The chart shows how students on all courses at a Malaysian university viewed different subjects on a scale of easy to difficult. You should write 150 to 200 words.
How Students on All Courses at a Malaysian University View Different Subjects According to Different Levels of Difficulty
The bar chart shows how students who are studying in a Malaysian university rate different subjects according to its difficulty – easy, moderately difficult or difficult.
The subject which was most commonly rated as difficult was math, by 70% of the total students. While only 20% of students saw it as easy. Physics was also largely judged to be a difficult or
moderately difficult subject. Only 25% of students viewed it as easy. By contrast, chemistry was regarded as easy by a massive 70% of students.
As far as language subjects are concerned, languages in general were seen as easy by 40% of students. This percentage dropped to 20% for oriental languages. African languages, however, were viewed as easy by 60% of students. Next, Art was rated to be an easy subject by only 30% of students and like Physics, 50% rated it as difficult.
In conclusion, there seems to be no clear correspondence between the type of subject and whether it was generally rated as easy or difficult.
Question 2: Since achieving independence in 1957, Malaysia has been known for its peaceful and multiracial society. What can be done to further enhance national unity and solidarity among the various races? Elaborate and give relevant examples in more than 350 words. Nowadays, Malaysia is considered a leading tourist destination because we are famour for our multiracial society living together in peace and harmony. In my opinion, I strongly agree that national unity can be enhanced to strengthen solidarity among all the various race in this country. In this essay, I will discuss three solid strategies for enhancing national unity which include every individual's role in being more patriotic, be respectful of each different culture and mould a racially tolerant future generation. First and foremost, every individual can play a part in enhancing national by being more patriotic. This is because when we are patrotic we will appreciate being a Malaysian citizen who has the right to live a peaceful and war-free life. Moreover, having high patriotism will ensure that we really love our country and we will not do anything to harm the peach and harmony. For example, every one of us can respect the 'Negaraku' song and 'Rukunegara', fly our national flag during idependence Day and so on. Therefore, if everyone plays their part and becomes more patriotic, this will easily enhance the spirit of national unity. Secondly, as a loyal Malaysian, we should always be respectful of each and every culture found in this country. This means that respecting the main races like Malays, Chinese and Indians as well as the indigenous races will ensure that we will continue to live side by side in harmony. Furthermore, every race tat makes up the Malaysian society is unique and should be cherished for its special traditions. For instance, we should visit one another during the 'Open House' or wedding celebrations, religious festivals and many more. Thus by respecting the uniqueness of every culture, this helps us promote racial solidarity and enhance national unity. Last but not least, it is every individual's responsibility to mould the future generation to be more
patriotic. This is due to the fact that by educating our own children to be good and toelrant citizens, this will help us maintain our peaceful situation long into the future. In addition, children who are taught to be respectful of other cultures will learn to be more grateful for the peace and harmony our country enjoys compared to places like Gaza where they are now suffering the effects of war. Take for example, we can send our children to 'Sekolah Wawasan' or 'Vision Schools' where they can mix with all races, join multiracial community activities and others. Hence, by educating the young on patriotism, we are ensuring that national unity will continue to exist in the future. In a nutshell, the three strategies I have suggested are to be more patriotic and respectful of each unique culture as well as to teach our children about patriotism. In my opinion, I still strongly agree that national unity can be enhanced if we all play an active role. I hope that our government can highlight this issue in the media by organising more patriotic campaigns so that we can produce a united society that can contribute productively to the achievement of Vision 2020.
Prison is not a cure for crime. To reduce crime in the long-term, courts should significantly reduce prison sentences and focus on education and community work to help criminals not to re-offend. To what extent do you agree or disagree with the opinion?
Note: The general subject of the question is the best way to reduce crime. It has been given that long prison sentences should be maintained or to reduce it and emphasis on education and community work. Comment on both views. This is a short example. You should write at least 350 words. 4 body paragraphs.
There are many different opinions on the best way to reduce crime. The traditional solution is to be hard on criminals and put them in prison for a very long time. An opposing point of view is expressed by people with more modern ideas. They think that education and community work are the long -term solutions to cutting crime. So, who is right - the traditionalist or the modernist? People in favour of reducing prison sentences often argue that prisons should not simply be places of punishment. In traditional prisons, people learn a lot about crime, so when they leave prison, they will commit more crimes. Education, however, gives people the skills to get a job when they leave prison, which means that they will probably not re-offend. Part-time work experience in the community is also very helpful as it is a step back into everyday life in society. People can be in prison, but they can also feel they are doing useful work. On the other hand, some people argue that long prison sentences are right because the punishment should fit the crime. If, for example, someone commits a serious crime such as bank
robbery, they should go to prison for a long time. They also believe that reducing prison sentences significantly reduces people's fear of prison and consequently, people will commit more crimes. People will not be frightened of going to a prison which is like a university with learning and work experience opportunity. In conclusion, it is agreeable that education and community work can have an important role in helping reduce crime, but there should also be strict controls on the type of community work prisoners can do. It is important to understand that some people are a real danger to society and need to stay in prison for a very long time.
MUET Writing March 2016 Question 1 – Suggested Answer 1
Number of Heart Attack Cases and Activities of Men and Women (2011-2015)
Figure 1 illustrates the number of heart attacks among men and women while Figure 2 lists their activities (2011-2015).Generally, there is a positive correlation between the number of heart attacks cases and the number of activities of both sexes. In 2011, more men (320) had heart attacks than women (150) although women performed more (3) activities (‘Complete office work,’ ‘Attend meetings,’ ‘Attend to children’) compared to men (2)(‘Complete office work,’ ‘Meet clients’). When men did an extra activity (‘Attend meetings’), totaling 3 in 2012, the attacks increased to 380. Conversely, women who did less (2), dropping ‘Attend meetings’, suffered 50 lesser attacks (100)( in 2012). Despite (performing) the same 3 activities in 2013, the number of heart attacks suffered by men rose to 450. This figure further shot up to its highest (600) in 2014 when the number of activities increased to 4, when men included an extra ‘Manage staff problems.’
The number of attacks women suffered (100) and the 2 activities in 2013 and 2014 respectively, remained unchanged as in 2012. The number of attacks declined for both sexes to 500 (men) and 80 (women) in 2015 as they did one less activity each – men (3) and women (‘Attend to children’) only. In conclusion, the number of heart attacks and activities are correlated.
(200 words) (There is a Title, an Intro, an OV, 12 Analyses and 7 Syntheses and a Conclusion)
MUET Writing March 2016 Question 1 – Suggested Answer 2
Number of Heart Attack Cases and Activities Performed by Men and Women (20112015). Figure 1 illustrates the number of heart attacks among men and women while Figure 2 lists their activities (2011-2015). Generally, there is a correlation between the number of activities and the number of attacks. (32) In 2011, the number of cases was higher among men (320) than women (150) although women performed more (3) activities – ‘Complete office work,’ ‘Attend meetings,’ and ‘Attend to children’ compared to men who performed 2 activities, ‘Complete office work,’ and ‘Meet clients’ (34) An extra activity ‘Attend meetings’ increased the number of cases among men to 380 while giving up ‘Attend meetings’ reduced cases among women to 100 in 2012.(25) Although men performed the same 3 activities in 2013, cases rose to 450. This figure further shot up to its highest (600) in 2014 when activities increased to include a fourth ‘Manage staff problems.’ (32) As the activities performed by women in 2013 and 2014 were the same 2 ‘Complete office
work’ and ‘Attend to children’, the number of cases also remained the same at 100 as in 2012. (30) The number of cases declined for both sexes to 500 (men) and 80 (women) in 2015 as they did one less activity each – men (3) and women (‘Attend to children’) only. (29) In conclusion, the number of cases was generally higher for both sexes when they performed more activities. (17)
(This suggested answer has Title, Intro, OV, 11 As, 7Ss, C)
The most valuable thing in life is friendship. Do you agree? Discuss. You should write at least 350 words. [60 marks] It is true that no ‘man is an island’ meaning that no one in this world can live alone without friendship. That person would be very socially challenged as he or she would miss the camaraderie and life experiences that come with friendship. However, I completely disagree with the statement that the most valuable thing in life is friendship as there are certainly more important and priceless things in life besides this. In this essay, I will outline how life itself is more valuable than friendship, and elaborate on why family and the individual’s principles in life are ranked higher. First and foremost, before one can enjoy the beauty of friendship, one must surely value life itself or in other words, we should value our health. This is because, the quality of our life is the single most important criteria in life if we are to live a meaningful and wholesome life. Moreover, without good health, we will be hard pressed to do even the simplest of tasks like feed ourselves or relieve ourselves without the help of doctors, nurses and caregivers. For example, if we are paralysed, lost our sight, hearing or ability to speak or even a simple case of a fever or allergic reactions, then the quality of our life is greatly reduced and no amount of friendship can make us healthy again. Therefore, while friends can stand by us in our time of need, pristine health is still the most valuable asset in our lives. Secondly, we are no one without our family as indeed blood is thicker than water. This means that however you analyse it, friendships will almost always play second fiddle because family always comes first. Furthermore, if we do not value our family above others, then there must be a problem among the family members that has caused their relationship to be strained. For instance, people tend to turn away from family if the family member(s) themselves are the ones to cause them to react negatively such as divorced parents, abusive parents or siblings and so on. Thus, when people consider friendship to be the
most valuable thing in life, more often than not they may come from a troubled household. Last but not least, a person’s principles in life is by far more valuable than friendship alone. This is due to the fact that each person needs to have a code of ethics, quite often prescribed by their individual religions. In addition, this code will guide each person to live their lives according to the good and right principles. Take for example, if an individual has set his principles to do good, then no amount of friendship especially negative influence from friends, can shake his hold on his principles and cause him to commit undesirable deeds like smoking, stealing, raping, murdering and others. Hence, if a person values friendship so much to the point where he is willing to break his principles, then he has done a serious misdeed against himself and will most likely regret his actions later in life. In short, friendship is the rainbow of life as it colours our horizons with invaluable experiences but without good health, a supportive family and strong principles, life becomes empty and meaningless. In my opinion, it is beyond a shadow of a doubt that I still firmly believe that friendship is not the most valuable thing in life. Our government can encourage people to prioritise health, family and principles in life by organising awareness campaigns especially in primary schools where the younger generation should learn about priorities in life because they are the leaders of tomorrow.
“People are becoming more materialistic. They are concerned with making more money and what money can buy.” What is your opinion on being materialistic? You should write at least 350 words. [60 marks] They say that money makes the world go round. And indeed it does as without money, life would be very difficult as in today’s society, nothing is free. The side effect however is that people are becoming more materialistic; more concerned with making money and what money can buy. But how much money is enough? Is it ever enough? To some, it will never be enough. In my opinion, I truly believe that this statement is true and that people are becoming more materialistic in nature. In this essay, I will discuss how materialism has affected modern society’s way of life on an individual level, the country’s economy as well as our spiritual and moral beliefs. First and foremost, each individual is affected by materialism to some extent in this day and age because hedonism is becoming an uprising trend. This is because today's generation are geared towards making more and more money so that they can enjoy the carefree lifestyle that is so popular these days. Moreover, people now are striving to earn more income in order to afford things that are more expensive and branded. For example, people spend their hard earned money on material objects like genuine LV and Coach handbags, expensive gadgets like Iphones and Tablet pcs and so on which in my opinion is a waste of money when regular goods may prove to be good enough. Therefore, while individuals become more focussed on their pursuit of material wealth and improving their standard of living, they may forget that what matters most in life is quality time spent with family and friends and not the quantity of their material goods. Secondly, when society starts spending in a materialistic manner it will surely have a domino effect on the country’s economy. This means that the spending power of society will help boost the economy and create more business opportunities for the booming trade. However, when a society overspends, using plastic
money or credit cards, or when they take loans they cannot afford to repay, then the country’s debt margin will be higher. For instance, USA today is facing an economic crisis because banks have approved home loans to people who aspire to own bigger houses than they can actually afford and this is causing the collapse of the country’s economy there. Thus, while a society’s spending habits helps our economy to grow, overspending due to materialism will have an adverse effect to the country’s financial stability. Last but not least, materialism affects our spiritual and moral beliefs. This is due to the fact people who are materialistic may become ‘amoral’ whereby they disregard their spiritual and moral upbringing and instead turn to crime to satisfy their materialistic needs. In fact, the crime rate is increasing because criminals these days have developed many ways to gain more money from society. Take for example, there are more reports of snatch thefts, burglaries, kidnapping for ransom, credit card fraud, internet banking hacking and others that are driven by materialistic criminals. Hence, when people lose sight of their spiritual and moral beliefs and believe instead in the greed of materialism, therefore the crime rate is bound to increase. In a nutshell, materialism is a common agenda in the 21st century as more people are working hard to afford things beyond their reach. While this may spur individuals to work harder to improve their standard of living, overspending due to materialism may cause the downfall of a country’s economy and their morality. In my opinion, I still firmly believe that materialism has a strong hold on today’s society; both positive and negative effects. Our government can encourage society to be less frivolous and wasteful in spending by running campaigns such as ‘Consumer Awareness’ and ‘Buy Malaysian Made Products’ in order to educate our younger generation for the prosperity of our nation. November 2015 Writing Question 1 – Suggested Answer A. Title 1. Daily Free Time Activities and their Benefits as Rated by Two Types of Students _________ (in 2014/at 2014/on 2014) 2. How Secondary School and University Students Daily Spent Their Free Time _____(at/on/in/of) 2014 3. ___________(Rate/Rated/Rating) of Benefits Gained by Students by Engaging in Free Time Activities in 2014 B. Introduction 1. Figures 1 and 2 _________(shows/show) daily activities during free time by secondary school and university students in 2014 while Table 1 __________(list/listed/lists) students’ rating of benefits gained by engaging in those activities. 2. Figures 1 and 2 show daily free time activities of secondary school and university students in 2014. _________ (Table/Table 1/Table One) lists students’ rating of benefits gained by engaging in those activities. 3. Figures 1 and 2 show _______(why/how/what) secondary school and university students spent /spend their free time in 2014 respectively while Table 1 lists the __________(rate/ratings/rated) they gave to the benefits gained by engaging in those activities. 4. The _____ _______(pie chart/pie charts/bar chart) illustrate how secondary school and university students daily spent their free time in 2014 ________________(respect…) while the ________(table/tables) lists the ratings they gave to the benefits gained by engaging in those activities. C. Overview
1. As the two types of students spent their free time on mostly different activities, their rating of benefits gained by engaging in those activities were also generally __________________(different/the same). 2. _____________(Except/Beside) for surfing the internet, the two types of students had different free time activities and therefore their ratings of the benefits gained were also not the ___________. (different/same) 3. Except for surfing the internet, the free time activities of secondary and university students were different and therefore their ratings of the benefits gained by engaging in those activities also ______________.(different/same/differed) 4. There is a clearer logical link ______________ (with/between)the free time activities of secondary school students and their ratings of benefits gained compared to that of university students . 5. While secondary school students felt that spending most of their free time attending tuition helped them most significantly to ___________ _____________ __________(benefit), university students who spent the same amount of time ___________ _______ ______________ (free time activity) rated being more updated as the most significant benefit gained. 6. While secondary school students rated obtaining better grades as the ___________(highest/most) significant benefit gained as a result of spending most of their free time on activities related to studies, university students who __________(did/also) spent most of their free time on studies related activities did _________(not/so) rate obtaining better grades as the most significant benefit. 7. There are no clear links between the rating of benefits gained and free time activities of university students as is the case for secondary students. Is this correct? D. Key Features / Analysis / Synthesis a. Analysis 1. Secondary school students spent most of their free time (_______minutes) attending tuition classes while university students spent __________ (most/all)of their free time (150 mins) surfing the internet. 2. Both secondary and university students spent the ________(different/same) amount (and most) of their free time (150 mins) attending tuition and surfing the internet respectively. 3. Doing homework (120 mins) and carrying out group discussion (120 mins) were the ______________(top/second/last) most favourite free time activities of secondary and university students respectively. 4. Secondary students spent the _________(least/lowest/smallest) amount of their free time (10 mins) helping parents… 5. …(while) University students’ least prioritized free time activity was taking a nap (20mins) / University students took a nap __________ (for/abou)20 mins making it their least prioritised free time activity/ university students spent the least amount _____(of/for/to) their free time taking a nap/napping (20mins). 6. University students spent the least amount of their free time on napping/taking a nap (20mins) while secondary students spent an ___________(equal/enormous) amount of time (20 mins) playing games. 7. University students spent ___________(more/most) /a significantly higher amount of their free time (2 & ½ more times) (______ mins) surfing the internet _____________ (compare/compared) to/than secondary students (60 mins). 8. The ______________ (second/most)least amount of their free time (30 mins) was spent by university students consulting lecturers. Doing assignments (40 mins) took up an ________ (hour/extra)10 mins. 9. Secondary students _____________(rate/rated/rating) obtaining better grades as the most significant (1) benefit gained from their free time activities… 10. …(while) university students gave it a moderately significant (benefit) rating of ____(1/2/3/4/5) /
university students rated ______ _____ __________(benefit) as the most significant benefit (1). 11. ______________(Secondary/University) students gave obtaining better grades as the most significant benefit (rating level 1) while ______________(Secondary/University) students gave /listed being more updated as the most significant benefit gained (1) from their free time activities. 12. Secondary students gave the most significant benefit rating (1) to obtaining better grades while university students gave it a (_____) (3/4) or moderately significant rating. 13. Secondary students rated ________________ _____________(benefit) as the least significant benefit (5) gained from their free time activities. For university students the least significant benefit gained (5) was ______________________________________(benefit). 14. Both types of /secondary and university students gave/rated having better understanding as their _____________ (second/third) most significant benefit (2) gained. 15. Both types of students gave having better understanding the __________(best/same) benefit rating of 2 (as a result of their free time activities).
b. Synthesis 1. ________ (As/Although) secondary students spent most of their free time attending tuition (150 mins), they rated obtaining better grades as the most significant benefit(1) gained. 2. Attending tuition classes during most of their free time (150 mins) could have also contributed to secondary students _____________________________________ (benefit) as it got the second most significant benefit rating (2). 3. Attending tuition classes during most of their free time(150 mins) and doing homework being the _________________ (third/second) most favourite free time activity (120 mins) most probably led to secondary students rating obtaining better grades as the most significant benefit(1) and having better understanding as the second most significant benefit gained. 4. Obtaining better grades was rated as the most significant benefit gained (1) by secondary students as ____________ (they/their/them) spent most of their free time (150 mins) attending tuition classes. 5. Obtaining better grades and having better understanding were rated by secondary students as the most significant benefit(1) and second most significant benefit (2) gained __________________(together/respectively) as they had spent most of their free time (150 mins) attending tuition classes and the next highest /second highest (most) amount of free time (120mins) doing homework. 6. Obtaining better grades and having better understanding ______(were/was) rated as the most significant(1) and second most significant benefits (2) gained respectively by secondary students as they had spent most of their free time and the second most amount of their free time attending tuition classes (150 mins) and doing homework(120 mins) respectively. 7. Obtaining better grades and having better understanding were rated as the most significant (1) and second most significant benefits (2) gained _________________ (respectively/respectfully) by secondary students as they had spent most of their free time attending tuition classes (150 mins)and the next ______________(highest/plenty) amount of time doing homework(120 mins) respectively. 8. Secondary students most significant benefit rating (1) was for obtaining better grades as _________(many/most) of their free time (150 mins) was spent attending tuition classes. Besides, _________ ____________,(activity) the second most favourite free time activity (120 mins) for 1/3 of their free time could have also contributed to rating obtaining better grades as the most significant benefit(1). Both the above activities that took up 270 mins or 75% or 3/4ths of their free time must have also contributed to their _________________________________(benefit) as it got the second most significant benefit rating of (2). 9. As secondary students spent lesser (just 1/6) of their free time (____ mins) on surfing the internet,
they rated being updated as not so significant a benefit gained (3). 10. University students spent most of their free time (150 mins) surfing the internet, and therefore, rated being more updated ______ (as/for/to) their most significant benefit gained (1) from free time activities. 11. _______________ (To be/Be/Being) more updated was rated as the most significant benefit gained (1) by university students as they spent most of their free time (150 mins) surfing the internet. 12. Secondary students who spent most of their free time (150 mins) on tuition rated obtaining better grades as the most significant benefit (1) gained while university students who spent the same _________, (120/150 mins) which was most of their free time on surfing the internet rated being more updated as the most significant benefit (1) they gained. 13. Secondary students _________ (will/who/was) spent most of their free time (150 mins) attending tuition rated obtaining better grades as the most significant benefit (1) gained while university students who spent most of their free time which was the same 150 mins on surfing the internet, rated being more updated as the most significant benefit (1) they gained. 14. Although carrying out group discussion was university students’ second most favourite free time activity(________ mins) as it also took up 1/3 of their free time, yet obtaining better grades was rated as a moderately significant benefit (_____)(1/2/3) gained. However, the 120 min group discussion may have caused them ______ (just/to/have) rate having better understanding as the second most significant benefit (2). 15. __________ (Since/As/Because/Although) carrying out group discussion took up the second highest amount of university students’ free time (120 mins), yet obtaining better grades was just rated as a moderately significant benefit(3) gained. However, the 120 min group discussion may have caused them to rate having better understanding as the second most significant benefit (2) gained. 16. ______(Since/As/Because/Although) carrying out group discussion took up the second highest amount of university students’ free time(120 mins), they rated having better understanding as the second most significant benefit(2) gained. However, the 120 min group discussion may not have translated into better grades as it was just rated as a moderately significant benefit(3) gained. 17. Carrying out group discussion (120 mins) and ________________(activity) (30 mins) may together explain university students‘ rating of having better understanding as the second most significant benefit(2) gained. ________________,(Although/Since/As/However) obtaining better grades was rated as a moderately significant benefit (3) gained. 18. Carrying out group discussion (120 mins), consulting lecturer(30 mins) and __________ ____________(activity) (40 mins) which together took up more than ________(half/three quarter) of the university students’ free time (190) must have contributed to their rating having better understanding as the second most significant benefit (2) but a not so significant or moderate(ly significant) benefit of 3 for obtaining better grades.. 19. Secondary students spent the least amount of their free time (10 mins) helping parents and therefore rated fulfilling responsibility as the least significant benefit gained (___). 20. As secondary students spent a negligible ______ mins (of their free time) helping parents, they rated fulfilling responsibility as the least significant benefit gained (5). 21. Playing games daily for just/only ______ minutes (second least amount of time) could be the reason for secondary students rating having a healthy body at level 4, one level ________(higher/lower) than 5, the least significant benefit rating level. 22. While university students rated being updated as the most significant benefit gained(1) as they spent most of their free time (150 mins) surfing the internet, secondary students who spent much __________(of/their/more/less) time (60 minutes) surfing the internet gave being more updated a moderately/less significant beneficial/benefit rating of (3). 23. University students took a nap for 20 mins ____________ (make/making/made/makes) it their least favourite/prioritized free time activity. As a result/Therefore, ___________ (they/them) rated having a healthy body as the least significant benefit (5) gained.
24. As university students spent the least amount of their free time (_____ mins) taking a nap, they rated having a healthy body as the least significant benefit (5) gained. 25. Secondary students who spent a negligible 20 mins playing games, rated having a healthy body at _________ (rate/level)4. 26. University students spent the least amount of their free time on napping/taking a nap (20 mins) while secondary students spent an equal amount of time (20 mins) ________________ ___________(activity). Thus, the former rated having a healthy body as the least significant benefit gained (5) while the ________(latter/later) gave it a slightly better benefit rating of 4. 27. The second least amount of time (_____ mins) was spent by university students consulting lecturers and an extra 10 mins was used for doing assignments (40 mins). Spending such relatively low/less amount of their free time on matters related to examinations may be the reason for a less significant benefit rating of ____ on/for obtaining better grades. 28. For university students spending the second highest amount of free time (120 minutes) on group discussion seemed to have contributed to a ___________(high/higher/highest) benefit rating for having better understanding (2) compared to obtaining better grades (3) 29. For university students spending the second highest amount of free time (120 minutes) on group discussion seemed to have contributed more to having better understanding (2) ________(than/to) obtaining better grades (3) 30. _________________ (Spend/Spending/Spent) the second highest amount of free time (120 minutes) by university students on group discussion seemed to have contributed to a higher/more significant benefit rating on/for having better understanding (2) compared to/ than obtaining better grades (3). 31. Carrying out group discussion ______(for/of/to) 120 mins may have significantly contributed to university students having better understanding as it was given a benefit rating of (level) 2./level 2 benefit rating.
E. Conclusion 1. As the two groups of students spent their free time on ______________(various/different/same) activities, their ratings of benefits gained (by engaging in those activities) were also different.
Man's careless attitude is the main cause for the destruction of the environment. Discuss. You should write at least 350 words. (60 marks) Below is a good sample answer written by Franky, my 2013 lower 6 science student.
In this modern civilization, man struggles to survive the high cost of living expenses, which significantly increases with each passing year. This causes them to use any method available that generates income and they start to sideline the importance of preserving nature. This is due to mankind realising the potential of economy that can come from nature. So, I strongly believe the destruction of nature is mostly caused by man's careless attitude whereby they prioritise their greed for money and the development of civilisation. Let us analyse this phenomenon in terms of the country's development, illegal activities of exploiting nature and the job opportunities. First of all, many nations try to achieve the title of the most leading nation in economy or infrastructure. So in order to compete with other countries, most nations try to explore any available land in their country for development such as industries, tourist spots and many other purposes that are related to money. Whenever they see the potential of a certain piece of land, they tend to develop it despite some of these places might still be uninhabited or the home for many wildlife. Sometimes, they would also plod through jungles or level the mountains for road development which severely changes the landscape of nature. As a result, this selfish
and careless act will cause the deforestation and global warming. For example, Indonesia has become quite careless with their handling of these problems. In Kalimantan, Indonesia, the forest is being severely deforested by their people for land development. And to make matters worse, they even choose the fastest and cos-saving method of deforestation which is by burning down the trees, the mass release of carbon dioxide from the mass burn down of trees lead to ozone thinning and greenhouse effect. Also, the haze problem is another negative side product. As for the real victims of these acts, they are the neighbouring nations such as Malaysia, Singapore, Thailand and Philippines especially as haze causes many health issues such as lung cancer and breathing problems. Therefore, these careless acts and greed not only cause the destruction of nature but also endanger many lives, both man and animals. Secondly, some people's greed for great fortune and easy life make them become selfish and careless by over-exploiting nature. They willingly do illegal activities such as cutting down trees or animal hunting, seeing the high demand for these materials. It will slowly cause the depopulation of different kinds of flora and fauna. In China, these activities of eating inner organs of animals such as tiger or bear and they even use these animals' body parts for economic purposes such as tiger skin, crocodile skin and elephant teeth and tusks by exporting it to those who pay a high price for it. This has a serious effect on the ecosystem which is the extinction of animals. In Indonesia, trees are being cut down for making expensive house furniture made of material such as teak wood. In fact, these trees require a long period of 10 to 20 years to mature. Thus, the continuous cutting down of trees will eventually lead to its extinction. These activities are illegal by law and still occurs widely despite many countermeasures that have been taken by the authorised organisations such as World Wildlife Fund (WWF). Somehow, these criminals are able to slip through the organisations's enforcement laws of protecting the wildlife and nature. Plus, most society are careless to even take notice of these problems because they have yet to come to awareness of the dangers that would happen from these illegal acts. If only they had given more attention and cooperation to the authorised organisations, these problems might have been able to be prevented. Lastly, to survive in this modern world, every person needs to be able to make a living for themselves of their family, but many people with low education level cannot get high salary jobs, even university scholars are yet to be certain of getting a proper job after their graduation despite their high level of education. The competition is just like the survival of the fittest among these graduates and people with low qualifications.
Therefore with the growing demand for more natural materials such as petroleum gas and minerals from the earth as well as a high demand of smuggled goods, people are willing to pay high prices to have employees do their job of exploiting nature because these jobs are high risk. So people that are desperately in need of jobs are usually tempted with the pay and they would take up the call. This situation had opened up a lot of job opportunities, but they are careless to not realise that these jobs are the main cause of nature's destructtion because they are being pinned down by the pressure of high living cost in this modern world that they have forgotten the importance of preserving nature. In a nutshell, I still strongly believe in my opinion that nature's destruction is mainly caused by man's careless attitude. They strive to make a living in the world so desperately that some eventually deny the truth that it is their own fault for nature's destruction. If no serious and proper actions are being taken immediately by many wildlife and nature preserving organisations or authorised organisations such as WWF, UNESCO and ASEAN to prepare an effective strategy or blueprint to prevent this problem, there probably won't be any jungles or wildlife left in the future and our young generaton will have to live in a polluted world.
"The most important factor which contributes towards a person's success is himself." Do you agree with the statement ? Justify your stand, giving relevant examples where appropriate. You should write at least 350 words. a. Facts/Data/Statistics (News articles, data from graphs/surveys etc) According to an article in Forbes magazine on World's 100 Top Successful people, 90% of people become
successful based on their unique individual characters rather than talent alone. This means that people who have the same great talent - take singing for example - are both capable of becoming successful but the one who has the characteristics fans like such as friendly, well-groomed with high self-esteem and creativity are more likely to achieve superstardom compared to an introverted singer with low selfconfidence and charisma. It is my humble opinion that I absolutely agree with the statement that the most important factor which contributes towards a person's success is himself. We can analyse this issue in terms of the human factor which are his innate qualities, his drive for success and his ability to sustain success.
b. Questions (Rhetorical questions related to the issue) Is talent enough to achieve success? How is it possible for a set of twins who are both equally good in singing, yet only one becomes a successful singer while the other does not? Can a person's character determine his or her ability to achieve success in life? From my point of view, the answer lies in the fact that it is indeed the person himself which contributes towards his own success. In this essay, I would like to discuss how a person's innate talent, his drive to succeed and his motivation to stay at the top are the reasons that differentiate every one of us therefore controlling our success metres.
c. An anecdote (Story that is related to the issue) There was once a farmer who had triplets. He could not decide which son should inherit his property so he gave each of his three sons the same sum of money and told them to achieve success. The first son used the money as a dowry and managed to acquire the chief's daughter as a wife. The second son used the money to bet on horses but lost it all. The third son bought cows with the intent of breeding them, milking them and making butter and cheese of which he would sell at the market. Finally, the farmer chose the third son because he was the only son capable of 'growing' his investment. The point of all this is to show that when the playing field is leveled, and there is equal opportunity, success or failure is determined by the decisions each individual makes. Therefore, I strongly agree with the statement that the most important factor which contributes towards a person's success is himself. In light of this, there are many aspects of the person himself which contributes to his success, namely his aptitude, attitude and drive to succeed.
d. Examples (Various related examples) Donald Trump is renowned the world over for his acute business acumen as testified by his Trump empire. His entrepreneurship skills have been commonly mimicked but rarely replicated as many aspire to become like him but seldom achieve the level of his success. The secret of his success is his unique character which is driven by his desire to rise above all, including himself. There are other examples of extremely successful people who have achieved success not solely based on talent but their individual characteristics such as Mark Zuckerberg and our own Datuk Tony Fernandez to name a few. From my perspective, the most important factor which contributes towards a person's success is indeed himself. This can be proven in terms of his own talent, his character and motivation to remain successful. e. Contrast (Describing the opposite of a given situation, eg. topic: Money, opposite: No Money) A person born into an affluent family, when taking over the father's business manages to run the business down the ground. The question then arises as to why the son failed to follow in the footsteps of his father when everything was handed to him on a silver platter. Simply put, he might have inherited the same
genes but this does not predetermine his individualistic characteristic which in turn contributes to his ability to succeed or in this case, fail. Similarly, a person born into a poor family with not much given to him, can scrape the barrels and claw out of his poverty and make a success of his life unlike his parents or siblings. The sheer determination to succeed gives him the necessary elixir to lift him out of his fate and create a new and brighter future for himself. Hence it is my steadfast opinion that the environment does not play the most crucial factor in determining success, but it is indeed the person himself what contributes to his rise or fall. To discuss this issue, let us look at the three aspects of success, namely a person's aptitude, attitude and desire to sustain success. f. Projection (Imagining the future) If every one of us could be successful, would this world not be full of successful people? The very fact that not everyone in this world today is a success story strongly implies that there are many factors that contribute to a person's success but it is each individual himself that gives him the cutting edge. In my opinion, I completely agree that the most important factor which contributes towards a person's success is himself. There are many facets to this issue but let us focus on a person's own ability, character and determination that will lead to his or her success.
"The most important thing in life is health." Do you agree with the statement? Justify your stand, giving relevant examples where appropriate. You should write at least 350 words. Intro style based on b. Questions (Rhetorical questions related to the issue)
How can someone works if he/she got headache? Can we continue our life routines such as going to work or go for a jogging in the park if we got cold? Maybe we can but the consequences of it may worsen the pain and lead to another health problems. Staying healthy is the key to start a good day and enjoy the rest of the day. With good health, we can stimulates idea from our brain and try to figure out how to make it work. Therefore, I am strongly believe with this topic that the most important thing in life is health. In this topic, i would like to discuss what health can do for us both physically and mentally in our daily life. Presently, society tend to be more and more materialistic. Lots of us opine(think) that wealth is the most significant thing in life. Is it true? Imagine a millionaire who is facint a severe health problem, will he or she have a good life? The answer is definitely no. Therefore, in my opinion, i strongly agree that health is the most important thing in life. Nowadays,people are getting aware about their health.there are a big improvement in health concern developed in our society when various supplements trending out there even in social media. However,it is useless if people keep practising their old habits of eating unhealthy foods anf lack of exercise as these self maintainence without taking supplements have a lot of benefits and could give a big impact to a person health. In my opinion, I strongly agree that the most important thing in life is to have a healthy body and mind. In this essay, I would like to discuss the strategies to maintain a healthy body,namely exercising, dieting,maintain good hygene and healthy relationship.
The world today is turning more to electronic communications such as the e-mail, Facebook and Short message System (SMS). What is your opinion of this growing trend? Discuss. You should write at least 350 words. Generally, in answering academic essays, you need to really focus on a higher level of thinking which befits a Band 6, university style response. If you were to just answer that this electronic communication
trend is good and that you can chat with your friends and keep in touch, then you really haven't explored the question in a mature and critical way. How do you train your mind to be more critical and mature in approaching the question? Well, you need to focus not just on the effects of the concept to yourself and the people around you, but focus on how it will affect society not just in your country but globally. Anyway, have a read of the sample answer below. Take note that I'm sticking to my writing template, but better students can use a more creative style to show their flair in writing effective compositions.
Everywhere we turn today, the world is crowded with people busy typing SMSes on their Nokias or iPhones or someone is staring unblinkingly at a Facebook or Yahoo page on the computer screen. Whether you like it or not, the age of Information Technology is upon us, and we can either learn new skills and adapt to this new technology, or be forever lost and stuck in the older generation. In my opinion, I am fully convinced that this growing trend is the way of the future, and it brings countless benefits to mankind. In this essay, I will discuss three positive effects of electronic communication, namely its efficiency, enhances communication and creates a borderless world community. First and foremost, more and more people are relying on e-mail, Facebook, Short Message System (SMS) and other types of electronic communication tools because of its high efficiency. This is because in today's age of globalisation, we need information at the tip of our fingers. Moreover, with the use of these tools, we can increase the speed of getting the necessary and relevant information within seconds and this will increase our productivity. For example, gone are the days of using 'snail mail' or regular letters using stamps and envelopes and many more examples of 'old' technology because it is simply too slow and inefficient. Therefore, these e-communication tools increases the access to important information which is why the new generation is fully accepting this growing trend. Secondly, this form of technology enhances communication among people today. This means that when we use SMS, e-mails and websites like Facebook, we are able to communicate clearly and directly to our target audience. Furthermore, people today find that the message is more important than the form it comes in as an e-mail in short but clear sentences is just as good or even better than a long and formal letter. For instance, an SMS can give clear instructions in just a few words and this communicates what needs to be done quickly and directly. Thus, when the intended message can be spread clearly using short and clear information like in SMSes and emails, communication can be enhanced and there will be less problems of miscommunication. Last but not least, e-communication creates a borderless community in the world we live in today. This is due to the fact that the boundaries that separate each country becomes less relevant when information is transferred without limitations. In addition, the world would be a better place because there is a sense of 1-World commitment, respect and tolerance for the global
community through efficient and clear e-communication. Take for example, we are able to connect with people on an international basis using Facebook, Friendster, Tagged, Hotmail, Yahoo and others. Hence, these tools will enhance global unity and create a more peaceful world. In a nutshell, this growing trend has many positive effects not just to individuals but the global society in terms of efficiency, enhancing communicative skills and shaping a borderless community. In my opinion, I still firmly believe that this latest trend is the best way forward and if we do not catch up, we will be left behind by the tide of development. Our government can encourage the proper usage of electronic communications by increasing communication amenities and broadband accessibility especially in rural areas so that they can enjoy the same facilities as city-folks therefore balancing the development of our country towards achieving Vision 2020.
Women make better leaders than men. Do you agree? Discuss. You should write at least 350 words. Well the question above seems simplistic but the reality is that most of the students who took this exam last Nov, failed. Why did they fail when it would seem like a very debatable topic? It's not as if they had no idea at all as was the case with the 'arranged marriages' question. After some research, I've come upon the main reason and this, I have to emphasise here, is entirely my own opinion, not MPM's.
So what is the main reason? Well.. simply put, lack of critical thinking skills. MUET teachers out there, I implore you to teach your students these 3 key concepts. 1. Argument, counter-argument and refutation. 2. Differentiating fact from opinion. 3. Quantifying overgeneralisation/sweeping statements. The first two are relatively simple to teach as there are countless resources you can find... I remember blogging about No. 1 so you may be able to find it here, in fact... just click on the link HERE. As for the third item, let me elucidate using this essay question. Most of the candidates were unable to present mature arguments because they simply ended up with statements that are not based on fact but opinion. To make matters worse, they did not quantify the statement with the correct adverb of degree (some, a few, many, most etc) instead they used words like all, always, never. They also misused other adverbs such as too, very, every etc. Therefore the validity of the essay is seriously affected. It is therefore better to use modals like may, might and could to mediate your sentences to make it more acceptable and believable. A MUET examiner is able to spot a sweeping statement a mile away and you can be sure Bands 5 & 6 have flown out the window! Let me show you some examples. Women make better leaders than men. Samples (a) are over-generalisations and (b) has been mediated to sound more credible. 1a) Women are too emotional so they will always make the wrong decision. b) Some women are very emotional so they may make wrong decisions. 2a) Men are very intelligent but women always never use their brains and cry all the time. b) Surveys have shown that men are more intelligent than women and can handle stress better. 3a) Men are better leaders because they invented all the things in the world. b) Men could make better leaders because they are intelligent enough to create most inventions. (3a is a poor sentence because it is over-generalised as well as having faulty logic. 3b is better because it adds 'intelligent enough' thereby linking the two ideas to make it flow more logically.)
Women Make Better Leaders Than Men The debate between the supremacy of the genders have been in session since time immemorial. In the past, it would seem that men had the upperhand but these days, women are starting to leave their mark in many aspects from business to politics rather than just domestic affairs. In my humble opinion, both men and women have the potential to be great leaders but the question of 'better leaders' does not lie in a person's gender alone but his or her innate character. In this essay, let us explore the qualities that make men and women great leaders before focusing on other factors that are unrelated to gender.
First and foremost, men have some distinctive qualities that make them far better leaders than women. We can attribute this to the fact that men are generally physically stronger than women. This is undeniable because a man has clearly more muscle mass than a woman so in terms of leadership that has to do with physical ability, men win hands down. For example, in the army,most leaders are men that are buffed up and better able to handle the physical exertions of this field compared to women who are more delicate in structure. Men are also known to have better ability to strategise in terms of warfare and they seem to command their armies better. For example, great leaders have been men such as Napoleon Bonaparte, Genghis Khan, Hitler and so on. Moreover, men tend to be able to make quick decisions that are not usually based on their emotions but logical, rational and practical reasons. Women, however, seem to be very emotional creatures so they may make poor leadership decisions if they simply follow their feelings. Therefore, men have many qualities like physical strength, ability to strategise well and make snap decisions which can make them better leaders. However, women have proven to be better leaders in an increasing number of cases. This can be seen as more and more countries have entrusted women to be their leaders. These women have a more 'feminine' approach to leadership which is more sensitive towards the needs of society. For instance, history is peppered with exemplary female leaders such as Indira Ghandi, Benazir Bhutto, Eva Peron and present day heroines such as Aung San Suu Kyi. Women tend to be more caring in nature and quite patient in dealing with problems which makes them better leaders compared to men who could be less sensitive and impatient. Most women are also known to beperfectionists, and this is an advantage because they are often very meticulous and detailed in carrying out their duties as leaders. Thus, with a more open-minded society, an increasing number of women are being given the onus to take the lead and may even one day supersede men in their traditional leadership roles! Although I have gone to great lengths to show that both men and women have the ability to be great leaders, I still completely believe that 'leadership' has little to do with gender and a lot to do with a person's innate character. This means that to be a great leader does not depend on whether you are male or female but rather your personal characteristics that drive you to succeed. Men and women both possess the qualities of confidence, responsibility, time management and delegation skills, public relations and good communication skills, positive outlook, high commitment, creativity and innovation, forward-looking visionaries and many other characteristics of a good leader. Hence, the question of gender should not arise because being male or female does not guarantee the ability to lead well. In conclusion, history has shown that men make better leaders but this is a faulty argument because it does not take into consideration the fact in the old days women were discriminated against and not allowed to lead. Today, society is more open-minded and more women are taking the helm and proving that women can be better leaders. Nevertheless, leadership to me is 'genderless' whereby it is completely dependent on a person's positive characteristics which makes people respect them and want to follow in their footsteps. Every country needs more leaders regardless of gender so the government should conduct more self-improvement leadership courses for the younger generation so they may become better future leaders of our country.
Which do you prefer, living in the countryside or living in the city?
Countryside I think living in the countryside is far better than living in the city. There are numerous of reasons why living in countryside is the better than the city. The
scenery, the streets, the people and the paced are totally different compare to the city. The first outstanding characteristic about the countryside is that it is beautiful and peaceful. The air is fresh and the surroundings green. This is because the countryside is free from pollution, be it air, land or noise pollution. There no such perfect peaceful view that you can see other than in the countryside. There are no crowded streets and heavy traffic in the countryside. Thus there are no fumes from cars and smoke from factories buildings to pollute the air. The trees surrounded the countryside help the people from inhaling the polluted air. The freshness smell of plant somehow helps the people of the countryside to have a healthy life. Furthermore, people in the countryside are more conscious of keeping their surroundings clean and so there is little throwing of rubbish everywhere, only at designated places. This is unlike the cities where if the garbage trucks do not collect the rubbish disposed by household or restaurants, the city will be overflowing with rubbish! This will attract the mosquitoes, fly, rats and wild dogs to pollute their surrounding that will cause them to have diseases like dengue and cholera. Thirdly, heavy traffic and crowded streets increase the level of noise pollution. The honking of cars in the streets is continuous and the crowds on the roads increase the hub of activity. There are also sound of the machine used in manufacturing factories, loud radio in and out the mall. These add to the noise of the city. Even if one lives in residential areas, one is never far from busy streets. However, in the countryside, life is slow-paced. There is no need to rush around because there are not too many places to go. Most places are close by and people can walk or cycle. Less vehicle used, so less fumes is released. The most heart-warming thing about the countryside is the attitude of people. People are friendly and helpful. If there are any happy or festive occasions, everyone pitches in to help. This feeling of cooperation and neighbourliness is what separates the countryside from the city. In the city, people are too busy to take note of the people around. Some hardly even know their neighbours. So they would not even be bothered about what happens to people around. This is why the crime rate is increasing in the city because bystanders do not rush in to help if a crime is committed on the streets.
The pace of life in the countryside is slow so people have more time to enjoy life as the day goes on. Thus, for me to enjoy the quality of life, I prefer to live in the countryside.
City In my opinion, one has not experienced life until one has lived in the city. There is so much to see and experience in the bright lights of the city that you cannot get in the countryside. Here in the city, you can learn about how to get along with people of different types, encounter varied situations and solve problems. All these help a person to grow in maturity. After all, experience is the best teacher. In the countryside, however, you only move around people you are used to. So, you seldom encounter strangers or new and demanding situations. Life is more mundane and routine-like. Staying in a secure, safe place does not allow for one to gain new experiences and grow in maturity. Furthermore, young people need a life that is exciting and pleasurable. It is the city that offers you entertainment- cinemas, parks and eating places. Here you can hang out with friends and family members. Life as fast-paced and this keeps you active and alert all times. And when it comes to educational opportunities, the city abounds in this. There are good school and libraries that are necessary for your mental development. Furthermore, there are places like museums and educational centres where you can go, to increase your knowledge. Such places that offer you entertainment or learning opportunities are of course not available in the countryside. For entertainment, there is only the occasional festive celebration or marriage feast or fishing outing. Some may find this appealing but not me. Moreover, opportunities to widen your knowledge are limited in the countryside. Another point in support of living in the city is the available of jobs. In the city, you can find a job that suits your qualification or interest. If you find a job unsuitable, you can always move to another. This, naturally, increases your earning power and you have better chances of a more comfortable life. Of course, one may argue that one can live in the countryside and work in the city but this will only incur extra expenses and unnecessary inconveniences. Thus, for all the reasons mentioned above, I think that life in the city is better than living in the countryside. After all, you are young only once. 374 words
GRAMMAR FIRST. I've developed some basic rules. If you can follow it, i'm sure your writing will improve by leaps and bounds. Firstly, you must learn (memorise) all the words in the table of tenses. There are 4 columns, all starting with 'P'. P1 - Present tense (+s or -s) [for now, facts or habits] P2 - Process (+ing) [takes time to complete] P3 - Past (+ed or spelling change) [for stories that are over] P4 - Participle (=ed, spelling change or +n) [for perfect tense and passive sentences] Here are the common words in English according to the table of tenses. P1 - P2 - P3 - P4 has/have - having - had - had goes/go - going - went - gone gives/give - giving - gave - given chooses/choose - choosing - chose - chosen buys/buy - buying - bought - bought flies/fly - flying - flew - flown sings/sing - singing - sang - sung cuts/cut - cutting - cut - cut puts/put - putting - put - put becomes/become - becoming - became - become *smiles/smile - smiling - smiled - smiled
*explains/explain - explaining - explained - explained * if you notice P3 and P4 looks the same in smiled and explained but they are completely different meanings. the 4 columns in Malay actually means: p1 - sekarang p2 - sedang (imbuhan me-) p3 - telah p4 - imbuhan diso for 'kick' kicks/kick - kicking - kicked - kicked is actually in Malay tendang - menendang - telah tendang - ditendang. Get it? Now for the rules: 1. P1: present 1 +s, >1 -s (except for sentences that start with 'You' or 'I') 1 +s He likes to eat. (Correct) He like to eat. (Wrong) >1 -s They like to eat. (Correct) They likes to eat. (Wrong) 1 +s She is a prefect now. (Correct) She was a prefect last year too. (Correct) She are a prefect now. (Wrong) She were a prefect last year too. (Wrong) >1 -s They are prefects now. (Correct) They were prefects last year too. (Correct) They is prefects now. (Wrong) They was prefects last year. (Wrong) Sometimes the verb is quite far away but the rules still apply. 1 +s The student reading the biology book is the top student. >1 -s The students reading the biology book are the top students.
2. P2: Process (+ing) (imbuhan me-)
If you want to use 'ing' it cannot stand alone It needs one of the Be5 (am/is/are/was/were) The 5 versions of Be5 are very important words that are always lost when translating directly from Malay or Chinese as it doesn't exist in these languages. The baby is sleeping soundly. (Correct) The baby sleeping soundly. (Wrong) The babies are sleeping soundly. (Correct) The babies sleeping soundly. (Wrong) *notice you need a combination of 2 words to make the process sentences correct! 3. P3: Past (+ed/spelling change) There is no rule. You have to just memorise all the words in this column. 4. P4: Participle (+ed/spelling change/+n) This is the trickiest part of English grammar. There are 2 uses: perfect tenses and passives. a) Perfect tenses: 3H + P4 if you see the words Has/Have/Had, it MUST be followed by P4. 3H + P4 He has eaten the cake. (Correct) They have eaten the cake. (Correct) The boys had eaten the cake yesterday. (Correct) He has eat the cake. (Wrong) They have eating the cake. (Wrong) The boys had ate the cake yesterday. (Wrong) b) Passive sentences: Be5 + P4 (Imbuhan di-) [kek dimakan, bukannya dia dimakan] The cake was eaten by him. (Correct) The cakes were eaten by them. (Correct) The cake eaten by him. (Wrong) The cakes eating by them. (Wrong)
Be5 + P4 (don't confuse kicked with P3) The ball is kicked by him. (Correct) The balls were kicked by him. (Correct) The ball kicked by him. (Wrong) The balls kicking by him. (Wrong) * Passive sentences are a combination of 2 WORDS: Be5 +P4, not P3. But sometimes if the spelling it +ed, it looks like P3, but the function is actually P4.
5. Other rules:
a) to + ori to give (correct) to gives, to giving, to gave, to given (wrong) b) to + be + P4 to be taken (correct) to be take, to be takes, to be taking, to be took (wrong) c) modals: can/cannot/may/must/mustn't/should/shouldn't/will/would etc modals + ori can swim (correct) can swims, can swimming, can swam, can swum (wrong) d) modals + be + P4 must be discussed (correct) must be discuss, must be discusses, must be discussing (wrong) e) by + ing by taking the bus (correct) by takes, by take, by took, by taken (wrong) f) for + ing for demonstrating (correct) for demonstrate, for demonstrates, for demonstrated (wrong) g) 3H + been + P2 has been taking (correct) has been take, has been takes, has been took (wrong) or 3H + been + P4 has been taken (correct) * P2 is used if the process takes a long time, P4 is used if it is a passive sentence .