MOnografia de la degradacion de lipidos y Acidos grasso por Denis R.

August 8, 2018 | Author: Denis R Gallardo Paredes | Category: Lipid, Fatty Acid, Enzyme, Triglyceride, Lipoprotein
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Descripción: Monografia de lipidos y acidos grasos...

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Universidad Nacional de Trujillo Facultad de ciencias biológicas Microbiología y Parasitología

Monografía LIPIDOS-ACIDOS GRASOS  S! M"#A$OLISMO 2014

Profesor: Manuel Rodrígue% Lac&erre Alumno: Gallardo Paredes Denis R' Ciclo: II

 Autor: Denis R. gallardo Paredes Paredes

Trujillo - Perú

DEDICATORIA  A mis padres quienes me guiaron afanosamente abriendo caminos en la vida.

 A mis maestros de la Universidad que dedican su tiempo y comparten sus conocimientos para forjarnos como profesionales de la educación.

 Dedico a todos los niños y niñas de las escuelas rurales, inspiración constante de los maestros del Perú profundo.

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ÍNDICE INTRODUCCIÓN……………………………………………………………………….. 5

CAPÍTULO I ASPECTOS CONCEPTUALES: LOS LÍPIDOS 1.1.

DEFINICIÓN DE LOS LÍPIDOS………………………………………………..............6

1.2.

IMPORTANCIA BIOLÓGICA…………………………………………………..............6

1.3.

COMPONENTES DE LOS LÍPIDOS………………………………………...….............7

1.3.1. Alcool!"…………………………………………………………………………........... 7 1.3.2. #c$%o" G&'"o"………………………………………………………………….........……7 1.3.3. E"()!*' %! l' %!+&'%'c$,-  "/-0!"$" %! lo" c$%o" +&'"o"…………………........….…... 1.3.. Co-0&ol %!l *!0'4ol$"*o %! lo" c$%o" +&'"o"………………………………........….…... 1.3.5. O$%'c$,- %! lo" c$%o" +&'"o" !- lo" !&o$"o*'"…………………………....................11 1..

CLASIFICACIÓN DE LOS LÍPIDOS………………………………………………........11

1..1. L/$%o" S'o-$8$c'4l!"……………………………………………………………............ 11 1..1.1.

L/$%o" S$*l!"………………………………………………………………….. 11

1..1.2.

L/$%o" Co*l!9o"………………………………………………………………. 12

1..2. L/$%o" -o S'o-$8$c'4l!"…………………………………………………………........... 13 1..2.1.

E"0!&o$%!"………………………………………………………………………… 13

1..2.2.

I"o&!-o$%!"……………………………………………………………………… 13

1..2.3.

P&o"0'+l'-%$-'"………………………………………………………………….. 13

1..2..

:$0'*$-'" L$o"ol)4l!"………………………………………………………….. 1

CAPÍTULO II ASPECTOS ESPECÍFICOS: METABOLISMO DE LOS LÍPIDOS 2.1.

METABOLISMO DE LOS LÍPIDOS……………………………………………….........15

2.1.1. D$+!"0$,-  A4"o&c$,- %! L/$%o"…………………………………………………........... 15 2.1.2. T&'-"o&0! %! L/$%o" !- L$o&o0!/-'"……………………………………………..........15 2.1.3. L$o+;-!"$"…………………………………………………………………………..........16 2.1.. L$,l$"$"……………………………………………………………………………........... 17

3

2.2.

REGULACIÓN DEL METABOLISMO DE LÍPIDOS……………………………......... 17

CAPÍTULO III ASPECTOS PRÁCTICOS: EJEMPLOS 3.1.

E!+!0'l o '-$*'l co*)!"0'" %! c$%o" +&'"o" ")!&$o&!" %! l' "!&$! 'l$80$c'@ !"0!&$8$c'%o" +!-!&'l*!-0! co- )'lcool ol$'0,*[email protected] l' +l$c!&$-'@ ' >!c!" "! !-c)!-0&' !- 8o&*' %! '*$%'"  lo" *" co*l!9o" co-0$!-!- !- ")" *ol;c)l'" -$0&,+!-o  8,"8o&o. T$!-!- l' &o$!%'% co*- %! "!& "ol)4l!" !- "ol>!-0!" o&+-$co" *!0'[email protected] !0'[email protected] 'c!0o-'@ clo&o8o&*[email protected] ;[email protected] [email protected] !0c.@ "o- $-"ol)4l!" !- '+)'. El 0;&*$-o +&'"' "! )0$l$' '&' &!8!&$&"! ' lo" l/$%o" %! co-"$"0!-c$' ",l$%' o "!*$",l$%' ' 0!*!&'0)&' '*4$!-0'l. S! ll'*'- 'c!$0!" ' '()!llo" l/$%o" ()! "o- l/()$%o" ' l' *$"*' 0!*!&'0)&'. D! l' &o%)cc$,- *)-%$'l %! +&'"'"  'c!$0!"@ 'l&!%!%o& %! 3= !" %!"0$-'%' ' l' 'l$*!-0'c$,-  !l &!"0o ' l' $-%)"0&$'. E- l' 'l$*!-0'c$,- lo" l/$%o" %!"!*!'- 8)-%'*!-0'l*!-0! !l '!l %! ")*$-$"0&'%o&!" %! !-!&+/'. L'" +&'"'"  'c!$0!" &oo&c$o-'- [email protected] 3 >!c!" *" c'lo&/'" ()! lo" c'&4o$%&'0o" "o4&! l' 4'"! %!l *$"*o !"o. Lo" l/$%o" !-0&'- !- l' co*o"$c$,- %! $*o&0'-0!" 0!9$%o"  ,&+'-o"@ co*o "o- lo" -!&>$o"  !l c!&!4&o "$&>!- co*o '$"l'*$!-0o %! ,&+'-o" >$0'l!" &o0!+$;-%olo" %! lo" +ol!"  *'-0!-$!-%o l' 0!*!&'0)&' ,0$*' %!l c)!&o. Fo&*'- '&0! $-0!+&'l %! l' !"0&)c0)&' %! l' *!*4&'-' c!l)l'[email protected] !"0- '"oc$'%o" co- !l 0&'-"o&0! %! l'" *!*4&'-'" c!l)l'&!". A %$8!&!-c$' %! lo" ol$"'c&$%o"  &o0!/-'"@ lo" l/$%o" -o "o- ol/*!&o" -o o"!!- )-' )-$%'% *o-,*!&' &!!0$0$>'. S$- !*4'[email protected] 'l $+)'l ()! lo" c'&4o$%&'0o"@ )!%!- cl'"$8$c'&"! !- 4'"! ' ")"  &o%)c0o" %! $%&,l$"$"  "!+- ") "!*!9'-' !- c)'-0o ' !"0&)c0)&' *ol!c)l'&.

5

CAPÍTULO I ASPECTOS CONCEPTUALES: LOS LÍPIDOS 1.1.

DEFINICIÓN DE LOS LÍPIDOS B$o*ol;c)l'" o&+-$c'"@ %! co-"$"0!-c$' "ol$%' o 'c!$0o"'@ oco "ol)4l!" !- '+)'@ !&o "$ !"ol>!-0!" -o ol'&!" co*o !l clo&o8o&*[email protected] !l ;0!&  !l 4!-c!-o. G!-!&'l*[email protected] "o- *ol;c)l'" 0!&-'&$'" co-"0$0)$%' o& c'[email protected] $%&,+!-o  o/+!-o [email protected] [email protected] O ')-()! 'l+)-o" co-0$!-!-$0&,+!-o o 8,"8o&o. Lo" l/$%o" 0$!-!- oco o/+!-o !- &!l'c$,- 'l c'&4o-o ! $%&o+!-o. S)

 4'9' "ol)4$l$%'% !- '+)' ! $%&o8o4$' &!!l'- !l '+)' oc)&&! o& l' !"c'"! %! o/+!-o. S! "'4! ()! !l o/+!-o !- $-%$"!-"'4l! !- l' co-"0$0)c$,- %! +&)o" 8)-c$o-'l!" $%&o8/l$co" '8$-!" 'l '+)'.

1.2. 

IMPORTANCIA BIOLÓGICA Estructur!" lo" l/$%o" "o- *ol!c)l'& o&+-$c'" ()! co-"0$0)!- !l = %! l'" *!*4&'-'" c!l)l'&!".



E#$r%&t'c(" "o- *ol!c)l'& co-"0'-0!" !- 0o%o" lo" "!&!" >$>o" %o-%! '&0$c$'- co*o 8)!-0! %! !-!&+/'@ '"/ )- +&'*o %! l/$%o" o0o&+' '&o$*'%'*!-0! @3 J$loc'lo&/'".



T$r)('s!#t$" 'l 'l*'c!-'&"! !- !l 0!9$%o c!l)l'& ")4c)0[email protected] 8o&*'- )-' 4'&&!&' ()! $*$%! l' !&%$%' %! c'lo& &o%)c$%o !- !l 0!9$%o *)"c)l'&.



E!$ctr('s!#t$" lo" l/$%o" ()! !$"0!- 'l&!%!%o& %! lo" 'o-!" %! l'" -!)&o-'" 8'>o&!c!- l' 0&'-"*$"$,- &$%' %! lo" $*)l"o" -!&>$o"o"@ !"0o" "o- lo" ()! 8o&*'- l' ll'*'%' >'$-' %! *$!l$-'.



R$%u!*(r" 'l+)-o" l/$%o" 'c0'- co*o o&*o-'". L' 0!"0o"0!&o-'@ %! !8!c0o *'"c)l$-$'"[email protected]  lo" !"0&,+!-o"@ %! !8!c0o 8!*$-$'"[email protected] "o- l'" *" &!&!"!-0'0$>'".

6

1.+.

COMPONENTES DE LOS LÍPIDOS

1.+.1. A!c(,(!$s So- c'%!-'" $%&oc'&4o-o" ()! o"!!- co*o +&)o" 8)-c$o-'l!" ' lo" o$%&$lo". A. [email protected] !" !l 'lcool *" co*- !- lo" l/$%o". B. E"8$-+o"$-'@ !" !l 'lcool %! lo" !"8$-+ol/$%o". C. [email protected] !" )- ol$"o&!-o$%!. D. [email protected] !" !l 'lcool %! l' c!&' %! '4!9'.

1.+.2. Ác'*(s Grs(s So- *ol;c)l'" o&+-$c'" %! 0$o 'c$%o c'&4o/l$co 'l$8[email protected] c'%!-'" $%&oc'&4o-'%'" l'&+'" ()! &!"!-0'- !- )-o %! ")" !0&!*o" )- +&)o c'&4o$lo KCOOH. Lo" c$%o" +&'"o"  &!"!-0!" !- l/$%o" -'0)&'l!" co-0$!-!- +!-!&'l*!-0! )- -*!&o '& %! c'&4o-o" o&()! "! "$-0!0$'- ' '&0$& %! )-$%'%!" %! 2 c'&4o-o" ll'*'%'" 'c!0$lo. A.  Ácidos grasos saturados, co-"0$0)!- l/$%o" "ol$%o" "!4o"@ *'-0!c'"@ *'-0!()$ll'@ !- !l "/*4olo %!l c$%o +&'"o l)[email protected] 12 !" !l -*!&o %! c'&4o-o"  = "$+-$8$c' ()! c'&!c! %! !-l'c!" %o4l!"  0&$l!". D! l' "$*' 8o&*' "! $-0!&&!0'- lo" %!*" "/*4olo". B.  Ácidos grasos insaturados, co-"0$0)!- l/$%o" 'c!$0!". P&!%o*$-'- "o4&! lo" "'0)&'%o" !l'" l'-0'" ")!&$o&!" 8'-!&,+'*'"  !- lo" '-$*'l!" ()! >$>!- ' 4'9'" 0!*!&'0)&'". H'"0' %o-%! "! [email protected] lo" c$%o" +&'"o" 0$!-!- c)'0&o 0&'"c!-%!-0!" 8)-c$o-!" *!0'4,l$c'" 1. Fo&*'- '&0! %! !"0&)c0)&'" *" co*l!9'"@ 0'l!" co*o lo" 8o"8ol/$%o"  lo" +l)col/$%o"@ *ol;c)l'" ()! !"0&)c0)&'- l' *!*4&'-' c!l)l'[email protected] %!4$%o ' ") c'&c0!& '-8$0$co. 2. S! )-!- ' &o0!/-'"@ 8'c$l$0'-%o ") $-"!&c$,- !- l' 4$c'' l$/%$c' %! l' *!*4&'-' c!l)l'&. 3. Lo" c$%o" +&'"o" "o- )"'%o" co*o co*4)"0$4l! *!0'4,l$co %! &!"!&>'. P'&' !"0' 8)-c$,"! 'l*'c!-'- co*o 0&$'c$l+l$c!&ol!" '4&!>$'%'*!-0! 0&$+l$c;&$%o"@ 0'*4$;- %!-o*$-'%'" ?+&'"'" -!)0&'"@ ()! "o- 0&$;"0!&!" %!l +l$c!&ol.



. Ac0'- co*o *!-"'9!&o" $-0&'c!l)l'&!".

1.+.+. Es-u$) *$ ! *$%r*c'# / s0#t$s's *$ !(s c'*(s %rs(s

L' "/-0!"$" %! lo" c$%o" +&'"o" !"()!*' ")!&$o& %!&!c'  ") o$%'c$,- Ko$%'c$,- !"()!*' ")!&$o& $()$!&%' "o- &oc!"o" $->!&"o". L' Ko$%'c$,- %! lo" c$%o" +&'"o" co->$!&0! )- co*)!"0o 'l$80$co !- )- co-9)-0o %! 'c!0$lo" 'c0$>'%o" *!0'4,l$c'*!-0! 'c!0$lQCoA@ c)o *!0'4ol$"*o co-0$-' ' 0&'>;" %!l c$clo %!l c$%o c/0&$co c$clo %! lo" c$%o" 0&$c'&4o/l$co" o c$clo %! H'-" &!4". E- !"()!*'@ l' K o$%'c$,- 0&'-"c)&&! !- >'&$'" !0''" 1.K El c$%o +&'"o "! o$%' '&' $-0&o%)c$& )- %o4l! !-l'c!. 2.K El %o4l! !-l'c! "! $%&'0' '&' $-0&o%)c$& )- 0o*o %! o/[email protected] 8o&*-%o"! )- +&)o 'lco,l$co. 3.K El 'lcool "! o$%' ' c!0o-'.

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1.+.. C(#tr(! *$! )$t3(!'s)( *$ !(s c'*(s %rs(s

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AMP AMP@ @ %! $-'"! *'-0$!-! ' l' c'&4o$l'"' !- ") !"0'%o $-'c0$>o. L' %!"8o"8o&$l'c$,- %! l' "!&$-' *!%$'-0! l' &o0!/-'K8o"8'0'"'K2A &!'-)%' l' 'c0$>$%'% "$-0!0'"' %! l' Ac!0$lQCoAKc'&4o$l'"'. E- ")*'@ l' 'c0$>$%'% %! l' c'&4o$l'"' !- c'%' *o*!-0o %!!-%! %! l' 'c0$>$%'% &!l'0$>' %! l'" %o" !-$*'" AMP  &o0!/-'K8o"8'0'"'K 2A. L' 'c0$>$%'% %! l' !-$*' AMP ()! c'0'l$' l' 8o"8o&$l'c$,- %! l' c'&4o$l'"' !" )$-%$c'%o& %!l -$>!l %! co*4)"0$4l! *!0'4,[email protected] )!" "! 'c0$>' o& !l ATP ")*$-$"0&'%o& %! +&)o" 8o"8'0o ! $-'c0$>' o& !l AMP c)'-%o %$"*$-)! !l -*!&o %! +&)o" 8o"8'0o %$"o-$4l!". E" l,[email protected] )!"@ ()! )- -$>!l !l!>'%o %! ATP $-'c0$>! l' !-$*' c'&4o$l'"' ()! $-$c$' !l &oc!"o %! l' l$o+;-!"$". L'" o&*o-'" c'0'4,l$c'" +l)c'+,[email protected] '%&!-'l$-' %!"'c0$>'- l' l$o+;-!"$"@ %'-%o o& &!")l0'%o )- 4'l'-c! 8'>o&'4l! 'c$' l' l$,l$"$".  No "! "'4! co- c!&0$%)*4&! "o4&! (); !-$*' !9!&c! ") !8!c0o l' $-")l$-'@ "$ "o4&! AMP o "o4&! l' &o0!/-'Kl$'"'K2A.

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#$

"$-0!0$'& c$%o" +&'"o". E- !"0o" 0!9$%o"@ l' Ac!0$lQCoAKc'&4o$l'"' !" "!-c$ll'*!-0! )!-$*' &!+)l'%o&. E- !!&$*!-0o" '-$*'l!"@ )-' %$!0' &olo-+'%' &$c' !- c'&4o$%&'0o"  o4&! !- +&'"'" %' l)+'& ' )- ')*!-0o "$+-$8$c'0$>o %! l'" co-c!-0&'c$o-!" %! Ac!0$lQCoAKc'&4o$l'"'  #c$%o +&'"oK"$-0!0'"'. E" )- '&'%$+*' %! co-0&ol '%'0'0$>o.

1.+.6. O7'*c'# *$ !(s c'*(s %rs(s $# !(s 8$r(7's()s (

A)-()! l' o$%'c$,- %! lo" c$%o" +&'"o" "! %!"'&&oll' !- l'" *$0oco-%&$'"@ !- *)c' *!-o&  !0!-"$,- l' o$%'c$,- 0'*4$;- 0$!-! l)+'& !- )-o" o&+-)lo" ")4Kc!l)l'&!" %!-o*$-'%o"  !&o$"o*'". U-' c'&'c0!&/"0$c' &$-c$'l %! lo" !&o$"o*'" !" )-' !l!>'%' co-c!-0&'c$,- %! l' !-$*' c'0'l'"'@ ()! c'0'l$' l' "$+)$!-0! &!'cc$,- 2 H2O2 V 2 H2O W O2 L' o$%'c$,- !- lo" !&o$"o*'" "! c!-0&' "o4&! lo" c$%o" +&'"o" %! c'%!-'" *" l'&+'"  ")!l! 0!&*$-'& !- oc0'[email protected] ()! !" !l c$%o +&'"o %! *'o& lo-+$0)% %! c'%!-' ")"c!0$4l! o$%'&"! !- co-%$c$o-!" ,0$*'" !- l' *'0&$ *$0oco-%&$'l. L' o$%'c$,- !- lo" !&o$"o*'" %$8$!&! %! l' Ko$%'c$,- *$0oco-%&$'l !- l' &!'cc$,- %! %!"$%&'0'c$,- $-$c$'l. E- lo" !&o$"o*'"@ )-' %!"$%&o+!-'"' ()! co-0$!-! co*o +&)o  &o"0;0$co FAD Fl'>$-'KA%!-$-'KD$-)cl;o0$%o c!%! lo" !l!c0&o-!" 'l [email protected] %'-%o l)+'& ' H2=2 !&,$%o %! $%&,+!-o !- l' Ko$%'c$,- *$0oco-%&$'[email protected] !l FAD c'0' lo" !l!c0&o-!"@ &!%)c$;-%o"! '"0' FADH2. S$+)$!-%o !- lo" !&o$"o*'"@ !l H2O2 "! !"c$-%! !- H2O  [email protected] &!'cc$,- c'0'l$'%' o& l' !-$*' c'0'l'"'. L'" !0''" "$+)$!-0!" %! o$%'c$,- co- )-' %$"*$-)c$,- %! %o" 0o*o" %! c'&4o-o %! l' c'%!-' %!l c$%o +&'"o !- c'%' c$clo %! o$%'c$,- "o- "$*$l'&!" !- lo" !&o$"o*'"  l'" *$0oco-%&$'"@ "$ 4$!- "o- c'0'l$'%'" o&  %$"0$-0'" $"o8o&*'" %! l'" !-$*'".

1..

CLASIFICACIÓN DE LOS LÍPIDOS

Lo" l/$%o" '- "$%o cl'"$8$c'%o" !- "'o-$8$c'4l!"  -o "'o-$8$c'4l!". D!-0&o %! lo" "'o-$8$c'4l!"@ 0!-!*o" ' lo" l/$%o" "$*l!"  ' lo" l/$%o" co*l!9o". D!-0&o %! lo" -o "'o-$8$c'4l!"@ ' lo" !"0!&o$%!"@ $"o&!-o$%!"@ l'" &o"0'+l'-%$-'"  l'" >$0'*$-'" l$o"ol)4l!".

1..1. L08'*(s S8(#'5'c3!$s So- lo" ()! &!"!-0'- c$%o" 'l %!"co*o-!&"! '%!*"@ l$4!&'- c$%o" +&'"o"  'lcool!".

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1..1.1.

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#2



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1..2. L08'*(s #( S8(#'5'c3!$s So- lo" ()! 'l %!"co*o-!&"! -o l$4!&'- c$%o" +&'"o" -$ 'lcool!"@ 0'*4$;- )!%!- ll'*'&"! l/$%o" %!&$>'%o". P'&' 'l+)-o" ')0o&!"@ "o- lo" l/$%o" '()!llo" ()! -o "! )!%!- cl'"$8$c'&  %!8$-$%'*!-0! co*o "$*l!" -$ co*o co*)!"0o"@ '&' o0&o" "o- lo" &!c)&"o&!"  %!&$>'%o" %! lo" l/$%o".

1..2.1.

Est$r('*$s So- lo" l/$%o" %!&$>'%o" %! l' !"0&)c0)&' %!l c$clo!-0'-o!&$%&o8!-'-0&!*@ !" )$%&oc'&4)&o "'0)&'%o 0!0&'c/[email protected] !" %[email protected] %!  '-$llo". (

El col!"[email protected] !" )- !"0!&o$%! ()! &!"!-0' )- &'%$c'l KCH  )-' c'%!-' l$80$c'. R!")l0' "!&  !l &$-c$'l !"0!&o$%! o&()! '&0$c$' co*o &!c)&"o& %! 0o%o" lo" %!*" !"0!&o$%!" o&*o-'" "!)'l!"@ c$%o" 4$l$'&!"  >$0'*$-' D. El col!"0!&ol !" co*o-!-0! %! l'" *!*4&'-'" c!l)l'&!" %! '-$*'l!". S) !"0&)c0)&' '-$ll'%' -o !" *) 8l!$4l!. (

1..2.2.

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1..2.+.

Pr(st%!#*'#s So- l/$%o" %!&$>'%o" %!l c$%o &o"0'-o$co  %!l '&'()$%,-$co. El c$%o &o"0'-o$co !" )c$%o +&'"o %! 2= c'&4o-o" ()! o"!!- )- -cl!o !"0!&o$%! $-cl)$%o !- ") !"0&)c0)&'. E- lo" *'*/8!&o"@ l'" &o"0'+l'-%$-'" "! !-c)!-0&'- !- !l )l*,[email protected] *)co"' +'"0&o$-0!"0$-'[email protected] 4'[email protected] +l-%)l' 0$&o$%!"@ &$,[email protected] l/()$%o '*-$,0$co  "!c&!c$o-!" %!l !-%o*!0&$o 8)!&o- %!-o*$-'%'" '"/ o& !l ")!co :'- E)[email protected] ()$!- %!*o"0&, ()! !0&'c0o" %! "!*!- $-%)c/'- l' co-0&'cc$,- %! *"c)lo" l$"o".



L' [email protected] $-$4! l' "!c&!c$,- %! c$%o clo&/%&$co !"0o*'c'l.

#3



L' [email protected] -o "olo *'-$8$!"0' !l !8!c0o !"'"*,[email protected] 0'*4$;- %$"*$-)! l' &!")!"0' $-*)-! %)&'-0! co-%$c$o-!" '0ol,+$c'".



L' [email protected] !" &!"o-"'4l! %! l' l)0!,l$"$" '%!*" ()! )!%! &o>oc'& l' &!+&!"$,- %! lo" c)!&o" '*'&$llo" %!l o>'&$o ! $-%)c$& 0'-0o 'l '&0o co*o !l '4o&0o.

1..2..

't)'#s L'8(s(!u3!$s D!-0&o %! lo" l/$%o" %!&$>'%o" 0'*4$;- "! )!%!- *!-c$o-'& ' l'" >$0'*$-'" [email protected] [email protected]  . (

#4

CAPÍTULO II ASPECTOS ESPECÍFICOS: METABOLISMO DE LOS LÍPIDOS 2.1.

METABOLISMO DE LOS LÍPIDOS

2.1.1. D'%$st'# / A3s(rc'# *$ L08'*(s L' %$+!"0$,- %! lo" l/$%o" co*$!-' !- !l !"0,*'+o *!%$'-0! )-' l$'"' !"0'4l! 8&!-0! ' c$%o". L' >!loc$%'% %! $%&,l$"$" !" *) l!-0'@ lo" 0&$'c$l+l$c;&$%o" "o- '!-'" %$&$+$%o" ' -$>!l +"[email protected] %!4$%o ' ()! !l H %!l !"0,*'+o !" *) c$%o  -o )!%! 'c0)'& l' l$'"' +"0&$c'. El &!+$,- $-8!&$o& %!l !"0,*'+o lo" 0&$'c$l+l$c;&$%o" "! *!cl'- co- &o0!/-'"@ $%&'0o" %! c'&4o-o. 'c$,- %! l' !-$*' !0&'c!l)l'& l$o&o0!/-' l$'"' o& l' 'o&o0!/-'" CKII. Al+)-o" %! !"0o" c$%o" +&'"o" l$4!&'%o" "o- '4"o&4$%o" o& l'" c;l)l'" &,$*'"@ *$!-0&'" ()! o0&o"@ %!4$%o ' ()! "o 4'"0'-0! $-"ol)4l!"@ 8o&*'- co*l!9o" co- l' 'l4*$-' ";&$c' '&' "!& 0&'-"o&0'%o" ' c;l)l' *" %$"0$-0'. T&'" l' '4"o&c$,- !- l' c;l)l'@ !l +l$c!&ol  lo" c$%o" +&'"o" )!%!- "!& )0$l$'%o"

#5

 '&' o40!-!& !-!&+/' [email protected] !- l'" c!l)l'& '%$o"'"@ )0$l$'&"! '&' >ol>!& ' "$-0!0$'&  0&$'c$l+l$c;&$%o". ( (

2.1.+. L'8(%&#$s's E" l' &!'cc$,- 4$o()/*$c' o& l' c)'l "o- "$-0!0$'%o" lo" c$%o" +&'"o"  !"0!&$8$c'%o" o )-$%o" co- !l +l$c!&ol '&' 8o&*'& 0&$+l$c;&$%o" o +&'"'" %! &!"!&>'. L' "/-0!"$" %! c$%o" +&'"o" %! c'%!-'" l'&+'" o l$o+;-!"$" "! &!'l$' o& *!%$o %! %o" "$"0!*'" !-$*0$co" "$0)'%o" !- !l c$0ol'"*' c!l)l'& 

L' 'c!0$lKCoA c'&4o$l'"' E"0' >/' co->$!&0! l' 'c!0$lKCoA ' 'l*$0'[email protected] &!()$&$!-%o '&' !llo [email protected] [email protected] $o- *'-+'-!"[email protected] B$o0$-'@ #c$%o '-0o0!$co  4$c'&4o-'0o co*o co8'c0o&!". E"0! "$"0!*' !" $*&!"c$-%$4l! '&' l' co->!&"$,- %! Ac!0$lKCoA ' M'lo-$lK CoA.



:/' %! l' c$%oK+&'"oK"$-0!0'"' E" )- co*l!9o *)l0$!-$*0$co %! )-' "ol' c'%!-'  ol$!0/%$c' co- "$!0! 'c0$>$%'%!" !-$*0$c'" "!'&'%'"@ ()! c'0'l$' l' )-$,- %! 'l*$0'0o ' '&0$& %! )-' *ol;c)l' %! Ac!0$lKCoA  "$!0! %! M'lo-$lKCoA.

L' L$o+;-!"$" "! &!+)l' !- !l '"o %! Ac!0$lKCoA c'&4o$l'"' o& *o%$8$c'%o&!" 'lo"0;&$co"@ *o%$8$c'c$,- co>'l!-0! ! $-%)cc$,-  &!&!"$,- %! l' "/-0!"$" !-$*0$c'. El c$0&'0o 'c0$>' l' !-$*' l' 'c$lKCoA %! c'%!-' l'&+' $-$4! ") 'c0$>$%'%. A co&0o l'[email protected] l' $-")l$-' 'c0$>' l' Ac!0$lKCoA c'&4o$l'"' o& 8o"8o&$l'c$,- %! &!"$%)o %! H$"0$%$-' !- !l !0&!*o N 0!&*$-'l %! l' c'%!-'. El +l)c'+,-  l' '%&!-'l$-' 0$!-!- 'cc$o-!" o)!"0'" ' l' $-")l$-'. El 'l'&+'*$!-0o %! l' c'%!-' %! lo" c$%o" +&'"o" 0$!-! l)+'& !- !l &!0/c)lo !-%ol"*[email protected] c'0'l$'%' o& !l "$"0!*' !-$*0$co %! l' !lo-+'"' *$c&o",*$c'.

#6

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2.1.. L'8!'s's E" !l &oc!"o *!0'4,l$co *!%$'-0! !l c)'l lo" l/$%o" %!l o&+'-$"*o "o- 0&'-"8o&*'%o" '&'  &o%)c$& c$%o" +&'"o"  +l$c!&ol '&' c)4&$& l'" -!c!"$%'%!" !-!&+;0$c'". L' l$ol$"$" !" !l co-9)-0o %! &!'cc$o-!" 4$o()/*$c'" $->!&"'" ' l' l$o+;-!"$". A l' l$,l$"$" 0'*4$;- "! l! ll'*' *o>$l$'c$,- %! l'" +&'"'" o $%&,l$"$" %! 0&$'c$l+l$c;&$%o" !c$%o" +&'"o"  +l$c!&ol. L' l$ol$"$" !" !"0$*)l'%' o& %$8!&!-0!" o&*o-'" c'0'4,l$c'" co*o !l +l)c'+,[email protected] l' !$-!8&$-'@ l' -o&!$-!8&$-'@ l' o&*o-' %!l c&!c$*$!-0o  !l co&0$"[email protected] ' 0&'>;" %! )- "$"0!*' %! 0&'-"%)cc$,- %! "!'l!". L' $-")l$-' %$"*$-)! l' l$ol$"$". E- !l '%$oc$0o !l +l)c'+,- 'c0$>' ' %!0!&*$-'%'" &o0!/-'" [email protected] ()! ' ") >! 'c0$>'- ' l' '%!-$l'0o c$cl'"'@ 'l AMPc  ;"0! ' l' l$'"' "!-"$0$>'@ !-$*' ()! $%&ol$' lo" 0&$'c$l+l$c;&$%o". Lo" c$%o" +&'"o" "o- >!&0$%o" 'l 0o&&!-0! "'-+)/-!o  %!-0&o %! l'" c;l)l'" "! %!+&'%'- ' 0&'>;" %! l' 4!0'o$%'c$,- !- 'c!0$lKCoA ()! 'l$*!-0' !l c$clo %! &!4"@  8'>o&!c! l' 8o&*'c$,- %! c)!&o" c!0,-$co". (

2.2.

REGULACIÓN DEL METABOLISMO DE LÍPIDOS

Po& l' 'cc$,- %! l'" o&*o-'" '%&!-;&+$c'" !- !l 0!9$%o '%$o"o &o%)c! l' $%&,l$"$" %! lo" T&$+l$c;&$%o". E"0' 'cc$,- l' &!'l$' 8)-%'*!-0'l*!-0! l' No&!$-!8&$' NE ()! 'c0$>' ' 0&'>;" %!l AMP c/cl$co )-' ()$-'"' &o0!/-$c' !- !l '%$oc$0o ()! ' ") >! 'c0$>'& l' l$'"' %!l '%$[email protected] ()! &!'l$' l' $%&,l$"$" %! lo" T&$+l$c;&$%o !- Gl$c!&ol  [email protected] ()! '"' ' l' "'-+&!. U-$%o" o Al4*$-' ' lo" 0!9$%o" !&$8;&$co"@ !"0! 0&'-"o&0! !" co-"0'-0!. E- lo" 0!9$%o"  !&$8;&$co"@ o& !9!*lo !l *"c)[email protected] "! &o%)c! )- &oc!"o $->!&"o 'l oc)&&$%o !- !l '%$[email protected] ' ()! !l co*l!9o FFAKAl4*$-' "! &o*!  !l FFA !" 0&'-"8!&$%o 'l $-0!&$o& %! l' c;l)l' *)"c)l'&  %o-%! "!& )0$l$'%' '&' o40!-!& !-!&+/' $-*!%$'0'*!-0! o "! 'l*'c!-'&' &o>$"$o-'l*!-0! !8o&*' %! !()!'" +o0'" l$/%$c'". E"0'" +o0$0'" %! l/$%o" "! "$0'- +!-!&'l*!-0! c!&c' %! l'" *$0oco-%&$'"  ") !"o  c'-0$%'% "o- *) 4'9o".

#

CAPÍTULO III ASPECTOS PRÁCTICOS: EJEMPLOS +.1.

EJEMPLO 2=== c'l%/' X== c'l %! +&'"' Y 5 + X16= c'l %! +&'"' "'0)&'%' Y 1 + ZC)-0o 4'co- %!4o co*!&[ S$ = +&'"'@ %! l' c)'l 3= "'0)&'%' 1== + %! 4'co-Y 36 + %! +&'"' "'0)&'%' 1==36Y 1 \Y + 5= + %! 4'co- Co-0$!-!- *' R%' %! +&'"' "'0)&'%' (

#!

CONCLUSIONES 

Lo" c$%o" +&'"o" "'0)&'%o" "o- *" %$8/c$l!" %! )0$l$'& o& !l o&+'-$"*[email protected] ' ()! ")"  o"$4$l$%'%!" %! co*4$-'&"! co- o0&'" *ol;c)l'" !"0- l$*$0'%'" o& !"0'& 0o%o" ")" o"$4l!"  )-0o" %! !-l'c! ' )0$l$'%o" o "'0)&'%o".



E"0' %$8$c)l0'% '&' co*4$-'&"! co- o0&o" co*)!"0o" 'c! ()! "!' %$8/c$l &o*!& ")" *ol;c)l'" !- o0&'" *" !()!'" ()! '0&'>$!"!- l'" '&!%!" %! lo" c'$l'&!" "'-+)/-!o"  l'" *!*4&'-'" c!l)l'&!". Po& !"[email protected] !- %!0!&*$-'%'" co-%$c$o-!" )!%!- 'c)*)l'&"!  8o&*'& l'c'" !- !l $-0!&$o&  %! l'" '&0!&$'" '&0!&$o"cl!&o"$".



Lo" l/$%o" o +&'"'" "o- l' &!"!&>' !-!&+;0$c' *" $*o&0'-0! %!l o&+'-$"*o !- lo" '-$*'l!" 'l $+)'l ()! !- l'" l'-0'" "o- lo" +lc$%o". E"0o !" %!4$%o ' ()! c'%' +&'*o %! +&'"' &o%)c! *" %!l %o4l! %! !-!&+/' ()! lo" %!*" -)0&$!-0!"@ co- lo ()! '&' 'c)*)l'& )-' %!0!&*$-'%' c'-0$%'% %! c'lo&/'" ",lo !" -!c!"'&$o l' *$0'% %! +&'"' %! lo ()! "!&/' -!c!"'&$o %! +l)c,+!-o o  &o0!/-'".



L'" +&'"'" %! l' %$!0' 'o&0!- !-0&! !l >!$-0!  !l 0&!$-0' o& c$!-0o %! l'" -!c!"$%'%!" !-!&+;0$c'" %$'&$'". P!&o -)!"0&o o&+'-$"*o -o 'c! !l *$"*o )"o %! lo" %$8!&!-0!" 0$o" %! +&'"'@ o& lo ()! !"0! 0&!$-0' o& c$!-0o %!4!& !"0'& co*)!"0o o& %$! o& c$!-0o %! +&'"'" "'0)&'%'" +&'"' %! o&$+!- '-$*'l@ c$-co o& c$!-0o %! +&'"'" $-"'0)&'%'" 'c!$0! %! ol$>'  c$-co o& c$!-0o %! +&'"'" ol$$-"'0)&'%'" 'c!$0!" %! "!*$ll'"  8&)0o" "!co".



S$- %)%' !l )"o $-%)"0&$'l %! lo" l/$%o" !" !- l' 8'4&$c'c$,- %! 'c!$0!"@ l)4&$c'-0!"@ +&'"'"@ c!&'"@ [email protected] ' "!'- '&' co-")*o )*'-o o 4$!- '&' )"o $-%)"0&$'l. T'*4$;[email protected] ' -$>!l %! co-")*o )*'-o "! l!" )0$l$'- !- l' 8'4&$c'c$,- %! *!%$c'*!-0o"  co*l!*!-0o" >$0'*/-$co" lo" 'c!$0!" >!+!0'l!" "o- &$co" !- >$0'*$-' E.

#"

BIBLIOGRAFÍA 

[email protected] A&*'-%o. 2==6. F)-%'*!-0o" %! 4$o()/*$c' *!0'4,l$c'. E%$0. T;4'&. M'%&$%.



BIOLOGÍA )-' !&"!c0$>' !>ol)0$>'. 2==6. To*o I. E%$0o&$'l L)*4&!&'". L$*'K P!&.



:[email protected] Do-'l%. 2==6. B$o()/*$c'. E%$0o&$'l P'-'*!&$c'-o. A&+!-0$-'.

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