MPM Table of Reaction for Chemistry Sem 3

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Appendix A Table of Cations Reactions Reagent NaOH(aq)

NH3(aq)

Na2CO3(aq)

K4Fe(CN)6(aq)

Na2HPO4(aq)

H2S in acid medium

H2S in alkaline medium or (NH4)2S

Others reagen

Cation Al3+

White precipitate soluble in excess.

Ba2+

White precipitate.

White precipitate, soluble in mineral acid and NaOH, insoluble in CH3COOH.

White precipitate in concentrated solution

White precipitate.

White precipitate, soluble in HNO3 or HCl.

Ca2+

White precipitate.

White precipitate.

Cr3+

Greyish green precipitate, soluble in excess to form green solution.

Greyish green precipitate soluble in excess to form purple solution.

Greyish green precipitate.

Cu2+

Blue precipitate, turns black when heated.

Blue precipitate, soluble in excess to produce dark blue solution. Soluble in NH4Cl.

Blue precipitate, turns black when heated.

Redish brown precipitate soluble in excess NH3(aq) to produce blue solution.

Fe2+

Dirty green precipitate.

Dirty green precipitate, soluble in NH4Cl.

Dirty green precipitate.

Blue precipitate.

Fe3+

Brown precipitate.

Brown precipitate.

Brown precipitate.

Dark blue precipitate.

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White precipitate.

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White precipitate.

(a) Aluminon reagent: red precipitate. (b) CH3COONa: no precipitate; white precipitate when boiled. (c) K2CrO4: orange yellow precipitate, dissolve in mineral asid. (a) Dilute H2SO4 or CaSO4(aq): white precipitate. (b) (NH4)2C2O4: white precipitate, dissolve in hot CH3COOH. (c) K2CrO4: yellow precipitate.

White precipitate in excess reagent.

(NH4)2C2O4: white precipitate, insoluble in CH3COOH. Green precipitate, soluble in mineral acids.

Blue precipitate.

Yellowish white precipitate, soluble in mineral acids, insoluble in CH3COOH.

Black precipitate, soluble in hot HNO3.

Yellow precipitate.

Greyish green precipitate.

(a) Excess NaOH + H2O2: yellow solution. (b) Acidified solution + H2O2: blue solution blue precipitate yellow solution.

Black precipitate.

(a) SCN : black precipitate. (b) KI: white precipitate in brown solution.

Black precipitate.

(a) K3Fe(CN)6(aq): dark blue precipitate. (b) KMnO4/H+: decolourisation at room temperature.

Black precipitate.

(a) SCN : blood red solution. (b) K3Fe(CN)6: brown solutin. (c) KI: brown solution/yellow/black precipitate. (d) K2CrO4: orange brown precipitate. (e) CH3COONa: red solution, brown precipitate when heated.

Reagent Cation

NaOH(aq)

NH3(aq)

Na2CO3(aq)

K4Fe(CN)6(aq)

Na2HPO4(aq)

H2S in acid medium

H2S in alkaline medium or (NH4)2S

Others reagent

Mg2+

White precipitate, soluble in NH4Cl.

White precipitate, soluble in NH4Cl.

White precipitate, soluble in NH4Cl.

White precipitate, soluble in mineral acid.

Mn2+

White precipitate, turns brown.

White precipitate, turns brown, soluble in NH4Cl.

Yellowish brown precipitate.

Yellowish brown precipitate turns brown when heated.

Yellowish brown precipitate.

(a) Sodium bismutate + HNO3: violet solution. (b) PbO2 + HNO3 (conc): violet solution. (c) K2S2O8 + AgNO3: violet solution. (d) NaClO + NaO: dark brown precipirate.

Ni2+

Green precipitate.

Green precipitate, soluble in excess forms blue solution. Soluble in NH4Cl.

Green precipitate.

Green precipitate.

Green precipitate.

Black precipitate.

(a) Dimetilglioksima reagent + NH3: red precipitate. (b) NaClO + NaOH: black precipitate.

Pb2+

White precipitate, soluble in excess.

White precipitate.

White precipitate.

White precipitate.

White precipitate.

Black precipitate.

(a) Dilute HCl: white precipitate, soluble when heated; reforms when cool. (b) Dilute H2SO4: White precipitate, soluble in (NH4)2C2O4. (c) KI: yellow precipitate, soluble when is heated, reforms when cool. (d) K2CrO4: yellow precipitate. (e) NaClO: dark brown precipitate.

Zn2+

White precipitate, soluble in excess.

White precipitate, soluble in excess, soluble in NH4Cl.

White precipitate.

White precipitate, soluble in alkali, insoluble in mineral acid.

White precipitate, soluble in NaOH, mineral acid or NH4Cl.

White precipitate.

K3Fe(CN)6: orange brown precipitate.

NH4+

Pungent gas liberated when heated.

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Pungent gas liberated when heated.

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(a) Magneson reagent + NaOH: blue precipitate. (b) Na3PO4: white precipitate.

Black precipitate.

(a) Nessler reagent: brown precipitate. (b) Heated with NaOH, gases evolved tested with concentrated HCl: white fume.

Appendix B Table of Anion Reactions Reagent Anion HCOO

CH 3 COO

C 6 H 5 COO

Dilute HCl or H2SO4

Concentrated H2SO4

BaCl2(aq) or Ba(NO3)2(aq)

AgNO3(aq)

Pb(NO3)2(aq) atau Pb(CH3COO)2(aq)

FeCl3(aq)

Others reagent

Choking gas is liberated.

Gas burned with a blue flame is liberated.

White precipitate turns black.

Dark red solution; brown precipitate when heated.

(a) KMnO4/H+: decolouration. (b) CH3CH2OH + a little concentrated H2SO4: fragrant smell

Gas smell of vinegar is released when heated.

Gas of vinegar smell is released.

White precipitate in concentrated solution, soluble in HNO3 or NH3(aq).

Red solution; brown precipitate when heated.

(a) CH3CH2OH + a little concentrated H2SO4: fragrant smell. (b) Sodalime: gas burned with blue flame without soot.

White precipitate, soluble in hot water, white crystal formed upon cooling.

White precipitate, soluble in hot water; white crystal formed upon cooling.

White precipitate, soluble in hot water or NH3(aq).

White precipitate.

Yellowish-brown precipitate.

(a) CH3CH2OH + a little concentrated H2SO4: fragrant smell. (b) Sodalime: gas burned with yellow flame without soot.

White precipitate, soluble in HNO3 or NH3(aq).

White precipitate, soluble in HNO3.

(a) KMnO4/H+: decolourised when heated. (b) CaCl2(aq): when precipitate.

White fume is formed.

White precipitate, insoluble in HNO3 but soluble in NH3(aq).

White precipitate, soluble in hot water; or concentrated HCl; white crystal formed upon cooling.

MnO2(s) + H2SO4 (conc): greenish-yellow gas is liberated.

Redish-brown gas is liberated.

Light yellow precipitate, insoluble in dulute HNO3 or NH3(aq).

White precipitate, soluble in hot water, white crystal formed upon cooling.

(a) MnO2(s) + H2SO4 (conc): redish-brown gas is liberated. (b) Cl2 /NaOCl(aq) + CCl4: redish-brown colouration at the bottom layer. (c) Concentrated HNO3 and heated: redishbrown gas is liberated.

Brown fume is formed; purple fume formed when heated.

Yellow precipitate, insoluble in dilute HNO3 or NH3(aq).

Yellow precipitate, soluble in hot water; yellow crystal formed upon cooling.

C2 O24

Cl

Br

I

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Gas burned with blue flame and gas turned lime water chalky when heated.

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White precipitate, soluble in HCl, HNO3 or H2SO4.

Redish brown solution.

(a) Cl2 water/NaOCl(aq)/Br2 water + CCl4: redish violet colouration formed at the bottom layer. (b) NaNO2(aq) + dilute asid: brown solution and brown gas is liberated.

Reagent Anion

Dilute HCl or H2SO4

Concentrated H2SO4

BaCl2(aq) or Ba(NO3)2(aq)

AgNO3(aq)

Pb(NO3)2(aq) or Pb(CH3COO)2(aq)

FeCl3(aq)

Others reagent

CO23

Gas liberated can turn lime water chalky.

Gas liberated can turn lime water chalky.

White precipitate, soluble in HCl or dilute HNO3.

White precipitate turned yellow in excess; become brown when heated.

White precipitate, soluble in dilute HNO3.

Brown precipitate; gas liberated which turn lime water chalky.

MgSO4(aq)/MgCl2(aq): white precipitate.

SO23

Brimstone smell gas/ burnt sulphur, gas decolourise KMnO4/H+.

Brimstone smell gas/ burnt sulphur, gas decolourise KMnO4/H+.

White precipitate, soluble in HCl or HNO3.

White precipitate, soluble in HNO3, NH3(aq), or SO32 in excess; turn black precipitate when heated.

White precipitate, soluble in dilute HNO3.

Red solution; brown precipitate when heated.

(a) I2: decolourisation. (b) KMnO4/H+: decolourisation. (c) K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution.

S2 O23

Yellow precipitate; brimstone smell gas/ burnt sulphur, gas decolourise KMnO4/H+.

Yellow precipitate; brimstone smell gas/ burnt sulphur, gas decolourise KMnO4/H+.

White precipitate in concentrated solution.

White precipitate turn to yellow and then brown and finally black; white precipitate soluble in excess S2O32 .

White precipitate, soluble in excess S2O32 ; turn black precipitate when heated.

Purplish solution decolourise.

(a) (b) (c) (d)

A foul (rotten egg), smell was liberated, blackening Pb(CH3COO)2 paper.

A foul (rotten egg) smell was liberated, blackening Pb(CH3COO)2 paper, yellow precipitate.

Black precipitate, soluble in hot HNO3.

Black precipitate.

A yellow sediment in an acidic medium. A black sediment in an alkaline medium.

(a) KMnO4/H+: decolourisation, yellow precipitate. (b) K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution, yellow precipitate.

Redish brown precipitated/solution when heated.

(a) (b) (c) (d) (e)

S2

White precipitate, insoluble in HCl or HNO3.

SO24

NO2

Brown fume liberated.

NO3

Brown fume liberated.

Brown fume liberated.

White precipitate, soluble in aqueous ammonium ethanoate.

White precipitate in concentrated solution, soluble in HNO3 or NH3.

KMnO4/H+: decolourisation. K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution. FeSO4 + H2SO4: brown ring. Devarda alloy: pungent gas. KI + dilute acid: brown sol.

(a) FeSO4 + H2SO4: brown ring. (b) Devarda alloy: pungent gas. (c) Concentrated H2SO4 pekat + Cu: brown fume, blue solution. (a) C2O42 /SO32 /S2O32 /NO2 with H+: decolourisation. (b) S2-: decolourisation, yellow precipitate.

MnO4

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I2: decolourisation. KMnO4/H+: decolourisation. K2Cr2O7/H+: green solution. Ammonium molybdate + H2SO4: blue ring.

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