module 3. Practice Negotiation Skills.pdf

August 8, 2017 | Author: Sheryl 'Sharima Ali' Renomeron-Morales | Category: Voicemail, Semiotics, Communication, Human Communication, Psychology & Cognitive Science
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RIZZA R. RENOMERON National Assessor for VG NC III CA-VGD0313140909003

SHERYL R. MORALES National Assessor for BKP NC III CA-BKP0313140911226

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills



Information Sheet 1 TELEPHONING Information Sheet 2 PRESENTATION Information Sheet 3 MEETINGS Information Sheet 4 NEGOTIATIONS


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills



Description: This module covers the knowledge, skills and attitudes required in developing and practicing in negotiations. Negotiation is done at all times whether in oral or written.

Course Objective:

At the end of the course, the student will be able to develop comprehension skills in telephoning, presentation, meetings and negotiations

CONTENTS: Information Sheet 1 Tel ephoningg Telephone B asics Telephone Etiquette The Phone Call and Customer Service Verbs Self Check 1 Information Sheet 2 Presentation Oral Presentation W ritten Presentation Self Check 2 Information Sheet 3 MEETINGS Types of Meetings Planning and R unning a Meeting Self Check 3

Information Sheet 4 Negotiation Negotiation Principles Stages in Negotiation Process Languages of Negotiation Self Check 4


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills



1. Read Information Sheet 1 on Telephoning 2. Answer Self-Check 3. Read Information Sheet 2 on Presentation 4. Answer Self-Check 5. Read Information Sheet 3 on Meeting 6. Answer Self-Check 7. Read Information Sheet 4 on Negotiation 8. Answer Self-Check



Information Sheet 1 Self-Check 1 Information Sheet 2 Self-Check 2 Information Sheet 3 Self-Check 3 Information Sheet 4 Self-Check 4

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills


TELEPHONING 1.1 Telephone Basics You are probably used to making informal calls to family and friends. When making calls to companies, however, some special rules and conventions apply. On this page we explain how to call someone in a company that you do not know personally (the most common kind of formal call made by students) and give you some models and language that you can use. General rules When making a formal call, three rules should influence your choice of words: •

Be brief. Do not waste the receiver's time.

Be clear. Explain the background and purpose of your call.

Be polite. Recognize the receiver's point of view.

These rules can sometimes conflict. If you are too brief, you may confuse the receiver or appear impolite. Try to balance the three rules. Making a call to someone you do not know The most difficult calls to make are calls to people that you do not not know. Usually, the purpose of your call will be to make a request for information or a meeting. This kind of call can be divided into sections according to the function each serves: • Locate the person • Make request • Make arrangement • Close the call In the following examples, we will imagine that you are calling Mr. Lau to arrange a visit to his office.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Locate the person If the person you want to speak to answers the call, this part is simple. If the receiver gives her name when he answers your call, you can skip to the next stage. If the receiver does not give his name, you can confirm that you have the right person: See example below Hello, is that Mr Lau? More often the number that you have will connect you to an operator or secretary. In this case you will have to ask to speak to Mr. Lau: Hello, I'd like to speak to Mr. Lau Kam-cheong, please. If Mr. Lau is not available, you will need to find out when you can speak to him: Could you tell me when he will be available? If the person you are calling has a busy schedule, you may have to call several times. When you are finally connected, it is best to pretend that this is your first call. Do not mention how difficult it was to make contact! Sometimes, you will not know the name of the person who might be able to help you. In this case, you can state your request and then say: Could you put me through to someone who might be able to help me? Locating someone at a company can be frustrating if you are passed from person to person. Try not to let your frustration show

Make request Making a request involves three stages: introducing yourself, giving background, and making the request itself. Introduce yourself by giving your name and explaining who you are: I'm ...., I'm a first-year student at Hong Kong University....


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

If you have been given the receiver's name by someone else, you should also mention this: Mr. Chan from Eurasia Products suggested that I call you.... Give the background to your request by explaining why you are making it: I'm doing a project on work experience and I need to arrange a visit to a company in your field.... Make your request politely and clearly. Make sure that the receiver knows exactly what agreeing to your request will involve: how much of her time will it involve and what will she or her staff will have to do: I wonder if I could pay a visit to your office for an hour or so sometime in the next two weeks, to talk to one of your staff about.... Make arrangement If the person you are calling agrees to your request, it is important to make a clear arrangement. If you are arranging a meeting, for example, arrange the time and place and make sure you know where to go and what to do when you get there. Make a note of all the information so that you do not need to call back again to find out something you have missed. If the person you are calling cannot agree to your request, he may modify it. Listen carefully and try to fit in with his schedule. If the person you are calling cannot agree to your request at all, ask if he knows someone else who can help: Do you know anyone else who might be able to help me? Whether the receiver can help you or not, thank her and close the call politely.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Close the call As the caller, it is your job to close the call when you have got the information you need. Unless the receiver shows that he wants to talk, it is not polite to chat once your business is finished. If there is a difficult silence at the end of the call, it is probably because you are not doing your job of closing the call. You can do this by confirming the arrangement: So, I'll come to your office on Monday at 10.... thanking the receiver, Thank you very much for your help.... and saying goodbye Goodbye.... In each case, wait for the receiver's response before you go on to the next stage. Wait until you have heard the receiver say goodbye before you hang up. Close the call extracts:


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills


Telephone Etiquette

A phone is ringing somewhere in your office. By the third ring the call should be answered. BUT… before you pick up that phone: 1. Clear your mind of all but the task at hand – responding to the caller. 2. Prepare your phone voice 3. Answer by the 3rd ring 4. Offer your standardized greeting. 5. Be prepared before you respond. 6. Treat the caller with respect; be efficient, effective, empathetic and responsive. Clear Your Mind of all but the Task at Hand – Responding to the Caller There’s nothing worse than trying to carry on a conversation with someone who is reading their emails, looking at documents or distracted with something other than your conversation. You can always tell; there’s an extended pause in the conversation while you wait for a response but, they have none because they were looking through a magazine while chatting on the phone. It’s frustrating, it’s rude, it makes you feel unimportant and they are likely to miss important information for lack of focus. Be present with your caller Being present requires FOCUS. Your center of interest should be on the caller and their conversation. Allowing distractions can result in important information being overlooked or worse, the caller identifies you as a poor provider of customer service and tells others. Hints: • Turn away from your computer and desk when you answer the phone • Put down your reading material. • Focus your attention on the caller • Take the gum out of your mouth ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 5

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

No drinking or eating during the conversation

Prepare Your Phone Voice How you handle yourself on the phone reflects not only on you, but also your company. You see it over and over. Someone talking on the phone forms an opinion of the person with whom they are talking based on the tone of their voice, their language skills, etc. It may not be fair, but it happens. According to John Robertson of EZINE @rticles, within 60 seconds people will make assumptions about your education, background, ability and personality based on your voice alone. What reputation do you want to build? What impression do you want to make? Do you sound like this on the phone? Pay attention to: • What you want to say. • How you want to say it. Your voice is very important to your career and your personal life. When you are talking 87% of the listener’s opinion of you is based on how you say it according to Robertson. That means that only 13% remains to make a positive impression about what we are saying. Project a tone that conveys enthusiasm, confidence, friendliness and attentiveness. Did you know, when you smile while you are talking it comes across in your voice? Let your personality shine through on the phone. Hints: • Take a deep breath before you pick up the phone • Smile before you speak • Assume your speaking voice, controlling speed, tone and volume • Speak clearly,


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Prepare to Offer Your Standard Greeting YO, Hey, Whazzzzup may be the normal greetings you would expect to hear in the academic setting if you are calling the dorms but they are not generally accepted telephone etiquette for University offices. Remember the 87% rule? Make a good first impression with an effective, efficient greeting. Identify your company, then, identify yourself. Or you may name your department (Music Department), your name (Glenn Campbell). It should be crisp, clean and gives all the information the caller can handle at this point in the call. Adding phrases such as “good morning”, “how may I help you” are ok so long as you sound like you mean it. Elaborate, drawn out greetings are distracting and time consuming. You can lose your caller before the conversation begins. Be Prepared Before You Respond Be prepared to answer the phone. It’s not an interruption, it’s your job. Have pencil and paper ready; prepare mentally to be present with the caller. Write down the caller’s name immediately. If the caller doesn’t identify him or herself – ask for a name… “May I say whose calling?” “Could I have your name please?” “With whom am I speaking?” All are polite, appropriate ways to get the caller’s name. Use their name frequently throughout the conversation. Use all of your listening skills, focus your attention on the caller, speak calmly and choose your words. Be careful to avoid jargon or acronyms not universally familiar. Hints: • Listen not only to what the speaker is saying but to their unspoken • thoughts as well. What is it this person isn’t saying that is important to the • conversation? • Be sure to get clarification. “If I understand you correctly…”, “So you are • saying that…” “This is what I understand you are telling me…”


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

1.3 The phone call and Customer Service Treat the Caller with Respect; Be Efficient, Effective, Empathetic and Responsive 5 Forbidden Phrases 1. “I Don’t Know” 2. “I/We Can’t Do That” 3. “You Have To” 4. “Just a Second” 5. “No”

Be positive, a problem solver, honest and helpful.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Problem Callers Problem callers don’t usually start out that way. Something happens to make them go ballistic. Customers have an expectation of how they ought to be treated and if you fail to meet that expectation, they become agitated. When you get a caller on the phone who is getting agitated: Listen. Allow them to vent. Stay calm and be sincere. Remember the 87% rule – if you aren’t sincere the caller will know immediately. Don’t jump in, even if you have heard the same thing 10 times. The caller will be offended. A sincere voice will have a calming effect on the caller. If you become upset or defensive you will make a bad situation worse. Hints: • Don’t over-react to trigger words. Callers will often try to push your buttons. • Listen completely to the complaint, allow the caller to vent. Only when they are finished should you comment. • If the call is long-distance you might offer to call them back to avoid phone charges. This can have an immediate positive impact.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Empathize. Acknowledge their feelings. “I can hear that you are upset by this” or “I can tell this situation is upsetting you”. Hints: • To help with this process, keep family pictures in your work area. Pretend you are talking to someone you know and like while you are working with your caller. • Force yourself to focus on solving the problem rather than internalizing the caller’s attacks. • Don’t blame anyone for the problem, no matter who is at fault. It’s counter productive to resolving the issue. Apologize. It doesn’t matter who’s at fault. Anyone who has been inconvenienced wants an apology. You don’t have to agree with the caller, but should express regret that there is a problem. Empathize with the person’s feelings and apologize, sincerely… “I’m really sorry this happened”. This makes the caller feel that you have aligned with them. It’s hard to be upset with someone who is sympathetic and trying to help. Hint • •

Use the person’s name a lot and apologize frequently. Solve the problem. Suggest agreeable solutions. Ask how you can help and if it’s reasonable, do it; if not, find a compromise. Make sure something is done. Take it upon yourself to ensure the customer gets some satisfaction.

Hints •

Handling difficult customers isn’t easy. Remembering the Golden Rule, “Do unto others as you would have them do unto you”, and putting it into action with difficult customers, will help increase your job satisfaction. Paraphrase the problem and repeat it to the caller – get clarification before offering solutions.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Work with your managers to streamline office/departmental procedures so people who answer the phone are empowered to solve the customer’s problem. Picture how good it feels to solve a problem and send someone away satisfied. It makes your whole day better.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Screening Calls Screening calls is often an unpleasant part of the job. But it is sometimes necessary because the person for whom you are screening does not always have time to talk or want to talk to the caller. Key to handling these situations is considering the “availability” of the called party. In order to keep a caller from being irate over not finding the person they are calling available to them, try sequencing the questions to avoid a conflict. Sample Conversation: Receptionist: Caller: Receptionist:

Caller: Receptionist: call, so

“Bookkeeping, James Stewart” “Is Ms. Stell available” “I’m sorry, Ms. Stell is unavailable at this time, may I take your name and number and have her return your call? Or may I help you?” (Note: you have given the caller the expectation a phone call will be returned but also offered immediate assistance if desired.) “This is Sam Davis, would you please tell her I called, she has my number.” “Mr. Davis, she has asked me to interrupt if you should please hold while I tell her you are on the line.” (Had Mr. Davis not been someone who should be passed through you have left no room for doubt about

Hint •

Have a list of callers for whom you should always interrupt


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Placing Callers on Hold The other line is ringing, and you are anxious to answer…requiring you to put your current caller on Hold – it’s a necessary evil. We all hate being on Hold. So when it’s necessary to place a caller on Hold, check with them first to determine if they can/want to Hold. WAIT for an answer. Remember back when we talked about “being present” with your caller? If you are present with your caller it is only polite to let them decide if they will Hold, go to voice mail, or call back. Handle your current caller before you rush off to another…first come, first serve. the availability of Ms. Stell.) Once you have placed a caller on Hold, check back every 15-30 seconds to update them. Thank them for holding and be as specific as you can about how much longer you expect to keep them on Hold. Each time allow them the opportunity to decide if they would like to continue Holding. Transferring Calls When the caller needs to be transferred, be polite and ask if they would like to betransferred. Ask the caller for their number in case you lose them during the transfer. Give the caller the name of the person to whom you are transferring them along with their number in case the call does not go through or in case they would like to call later. If at all possible, stay on the line until the transfer is complete. If you have a frustrated caller who has been transferred several times already, do not transfer them again. Take ownership of their situation. Call the appropriate party; ensure they have a solution to the situation, only then should you transfer the caller. If you don’t know how to fix the situation, take the caller’s name and number, find the appropriate person and have them return the call. Check back to make sure the caller’s situation has been resolved. The caller will always remember your kindness and will tell others about your terrific customer service skills.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Hints: • Treat the caller as you would want to be treated • Look at those pictures in your work area; help the caller as if they were family • Make it your goal to call them back within 4 hours if you have to do research to help them with their situation Taking Messages When taking a message for someone else, be sure you get the following information recorded: 1. The caller’s name and company/department 2. The correct spelling of the caller’s name, date and time of the call 3. Complete telephone number 4. Brief explanation for call. Be sure to verify this information with the caller to make sure you have taken the message correctly and give him/her the opportunity to check what they told you. Hints If someone is covering the phones for you, pick up your messages when you return. Don’t wait for them to come to you. Voice Mail Voice mail can be a very effective tool for communication if it is used correctly. In general people don’t mind getting transferred to voice mail if it gives them helpful information. Your voice mail message should be short and to the point. When forced to leave a message, callers prefer to get right to it, not listen to a longwinded voice mail greeting. Don’t state the obvious, (I’m away from my desk or on the other line). State your department, your name and leave clear instruction as to what information you need from the caller such as: ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 13

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Name and phone number, Best time for you to return the call Brief summary of the reason for calling

Hints: •

Sample voice mail: “Asian Academy of Business and Computers; Mary dela Cruz. I will be out of the office until Tuesday. Please leave your name, number, and a brief message as to the nature of your call. I will respond when I return.” Sample voice mail: “Asian Academy of Business and Computers; Mary dela Cruz.. I will be out of the office until Tuesday. Please leave your name, number, and a brief message as to the nature of your call. I will respond when I return. If you need immediate assistance please contact Jeeves Butler at x5555. Sample voice mail if you change your voice mail daily: “Asian Academy of Business and Computers; Mary dela Cruz.. Today is (date). At the tone, please leave your name, a brief message regarding your call, along with your phone number and the best time to call you back.”

If you are going to be away from the office, say so and leave your date of return so people will know when they might expect a response. If you are going to be out for an extended period, you should consider offering information on another source for helping the caller. In this case, you would state your department name, your name and information about who the caller can contact for assistance. If you plan to refer your calls to another member of your department, be sure to make arrangements with them ahead of time. Leave them a cheat sheet on how to handle special procedures.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills


A. Put check (√) only to proper Telephone etiquette 

Whenever possible, try to answer your phone by the fifth ring. Do not let the phone ring endlessly—doing so will most certainly annoy your caller.

Show respect for your listener's time.

Put someone on "hold" for more than a minute or so.

Control the overall length of a call, and limit the nonbusiness part of the call to a minimum.

Identify yourself immediately when you place a call.

Identify yourself immediately when you answer a call.

Identify yourself immediately when you answer someone else's phone.

Show a willingness to take a message for another person.

Be sure to reveal personal or confidential information when answering someone else's phone.

Always be polite. Remember to say "please" and "thank you" whenever appropriate.

Adjust your voice quality to your telephone equipment.

Shout at or snap at people or give others the impression that you feel superior or are being disturbed unnecessarily. Try to control any negative feelings you might have.

Respect each person with whom you work, regardless of his or her rank or position.

Treat your job—and every business caller—seriously and professionally.

Do not say negative things about the company or any of its employees.

Do not argue or become defensive with a "problem caller."


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

B. Review the sample conversation below Receptionist: Caller: Receptionist: Caller: Receptionist: Caller: Receptionist:

Bookkeeping, James Stewart I need to speak with Ms. Stell, right away. May I get your name and number please? This is Sam Davis and I need to speak with Ms. Stell Let me check to see if she is in, will you hold please? Yes, thank you I’ll hold. I’m sorry, Ms Stell is not available, Let me take your number and have her return the call. Caller: NO, I’ll hold until she can take my call. Why do you think Mr. Bellefonte thinks Ms. Stell is in the office?


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills


2.1 Oral Presentation Making a good oral presentation is an art that involves attention to the needs of your audience, careful planning, and attention to delivery. This page explains some of the basics of effective oral presentation. It also covers use of notes, visual aids and computer presentation software. THE AUDIENCE Some basic questions to ask about an audience are: 1. Who will I be speaking to? 2. What do they know about my topic already? 3. What will they want to know about my topic? 4. What do I want them to know by the end of my talk? By basing the content and style of your presentation on your answers to these questions, you can make sure that you are in tune with your audience. What you want to say about your topic may be much less important than what your audience wants to hear about it.

PLANNING YOUR PRESENTATION In an effective presentation, the content and structure are adjusted to the medium of speech. When listening, we cannot go back over a difficult point to understand it or easily absorb long arguments. A presentation can easily be ruined if the content is too difficult for the audience to follow or if the structure is too complicated. As a general rule, expect to cover much less content than you would in a written report. Make difficult points easier to understand by preparing the ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 17

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

listener for them, using plenty of examples and going back over them later. Leave time for questions within the presentation. Give your presentation a simple and logical structure. Include an introduction in which you outline the points you intend to cover and a conclusion in which you go over the main points of your talk. TIPS ON CONTENT AND STRUCTURE Content It is likely that you already have a topic and you know what you want to say about it. This is the content of your presentation. You may already have the content of your presentation in written form: for example in a written report. Whether your content is already written down or you are beginning from scratch, you may need to cut it down for your presentation. Why? •

You will need to fit your content within the time limit. Think carefully about how much information you can reasonably present in the time allowed and select the most important point. You will need to hold the interest and attention of your audience. Many people lose interest towards the end of presentations that contain too much information. Think carefully about the key points that you want to get across and build your presentation around them. Some kinds of information, such as technical explanations and tables of figures, are difficult for listeners to absorb during a presentation. Think about summarising this kind of information or referring the listeners to a document they can read after the presentation. You will need to leave time for examples and illustrations of your points. Think carefully about how you will support and explain your key points. You will need to leave time for an introduction, conclusion and questions or comments. During this time you are likely to be repeating points made in the main body of your talk.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Three points to think about when preparing the content of a presentation: • • •

What are your key points? Most good presentations have no more than 5 key points. How will you support your key points with examples and illustrations? How will you make it easy for your audience to follow your key points?

Structure Most presentations will consist of an introduction, the body of the talk and a conclusion. The introduction prepares the audience for what you will say in the body of the talk and the conclusion reminds them of your key points. Good presentations raise questions in the listeners' mind. Good speakers encourage questions both during and after the presentation and are prepared to answer them. Introduction A good introduction does four things: • Attracts and focuses the attention of the audience • Puts the speaker and audience at ease • Explains the purpose of the talk and what the speaker would like to achieve • Gives an overview of the key points of the talk It is often a good idea to begin a talk with a question, a short story, an interesting fact about your topic or an unusual visual aid. Many speakers follow this with an overhead transparency that shows the title, aim and outline of the talk.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Body The body of a presentation must be presented in a logical order that is easy for the audience to follow and natural to your topic. Divide your content into sections and make sure that the audience knows where they are at any time during your talk. It is often a good idea to pause between main sections of your talk. You can ask for questions, sum up the point or explain what the next point will be. If you have an OHT with an outline of your talk on it, you can put this on the projector briefly and point to the next section. Examples, details and visual aids add interest to a presentation and help you get your message through. Here are some questions you can ask yourself about the examples you include: • • • • •

Are they relevant to the experience of the audience? Are they concrete? Will the audience find them interesting? Are they varied? Are they memorable?

Conclusion A good conclusion does two things: • •

Reminds the audience of your key points Reinforces your message

Your conclusion should end the presentation on a positive note and make the audience feel that have used their time well listening to you. Questions Many speakers worry about questions from the audience. However, questions show that the audience is interested in what you have to say ad can make the talk more lively and interactive. You should be more worried if there are no questions at all! One way of handling questions is to point to questions you would like to discuss as you are talking. You can control questions better if you leave pauses during your talk ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 20

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

and ask for questions. It is important not to let question and answer sessions during the talk go on too long, however. Answer briefly or say you will deal with the question at the end. Make sure you are ready to go on with your talk when questions have finished. DELIVERING YOUR PRESENTATION People vary in their ability to speak confidently in public, but everyone gets nervous and everyone can learn how to improve their presentation skills by applying a few simple techniques. The main points to pay attention to in delivery are the quality of your voice, your rapport with the audience, use of notes and use of visual aids. Voice quality involves attention to volume, speed and fluency, clarity and pronunciation. The quality of your voice in a presentation will improve dramatically if you are able to practise beforehand in a room similar to the one you will be presenting in. Rapport with the audience involves attention to eye contact, sensitivity to how the audience is responding to your talk and what you look like from the point of view of the audience. These can be improved by practising in front of one or two friends or video-taping your rehearsal.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

TIPS ON DELIVERY Voice quality Your voice is your main channel of communication to the audience, so make sure you use it to its best effect. Volume Is your voice loud enough or too loud? Adjust your volume to the size of the room and make sure the people at the back can hear. In a big room take deep breaths and try to project your voice rather than shout. Speed and fluency Speak at a rate so your audience can understand your points. Do not speed up because you have too much material to fit into the time available. Try not to leave long pauses while you are looking at your notes or use fillers such as 'um' or 'er'. Use pauses to allow the audience to digest an important point. Repeat or rephrase difficult or important points to make sure the audience understands. Clarity Speak clearly. Face the audience and hold your head up. Your speech will be clearer if you look directly at the members of the audience while you speak. Keep your hands and notes away from your mouth and keep your eyes on the audience when you are talking about overhead transparencies. If you have to look at the whiteboard or the overhead projector, stop talking until you are ready to face the audience again. Pronunciation You may not be able to improve your general pronunciation much before an important presentation. However, you can make sure you know how to pronounce names and difficult words. Do not use exagerrated intonation or pronunciation of individual words. Your natural speaking style will be good enough as long as you speak clearly. ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 22

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Engaging the audience One of the secrets of a good presentation is to involve the audience. Maintain eye contact Look your audience in the eyes. Spread your eye contact around the audience including those at the back and sides of the room. Avoid looking at anyone too long because this can be intimidating! Ask for feedback You can involve the audience by asking occasional questions. Try to ask genuine questions to which you do not already know the answer and show interest in any replies. Leave time for the audience to think and try to avoid answering your questions yourself or telling members of the audience that their answers are wrong. Questions to the audience work well when you manage to make those who answer them feel that they have contributed to your presentation. You can also pause occasionally to ask if anyone has any questions for you. If a question disrupts the flow of your talk too much, you can say that you will answer it later (but don't forget to do it!). Before you ask for questions, make sure you are ready to pick up your presentation again when the Q & A session has finished. Look confident It is natural to feel nervous in front of an audience. Experienced speakers avoid looking nervous by breathing deeply, speaking slowly and avoiding unnecessary gestures or movements. Smiling and focusing attention on members of the audience who show interest can also help you feel more confident as your talk progresses.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

EFFECTIVE USE OF NOTES Good speakers vary a great deal in their use of notes. Some do not use notes at all and some write out their talk in great detail. If you are not an experienced speaker it is not a good idea to speak without notes because you will soon lose your thread. You should also avoid reading a prepared text aloud or memorising your speech as this will be boring. The best solution may be to use notes with headings and points to be covered. You may also want to write down key sentences. Notes can be on paper or cards. Some speakers use overhead transparencies as notes. The trick in using notes is to avoid shifting your attention from the audience for too long. Your notes should always be written large enough for you to see without moving your head too much.

Tips on Notes One of the decisions you have to make before you give a presentation is how to remember what you are going to say. Experienced presenters use a variety of methods. On this page we outline the advantages and disadvantages of each. It is up to you to decide which is best for you. Speaking without notes Some presenters do not use notes at all. They just remember the outline of what they are going to say and talk. Advantages: If you do it well, you will seem natural, knowledgeable and confident of your topic. You will also find it easier to establish rapport with the audience because you can give them your full attention.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Disadvantages: It is easy to lose your thread, miss out whole sections of your talk or to go over the time limit. People who speak without notes often fail to convey a clear idea of the structure of their ideas to the audience. This is a high-risk strategy. A few people can present effectively without notes. If you are one of them, good luck! Reading from a script Some experienced presenters write down every word they intend to say. They may read the whole script aloud or they may just use it as a back-up. Advantages: You will find it easier to keep within the time limit. You are likely to less nervous and make fewer mistakes. Disadvantages: It is difficult to establish rapport with the audience. You may sound like you are reading aloud rather than speaking to an audience. Listeners often lose interest in a presentation that is read aloud. This is a low-risk strategy employed by many experienced non-native speaker presenters. If you use it, you will need to develop the skill of reading aloud while still sounding natural. Few people can do this effectively. Note cards Many presenters write down headings and key points on cards or paper. They use them as reminders of what they are going to say. Advantages: You will find it easier to establish rapport with the audience. Your presentation will be structured but you will sound natural.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Disadvantages: You may find it difficult to keep within the time limit. If your notes are too brief, you may forget what you intended to say. This is a medium-risk strategy used by many experienced presenters and the one most often recommended. The disadvantages of note cards can be overcome if you practice your presentation before you give it. Overhead transparencies Some presenters use their OHTs as notes. They use them like note cards as reminders of what they are going to say. Handouts and PowerPoint presentations can be used in the same way. Advantages: It is easy to establish rapport with the audience because you are sharing your notes with them. You will sound natural and your presentation will seem well-organised. Disadvantages: You may find it difficult to keep within the time limit. Your presentation may be dominated by your OHTs. Unless you are careful, you may find that you are talking to the overhead projector rather than the audience. This is a medium-to-high-risk strategy. Used well, it can be very effective, especially by presenters who are used to speaking without notes.

VISUAL AIDS Visual aids help to make a presentation more lively. They can also help the audience to follow your presentation and help you to present information that would be difficult to follow through speech alone.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

The two most common forms of visual aid are overhead transparencies (OHTs) and computer slide shows (e.g. PowerPoint). Objects that can be displayed or passed round the audience can also be very effective and often help to relax the audience. Some speakers give printed handouts to the audience to follow as they speak. Others prefer to give their handouts at the end of the talk, because they can distract the audience from the presentation.

Tips on OHTs Purpose The aim of using transparencies is to support the points you want to make in speech. The audience will be able to follow better if they can see your key points and examples as well as hearing them. OHTs can • • • • • • •

Reinforce a point you have made Show what something looks like Illustrate relationships Show information patterns Present figures or graphs Summarise key points Help the audience follow passages or quotations you read aloud

OHTs are not the only form of visual aid available to you. For example, if you want to show what something looks like, it may be better to show the audience the thing itself rather than a picture of it. Design To be effective, OHTs must be attractive and easy to read. Some basic rules are: • • • • •

Use large fonts and images Present one key point or example per OHT Use headings and bullet points in preference to lines of text Use strong colours and don't use too many Use simple graphs in preference to tables of figures


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Pay attention to layout. Use the centre of the OHT rather than the edges

Using overhead projectors Overhead projectors are designed to allow the speaker to project an image while facing the audience. The image may be a picture or graphic, notes indicating the points you are making or longer texts that you want to read aloud. Whenever you use an OHT, the attention of the audience will be divided between you and the image, so there are a few basic rules to follow: • Make sure the image can be seen. If possible go to the room in advance and check that everything on your OHTs can be read easily from the back of the room. • If possible, make sure the projector is in a convenient position. Decide where you want to stand when speaking and then position the projector where you can get to it easily. This will usually be on the side of your body that you normally use for writing (i.e. your left side if you are left-handed) • Keep your slides in order in a pile next to the projector and put them back in order in another pile as you take them off the projector. • If possible, control the lighting in the room yourself so that there is always a light shining on you. If your OHTs are easy to read, you will not need to turn off the lights. • When you are presenting, avoid looking at the projected image and the transparency on the projector. It is a good idea to print out your slides on paper to keep with your notes so you can refer to them while you are speaking. • If you want to draw attention to a point on an OHT, put a pen on top of it and leave it pointing at the point you want to draw attention to. Don't point with your finger because you will have to look at the projector while you do so. • If you want the audience to read longer texts on OHTs (e.g. quotations or tables of figures) give them time to do so. There is no point in


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

putting an OHT on the projector if the audience does not have time to read it. • Make sure you explain the content and purpose of each OHT. The main rule is to use OHTs to support your talk. Don't let them dominate it. OHTs and handouts Some speakers give handouts for the audience to read while they are talking. The advantage of OHTs over handouts is that they focus attention on you and your talk. If you want to give a handout, it is often a good idea to wait until the end of the presentation before distributing it. Often members of the audience want to note down points from your OHTs. This can distract them from following the presentation, so it is a good idea to distribute information that the audience will want to note down on handout. As soon as someone starts taking notes, tell the audience that they do not need to do so because they will get the information on the handout.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

2.2 Written Presentation (Reports) Written reports are frequently used to convey information within the workplace. Reports can be informal (e-mails, memos, letters, etc.) or formal. This module focuses on formal reports.

What is a report? All reports have the same purpose: to convey information. Reports differ from essays in two main ways. • The purpose of a report is to convey information, while the purpose of an essay is to demonstrate your knowledge of the subject and writing skills. • The information in a report will usually be new to the reader, while the information in an essay may already be known. There are two basic kinds of report. •

Informational reports tell the reader about a topic. They present information without analysis or recommendations. The report writer's task is to select and emphasise the relevant facts clearly and concisely. Analytical reports tell the reader to do something. They analyse and interpret data and make recommendations. The report writer's task is to select and emphasise the facts and arguments that support the recommendations.

2.3 The Writing Process Writing a report requires hours of work. Approaching the task systematically helps you break down a large job into smaller, more manageable tasks. The logical steps for writing a report are listed below and explained in this module.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Step 1: Identify a Report Topic Step 2: Understand Your Audience Step 3: Focus and Refine Your Topic Step 4: Create a Working Bibliography Step 5: Evaluate and Synthesize Resources Step 6: Take Notes on What You Read Step 7: Organize Your Ideas and Create Structure Step 8: Write the First Draft Step 9: Revise and Edit the Report Step 10: Cite Your References

2.4 Sections of a report Formal reports also take many forms depending on the field and topic. Many companies and organisations have their own house styles for reports. Formal reports are usually divided into sections with numbered headings. Although report formats vary, most reports contain the following sections. Title page Apart from the title of the report, which should give a clear idea of the topic of the report, a title page usually includes: • • • •

Your name and position The name of the person or group that the report is addressed to The names of anyone else the report is distributed to The date


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Contents The contents page should list the main section headings of the report with page numbers. It may also list the tables and figures in the report.

Executive summary A good executive summary allows a busy reader to get the main points of the report without reading the whole report. It should be short and should include: • The purpose of the report • The problem or issues dealt with and the main points of discussion • The conclusions of the report • Any recommendations made The executive summary comes at the beginning of the report, but it is a good idea to write it after you have finished writing the whole report. Introduction The introduction explains the background to the report, its purpose and the points covered. A good introduction will be short and will help to guide the reader. Main body The main body of the report should contain a clear explanation of what you have discovered and how you have found it out. It is often divided into sections with headings that describe the topics covered. Another way to divide up the main body is: • • •

Procedure - what you did Findings - what you have found out Discussion - relating what you have found out to what the reader already knows


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Many reports contain tables and figures. Each table or figure should have a caption containing a number and a title. You should only include tables and figures which contribute to the information you want to convey. It is not necessary to summarise all the information in a table in your text, but you should always explain the main points illustrated in the text following the table. Conclusion This contains the conclusions you draw from the information presented in the main body of the report. Conclusions should be firmly and briefly stated. You should not introduce new information. Recommendations Recommendations are suggestions for actions or changes. They should be specific rather than general. If the purpose of the report is simply to present information on a topic for discussion, a recommendations section may not be necessary. Bibliography A report may contain references or recommendations for reading in a bibliography. A bibliography may not be necessary, however. In reports, full references to readings introduced in the text are often given as footnotes. Appendices Appendices may include tables, texts, graphs, diagrams, photographs, questionnaires, etc. You should put these in an appendix when placing them in the main body of the report would interrupt the process of reading. Items in an appendices should be referred to somewhere in the main body. If you do not need to refer to them in the main body, you might think about whether you need to include them at all.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Report formats A formal report should be formatted so that it is easy to read and looks professional. Microsoft Word and other word-processing packages can help you to: • • • • • •

Use attractive fonts and page layouts Insert page numbers Automatically number headings Draw tables and figures Automatically number table and figure captions and insert references to them in the text Generate a table of contents and lists of tables and figures.

Before you produce your report, spend some time reading the help information provided with your word-processor to find out how to use these features. If you use Microsoft Word, you may also use a report template, which will give you a basic layout for a professional report before you start writing.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills


Instructions -- Complete these sentences by filling in the blanks 1. In the introduction to __________ the writer may tell the reader what is

covered, but the beginning of __________ is much more specific with background and purpose sections. 2. The conclusion of __________ may simply sum up the preceding arguments, but the end of __________ is much more specific and often includes recommendations and/or solutions. 3. The format of __________ is much more rigidly constrained than that of __________. The logical development of material in __________ must be rigorously maintained. 4. __________ uses headings and figures to make contents immediately clear, and points may be numbered and in note form. __________ may use some headings, but numbers are seldom used. 5. A bibliography must be included at the end of every __________ and may be included at the end of __________. B. Create a written report by choosing a topic below. Follow the sections of a written report 1. Many students like you are contemplating systems’ certification beyond the undergraduate degree. What are the most popular, and useful, certification programs available? Is it worth the effort? What programs would you recommend? Why? 2. Many management information systems (MIS) students wonder whether basic writing skills will be an important aspect of their jobs. You’re curious, too, so you decide to write a report that investigates what MIS jobs involve. In addition, you wonder whether the course requirements in your business school serve to prepare MIS majors for the kinds of on-the-job writing they will do. After you’ve researched and analyzed these issues, offer recommendations to fellow students.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

3. Your college has decided to offer each student the opportunity to establish a Web presence on its server through a personal home page. As the head of media and information technologies, it’s your job to develop clear and understandable directions for students who want to create their own Web sites—whether they use html or any of the popular Web-page-creation software. After carefully analyzing your audience’s needs, and investigating your college’s regulations about content and security, present students with a set of directions.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills


Introduction A meeting is a gathering of two or more people that has been convened for the purpose of achieving a common goal through verbal interaction, such as sharing information or reaching agreement. Meetings may occur face to face or virtually, as mediated by communications technology, such as a telephone conference call, a skyped conference call or a video conference call. Thus, a meeting may be distinguished from other gatherings, such as a chance encounter (not convened), a sports game or a concert (verbal interaction is incidental), a party or the company of friends (no common goal is to be achieved) and a demonstration (whose common goal is achieved mainly through the number of demonstrators present, not verbal interaction). Commercially, the term is used by meeting planners and other meeting professionals to denote an event booked at a hotel, convention center or any other venue dedicated to such gatherings. In this sense, the term meeting covers a lecture (one presentation), seminar (typically several presentations, small audience, one day), conference (mid-size, one or more days), congress (large, several days), exhibition or trade show (with manned stands being visited by passers-by), workshop (smaller, with active participants), training course, team-building session and kick-off event. 3.1 TYPES OF MEETING? How do you know it's time to call a meeting? What type of meeting is it? What's the purpose of the meeting? Here are some typical situations when a meeting may be called for. • You're managing a project. Projects tend to require meetings at various stages: at the beginning, as the project plan is coming together, and at regular intervals while the work is being done. Toward the end of the project, depending on its size, daily meetings could be necessary. • You're managing people. Many bosses call weekly staff meetings in addition to weekly one-on-one meetings with their direct reports. These standing meetings provide a chance to review the work accomplished in the ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 37

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previous week and look ahead to what will be accomplished in the coming week. Weekly one-on-one meetings also give the chance to provide feedback outside the performance review process. • You're managing a client. Many types of companies, especially professional services firms, make presentations to clients - sales presentations, kickoff meetings, interim status meetings, and final presentations. Ongoing relationships also typically involve periodic meetings. • Email is getting complicated. When an email conversation gets increasingly complex, it can be time to call a meeting so that the conversation can take place in spoken words - which can be quicker than a series of carefully crafted email responses. A conference call or an in-person meeting may be necessary. • Problems are arising. If a project is getting off course, interpersonal conflicts are escalating, or any other emergency occurs, it's time to call a meeting. Groups are great at some tasks, like weighing alternatives and generating ideas. But sometimes a meeting is not the best or most efficient way to get something done. Some types of work are best done in subcommittees - even subcommittees of one - then presented to the larger group for review and approval. An example is the group asked to provide comments and suggested changes to a document. It is said that a committee can write the Declaration of Independence, provided they appoint a subcommittee with Thomas Jefferson as chair. What type of meeting is it? The purpose of the meeting should help determine the appropriate format. If it's to get clarification on something, a quick question at the water cooler or a visit to someone's office may take the place of a meeting. The length and formality of the meeting will vary depending on how many people are invited, how much notice is given, the size of the company (larger companies often have more formal meeting protocols than smaller ones), and who's leading the meeting. The basic types of meetings are as follows. • Standing meeting. A regularly scheduled appointment, such as a weekly

one-on-one with a boss or a department; or a project meeting taking place at intervals until the project is over. Since these meetings recur, their format ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 38

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• •

• •

and agenda become relatively well established. Although it's important to hold these meetings at routine intervals for convenience and consistency, at times they can be rescheduled. Topical meeting. A gathering called to discuss one subject, such as a work issue or a task related to a project. Presentation. A highly structured meeting where one or more people speak and a moderator leads the proceedings. The purpose is usually to inform. Attendees may have an opportunity to ask questions, but typically their participation is limited. Conference. A highly structured, moderated meeting, like a presentation, where various participants contribute following a fixed agenda. Emergency meeting. A meeting called to address a crisis, whether internal or external. Such meetings are often arranged with very little notice, but attendance is mandatory. If the emergency meeting conflicts with another appointment, the emergency meeting typically takes precedence. Seminar. A structured meeting with an educational purpose. Seminars are usually led by people with expertise in the subject matter.

Quick business meetings (just to check-in, coordinate, share info, prepare for next steps, anticipate customer or employee needs, answer questions for each other, etc.)

Stand-up” meetings (no more than 10 minutes to plan the day, make announcements, set expectations, assure understanding and alignment, identify upcoming difficulties, etc.)

Business meetings (with customers, clients, colleagues, etc.; often require presentations.)

Staff meetings (to clear calendars, coordinate unit activities, share info, etc.)

Management Team meetings (to solve problems, make decisions, set policy, etc.)

Interdepartmental meetings (to get input, interpret decisions and policies, share info, etc.)


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Coordinating meetings (to assure all know what’s happening when and who is responsible.)

Board meetings (to report results, set policies and directions, scan for needed changes, etc.)

Team building meetings (to communicate together, resolve conflicts, share impressions and feelings, gain alignment and commitment to goals, strengthen relationships, clear out debris from disputes, develop or deepen interpersonal trust, etc.)

Project Team meetings (to define results, methods, schedules, responsibilities, policies, etc.)

Creative product development meetings (to define new markets, create new products, etc.)

Community meetings (to interpret decisions, get input, build relationships, gain trust, etc.)

Conferences and Retreats (to share information, work through strategies and tactics, involve people, set long-range directions, work in sub-groups as well as in total group, etc.)


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

3.2 Planning and Running a Meeting MEETINGS - BASIC RULES Here is a solid basic structure for most types of meetings. This assumes you have considered properly and decided that the meeting is necessary, and also that you have decided (via consultation with those affected if necessary or helpful) what sort of meeting to hold. 1. plan - use the agenda as a planning tool 2. circulate the meeting agenda in advance 3. run the meeting - keep control, agree outcomes, actions and responsibilities, take notes 4. write and circulate notes - especially actions and accountabilities 5. follow up agreed actions and responsibilities POSTAD TV This helps to remember how to plan effective meetings, and particularly how to construct the meeting agenda, and then notify the meeting delegates: Priorities, Outcomes, Sequence, Timings, Agenda, Date, Time, Venue. MEETING PRIORITIES What is the meeting's purpose, or purposes? Always have a clear purpose; otherwise don't

have a meeting. Decide the issues for inclusion in the meeting and their relative priority: importance and urgency - they are quite different and need treating in different ways. Important matters do not necessarily need to be resolved quickly. Urgent matters generally do not warrant a lot of discussion. Matters that are both urgent and important are clearly serious priorities that need careful planning and management. You can avoid the pressure for 'Any Other Business' at the end of the meeting if you circulate a draft agenda in advance of the meeting, and ask for any other items for consideration. ('Any Other Business' often creates a ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 41

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free-for-all session that wastes time, and gives rise to new tricky expectations, which if not managed properly then closes the meeting on a negative note.) MEETING OUTCOMES Decide the type of outcome (i.e., what is the purpose) for each issue, and put this on the agenda alongside the item heading. This is important as people need to know what is expected of them, and each item will be more productive with a clear aim at the outset. Typical types of outcomes are: • • • • • • • • • • •

Decision Discussion Information Planning (eg workshop session) Generating ideas Getting feedback Finding solutions Agreeing (targets, budgets, aims, etc) Policy statement Team-building/motivation Guest speaker - information, initiatives, etc.


Put the less important issues at the top of the agenda, not the bottom. If you put them on the bottom you may never get to them because you'll tend to spend all the time on the big issues. Ensure any urgent issues are placed up the agenda. Non-urgent items place down the agenda - if you are going to miss any you can more easily afford to miss these.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Try to achieve a varied mix through the running order - if possible avoid putting heavy controversial items together - vary the agenda to create changes in pace and intensity. Be aware of the tendency for people to be at their most sensitive at the beginning of meetings, especially if there are attendees who are keen to stamp their presence on proceedings. For this reason it can be helpful to schedule a particularly controversial issue later in the sequence, which gives people a chance to settle down and relax first, and maybe get some of the sparring out of their systems over less significant items. Also be mindful of the lull that generally affects people after lunch, so try to avoid scheduling the most boring item of the agenda at this time; instead after lunch get people participating and involved, whether speaking, presenting, debating or doing other active things. MEETING TIMINGS (OF AGENDA ITEMS) Consider the time required for the various items rather than habitually or arbitrarily decide the length of the meeting. Allocate a realistic time slot for each item. Keep the timings realistic - usually things take longer than you think. Long meetings involving travel for delegates require pre-meeting refreshments 30 minutes prior to the actual meeting start time. Put plenty of breaks into long meetings. Unless people are participating and fully involved, their concentration begins to drop after just 45 minutes. Breaks don't all need to be 20 minutes for coffee and cigarettes. Five minutes every 45-60 minutes for a quick breath of fresh air and leg-stretch will help keep people attentive. Unless you have a specific reason for arranging one, avoid formal sit-down restaurant lunches - they'll add at least 30 minutes unnecessarily to the lunch break, and the whole thing makes people drowsy. Working lunches are great, but make sure you give people 10-15 minutes to get some fresh air and move about outside the meeting room. If the venue is only able to provide ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 43

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lunch in the restaurant, arrange a buffet, or if a sit-down meal is unavoidable save some time by the giving delegates' menu choices to the restaurant earlier in the day. It's not essential, but it is usually helpful, to put precise (planned) times for each item on the agenda. What is essential however is for you to have thought about and planned the timings so you can run the sessions according to a schedule. In other words, if the delegates don't have precise timings on their agendas - make sure you have them on yours. This is one of the biggest responsibilities of the person running the meeting, and is a common failing, so plan and manage this aspect firmly. People will generally expect you to control the timekeeping, and will usually respect a decision to close a discussion for the purpose of good timekeeping, even if the discussion is still in full flow.

MEETING ATTENDEES It's often obvious who should attend; but sometimes it isn't. Consider inviting representatives from other departments to your own department meetings - if relationships are not great they will often appreciate being asked, and it will help their understanding of your issues, and your understanding of theirs. Having outside guests from internal and external suppliers helps build relationships and strengthen the chain of supply, and they can often also shed new light on difficult issues too. Use your discretion though - certain sensitive issues should obviously not be aired with 'outsiders' present. Avoid and resist senior managers and directors attending your meetings unless you can be sure that their presence will be positive, and certainly not intimidating. Senior people are often quick to criticise and pressurise without knowing the facts, which can damage team relationships, morale, motivation and trust.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

If you must have the boss at your meeting, try to limit their involvement to lunch only, or presenting the awards at the end of the meeting. In any event, tell your boss what you are trying to achieve at the meeting and how - this gives you more chance in controlling possible interference.

MEETING DATE Ensure the date you choose causes minimum disruption for all concerned. It's increasingly difficult to gather people for meetings, particularly from different departments or organisations. So take care when finding the best date - it's a very important part of the process, particularly if senior people are involved. For meetings that repeat on a regular basis the easiest way to set dates is to agree them in advance at the first meeting when everyone can commit there and then. Try to schedule a year's worth of meetings if possible, then you can circulate and publish the dates, which helps greatly to ensure people keep to them and that no other priorities encroach. Pre-planning meeting dates is one of the keys to achieving control and wellorganised meetings. Conversely, leaving it late to agree dates for meetings will almost certainly inconvenience people, which is a major source of upset. Generally try to consult to get agreement of best meeting dates for everyone, but ultimately you will often need to be firm. Use the 'inertia method', i.e., suggest a date and invite alternative suggestions, rather than initially asking for suggestions, which rarely achieves a quick agreement.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

MEETING TIME Times to start and finish depend on the type and duration of the meeting and the attendees' availability, but generally try to start early, or finish at the end of the working day. Two-hour meetings in the middle of the day waste a lot of time in travel. Breakfast meetings are a good idea in certain cultures, but can be too demanding in more relaxed environments. If attendees have long distances to travel (i.e., more than a couple of hours, consider overnight accommodation on the night before. If the majority have to stay overnight it's often worth getting the remainder to do so as well because the team building benefits from evening socialising are considerable, and well worth the cost of a hotel room. Overnight accommodation the night before also allows for a much earlier start. By the same token, consider people's travelling times after the meeting, and don't be unreasonable - again offer overnight accommodation if warranted - it will allow a later finish, and generally keep people happier. As with other aspects of the meeting arrangements, if in doubt always ask people what they prefer. Why guess when you can find out what people actually want, especially if the team is mature and prefers to be consulted anyway. MEETING VENUE Many meetings are relatively informal, held in meeting rooms 'on-site' and do not warrant extensive planning of the venue as such. On the other hand, big important meetings held off-site at unfamiliar venues very definitely require a lot of careful planning of the venue layout and facilities. Plan the venue according to the situation - leave nothing to chance.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Venue choice is critical for certain sensitive meetings, but far less so for routine, in-house gatherings. Whatever, there are certain preparations that are essential, and never leave it all to the hotel conference organiser or your own facilities department unless you trust them implicitly. Other people will do their best but they're not you, and they can't know exactly what you want. You must ensure the room is right - mainly, that it is big enough with all relevant equipment and services. It's too late to start hunting for a 20ft power extension lead five minutes before the meeting starts. Other aspects that you need to check or even set up personally are: • • • • • • • • •

table and seating layout top-table (if relevant) position tables for demonstration items, paperwork, hand-outs, etc electricity power points and extensions heating and lighting controls projection and flip chart equipment positioning and correct operation whereabouts of toilets and emergency exits - fire drill confirm reception and catering arrangements back-up equipment contingency

All of the above can and will go wrong unless you check and confirm - when you book the venue and then again a few days before the meeting. For a big important meeting, you should also arrive an hour early to check everything is as you want it. Some meetings are difficult enough without having to deal with domestic or logistics emergencies; and remember if anything goes wrong it reflects on you - it's your credibility, reputation and control that's at stake. Positioning of seating and tables is important, and for certain types of meetings it's crucial. Ensure the layout is appropriate for the occasion: • Formal presentations to large groups - theatre-style - the audience in rows, preferably with tables, facing the chairman.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

• Medium-sized participative meetings - horse-shoe (U) table layout with the open part of the U facing the chairman's table, or delegates' tables arranged 'cabaret' style. • Small meetings for debate and discussion - board-room style - one rectangular table with chairman at one end. • Relaxed team meetings for planning and creative sessions - lounge style, with easy chairs and coffee tables. Your own positioning in relation to the group is important. If you are confident and comfortable and your authority is in no doubt you should sit close to the others, and can even sit among people. If you expect challenge or need to control the group strongly set yourself further away and clearly central, behind a top-table at the head of things. Ensure everyone can see screens and flip charts properly - actually sit in the chairs to check - you'll be surprised how poor the view is from certain positions. Set up of projectors and screens is important - strive for the perfect rectangular image, as this gives a professional, controlled impression as soon as you start. Experiment with the adjustment of projector and screen until it's how you want it. If you are using LCD projector and overhead projector (a rare beast these days) you may need two screens. A plain white wall is often better than a poor screen. People from the western world read from left to right, so if you want to present anything in order using different media, set it up so that people can follow it naturally from left to right. For instance show introductory bullet points (say on a flip chart on the left - as the audience sees it) and the detail for each point (say on projector and screen on the right). Position screens and flip chart where they can be used comfortably without obscuring the view. Ensure the speaker/chairman's position is to the side of the screen, not in front of it obscuring the view. Ensure any extension leads and wiring is taped to the floor or otherwise safely covered and protected. ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 48

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Supply additional flip chart easels and paper, or write-on acetates and pens, for syndicate work if applicable. You can also ask people to bring laptops for exercises and presentation to the group assuming you have LCD projector is available and compatible. In venues that have not been purpose-built for modern presentations, sometimes the lighting is problematical. If there are strong fluorescent lights above the screen that cannot be switched off independently, it is sometimes possible for them to be temporarily disconnected (by removing the starter, which is a small plastic cylinder plugged into the side of the tube holder). In older buildings it sometimes possible to temporarily remove offending lightbulbs if they are spoiling the visual display, but always enlist the help of one of the venue's staff rather than resorting to DIY. Finally, look after the venue's staff - you need them on your side. Most business users treat hotel and conference staff disdainfully - show them some respect and appreciation and they will be more than helpful.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

MEETING PLANNER CHECKLIST There's a lot to remember, so, particularly for big important meetings and training sessions, use a meetings checklist to make sure you plan properly and don't miss anything: Meetings Checklist Done


Date/ ref

Agenda Priorities Outcomes Sequence Timings Attendees Date Time Venue Variety Notification Notes of last meeting Directions/ map Materials (as required by agenda items) Reference material for ad-hoc queries Results and performance data Equipment (make separate checklist) Electrical power (if applicable) Domestics Catering Arrangements Note-paper, pens, name-plares Refreshments Guest care/ instructions


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

MEETING AGENDA Produce the meeting agenda. This is the tool with which you control the meeting. Include all the relevant information and circulate it in advance. If you want to avoid having the ubiquitous and time-wasting 'Any Other Business' on your agenda, circulate the agenda well in advance and ask for additional items to be submitted for consideration. Formal agendas for board meetings and committees will normally have an established fixed format, which applies for every meeting. This type of formal agenda normally begins with: 1. apologies for absence 2. approval of previous meeting's minutes (notes) 3. matters arising (from last meeting) and then the main agenda, finishing with 'any other business'. For more common, informal meetings (departmental, sales teams, projects, ad-hoc issues, etc), try to avoid the formality and concentrate on practicality. For each item, explain the purpose, and if a decision is required, say so. If it's a creative item, say so. If it's for information, say so. Put timings, or time-per-item, or both (having both is helpful for you as the chairman). If you have guest speakers or presenters for items, name them. Plan coffee breaks and a lunch break if relevant, and ensure the caterers are informed. Aside from these formal breaks you should allow natural 'comfort' breaks every 45-60 minutes, or people lose concentration and the meeting becomes less productive.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

(Meeting Title) Monthly Sales Meeting- ABC Co.- NCR Region Venue, Time, Date) Conference Room, Dusit Hotel- 0900hrs Monday 09/05/08 Agenda Coffee available from 0830hrs – Dress is smart casual. 09:00:00 AM

Warm up and Introductions.

New starters Ria Cruz and 15 Art Diaz. Guests are Joseph Gonzales, Fleet Manager; Jim Perez, Off Shore Product Manager; and Billy Ferrer, Tech-range Chief Engineer

09:15:00 AM

Health and safety update

Revised procedures for hazardous chemicals at production facility

09:30:00 AM

Product revision update.

Tech-range Model 3 now 30 has stand-by mode control. Product will be demonstrated.

10:00:00 AM


Chance for hands-on the new Model 3

10:15:00 AM

Sales results & forecast

Ensure you bring qtr2 60 forecast data and be prepared to present prospect lists and activities.

11:15:00 AM

New product launch

The new Digi-range is launched in month five. Product demonstratins and presentationso f performance data, USP's, benfefits for key sectors, and details of launch promotion.


12:30:00 PM

Major accounts initiatives

Brainstorm session- How can we accelerate major accounts development in offshore sector?- Do some preparatory thinking about this





Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

01:15:00 PM


Buffet in the meeting room 45

02:00:00 PM

New product launch

The new Digi-range is launched in month five. Product demonstratins and presentationso f performance data, USP's, benfefits for key sectors, and details of launch promotion.

04:00:00 PM


04:30:00 PM

45 New Company Car Scheme Presentation from Fleet Manager, Joseph Gonzales about new car scheme

05:15:00 PM

Awards and Incentive

06:00:00 PM

Meeting review, quesitons, close



Qtr 1 Sales Awards and launch of Qtr2 Sales Incentives




Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

RUNNING THE MEETING The key to success is keeping control. You do this by sticking to the agenda, managing the relationships and personalities, and concentrating on outcomes. Meetings must have a purpose. Every item must have a purpose. Remind yourself and the group of the required outcomes and steer the proceedings towards making progress, not hot air. Politely suppress the over-zealous, and encourage the nervous. Take notes as you go, recording the salient points and the agreed actions, with names, measurable outcomes and deadlines. Do not record everything word-for-word, and if you find yourself taking over the chairmanship of a particularly stuffy group which produces reams of notes and very little else, then change things. Concentrate on achieving the outcomes you set the meeting when you drew up the agenda. Avoid racing away with decisions if your aim was simply discussion and involving people. Avoid hours of discussion if you simply need a decision. Avoid debate if you simply need to convey a policy issue. Policy is policy and that is that. Defer new issues to another time. Practice and use the phrase 'You may have a point, but it's not for this meeting - we'll discuss it another time.' (And then remember to do it.) If you don't know the answer say so - be honest - don't waffle - say that you'll get back to everyone with the answer, or append it to the meeting notes. If someone persistently moans on about a specific issue that is not on the agenda, quickly translate it into a simple exploratory or investigative project, and bounce it back to them, with a deadline to report back their findings and recommendations to you. Always look at how people are behaving in meetings - look for signs of tiredness, exasperation, and confusion, and take necessary action. As a general rule, don't deviate from the agenda, but if things get very heavy, and the next item is very heavy too, swap it around for something participative coming later on the agenda - a syndicate exercise, or a team game, a quiz, etc.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

MEETINGS NOTES OR MEETINGS MINUTES Who takes the meeting notes or minutes, keeps command (minutes is a more traditional term, and today describes more formal meetings notes). You must take the notes yourself, unless the meeting format dictates a formal secretary, in which case ensure the secretary is on your side. Normally you'll be able to take the notes. They are your instrument of control, so don't shirk it or give them to someone else as the 'short straw'. If you are seen to take the notes, two things happen: • •

people respect you for not forcing them to do it people see that you are recording agreed actions, so there's no escaping them

Meeting notes are essential for managing meeting actions and outcomes. They also cement agreements and clarify confusions. They also prevent old chestnuts reappearing. A meeting without notes is mostly pointless. Actions go unrecorded and therefore forgotten. Attendees feel that the meeting was largely pointless because there's no published record. After the meeting, type the notes (it's usually quicker for you to do it), and circulate them straight away, copy to all attendees, including date of next meeting if applicable, and copy to anyone else who should see the notes. The notes should be brief or people won't read them, but they must still be precise and clear. Include relevant facts, figures, accountabilities, actions and timescales. Any agreed actions must be clearly described, with person or persons named responsible, with a deadline. The final crucial element is following up the agreed actions (your own included). If you run a great meeting, issue great notes, and then fail to ensure the actions are completed, all is lost, not least your credibility. You must follow up agreed actions and hold people to them. If you don't they will very soon learn that they can ignore these agreements every time - negative conditioning - it's the death of managing teams and results. By following up agreed actions, at future meetings particularly, ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 55

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

(when there is an eager audience waiting to see who's delivered and who hasn't), you will positively condition your people to respond and perform, and you will make meetings work for you and your team.

MEETING NOTES STRUCTURE AND TEMPLATE Here is a simple structure for formal meeting notes involving a group of people within an organisation: •

• • • • •

Heading: for example - Notes of Management Meeting (if a one-off meeting to consider a specific issue then include purpose in the heading as appropriate) Date and Time: Venue: Present: Apologies for absence: In attendance: (if appropriate - guests not normally present at regular meetings, for instance speakers or non-board-members at board meetings)

Followed by numbered agenda items, typically: • 1. Approval of previous meeting notes/minutes: • 2. Matters arising: (items arising from meeting or continued from previous meeting which would not be covered by normal agenda items)

And then other items as per agenda, for example (these are some of the many possible typical reports and meeting items discussed within a business or board meeting; other types of meetings would have different item headings): • • •

3. Finance/financial performance 4. Sales 5. Marketing and Business Development


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

6. Operations or Divisional Activities 7. Manufacturing 8. Distribution 9. Environmental 10. Quality Assurance, etc 11. Human Resources 12. Projects 13. Communications and Team Briefing Core Brief 14. Any other business (AOB - issues not covered under other agenda items) 15. Date of next meeting Time meeting finished (normally for formal meetings only) Signed and dated as a true record (signed by the chair-person - normally for formal meetings only) Writer's initials, file reference and date (useful on all types of meeting notes)

Normally the items and points within each item are numbered 1.1, 1.2, 1.3, etc., then 2.1, 2.2, 2.3, 2.4, etc. Importantly, all actions agreed in the meeting need to be allocated to persons present at the meeting. It is not normally appropriate or good practice to allocate an action to someone who is not present at the meeting. Actions that are agreed but not allocated to anyone will rarely be implemented. Responsibility for actions can be identified with a person's name or initials as appropriate. Action points and persons responsible can be highlighted or detailed in a rightmargin column if helpful. These days verbatim minutes (precise word-for-word records) are only used in the most formal situations. Modern meeting notes should ideally concentrate on actions and agreements. Reports should if possible be circulated in advance of meetings giving delegates adequate time to read and formulate reactions and answers to any queries raised. It is not good practice to table a report at a meeting if opportunity exists to circulate the report beforehand.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Reports can be appended to the meeting notes or minutes to which they relate. meeting notes template


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills


A. Multiple Choice. Choose the best answer which corresponds to the question. 1. When should you call a meeting?

a. Anytime your group needs to share information. b. When a meeting is the best way to achieve your objective. c. At least once each day. Never. Meetings are always a waste of time. 2. What is your objective and how do you find it?

a. Look for the goal, the purpose, the basic reason for holding a meeting. b. If the meetings are routine, identifying an objective is unnecessary. c. As the meeting begins, decide as a group what the objective of that meeting should be. d. Meeting objective? Sounds overrated to me. 3. Should you hold meetings on a regular basis?

a. Yes. Regular meetings are the only way for a group to communicate effectively. b. Yes. However, routine meetings require a clearly defined objective and each meeting must contribute to the fulfillment of this objective. c. No. Meetings should never be held on a regular basis. d. Yes. How else are we supposed to catch up on office gossip? 4. Who should participate?

a. Anyone who wants to participate. The more the merrier! b. Anyone who has anything to do with what will be discussed at the meeting. After all, we wouldn’t want to exclude anyone. c. Those who can influence the fulfillment of the meeting objective. d. Those who are entertaining, tell great jokes and make meetings fun.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

5. What should a good agenda include?

a. The objective of the meeting, the issues to be discussed, the time the meeting will begin and end, the location, the participants involved and what is expected of the participants in terms of preparation before the meeting. b. The objective of the meeting, the issues to be discussed, the time the meeting will begin and end, the location and the participants involved. c. The issues to be discussed, the time the meeting will begin and end, the location, the participants involved and what is expected of the participants in terms of preparation before the meeting. d. The types of food and drinks that will be served. This is the most interesting aspect of the meeting anyhow. 6. Is it necessary for the agenda to be distributed before a meeting? a. Yes. The agenda should be distributed at least one week before the meeting. This gives participants enough time to prepare for the meeting. b. Yes. The agenda should be distributed at least one day before the meeting. This gives participants time to prepare for the meeting discussion. c. No. Distributing the agenda as participants enter the meeting room is sufficient. d. No. What’s the point? We never follow the meeting agenda anyway. 7. Is it appropriate to hold a meeting in a restaurant? a. Yes. But only if you’re in the food business. b. No. Meetings are most productive when they occur in a boardroom. c. Yes. If the objective is to establish a social as well as a business relationship. d. No. Food puts people to sleep. 8. How can you keep a meeting from running overtime? a. Buy an extra large alarm clock for your meeting room. When the alarm rings, the meeting’s over.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

b. Make each meeting participant contribute a dollar for each minute the meeting runs overtime. c. Set a time limit in advance and stick to it! d. It’s impossible. Your meetings run overtime so often that you don’t know what "on time" means anymore. 9. When do you end a meeting?

a. Adjourn the meeting only once it has run 10 minutes overtime. b. Always adjourn the meeting once the objective has been accomplished. c. Once every person in the room has fallen asleep. d. Once all the donuts and coffee are gone. 10. How can you best evaluate the success of your meeting? a. At the end of the meeting count how many of the agenda items were discussed. The more agenda items covered, the more successful the meeting. b. To get an accurate picture of the meeting's effectiveness, ask participants for their written opinions. c. If the meeting finishes on time, the meeting was successful. d. Count how many people are still awake in the room. The more open eyes, the more successful the meeting.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills



Negotiation is a dialogue intended to resolve disputes, to produce an agreement upon courses of action, to bargain for individual or collective advantage, or to craft outcomes to satisfy various interests. It is the primary method of alternative dispute resolution. It is the process involving the ability to listen, analyse and take the right step 4.1 Negotiating principles


Set the tone offset any bad rumours and be candid


Utilize "human factors" and be open about feelings and motives: this will enhance trust.


Avoid presenting too many issues, highlight the strongest ones.


Avoid deadlines, lessening the chance for needless concessions.


Summarize frequently: this enhances understanding.


Present arguments calmly, without personalization, and make sure they are logically supported.


Avoid use of personal opinions in arguments.


Avoid ultimatums and other forms of non-negotiable demands.


Admit, when appropriate, the validity of the other party's arguments


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

4.2 The six stages in the negotiating process Stage 1 - Statement of Intent to Negotiate Stage 2 - Readiness to Negotiate. Convene an initial meeting of the parties this will be the first occasion on which they sit down at a table with representatives. This meeting allows the parties to exchange information, consider the criteria for determining the parties' readiness to negotiate and generally identify issues of concern. The meeting usually takes place in neutral venue. The three parties must demonstrate that they have a commitment to negotiate, a qualified negotiator, sufficient resources, a mandate, and a process to develop that mandate and ratification procedures. Stage 3 - Negotiation of a Framework Agreement. The framework agreement is, in effect, the "table of contents" of a comprehensive agreement. The parties agree on the subjects to be negotiated and an estimated time frame for stage four agreement-in-principle negotiations. Stage 4 - Negotiation of an Agreement in Principle. This is where substantive negotiations begin. The three parties examine in detail the elements outlined in their framework agreement. The goal is to reach agreement on each of the topics that will form the basis of the agreement. These agreements will identify and define a range of rights and obligations, including: existing and future interests; structures; relationship of laws; regulatory processes; amending processes; dispute resolution; financial component; fiscal relations and so on. The agreement in principle also lays the groundwork for implementation of the final agreement. Stage 5 - Negotiation to finalise an agreement. The agreement formalises the new relationship among the parties and embodies the agreements reached in the agreement in principle. Technical and legal issues are resolved at this stage.


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Stage 6 - Implementation of the agreement. Long-term implementation plans need to be tailored to specific agreements. The plans to implement the agreement are put into effect or phased in as agreed. With time, all aspects of the agreement will be realized and with continuing goodwill, commitment and effort by all parties, the new relationship will come to maturity.

* REMEMBER Propose 1. Make proposals. 2. State conditions. 3. Express concerns. 4. Search for common interests. 5. Begin to identify those concessions you could make that would hold most influence over the other side – and those they would be willing to make in return. 6. Use positive body language. Bargain 7. Listen out for offers to settle - key words are IF and THEN. 8. Start making concessions. 9. Every concession should have a condition - IF you … THEN I will … 10.Conserve your concessions - don’t give everything away too soon. 11.Don’t be afraid to say no. 12.Be aware that adjournments, especially at this stage in the negotiation, may give the impression that you are considering an offer. ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 64

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Agree 13.Usually one final concession: “IF you do that, THEN we have a deal!” 14.Gain commitment. 15.Record and agree results. 16.Leave satisfied – both sides should be happy with what has been agreed.

4.3 The Language of Negotiation MFP WAP BATNA IVC TO -

Most Favourable Position (this is what you are aiming for) Walk Away Position (the stage at which you would withdraw from the negotiation) Best Alternative to a Negotiated Agreement (if you can’t agree, then what next?) Inexpensive Valuable Concessions (valued highly by the other side but may cost you little) Time Out (use if new information comes to light that causes you to reconsider)

7 Deadly Sins of Negotiating! Pride - Be prepared to compromise Gluttony - Don’t bite off more than you can chew Anger - Handle objections calmly Covetousness - Prioritise needs/wants Envy - Know competitors strengths & weaknesses… AND your own Sloth - Do your homework Lust - Don’t look desperate to settle


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills



True or False. Write T if the statement is correct and F if the statement is incorrect.

__________1. Negotiation is a key skill - for life __________2. Negotiation should be win/win __________3. Negotiation is a process which can't be learnt __________4. Preparation is vital in negotiation. __________5. It is important in negotiation to be aware of your own style and performance and seek every opportunity to improve. B. Test your negotiation skills. 1. You want to sell your yacht and you know that you would be very fortunate to get as much as £225 000 for it. While you are considering placing the advertisement, a keen yachtsman approaches you and offers £250 000 in cash immediately for your boat. Do you: A. Accept his offer without further ado? B. Tell him to wait until the boat is advertised? C. Haggle? 2. A customer, who buys simple forged metal components from you, tells you that they have decided to make them in-house when the current order is delivered. Do you: A. Offer to discuss your prices? B. Warn him that in-house manufacturing of these components would be more expensive when tooling, casting dies and quality controls are considered? C. Suggest that you discuss the problem with him? ASIAN ACADEMY OF BUSINESS AN D COMPUTERS 66

Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

D. Say ‘Fine’, wish them the best and to come back if they experience problems? 3. Do you see negotiating as being about: A. A fair and equal transaction? B. Compromising? C. Making a joint decision in which you get some of what you want and they get some of what they want? 4. You are engaged in extremely difficult negotiations with a Lebanese government department. After much haggling over finance for a rural road project, they make a small unilateral concession on their demand for irrevocable letters of credit. Do you: A. Note the concession but otherwise ignore it? B. Reciprocate with a concession of your own? 5. You are a package tour operator negotiating with a Spanish hotel chain on the terms for next season's holiday bookings. The price they are asking per person per week in their hotels is £45 higher than your current offer. They offer to ‘split the difference’ 50–50. Do you: A. Suggest, say, 55–45 in your favour? B. Say you can't afford to split the difference? C. Agree to their offer? D. Agree, if it is 75–25 in your favour?


Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Module 3. Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills Recording Sheet For Oral Questioning / Interview Student name: Module Title/No: Qualification: Oral/interview questions

Satisfactory response Yes


1. Information Sheet 1

2. Information Sheet 2

3. Information Sheet 3

4. Information Sheet 4


The student's underpinning knowledge was: Satisfactory 

Not satisfactory 

Student's Signature:


Trainor's signature:


Acceptable answers are:

Trainor's signature:



Module 3 Develop and Practice Negotiation Skills

Rating Sheet


Module 3. Develop and practice Negotiation Skills Performance Remarks Feedback S




1. Self-Check 1 2. Self-Check 2 3. Self-Check 3 4. Self-Check 4 S - Satisfactory NS – Not Satisfactory C - Completed NYC – Not Yet Completed Module is Completed Remarks:

Not Yet Completed 

Student's Signature


Trainor's signature:



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