DEFINITION OF MULTIMEDIA ( 4.1.1 ) Define Multimedia ( 18.104.22.168 ) Multimedia refers to any application that combined several elements of multimedia such as text, graphics, animation, audio and video. MULTIMEDIA IN VARIOUS FIELDS ( 4.1.2 ) Identify The Use Of Multimedia In Various Fields ( 22.214.171.124 ) Field
Contribution to society Multimedia application is used in advertising products. Many companies nowadays develop and distribute catalogues in the form of the CD-ROM as it is more interesting to the consumer Artist used multimedia elements by combining drawing and animation.
Doctor can practice or be trained in performing high risk surgery by using virtual surgery.
Computer Aided Design (CAD) is used to view the design from many aspects and improve on it before production.
Mathematical and scientific research
These industries produce computer games, develop animation for cartoons and movies. Learning has become more interesting and effective with educational programs such as ‘edutainment’ that is a combination of education and entertainment. It also used to produce computer-based training (self-access-learning) and reference books like encyclopedias and almanacs. In mathematical and scientific research, multimedia is mainly used for modeling and simulation. For example, a scientist can look at a molecular model of a particular substance and manipulate it to arrive at a new substance.
INTERACTIVITY OF MULTIMEDIA ( 4.1.3 ) Interactivity refers to the way users interact with a multimedia application or program. User can used input devices such as keyboard, joystick, mouse and touch screen to interact with multimedia application. There are two types of interactivity; linear and non-linear. Differentiate Between the Characteristics of Linear and Non-Linear Multimedia ( 126.96.36.199 ) Linear Interactivity Linear interactivity does not allow the user to control the sequence of the multimedia content Not interactive – user is the passive receiver - Documentary - Movie - Video Clip
Controlling the sequence
Non-Linear interactivity lets the user control the sequence of the multimedia content.
Interactive – two-way communication by using buttons or links ( hypertext or hypermedia )
- electronic books - edutainment software - Electronic encyclopedias
MEDIUM OF DELIVERY (4.1.4) There are two medium of multimedia delivery; web-based and CD based. •
Web based multimedia delivered media through web pages. Web based multimedia is the combination of multimedia technology and internet technology.
CD Based Multimedia
CD-based multimedia delivered media through compact discs.
Compare and Contrast the Mediums of Delivery for Multimedia Applications. (188.8.131.52) Web-based Limited in picture size and low resolution video
CD-based Can store high end multimedia elements such as video
Can be changed or deleted by irresponsible individuals.
Information for multimedia can be updated easily and is cheaper
Can be permanently stored and are not changeable Information on a multimedia can be quickly outdated
MULTIMEDIA ELEMENTS (4.1.5) There are five elements of multimedia; text, graphics, audio, video and animation. Identify the Multimedia Elements (184.108.40.206) Element s
Text is the basic element of multimedia. It is a series of string that can be display using a user interface component. It involved the use of text type, size, colour and background colour.
Graphics make the multimedia application attractive. They help illustrate ideas through still picture such as photograph, illustration, icon, ruled line or any other non-text elements. There are two type of graphics used bitmaps or vector.
Audio is the sound portion which content sound effect, speech, music or narration. There two type of audio: analog and digital audio.
Video consists of full motion images that played back at various speeds. Most video also has accompanying audio.
Animation is the appearance of motion created by displaying of series of still images in sequence.
HARDWARE ( 4.2.1 ) Among multimedia hardware that commonly used are scanner, video camera, camera, audio device and video capture device. Identify Hardware That Can Be Used to Produce Multimedia Products (220.127.116.11) Scanner – Convert conventional images, texts, drawings and photos into digital form that can be understood by the computer.
Video camera - A digital video camera records video in digital signals.
Camera - A digital camera, capture still images and store in a media card.
Audio device- devices are needed to record analog sound. The sounds are then changed into digital sound. Examples of devices used for recording sounds or audio are microphone, sound card, voice synthesizer. Video capture device - help to convert analog video to digital video.
EDITING SOFTWARE (4.2.2) There are five editing software that can be used to produce multimedia elements; text editor, graphics & image editor, audio editor, video editor and animation editor. Identify Editing Software That Can Be Used to Produce Multimedia Elements: (18.104.22.168) Text editor – to insert text into multimedia application. E.g : Proprietary 1. Notepad 2. Microsoft Office Word
E.g : Open Source 1. Sun OpenOffice.Write 2. AbiWord
Graphics and image editor – to create and modify graphical images. E.g : Proprietary E.g : Open Source 1. Adobe Photoshop 1. GIMP 2. Adobe Illustration 2. Inkscape 3. Corel Draw 3. Picasa Audio editor – to edit audio such cut and paste audio file. E.g : Proprietary 1. Sound Forge 7.0 2. Sound Recorder 3. Adobe Audition
E.g : Open Source 1. Audacity 2. Ardour Video editor – to edit video clips.
E.g : Proprietary 1. Pinnacle Studio 2. Adobe Premier
E.g : Open Source 1. JahShaka 2. Cinelerra
3. Sony Vegas 4. Windows Movie Maker 5. Apple iMovie
Animation editor – to create and edit animation. E.g : Proprietary 1. Macromedia Flash 2. 3D Studio Max 3. Ulead 3D Studio
E.g : Open Source 1. Blender
AUTHORING TOOLS (4.2.3) There are three concepts in authoring tool; time frame concept, icon concept and card concept. Define the Various Concepts in Authoring Tools (22.214.171.124) • time frame concept o The multimedia elements or events are presented and organised along a time line. o
Example – Macromedia Director and Macromedia Flash
• icon concept o The users can present visually a logical flow of events by dragging icons from an icon menu. o
Example – Authorware, Comel and Icon Author
card concept o Elements and events are organised as pages in a book or a stack of cards. o Example – Toolbook Assistant, Microsoft Office Power Point 2007, HyperCard and SuperCard.
WEB EDITOR (4.2.4) There are two types of web editors; text-based and WYSISYG. Describe and Give Example of Web Editors: (126.96.36.199)
Text-based o A basic editor where you work with Hypertext Markup Language (HTML) tags to create a Web page. o
Example – Notepad and PSPad
WYSIWYG (What You See Is What You Get) o Provide an editing interface that shows how the pages will be displayed in a web browser. o Example – Microsoft FrontPage, Microsoft Office Word and Macromedia Dreamweaver.
USER INTERFACE PRINCIPLE (4.3.1) Developing a multimedia production need to follow several principles; consistency, clarity, context, navigation, search, personalization, learnability and flexibility. State user Interface Principles. 188.8.131.52 •
Consistency o The interface design is in harmony. o The same interface design applies to all screen.
Clarity o Icons, words or commands should be clear and easy to understand .
Context o Ideas presented need to relate to the title.
Navigation o Users can move around the menus, help files or other screens.
Search o Users can search keywords or glossary.
Personalisation o Users can make their own personal or individual learning.
Learnability o Help the user to use the system.
Flexibility o User can navigate through all the sections without any limitations.
There are 5 positions in a multimedia development team; Project Manager, Subject Matter Expert, Instructional Designer, Graphics Artist, Audio-Video Technician and Programmer. State the Role of Each Member in a Development Team (184.108.40.206) •
Project Manager o As a team leader o Define the scope of the project by discussing with the clients. o Search for financial resources, equipment and facilities. o Coordinate the development team. o Control the progress of the project.
Subject Matter Expert o Do research on the content of a multimedia program. o Provide content for multimedia content.
Instructional Designer o Decide on the best educational strategies. o Practices to present the information
Graphics Artist o Develop the graphic elements of the program such as backgrounds, button, photo collages, 3D object, logos and animations.
Audio-Video Technician o Responsible for recording the audio and video. o Edits the audio and video.
Programmer o Write the program codes line or scripts. o Combine multimedia elements into the program.
MULTIMEDIA PRODUCTION (4.3.3) There are six phases involved in the production of multimedia project. The six phases can categorised into 3 main stages that is pre-production, production and post-production.
Describe the Phases in Multimedia Production ( 220.127.116.11 ) Phase
Description Developer set the focus of the project.
The multimedia developers interview the clients to find out their needs and write the problem statement and a proposal. Eg. Developers will identify the project title, problem, objective, possible solution and target user. Refers to the planning of the design of the multimedia program to be developed. There are two popular tools used in the Design Phase, namely the flow chart and storyboard. The Implementation Phase refers to the process of converting the design plan into a multimedia program. This is the phase where the multimedia program is produced. In the Implementation Phase, we use the authoring tool to integrate the multimedia elements such as Toolbook Assistant 2004, Macromedia Authorware, Macromedia Director and others. The purpose of testing is to ensure that the program runs correctly without errors.
Example : test the content, interface and navigation of multimedia program. The multimedia developers will use a checklist to test the multimedia program. If there are any errors, the programmer will fix the program.
Focuses on overall presentation and effectiveness of the multimedia. Selected users will use an Evaluation Form to try out the program and give feedback. Package their presentation using suitable software. Distribute the presentation for public viewing by CD or website.
IMMERSIVE MULTIMEDIA (4.4.1) • •
Computer-generated simulation of reality with physical, spatial and visual dimensions. Integrate virtual reality and advance human-computer interaction As 3D and immersive technology becomes more integrated and available for a wide range of applications. It l requires well-designed user interfaces and innovative content for the next generation of computer games and integrated technology like mobile devices, distributed web systems and desktop applications.
Give an Example of Immersive Multimedia in Education, Business or Entertainment. (18.104.22.168) Immersive Multimedia in Education TabliT™ Trainer Console provides the trainer with freedom and faster access to various training session for heavy equipment operators.
Immersive Multimedia in Business IBM’s Virtual Business Center was designed to push the limits on how virtual worlds are used to provide business facilities.
Immersive Multimedia in Entertainment Electrosonic ESCAN shows the history of football in interactive and immersive multimedia exhibition.
Huraian Sukatan Pelajaran Information & Communication Technology 2006.
Discovering Computers 2011, Shelly & Vermaat.
Score A: Information and Communication Technology, Ismail Shaari, 2008.