Mul Mantra Khalsa
The History of the Panj Piare and Panj Mukate. In the Buddha Dal Gutka...
AQ mUl mMqr gurU Kwlsy isMG jI kw ilKXqy]
Ath Mūl Maṅtar Gurū Khālse Siṅgh jī kā Likhayate By Akali Nihang Dr Kamalroop Singh
Archimedes Press Ltd is a UK registered company. The company is a not for profit company. HTTP://WWW.ARCHIMEDESPRESS.CO.UK
What is Ath Mūl Maṅtar Gurū Khālse Siṅgh jī kā Likhayate? This composition is found in the current ‘Khalsa Nitnem’ by the Shiromani Khalsa Panth Akali, Buddha Dal, Panjva Takht, Chakarvarti, Chalda Vahir, Vishav, the central organisation of the Akali Nihang Singhs. It contains the details of the first Khalsa initiation or khande-ki-pahul ceremony and information about the Panj Piare and the Rahit of the Khalsa. The name translates to the ‘Now is Written the Root Mantra of the Singhs of the Guru Khalsa.’ As the name suggests, it is the written history about how the Khalsa came into being as recorded by scribes in the Guru’s court. For the benefit of the Sikh Sangat and scholars alike this composition has been reproduced in the original Gurmukhi, translated and transliterated for the first time. What is its history? According to the tradition it was said in the Court by the Tenth Guru, on the Khalsa inauguration at Vaisakhi, and recorded by scribes. The Guru ordered that the names of the Panj Piare and Panj Mukate to be immortalized forever. Many old pothia and manuscripts from the period of the Guru, and from slightly later, contain this composition. There are a number of eighteenth century manuscripts with this composition, for an example see Guru Nanak Dev ji University, Amritsar, MS 769 j, which is from around 1722 AD/ 1779 VS. The history of the Panj Mukate is not well known, the five (panj) liberated ones (mukate), were the five Sikhs, who according to Bhai Daya Singh`s Rahitnama, were the first after the Panj Piare to receive the Khalsa initiation by the hands of Guru Gobind Singh on the historic Vaisakhi day. They were the Panj Singhs who stood up after the Panj Piare when the Guru asked for five Sikhs to offer their head. The Guru said ‘only five were required, but since you five have also stood up, you will be remembered as the Panj Mukate.’ They were Ram Singh, Fateh Singh, Deva Singh, Tahil Singh and Isar Singh. They are also said to have merged into divine light through the repetition of Vahiguru. They are ceremonially represented by the five Singhs with the Nishan Sahibs walking in front of the Panj Piare. According to Bhai Chaupa Singh, the Hazuri Rahitnama, ascribed to him, was first written in draft by the Panj Mukate:
The eternal and supreme Guru has declared, the gathered community (sarabat sangat) is my Khalsa. All should observe the Guru's Rahit.' [The injunctions of the Rahit were recorded] by Enlightened Sikhs (mukate Sikh) in the presence of the eternal and supreme Master. These devout Sikhs studiously compiled a rahit-nama so that Gursikhs might act as the Guru has prescribed. The Sikh Rahit is as follows: Pay heed to neither Brahma [the God of the Hindus] nor to Muhammad [the Prophet of the Muslims]. Obey only the commands of your own Gurus. If help be needed the Gurus will furnish it [to those who accept] their testimony recorded in the Granth: I praise and adore my Guru a hundred times a day, he who lifts men to the ranks of the gods, swiftly, without delay.2 The Satguru will sustain [the Gursikh] both in this world and the next. The Gursikh should therefore obey the Rahit. Chaupa Singh Rahit-nama, W. H. McLeod, p. 251. McLeod then quotes from Bhai Kesar Singh Chhibbar to elaborate on who the Mukate were in his introduction: The mukate Sikhs are those who shall remain after I have gone. The Turks will issue ordinances against the Panth and pursue its members in their attempt to destroy all. They who [in these times of persecution] uphold their Sikh allegiance shall be known as mukate. Striving always to sustain their faith as Sikhs. Chaupa Singh Rahitnama, W. H. McLeod, p. 46. According to the The Encyclopaedia of Sikhism, an old manuscript of Bhai Prahlad Singh’s Rahitnama is said to contain a note associating Ram Singh and Deva Singh with the village of Bughiana, in Lahore district, Tahil Singh and Isar Singh with Dallvan, in present day Amritsar district and Fateh Singh with Khurdpur Mangat, perhaps the same as Guru Mangat in Lahore district. The name of Ram Singh also occurs among the twenty-five mukate mentioned in Kuir Singh, Gurbilas Patshahi 10.’ According to Sarup Singh Kaushish in Guru kian Sakhian, Deva Singh and Isar Singh fell as martyrs in the battle of Chamkaur on 7 December 1705.
What does it contain? It contains the names of the first Panj Piare and their previous incarnations, as Bhagats whose Bani is recorded in the Adi Guru Granth Sahib, their respective castes and where they were born. This is to show that all the different castes drank from the same bowl or batta, hence breaking the Khalsa out of the Brahmanic caste system. It also shows that as the Guru’s light came again in the form of different Guru’s, similarly the Bhagats were avatar also. It records that the Guru stood in front of these five and requested Amrit, and the names of the Panj Mukate. The author then gives the instructions of not meeting reprobate groups, killers of daughters, and clean shaved ones. It also talks about Singhs not killing other Singhs (bans ghat). The importance of the Gurmantra is stressed and the avoidance of those who do not do it, and to stand at the door to get the darshan of those that do. Why and when do we do it? The Mul Mantra of the Guru Khalsa is very important for all Sikhs, and to recite it daily is important for all Khalsa Sikhs, in fact Nihang Singhs read this as a part of their amritvela Nitnem. There are spiritual reasons why it is read and one has to go to a recognised teacher from within the Nihang Singh Khalsa to learn about this. Also see my articles on the Nitnem and Arti-Arta also available on scribd.
With the blessings of the Jathedars of Buddha Dal
In memory of the last head of the Shiromani Khalsa Panth Akali Buddha Dal Panjva Takht Chalda Vahir Chakarvarti, Vishav, Singh Sahib 96 Crori Jathedar Akali Baba Surjit Singh Nihang Singh. Who is did Akal chalana in jail, in circumstances where the SGPC and Akali Dal making their own puppet leader Balbir Singh. Please visit www.babasurjeetsingh.com to spread awareness about this injustice. This is what the Chinese government have done to his holiness the Dalai Lama and the Pancham Lama. We cannot allow this to happen to the head of the Khalsa Panth. The new head is Akali Nihang 96 Crori Jathedar Baba Prem Singh of Mata Sahib Kaur’s Tap Asthan at Sachkhand Sri Hazur Sahib.
While Baba Surjit Singh was is in jail, Singh Sahib Jathedar Akali Baba Joginder Singh a respected and enlightened Mahapurush took over ceremonial duties of the Shiromani Khalsa Panth Akali Buddha Dal Panjwa Takht Chalda Vahir Chakrvarti, Vishav. Please visit Baba ji at Gurdwara Dam Dama Sahib, Rakhba. About the Author My name is Dr. Kamalroop Singh, I am a Sikh and a member of the Khalsa, and belong to the Nihang Singh order, under the leadership of the late 96 Crori Singh Sahib Jathedar Akali Baba Surjit Singh Nihang. I began my journey back in 1995, when I met some inspirational Sikhs. I have been reading about and practising as a Sikh from a young age, I took initiation into the Khalsa in 1999. I have travelled around India and stayed with the Nihang Singhs and Sants, and I also took basic santhia from the Dam Dami Taksal in Amritsar. After finishing my degree in Chemistry I completed an MPhil and PhD in Sikh Studies. My chosen subject was the Dasam Granth Sahib, my thesis was titled ‘Dasam Granth Re-examined’. A book titled ‘Dasam Granth Questions and Answers’ has been published which was written with a colleague, please see it at www.archimedespress.co.uk. A number of my chapters have been published, one about Gatka in the ‘Handbook of Sikh Studies’, Oxford University Press, 2014. I am a linguist and have worked for the Crown Prosecution Services and taught languages at the School of African and Oriental Studies. I have been a consultant to a number of museums and galleries around the world, and I regularly travel and teach about related subjects. Das, Kamalroop Singh.
siqgur pRswid] Ik oaṅkÁr satigur prasÁdi. One Universal Creator realized by the grace of the True Guru. AQ mUl mMqr gurU Kwlsy isMG jI kw ilKXqy] aT mçl maṅtar gurç khÁlase siṅG jÅ kÁ liKayate. Now is Written the Root Mantra of the Singhs of the Guru Khalsa.
doihrw] dohirÁ. Couplet. vwsI sB sRI Kwlsw pur AnMd isrmOr] dieAw isMD sRI siqgurU bsq sdw ijh TOr]1] vÁsÅ saB srÅ KÁlsÁ pur anaṅd siramÖr. daiÁ siṅD srÅ satigurç basat sadÁ jih QÖr.1. The holy Khalsa is a resident of the supreme City of Bliss ‘Anandpur Sahib.’ The ocean of compassion the holy Guru is ever present at this place.1.
sv`Xw] savayÁ. Quatrains. vwsI lhOr ivKY dieAw isMG soBqI C`qru so bMs ibKY AvqwrI] swihb isMG purI idsu d`Cx sYix Avqwr kih miq DwrI] ihMmqu isMG purI jgMnwQ pUrb PMDk ho miq swrI] DMnw su bMs ibKY Avqwru sRI Drm isMG mhW suB kwrI]2] vÁsÅ lahÖr viKÄ daiÁ siṅG soBatÅ Cataru so baṅs biKÄ avatÁrÅ.
sÁhib siṅG purÅ disu daCaN sÄNi avatÁr kahi mati DÁrÅ. hiṅmatu siṅG purÅ jagaṅnÁT pçrab PaṅDak ho mati sÁrÅ. DaṅnÁ su baṅs biKÄ avatÁru srÅ Daram siṅG mahÁṅ suB kÁrÅ.2. A resident from Lahore Daya Singh who took manifestation (avatar) in the noble ‘Sobhati’ Kshatriya caste. Sahib Singh was from Puri from the Southern Country, who was the manifestion of Sain, of great wisdom. Himmat Singh was from Jagannath Puri from the East [with net], of great renown. The manifestation of Dhanna was Sri Dharam Singh of great noble deeds.2.
doihrw] dohirÁ. Couplet. pMcm mohkm isMG jI nwm dyv Avqwru] Awid rUp sRI Kwlsw jwnq jnm suDwru]3] dyvw isMG Puin rwm isMG tihl isMG miq DIr] eISr isMG br Piqh isMG ieh pMcy mukqy brbIr]4] paṅcam mohakam siṅG jÅ nÁm dev avatÁru. Ádi rçp srÅ KÁlsÁ jÁnat janam suDÁru.3. devÁ siṅG funi rÁm siṅG qahil siṅG mati DÅr. Åshar siṅG bar fatih siṅG ih paṅce mukate barabÅr.4. The fifth was Mohkam Singh Ji, the manifestation of Namdev. Know them to be the primal form of the holy Khalsa, by which your life is redeemed.3. Deva Singh, then Ram Singh, Tahil Singh with great wisdom.
Ishar Singh then Fateh Singh, are the five liberated ones and great warriors.4.
sv`Xw] savayÁ. Quatrains. Awcuq Awid AnMqu su suMdr Kojq hY ijh ko surrweI] swq Awkws pqwrn BIqir rwjq hY ijh kI pRiBqweI] rwjn ieMd gijMd rxwcl sRI gurU goibMd isMG pRBU suKdweI] sRI muK qy kCu bolq hY moih AMimRq dyhu sBY imlu BweI]5] Ácut Ádi anaMtu su suṅdar Kojat hÄ jih ko surarÁÅ. sÁt ÁkÁs patÁran BÅtari rÁjat hÄ jih kÅ praBitÁÅ. rÁjan iṅd gajiṅd raNÁcal srÅ gurç gobiṅd siṅG praBç suKadÁÅ. srÅ muK te kaCu bolat hÄ mohi aṅmrit dehu saBÄ milu BÁÅ.5. The infallible, primal, infinite, very beautiful lotus feet, who is the King of angels. In the seven heavens, worlds, the ruler the Lord is praised. The King of the Indras, Chief of Elephant Battalions, the one who never retreats from battle Sri Guru Gobind Singh the Lord and giver of happiness. From his Holy mouth the Guru briefly spoke, ‘my brothers all of you together give me amrit’.5. sv`Xw] savyÁ. Quatrains. nIcn jwq ky hm bwirk qoih kruxwkir kYsy invwjy]
kMcn Bey mnUrhu qy jm Awidk ky sB hI fr Bwjy] aUc pey sB hI jg mih kir lY AwXuD bsqw miD gwjy] qO pd pMkj ky bil qy jn jMq Bey KMf BwrQ rwjy]6] nÅcan jÁt ke ham bÁrik tohi karuNÁkari kÄse nivÁje. kaṅcan Be mançrahu te jam Ádik ke saB hÅ war BÁje. çc pe saB hÅ jag mahi kari lÄ ÁyuD basatÁ maDi gÁje. tÖ pad paṅkaj ke bali te jan jaṅt Be Kaṅw BÁraT rÁje.6. I am of low caste, and am Your child, you are the compassionate one where I have taken shelter. When gold is purified then the grim reaper and others, all of these fears run away. In the entire world the highest is to put on the armour of war and roar in [battle]. At Your holy feet lays all strength for all men and people, for every king in this realm of India [Bharat].6. syis suryis idnysu insysu ipsysu Kojq hY ijh ko Aj qorI] isiD munI muin nwrd sy jwcq hYN br lwK krorI] ikMnr j`C BujMg DrwDr syvq hYN ijh ko ins BorI] so gur pUrn AMimRq mWgq Kwlsy Agr Kirau kr jorI]7] sesi suresi dinesu nisesu pisesu Kojat hÄ jih ko aj torÅ. siDi munÅ muni nÁrad se jÁcat hÄṅ bar lÁK karorÅ. kiṅnar jaCh Bujaṅg DarÁDar sevat hÄṅ jih ko nis BorÅ. so gur pçran aṅmrit mÁṅgat KÁlase agar Kariu kar jorÅ.7. Sheshnag, Angels, Sun, Moon, Demons seek You, and praise is Yours today.
The siddha yogis, silent sages, rishis, Narad, are Your slaves many millions of them. The kinars, jacch, snakes, sheshnag, are your servants, and praise You continuously. The true complete Guru asked the Khalsa for amrit, with hands folded in front of them.7.
KIr smwn sdw gur pUrn lwl rqn Bry ijh mwhIN] AMimRq Dyn ssIDru koitku kOx gxY gxqI ikCu nwhIN] iriD so isiD pdwrQ cwr bsy ijh kI pig kI rj SwhI] so gur pUrn AMimRq mWgq kOqk sMq liKE mn mwhIN]8] KÅr samÁn sadÁ gur pçran lÁl ratan Bare jih mÁhÅṅ. aṅmrit Den sasÅ Daru koqiku kÖN gaNÄ gaNatÅ kiCu nÁhÅṅ. riDi so siDi padÁraT cÁr base jih kÅ pagi kÅ raj shÁhÅ. so gur pçran aṅmrit mÁṅgat kÖtak saṅt laKio man mÁhÅṅ.8. Like the Eternal ocean of ambrosia full of true rubies and jewels is the Guru, whose praises are throughout. The giver of amrit to the wearer of the moon (Shiva) and millions of others, who cannot know Your worth, it is beyond count. The supernatural powers and wealth, the four boons, are with You at the dust of Your kingly feet. The true Guru asked for amrit this divine play was written [witnessed] by the saints in their minds.8. kuMflIAw CMd] kuṅwalÅÁ Caṅda.
A metre called ‘coiled like the snake’, the first two being couplets, and the others beings a rola, with forty matras, with the visram on the 11th, and 13th. AMqrjwmI mor pRB siB ibiD jwnx hwr] pMQ aupwvn kwrxy kil mih lIAw Avqwru]9] aṅtarajÁmÅ mor praB saBi biDi jÁnaNahÁra. paṅT upÁvan kÁraNe kali mahi lÅÁ avatÁru.9. My Lord is the knower of hearts, and knows all ways. Who manifested the Panth in kaliyug and took avatar.9. kil mih lIAw Avqwru dIn pRB dieAwl suAwmI] jIA kI jwnxhwr sgl Git AMqrjwmI]10] kali mahi lÅÁ avatÁru dÅn praB daiÁl suÁmÅ. jÅ kÅ jÁnaNahÁr sagal Gaqi aṅtarajÁmÅ.10. In kaliyug he took Avatar, the Lord of the humble, the merciful Master. Who knows all about each living being, the inner knower of the heart.10.
lIny sMgI nwl ijnW ril Bgiq kmweI] pMj ipAwry sMig nwm kih iqnw sunweI]11] lÅne saṅgÅ nÁl jinÁṅ rali Bagati kamÁÅ. paṅj piÁre saṅgi nÁm kahi tinÁ sunÁÅ.11. With his companions with whom he mingled and accumulated the wealth of devotion to Akal Purakh. The Five Beloved ones whose names were then said.11.
ipRQmY gurU goibMd isMG soFI ijh jwmw]
ptny lIAw Avqwr bhur AnMdpur Dwmw]12] priTamÄ gurç gobiṅd siṅG soWÅ jih jÁmÁ. paqane lÅÁ avatÁr bahur anaṅdapur DÁmÁ.12. First Guru Gobind Singh the son of the (solar) Sodhi. Who took avatar in Patna Sahib, and then made Anandpur Sahib his abode.12 dieAw isMG soBqI C`qrI purI laU jnm lIAw ijsu] hYsI lv Avqwru rwm pkirE hY ijsu]13] daiÁ siṅG soBatÅ ChatarÅ purÅ laç janam lÅÁ jisu. hÄsÅ lav avatÁru rÁm pakario hÄ jisu.13. Daya Singh who took birth in the noble ‘Sobhati’ Kshatriya caste in Loh (Lahore). In which came Lav avatar after Ram who took hold of it.13. mohkm isMG CIpw dvwrvqI ijh Dwm] nwmdyv jI auqry sMq svwrn kwm]14] mohakam siṅG ChÅpÁ davÁravatÅ jih DÁm. nÁmadev jÅ utare saṅt savÁran kÁma.14. Mohkam Singh was a printer and resident from Dvaravati. He was the avatar of Namdev to aid the Saints.14. swihb isMG ShId ibdr iqsu jnm pCwno] hYsI nweI is`K sYix ky l`Cx jwno]15] sÁhib siṅG shahÅd bidar tisu janam paCÁno. hÄsÅ nÁÅ siK sÄNi ke laChaN jÁno.15. Sahib Singh the martyr, know his birth as being at Bidur. Know him to be a barber who had the habits of Sain.15.
Drm isMG hTIlw j`t bKwnIAY] hsqnw pur kw jnm so DMnw jwnIAY]16] Daram siṅG haQÅlÁ jq baKÁnÅÄ. hasatanÁ pur kÁ janam so DaṅnÁ jÁnÅÄ.16. Dharam Singh the farmer described with strong hands. Whose birth was in Hastanapur, know him as Dhanna.16. ihMmq isMG inhMg isMG JIvr PMDku jwn] ien pMcn ko dX kY Puin ien qy lIau sujwnu]17] hiṅmat siṅG nihaṅg siṅG JÅvar PaṅDaku jÁna. in paṅcan ko day kÄ Puni in te lÅu sujÁnuÄ.17. Know Himmat Singh the Nihang Singh the fisherman with a net. [In the country of Himmat Singh, Jagganath Puri, the name Nihang Singh is used in their language]. According to Akali Baba Santa Singh ancient temples in this area have either paintings or carvings of beings who looked like Nihang Singhs. Also see my document on the Arti-Arta. doihrw] dohirÁ. Couplet. isr guMmIey mIxIey msMdIey jwx] rwm rweIey DIr mlIey ien isau myil nw mwn]18] sir guṅmÅe mÅNÅe masaṅdÅe jÁNa. rÁm rÁÅe DÅr malÅe in siu meli nÁ mÁnÄ.18.
Know the shaved headed ones, the Minas, the Masands; [and] The followers of Ram Rai and Dhir Mal, do not meet or respect them.18. jo jo gur ky mMqr hIx mu`h muMny DIAW mwr] ien sMg myil nw kIjeI ieh AwKI krqwrY]19] jo jo gur ke maṅtar hÅN muh muṅne DÅaÁṅ mÁra. in saṅg meli nÁ kÅjÅ ih ÁKÅ karatÁrÄ.19. Those who are without the Gurmantra, shave their faces, and kill their daughters. You should not meet them at all, thus has spoken the Creator.19.
guris`KW kI tihl kmwvnI gur mMqr rKxw cIiq] bMs Gwq krnw nhIN ieh isMGn kI rIiq]20] gurasiKÁṅ kÅ qahil kamÁvanÅ gur maṅtar raKaNÁ cÅti. baṅs GÁt karanÁ nahÅṅ ih siṅGan kÅ rÅti.20. Gain merit by serving the Sikhs of the Guru and remember the Gurmantra in your heart. Do not kill others in your clan, this is the way of the Singh’s. [i. e. Singhs do not kill other Singhs]
jo jo gur ky mMqr ko rwKaU ihrdY Dwir] iqsu ko bWih pkV kY rwKauN Awpxy duAwrY]21] jo jo gur ke maṅtar ko rÁKaç hiradÄ DÁri. tisu ko bÁṅhi pakaR kÄ rÁKauṅ ÁpaNe duÁrÄ.1. Whosoever keeps the Gurmantra inside their heart. Hold onto their arm and keep at their door.21.
mUl mMqr gurU Kwlsy isMG jI kw so mYN kihAw suxwie] ieh mUl mMqr jo pVY suxY so nwhI jim puir jwih]22] mçl maṅtar gurç KÁlase siṅG jÅ kÁ so mÄṅ kahiÁ suNÁi. ih mçl maṅtar jo paRÄ suNÄ so nÁhÅ jami puri jÁhiÄ. This is the Root Formula of the Singhs of the Guru Khalsa, whosoever speaks or listen to it. This root formula when read or heard saves one from the abode of death.
smwpqM] samÁpataṅa. The end. vÁhigurç jÅ kÁ KÁlasÁ vÁhigurç jÅ kÅ Patahi. vwihgurU jI kw Kwlsw, vwihgurU jI kI Pqih ] The Khalsa belongs to the Wonderous Guru, the Wonderous Guru is always Victorious. References Bhai Gurdas, Vārāṅ. Adi Sri Guru Granth Sahib Sri Dasam Granth Sahib Sri Sarbloh Granth Sahib Bhai Bala Janam Sākhī Tankhānāmah Bhai Nand Lal http://library.gndu.ac.in/Manuscripts.asp http://www.scribd.com/doc/130906016/The-History-of-the-NitnemB%C4%80%C5%86i%C4%80-Akali-Dr-Kamalroop-Singh-Nihang
http://www.scribd.com/doc/183005595/Arati-Arata-by-Dr-KamalroopSingh-Akali-Nihang-pdf www.searchgurbani.com www.sikhitothemax.com www.sridasam.com http://www.sridasamgranthsahibji.com C. Shackle, An Introduction to the Sacred Language of the Sikhs.