interestingly enough, when ‘treadmill-like’ exercise was added to the BSP intervention, the effects appeared to be augmented. Thus, it is realistic to expect to see weight control products developed in the near future with or based on this BSP extract.

Molded for Weight Loss Rice has long been a staple of the diet in Asian countries. This is especially true on the mainland. Various functional foods can be made from and with rice. Amongst these are ones that are known to lower choles5 terol. Red mold rice (Monascus species) is known to affect or be effective at reducing cholesterol. Scientists in Taiwan are re-examining whether red mold rice (RMR) has any effect on obesity and other metabolic markers. A study examining whether red mold rice could be used for anti-obe6 sity effects was recently published. In these exploratory studies, cell lines are used and are tested with the RMR supplement. Interestingly enough, this study found that RMR can actually prevent body fat accumulation, while enhancing fat-burning (lipolysis) and it seems it may have an anti-appetite effect. Thus, it seems that as the research is growing with RMR, a future use in helping with healthy cholesterol AND body fat levels is in the cards. The FDA currently does not allow red mold rice supplements to be sold in the United States. Thus, when a supplement company wants to come out with a RMR, they will need a series of studies to satisfy the FDA of the safety profile; the efficacy is not questioned. Training gains come from many places. Expanding the mind is just as important as the body; that said, the knowledge shared on the MD boards/forums is second-to-none. This is a case where the more you utilize the training, diet, supplement and ancillary information available, the better gains we all get. See ya on the forums! ■ References: 1. Int J SportsNutr Exer Metab, 2008, 18, 567-584. 2. Int J SportsNutr Exer Metab, 2008, 18, 617-627. 3. Int J Sports Nutr Exer Metab, 2008, 18, 617-627. 4. Int J Obesity, 2008, 32, 1161-1170. 5. yeast_rice_and_cholesterol/article.htm 6. Int J Obesity, 2008, 32, 1694-1704.

June 2009


By Dan Gwartney, MD

Sleep Your Way To

Fat Loss


eight-loss gurus on television advise “exercise more” and “eat less,” as though these statements should have been included in the original 10 Commandments. There is a principle in logic called ‘Ockham’s Razor,’ which tells us that the simplest solution is usually the correct one. Well, what could be simpler than exercise more, eat less? Unfortunately, even Ockham’s Razor is not that simple. Friar William of Ockham stated that when making a choice, any assumptions that do not make a difference should be excluded; however, it is vital to include assumptions that are relevant. Step away from the high-tech world of liposuction, gastric bypass, appetite suppressants, thermogenic and lipolytic drugs; the human body adapts to its environment. At the most basic level, that includes the amount of food available, the amount of activity needed to acquire that food, and the amount of rest one can obtain before needing to forage again. Sleep is an under-appreciated need in American society. In fact, society often rewards individuals who forego sleep in order to work longer hours, party harder, watch adult entertainment and enjoy the ‘night life.’ People go to great lengths to eradicate the need for sleep. It is not just post-adolescent ravers taking methamphetamines and ecstasy to prolong nights of hedonism; the ranks of the sleepdeprived are filled with students and

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professors using Adderall to allow for academic all-nighters; physicians and ® nurses using Provigil to stay sharp during careers of extended hours; policemen and power plant workers walk the health store aisles looking for energy supplements that will get them through rotating shifts; children guzzle ® Red Bull to pwn [sic] friends and strangers through early morning online gaming; and mothers brew coffee every morning to meet the 1-5 demands of family.

Sleep is an underappreciated need in American society. In fact, society often rewards individuals who forego sleep in order to work longer hours, party harder, watch adult entertainment and enjoy the ‘night life’. Prior to the information age, most jobs were labor or service related; social norms were more conservative and people were praised for being practical, not outrageous or risk-taking. One popular axiom was “Early to bed, early to rise, makes a man healthy, wealthy and wise.” These observations would suggest that previous generations may have actually hibernated. In fact, sleep patterns were not overly different from today,

on a day-to-day basis. Of course, leisure time has been extended and the introduction of electric lighting and varied forms of entertainment remove many of the cues that would normally send one to sleep. Most conventioneers can attest to the temporal (time) confusion experienced inside the casinos of Las Vegas where fluorescent lights and the absence of clocks mask the passage of time. Nonetheless, there has been an overall trend toward sleep deficit. In comparison to several decades ago, Americans are sleeping, on average, 6 90 minutes less per night. An hour or two makes little difference in the shortterm, but over time, a chronic sleep deficit dramatically affects one’s health. A number of studies have shown that sleep deprivation results in reduced cognitive function (thinking), hormonal changes, negative changes in blood pressure, worsened insulin 7-9 sensitivity, etc. In fact, during the recent daylight savings time-related time change, news channels reported the findings of a 2008 Swedish study published in the New England Journal of Medicine, showing that the risk of a heart attack increases 5 percent during the three days immediately following the ‘spring forward’ change that results in the loss of an hour’s sleep for most. Conversely, there was a smaller reduction in risk during the three days following the ‘fall back’ that gifts an extra hour of sleep. The authors posited that the increase in heart attacks following June 2009

fatattack the loss of an hour of sleep was due to an increase in sympathetic tone (adrenalin) and a pro-inflammatory 10 state. These factors are already elevated in the obese, making the time 11 change very risky in this group. Perhaps it is time for the FDA to review daylight savings time.

Sleep Deprivation and Obesity Sleep deprivation does not just increase risks associated with obesity, but it also increases the risk of obesity. Several studies have associated sleep deprivation with obesity, as well as the Metabolic Syndrome, which includes negative changes to cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity, and changes in hormones that promote fat 12 storage. Even as this article is being written, new studies are linking sleep deprivation with poor health. Research is being presented at the American Heart Association, reporting an increase in the risk of developing type II diabetes in people who sleep less than 6 hours per night, compared to 13 those who sleep 6 to 8 hours. Is there more to the inverse association between sleep loss and weight loss than metabolic and hormonal changes? Could the increased number of waking hours somehow relate to foraging behavior as well? After all, except for the rare case of somnambulist bingers (those who sleepwalk to the refrigerator to eat), people don’t 14 break their diet while they are asleep. Researchers investigated the effect of shorter daily sleep with food intake, confirming what many suspected— people who stay awake longer tend to be sedentary during those additional waking hours and increase their food intake by snacking. Look at the question from a personal perspective— late-night study sessions require pizza ® and Mountain Dew ; Left 4 Dead gamers down energy drinks and chips while waiting to be re-spawn; dates and parties take place over dinner, drinks and hors d’oeuvres; movie marathons require popcorn and Good & Plenty candy. Anecdotal rumors of culture-wide, dark-dependent gluttony do not constitute scientific evidence; thus, Dr. Nedeltcheva and colleagues at the

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University of Chicago recruited 11 non-obese subjects who agreed to be followed in a controlled environment for 14 days on two separate occasions, in a study published in the American 15 Journal of Clinical Nutrition. These five women and six men were healthy, normal individuals who were not actively trying to lose weight and did not exercise. During the study periods, they were allowed to follow a normal routine, including normal leisure activities such as watching television, reading, using the Internet, etc; access to food was unlimited. They were not allowed to leave the observation area for more than 30 minutes a day. Prior to each two-week ‘vacation,’ scientists measured 24-hour energy expenditure, total calories consumed (divided into meals and snacks), and the appetite-regulating hormones leptin and ghrelin.

Sleep deprivation does not just increase risks associated with obesity, but it also increases the risk of obesity. Several studies have associated sleep deprivation with obesity, as well as the Metabolic Syndrome, which includes negative changes to cardiovascular health and insulin sensitivity, and changes in hormones that promote fat storage. The study periods differed only in the number of hours of sleep allowed to the subjects; no naps were allowed at any time. During one session, subjects slept 8½ hours daily for the 14 days; during the second, they only slept 5½ hours per day. Surprisingly, there was not much difference in the total energy expenditure when these subjects were awake 3 hours more. Considering that the activity options were limited to normal, couch-potato activities, this shows that there is not a lot of difference metabolically between sitting on the couch versus sleeping. The appetite-regulating hormones, leptin and ghrelin, were similar between the groups as well. Of course, there was no calorie-restric-

tion, so the subjects never experienced periods of hunger or starvation during this time. The subjects were not provided with diet guidelines; they ate what they wanted and were provided with snacks of their choice throughout the study. As might be expected, with no restrictions and little to focus on, the subjects ate plenty. On average, the amount consumed during the three meals (breakfast, lunch and dinner) was similar during the two study periods. The macronutrient profile of the meals was typical American fare, with an approximate 52:34:14 ratio of carbohydrate:protein:fat by calories. The primary difference seen between the sleep-deprived state and sleep-aplenty state was in calories consumed as snacks. When restricted to 5½ hours of sleep daily, subjects consumed significantly more calories during snack time and tended to increase carbohydrate content of these snacks. Most importantly, the biggest difference was seen in snacking occurred between 7 p.m. 15 and 7 a.m. It is believed that access to and temptation of snacks is a deciding factor in dieting success. All subjects consumed in excess of the number of calories expended, eating more than 1,000 calories in excess every day when rested (1,012 calories during the 8½ sleep daily period). When sleep was restricted to 5½ hours for 14 days, 1,173 calories were consumed in excess. Those numbers (calories in excess) were calculated by measuring the food intake and subtracting the measured daily energy expenditure, so the number is as accurate as possible. Thus, when 2-3 hours of sleep deficit occurred, subjects consumed more food that resulted in an additional 161 calories per day; 161 calories above a baseline that was already over 1,000 calories in excess.

Lost Sleep is Lost Muscle The question that logically follows is: did the additional calorie burden result in weight gain, or more importantly, fat gain? The subjects underwent both regular weigh-ins and DXA scans to measure body composition. Not surprisingly, subjects gained a similar amount of weight during both June 2009

fatattack periods, approximately 2 kg; this follows the study design of sedentary conditions supplemented with freely available food. Though the results were not significant, there was a noticeable trend in the character of that weight gained. During the 8½ hour sleep period, subjects gained (on average) 2.1 kg with 1.5 kg being fat— 71 percent. When restricted to 5½ hours of sleep, 1.9 kg weight gain was recorded, with 1.7 kg arising from fat gain— almost 90 percent. The authors did not comment on this observation, but it appears to suggest that the ‘stress’ of losing sleep is catabolic to lean mass (muscle). Given that the subjects consumed a similar amount of protein, the sleep-deprived conditions included a greater amount of calories, and the consumption of more carbohydrates would maintain a higher insulin concentration, one would expect that muscle would be better preserved and the sleepdeprived conditions would lead to equivalent changes in body composition, if not a preference to lean mass gains. Instead, the opposite was seen. Another explanation may be that adequate sleep promotes anabolic processes, allowing muscle to be maintained or increased when adequate rest is obtained. It is likely no coincidence that as sleep hours have decreased societywide, Americans have become fat and are developing metabolic conditions that are threatening the stability of the national health system. An impressive body of evidence is being reported, associating the loss of sleep with a number of health risks. Yet, people still burn the midnight oil, determined to squeeze the last bit of productivity or enjoyment out of each day if it kills 16 them. Guess what? It might. Don’t sleep in though— too much sleep can be just as bad for you. For all the people who are attempting to lose weight to attract Mr. Right or Ms. Sweetheart, those late nights are taking a toll, not just on one’s health and lifespan, but also on the ability to be a hard body. Grabbing a good night’s sleep regularly is vital to promoting optimal weight management. Perhaps more relevant to the man or woman working to improve his/her physique is the nega-

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tive impact those extra hours have on fat gain. Slip between the sheets for your daily eight and if conditions require you to stay awake longer, put away the snacks. ■ References: 1. DeSantis AD, Webb EM, et al. Illicit use of prescription ADHD medications on a college campus: a multimethodological approach. J Am Coll Health, 2008 Nov-Dec;57(3):315-24. 2. Kumar R. Approved and investigational uses of modafinil : an evidence-based review. Drugs, 2008;68(13):1803-39. 3. Jay SM, Petrilli RM, et al. The suitability of a caffeinated energy drink for night-shift workers. Physiol Behav, 2006 May 30;87(5):925-31. 4. Dworak M, Schierl T, et al. Impact of singular excessive computer game and television exposure on sleep patterns and memory performance of school-aged children. Pediatrics, 2007 Nov;120(5):978-85. 5. Hunter LP, Rychnovsky JD, et al. A selective review of maternal sleep characteristics in the postpartum period. J Obstet Gynecol Neonatal Nurs, 2009 Jan-Feb;38(1):60-8. 6. Spiegel K, Leproult R, et al. Impact of sleep debt on metabolic and endocrine function. Lancet, 1999;354:1435-9. 7. Kahol K, Leyba MJ, et al. Effect of fatigue on psychomotor and cognitive skills. Am J Surg, 2008 Feb;195(2):195-204. 8. Samuels C. Sleep, recovery, and performance: the new frontier in high-performance athletics. Neurol Clin, 2008 Feb;26(1):16980; ix-x. 9. Mullington JM, Haack M, et al. Cardiovascular, inflammatory, and metabolic consequences of sleep deprivation. Prog Cardiovasc Dis, 2009 Jan-Feb;51(4):294-302. 10. Janszky I, Ljung R. Shifts to and from Daylight Saving Time and Incidence of Myocardial Infarction. N Engl J Med, 2008;359(18):1966-68. 11. Good D, Morse SA, et al. Obesity, hypertension, and the heart. J Cardiometab Syndr, 2008 Summer;3(3):168-72. 12. Miller MA, Cappuccio FP. Inflammation, sleep, obesity and cardiovascular disease. Curr Vasc Pharmacol, 2007 Apr;5(2):93-102. 13. Wilbert C. Sleep Deprivation Linked to Prediabetes. WebMD 2009 March 12. Available ep-deprivation-linked-to-prediabetes, accessed March 15, 2009. 14. Schenck CH, Mahowald MW. Review of nocturnal sleep-related eating disorders. Int J Eat Disord, 1994 May;15(4):343-56. 15. Nedeltcheva AV, Kilkus JM, et al. Sleep curtailment is accompanied by increased intake of calories from snacks. Am J Clin Nutr, 2009 Jan;89(1):126-33. 16. Ferrie JE, Shipley MJ, et al. A prospective study of change in sleep duration: associations with mortality in the Whitehall II cohort. Sleep, 2007 Dec 1;30(12):1659-66. June 2009

MuscleGrowth Update

By Robbie Durand, M.A.

FOR MUSCLE HYPERTROPHY he term ‘tempo’ is used to define the speed of movement of weight-training exercises. More specifically, it is the rate of movement of the weight or limb involved in any strength-training exercise. Most bodybuilders might change their exercise selection, sets, reps and rest periods, but the one variable that has been largely overlooked— and which may significantly impact training results— is the tempo or speed at which the exercise is performed. For years, the standard repetition speed has been to lift ‘up’ or concentrically in 2 seconds and lower the weight eccentrically in 4 seconds in a slow, controlled manner for optimal muscle mass. Some top trainers have even taken this type of training a step further and developed SuperSlow training. The interesting fact is that there is no research to validate that this tempo is the optimal pace for increasing muscle hypertrophy. According to a study published in the European Journal of Applied Physiology, lowering the weight slowly may not be the best way to increase muscle mass and strength. In the study, male and female subjects were assigned to train for 10 weeks using either slow- or fastvelocity eccentric training while lowering the weight. At the end of


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the study, the group who trained with fast eccentric contractions had the greatest increase in muscle hypertrophy. Muscle hypertrophy of the type IIB fibers (fast-twitch fibers) increased from 6 percent to 13 percent in those subjects. The ‘slow’ group did not 1 experience any gain in muscle mass. This was not the only study to show that training with fast eccentric contractions is best for increasing muscle mass. In a follow-up study by the same research group, researchers compared fast and slow training in a group of 12 untrained men who exercised both arms, three days per week for eight weeks. The men trained one arm using a fast velocity, while they did the same number of repetitions for the other arm at a slow velocity. At the end of the study, type I muscle fibers (slowtwitch, aerobic fibers) increased in size by an average of 9 percent, with no significant difference between fast or slow training. The change in fiber area after training for the type II fibers was greater in the fast-trained versus the slow-trained arm. In addition to greater increases in type IIB fibers, the fast eccentric contractions group increased strength more than 2 the slow contractions group. These studies demonstrate that lifting explosively can enhance the recruitment of type II muscle fibers, which are more prone to muscle hypertrophy. What about explosive lifting, concentrically?

June 2009

MuscleGrowthUpdate New Study: Explosive Weightlifting Induces Muscle Hypertrophy Greater Than Traditional Weightlifting Researchers from Brazil conducted a new study that should raise awareness that bodybuilders need to incorporate some explosive lifting into their routine. Researchers took two groups of men and had them perform all exercises with an equal work output. The exercises were performed with rest intervals of 90 seconds between sets. The men were divided into a fast, explosive concentric group with a normal eccentric phase, or traditional weight training with 2-3 seconds ‘up’ and the weight lowered in 2-3 seconds. The explosive group performed all exercises moving the weights as fast as possible in the concentric phase, and took 2-3 seconds to complete the eccentric phase. The concentric action was performed in approximately 1 second. The traditional weight-training group spent 2-3 seconds in the concentric phase

involved the same resistance training exercises with an equal work output, and the only difference between the two methods was the speed at which the exercises were performed. It was demonstrated that a high-velocity power training program appears to be more effective in improving muscular hypertrophy than tradi13 tional resistance training. This seems to contradict the current practice of many trainers, especially bodybuilders, who typically employ lowvelocity contractions in their training.

Why Lift Fast And Explosive for Muscle Hypertrophy? In order to induce hypertrophy, either the exercise intensity or volume must be increased. Most bodybuilders perform enough sets, but may have difficulty increasing training intensity to make additional gains in strength and size. Since the amount of weight cannot be increased, an alternative to increasing the intensity must be implemented.

The amount of force you generate during weightlifting can be increased by lifting more weight or lifting the same amount of weight at a faster speed. If you are performing the same number of reps with the same amount of weight but lifting with more acceleration, you are producing more force. and 2-3 seconds in the eccentric phase. Here are the results of the study after 10 weeks of training: Strength:Training-induced gains in strength were similar between groups; however, explosive lifting induced significantly greater development in muscle power. Muscle Size: Explosive lifting was more effective than traditional weight training for increasing muscle size. Both training regimens led to significant increase in arm muscle thickness; however, the results obtained by the explosive lifting group were greater than traditional weight training. Additionally, only explosive lifting was effective for improving leg muscle size. The protocols used in the study

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Moving the weight at a higher speed implies using more power, and more power translates directly to a higher intensity. Speed training provides an alternative path to the progressive resistance principle, which states that in order to induce muscle hypertrophy, one has to constantly keep increasing the weight used. Muscle hypertrophy is defined as an increase in muscle mass that is related to two factors: the amount of workload employed and the tension developed during muscle 3 contraction. Most bodybuilders focus mainly on workload or the amount of sets utilized during their training routine to increase muscle hypertrophy, seldom changing repetition speed. Speed training may develop motor

unit recruitment patterns different from traditional weight training, thus potentiating better gains with subsequent regular training cycles. According to world-renowned strength coach Dr. Verkhoshansky, the tempo of resistance exercise has a significant effect on the development of muscular strength (because of fasttwitch fiber enhancement). Dr. Verkhoshansky reported that a combination of different movement tempos produce superior gains in strength, compared to a set tempo. In that 10week study, men who trained with a combination of tempos produced a 48pound increase in strength, but using a standard tempo pace only resulted 4 in a 36-pound increase in strength. The results of the study demonstrate the importance of changing repetition speed during a training cycle. The amount of weight lifted depends on the laws of physics. Simply, FORCE = MASS X ACCELERATION. This means the amount of force you generate during weightlifting can be increased by lifting more weight or lifting the same amount of weight at a faster speed. If you are performing the same number of reps with the same amount of weight but lifting with more acceleration, you are producing more force— and this means larger central nervous system activation. This is not a new concept. A study in 1954 by Bigland-Ritchie and Lippold demonstrated that the faster a weight is accelerated through a lift, the more nervous system acti5 vation is required for the movement. The more motor units or muscle fibers that are activated in a repetition, the greater the activation in the central nervous system. This represents an increase in training intensity. During muscle contraction, motor units or muscle fibers are recruited in relation to the force generated by the muscle. For example, during slow muscle contractions, type I fibers are recruited, but as workload increases, more type IIA and finally, IIB fibers are recruited. This is a basic tenet of motor unit recruitment. What is unique about eccentric contractions is there some evidence that the size principle could be altered or even reversed during cer-

June 2009

MuscleGrowthUpdate tain types of movements— specifically those that contain an eccentric (muscle-lengthening) component— such that fast-twitch motor units are recruited before slow-twitch motor units. It is possible that a preferential recruitment of fast-twitch motor units is influenced by the speed of the eccentric contraction, and can only occur using moderate to fast speeds. When examining the potential for hypertrophy between muscle fibers (i.e., slow type I and fast type II), there are differences. In general, type IIB muscle fibers have the greatest potential for muscle hypertrophy, yet are the last fibers recruited during a lift. This is a basic flaw in the SuperSlow training principles. With low force or slow activities, type I fibers are activated first and as the exercise becomes more fatiguing, type IIA and then type IIB fibers are recruited later. When using fast explosive exercises, faster-twitch motor units are activated and more hypertrophy can occur. Hypertrophy will only occur in those muscle fibers that are overloaded, so that fast-twitch fibers must be recruited during training for 6 hypertrophy to occur. Most bodybuilders do not train explosively and can benefit from incorporating explosive multi-component plyometric or speed resistance movements into their training regimen. For example, most bodybuilders experience increases in type IIA fibers during resistance training studies, 7 with no changes in type IIB fibers. This may be partially due to using high-volume (i.e., 5-8 sets) and highrepetition (i.e., 10-15 reps) training. However, incorporating plyometrics and other explosive lifts may cause additional muscle growth of IIB fibers. There have been numerous studies that have documented increases in type IIB fibers after explosive weight 8, 9 10, 11 training and plyometrics. When male subjects performed plyometric training for three days a week for eight weeks, this resulted in significant increases in type IIB fiber hypertrophy and peak power production. The plyometric training consisted of vertical jumping, bounding, and depth 12 jumping. Type IIB fibers are utilized during

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high force-generating movements. Just remember, at any given speed, the force production of the muscle increases with the percentage of fast-twitch fibers and, conversely, at any given force output, the velocity increases with the percentage of fast-twitch fibers. For example, look at the thighs of 100-meter sprinters compared to distance runners. World-class sprinters have legs that would make some bodybuilders jealous. Sprinters train fast and explosively, utilizing a lot of type IIA and type IIB fibers during training, compared to distance runners— who rely mainly on type I fibers. Sprinters train in the gym the way they run… fast and explosive. A typical sprinter trains with explosive squatting, lots of plyometric jumps, and bounding exercises. Training specificity states that you should weight train like you perform in your competitions. For example, basketball players were assigned to either train with traditional weight training or traditional weight training plus explosive, eccentric plyometrics for six weeks. While both groups had increases in their vertical jump at the end of the study, the group that trained with weight training and plyometrics increased their mean overall vertical jump by 8 percent. Thus, high-force eccentric training can possibly increase gains and muscle power by increasing muscle size. In conclusion, many bodybuilders and fitness-oriented athletes would benefit from adding a few explosive exercises such as plyometrics to their training regimen. In competitive athletics, when all other factors are equal, power is the deciding factor between winning and losing. The ability to generate concentric and eccentric force over a range of contraction velocities is often a critical determinant of athletic success. For years, weight training was considered to slow an athlete down and make him inflexible. Fifteen years ago, the University of Nebraska started training their football team using only explosive Olympic lifts and squats. Performing explosive lifts such as power cleans, jump squats, and depth jumps recruits entirely fast-twitch motor units. The training effect pro-

duced a stronger, faster and more mobile athlete— and a winning record. Now, virtually all football teams incorporate Olympic lifts for explosive strength and power. Incorporating these movements into your training routine will increase size and strength beyond traditional weight training.  References: 1. Paddon-Jones D, Leveritt M, Lonergan A, Abernethy P. Adaptation to chronic eccentric exercise in humans: the influence of contraction velocity. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2001 Sep;85(5):466-71. 2. Farthing JP, Chilibeck PD. The effect of eccentric training at different velocities on cross-education. Eur J Appl Physiol, 2003 Aug;89(6):570-7. 3. Glass DJ. Skeletal muscle hypertrophy and atrophy signaling pathways. Int J Biochem Cell Biol, 2005 Oct;37(10):1974-84. 4. Verkhoshanskii IuV, Biru AA. Patterns in the long-term body adaptation of the athlete to physical loads] Fiziol Cheloveka, 1987 SepOct;13(5):811-8. 5. Bigland-Ritchie B./Lippold O. 1954 The Relation Between Force, Velocity, and Integrated Electrical Activity in Human Muscles. J Physiol,123, 214-224. 6. Shoepe TC, Stelzer JE, Garner DP, Widrick JJ. Functional adaptability of muscle fibers to long-term resistance exercise. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2003 Jun;35(6):944-51. 7. Jurimae J, Abernethy PJ, Quigley BM, Blake K, McEniery MT. Differences in muscle contractile characteristics among bodybuilders, endurance trainers and control subjects. Eur J Appl Physiol Occup Physiol, 1997;75(4):357-62. 8. Hakkinen K, Pakarinen A, Kraemer WJ, Hakkinen A, Valkeinen H, Alen M. Selective muscle hypertrophy, changes in EMG and force, and serum hormones during strength training in older women. J Appl Physiol, 2001 Aug;91(2):569-80. 9. Hakkinen K, Kraemer WJ, Newton RU, Alen M. Changes in electromyographic activity, muscle fibre and force production characteristics during heavy resistance/power strength training in middle-aged and older men and women. Acta Physiol Scand, 2001 Jan;171(1):51-62. 10. LaStayo PC, Woolf JM, Lewek MD, Snyder-Mackler L, Reich T, Lindstedt SL. Eccentric muscle contractions: their contribution to injury, prevention, rehabilitation, and sport. J Orthop Sports Phys Ther, 2003 Oct;33(10):557-71. 11. Lindstedt SL, Reich TE, Keim P, LaStayo PC. Do muscles function as adaptable locomotor springs? J Exp Biol, 2002 Aug;205(Pt 15):2211-6. 12. Potteiger JA, Lockwood RH, Haub MD, Dolezal BA, Almuzaini KS, Schroeder JM, Zebas CJ. Muscle Power and Fiber Characteristics Following 8 Weeks of Plyometric Training. Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research, Volume 13, Number 3, 275-279, 1999. 13. Nogueira W, Gentil P, Mello SN, Oliveira RJ, Bezerra AJ, Bottaro M. Effects of power training on muscle thickness of older men. Int J Sports Med, 2009 Mar;30(3):200-4.

June 2009

Supplement Performance By Robbie Durand, M.A.

Cause Muscle Cramps or Overheating! D

on’t take creatine… your kidneys will explode! Even worse, your muscles will cramp up and contort your body like some person getting electrocuted, and you can overheat and go into a coma! We have all heard the rumors that creatine causes you to cramp during exercise, and some have speculated that creatine can lead to overheating. Athletes have used creatine supplementation for nearly 20 years, but speculation remains regarding its efficacy, as well as its potential side effects. Headlines were being flashed all over the newspapers that creatine was linked to several deaths; but the newspapers failed to mention that the deaths from the autopsy reported that the cause of death was from exertional heat stroke, not crea1 tine. Aside from the aforementioned media reports on creatine, most anecdotal reports of side effects have described muscle cramping or gastrointestinal distress. However, research studies never substantiated this.

ry or hydration variables, including body temperature regulation, percentage of dehydration, urinary hydration measures, plasma volume, or sweat losses. The amount of creatine consumed was similar among trials (20-25 grams), whereas the supplementation duration varied (five to 28 days). Despite variations in dosages, the results of the 10 studies were similar with regard to changes in body mass and 2 body temperature. No substantial evidence exists demonstrating that creatine supplementation hinders the body’s ability to dissipate heat or body fluid balance when appropriate doses are consumed. Controlled, experimental trials of athletes exercising in the heat over a short period of time resulted in no adverse effects from creatine supplementation. So bodybuilders can now rest knowing that good science has put another supplementation rumor to rest. ■ References:

Creatine Does Not Cause Muscle Cramps! Researchers from the University of Connecticut performed a meta-analysis of all the studies investigating creatine supplementation. Despite anecdotal reports of creatine’s side effects in athletes exercising in the heat, none of the 10 studies showed detriments in thermoregulato-

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1. Terjung RL, Clarkson P, Eichner ER, et al. American College of Sports Medicine roundtable: the physiological and health effects of oral creatine supplementation. Med Sci Sports Exerc, 2000;32(3): 706-717. 2. Lopez RM, Casa DJ, McDermott BP, Ganio MS, Armstrong LE, Maresh CM. Does creatine supplementation hinder exercise heat tolerance or hydration status? A systematic review with meta-analyses. J Athl Train, 2009 Mar-Apr;44(2):215-23. June 2009

nutrition performance By Robbie Durand, M.A.

CASEIN OR WHEY PROTEIN: Which Protein Is Best for Long-Term Fat Loss?


effective approach to weight loss is to increase dietary protein or lower the ratio of carbohydrate to protein in the diet. A low carbohydrate-to-protein ratio (
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