Module 1 Pancasila and Its Development

September 28, 2017 | Author: Moch Mamuri | Category: Ideologies, Value (Ethics), Indonesia, Liberalism, Democracy
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Pancasila...

Description

THE NATIONAL RESILIENCE INSTITUTE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

1 

SUBJECT/PRINCIPAL MATERIAL OF PANCASILA AND UUD NRI 1945 (1945

CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA)

SUBSUBJECT/PRINCIPAL MATERIAL PANCASILA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

2016

1 

THE NATIONAL RESILIENCE INSTITUTE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA

1 

SUBJECT/PRINCIPAL MATERIAL OF PANCASILA AND UUD NRI 1945 (1945

CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA)

MODULE 1-6

SUBSUBJECT/PRINCIPAL MATERIAL PANCASILA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

2016

2 

TABLE OF CONTENTS FOREWORDS OF SUBJECT/PRINCIPAL MATERIAL OF PANCASILA AND UUD NRI 1945 (1945 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA) GENERAL COURSE GUIDELINES PANCASILA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

1.

Introduction

2.

Course Overview a.

Relevancy

b.

Description of Course 1)

The Birth of Pancasila

2)

Pancasila as a Philosophy and Way of Life of Nation

3)

Pancasila as National Ideology

4)

Pancasila as State Foundation

5)

Pancasila Among Major Ideologies in the World

6)

Pancasila as an Open Ideology in the Globalization Era

c.

Competency Standards

d.

Basic Competency

3.

Material Structure

4.

Study and Task Completion Plan

5.

Learning Instruction SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 1 THE BIRTH OF PANCASILA

1.

Description

2.

Relevancy

3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 1

b.

Brief Description

3 

SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 2 PANCASILA AS A PHILOSOPHY AND WAY OF LIFE OF NATION

1.

Description

2.

Relevancy

3.

Learning Activity; a.

Learning Activity 2

b.

Brief Description SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 3 PANCASILA AS A NATIONAL IDEOLOGY

1.

Description

2.

Relevancy

3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 3

b.

Brief Description SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 4 PANCASILA AS STATE FOUNDATION

1.

Description

2.

Relevancy

3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 4

b.

Brief Description SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 5 PANCASILA AMONG MAJOR IDEOLOGIES IN THE WORLD

1.

Description

2.

Relevancy

3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 5

b.

Brief Description

4 

SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 6 PANCASILA AS AN OPEN IDEOLOGY IN GLOBALIZATION ERA

1.

Description

2.

Relevancy

3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 6

b.

Brief Description

5 

FOREWORDS OF SUBJECT/PRINCIPLE MATERIAL OF PANCASILA AND UUD NRI 1945 (1945 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA) The Indonesian people should feel grateful to our Founding Fathers for having agreed on determining the five basic principles (Pancasila), grounded on the noble values of nation. For the Indonesian people, the contents and dynamics of values of Pancasila as the way of life are inherent, whether as national ideology, state foundation, or life philosophy, or life philosophy as well as the identity of the Indonesian people. The values of Pancasila are the most profound, abstract, and high-positioned dimension in social life phenomena as well as possessing integrative power for all different components of nation, both vertically and horizontally. These values are the sources of ethics and morals for all Indonesian people that later develop in the forms of real attitudes and behaviours in daily social life. At the present time, Pancasila is dealing with quite a tough ordeal both in its relation with its own existence and also in the implementation of its values in social and nation life. It cannot be denied that within these last 10 years, after Reformation era, the attention of people, be it individual, groups, institutions (governmental and non-governmental) to Pancasila is increasingly degrading. This is quite saddening since the values of Pancasila are no longer reflected in each individual and half of decision makers’ apparatus. Pancasila is even getting left behind proven by the dismissal of Badan Pembinaan Pendidikan Pelaksanaan Pedoman Penghayatan dan Pengamalan Pancasila (BP-7) [Educational Institute of Implementation and Internalization of Pancasila ] and Kementrian Penerangan ( the Ministry of Information) as a means of socialization, empowerment, and implementation of Pancasila in national development. There are many products of law and law enforcement which do not quite reflect the values of Pancasila, proven by the absence of sense of justice and the degrading moral and attitude of people. The basic values of Pancasila inherent in the Pembukaan UUD NRI 1945 (the Preamble of 1945 Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia), explained into various rules, acts (peraturan perundang-undangan) and thinking grounds as instrumental values of Pancasila,

6 

are relatively still far from satisfactory. Pancasila, as the basic source of national law and UUD NRI 1945 as the source of law, which should be divided hierarchally into

various

executives

rules

(Undang-undang/Law,

Peraturan

Presiden/Presidential Regulation, Peraturan Pemerintah/Governmental Regulation and Peraturan Daerah/ Regional Regulation) seems unable to be put into practice concretely. Quite a number of improvements are necessary to do, which are: improving the quality of human resources, especially those of policy makers who assume the mandate of the people; performing good attitude and moral conduct; possessing the capability to deal with the influence of globalization. The national tragedy, G30S/PKI incident in 1965, was a bitter experience of the existence of Pancasila as well as a precious lesson for the Indonesian people in dealing with challenges the uncertain future might bring. The socialization of Pancasila as the state foundation and open ideology which is universal needs to be profoundly comprehended and internalized by all components of Indonesian people, especially the knowledge on the existence of Pancasila among well-known ideologies in the world. Amendments of paragraphs in UUD 1945 (1945 Constitution) must not be in contrast with the values of Pancasila and must be adjusted to the development of strategic environment, especially in facing the influence of globalization as a result of the relatively rapid changing of knowledge and technology progress. The result of amendments of UUD NRI 1945 (the articles) needs socializing, be it that of

the

birth,

process,

method,

socialization

itself

and

implementation

understanding of Pancasila ideology and UUD NRI 1945 is expectedly able to help make it easier the participants of educational course program at Lemhannas in learning the subjects of Pancasila and UUD NRI 1945.

7 

GENERAL COURSE GUIDELINES PANCASILA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

1.

Introduction Pancasila, which is grounded on Indonesian culture, contains noble values

the Indonesian people have upheld for a long time. These values are religious values, traditional values, and those of struggling for freedom from all kinds of colonialism. These noble values were cryztallized in formulation of Pancasila as a manifestation of humanity philosophy reflecting the relation of human beings and God, of among human beings, as well as human beings and their environment. The formulation of Pancasila is a way of life the Indonesian people believe as a truth and nation life philosophy. This abstract idealism was then made a national ideology. As a national life philosophy and national ideology, Pancasila requires ruling norms (regulations) so that it possesses a binding power of law in its implementation and internalization in all aspects of national life. Thus, the formula of the five basic principles of Pancasila was stipulated into Pembukaan UUD NRI 1945 (the Preamble of 1945 Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia) and was also made the state foundation as well as the basic source of NKRI’s law. The truth of Pancasila which is based on the humanity philosophy in its relation with God, with other human beings and with the nature (living space), has made it acknowledged among well-known ideologies in the world and in globalization era as an open and universal ideology. 2.

Course Overview a.

Relevancy One of the subsubjects or subprincipal materials of Pancasila and

UUD NRI 1945 (the 1945 Constitution) is the subsubject Pancasila and Its Development. Pancasila and Its Development in the Educational Program at Lemhannas RI is one of compulsory subjects that must be understood and comprehended by the participants, both those of short program and regular program. Indonesia, comprising various ethnics with their diverse

8 

culture and traditions as well as beliefs and religious, is a multicultural nation the founding fathers successfully unified and formed into a state. The founding fathers made Pancasila a consensus binding all Indonesian people to unity. Pancasila was formulated from the Indonesian original culture agreed as a way of life, the philosophical foundation of the Indonesian state and national ideology for the would be formed-state, namely NKRI (the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia). Agreed as a national consensus in the system of national management and of governance of NKRI, Pancasila is a guideline or basis for every decision 2making process related to all aspects of nation life. In line with the national paradigm, Pancasila is the supreme basic source of law made as ideal basis. Pancasila is one of the principal materials containing or reflecting its own values, be it basic value, instrumental value, or practical value. This subject discusses the Indonesian people after the proclamation of Independence, then used Pancasila in all their aspects of life, and thus called Pancasila and its development. Regarded as the cadres of future national leaders, the participants of educational course program at Lemhannas RI are expectedly able to deal with, overcome and find solutions to various national issues in all aspects of life, based on the values of Pancasila. Finally, by learning this subject on Pancasila, the participants are expected not to be easily influenced by other ideologies in the world, able to uphold the law which is rooted in Pancasila, able to be a good example in daily life implementation of Pancasila, whether as state apparatuses or as individuals. b.

Course Description This subject on Pancasila and its development is divided into 5

modules, with each module comprises description, relevancy, and explanation on material that must be understood. These 5 modules respectively discuss the following materials: 1)

Birth of Pancasila. It discusses:

9 

a)

Philosophical Foundation of Indonesian State.

b)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Mr. Muh. Yamin on May 29, 1945.

c)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo on May 31, 1945.

d)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Prof. Dr. Mr.

Soepomo on May 31, 1945. e)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ir. Soekarno on June

1, 1945 2)

Pancasila as a Philosophy and a Way of Life of Nation. It

discusses: a)

Life during Colonial Era.

b)

Pancasila in Pembukaan UUD 1945 (the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution).

c)

Manifestation of Struggle for National Freedom.

d)

Pancasila as Life Philosophy and Moral Ideals of

Nation. 3)

4)

Pancasila as a National Ideology. It discusses: a)

The Essence and Functions of Ideology.

b)

Pancasila as a National Ideology.

Pancasila as a Philosophical Foundation of State. It

discusses: a)

Pancasila as the Ideals of Law.

b)

Legal Status of Pancasila.

c)

Legal Status of Pancasila after the Issuance of UU No. 12 th 2011 (Law No.12 of 2011).

5)

Pancasila among Major Ideologies in the World. It

discusses: a)

Universal Values of Pancasila

b)

Liberalism

c)

Conservatism

d)

Marxism and Communism

10 

6)

e)

Social Democracy and Democratic Socialism

f)

Anarchism

g)

Feminism

h)

Ecologism

i)

Nationalism

j)

Fascism

k)

Fundamental Islam

Pancasila as an Open Ideology in the Globalization Era. It

discusses:

c.

a)

Pancasila as an Open Ideology

b)

Challenges in Actualizing Pancasila

c)

Dynamics of Social Life

d)

Anatomy of Ideological Conflicts (Interests)

e)

The Pancasila Followers Dealing with Conflicts

f)

Pancasila Orientation

Competency Standards. After learning these modules, participants of either the Regular or

Short Educational Program are expectedly able to understand and comprehend Pancasila, including its history of birth; values; dynamics of implementation for sake of interindividual, intergroup, interorganization, and intercomponent of nation’s harmony in running democratic national life in form of NKRI. Furthermore, it is done by positioning Pancasila as an ideal basis, the source of all legal sources, a national paradigm in attempt of achieving national ideals, goals and objectives: d.

Basic Competency. After learning these modules, participants of either the Regular or

Short Educational Program are expectedly able to not only understand and comprehend Pancasila, but also explain in detail such matters related to: 1)

Birth history of Pancasila and essences of speeches on

formulation of state philosophical foundation delivered by founding fathers.

11 

2)

Roles of Pancasila as a philosophy and way of life of nation

over time until made as life philosophy and moral ideals of nation. 3)

Pancasila as National Ideology functions to help encourage

people to build the nation with all efforts in all aspects of life. Pancasila does not determine discriminatively any economic or political system; however, any chosen systems must be able to carry out the primary aspirations previously mentioned. As a national ideology, Pancasila which reflects universal values, demonstrates as integral-integrative insight, while as a modern ideology, it gives such a great encouragement and spirit. 4)

Pancasila as State Philosophical Foundation, as implied in the

Pembukaan UUD 1945 (Preamble of 1945 Constitution), is basically the intrinsic values of Pancasila, which is the source of legal sources developing values of balance, appropriateness, harmony, unity, and integration of nation in order to maintain unity and integration of NKRI. 5)

Further comprehension of Pancasila’s teachings among

ideologies in the world by observing and comparing to those teachings of other ideologies in the world precedentedly born. 6)

Pancasila as an open ideology in globalization era, with its

universal values, demonstrates an integral-integrative insight and being a modern ideology which is able to adjust to the development of strategic environment, while at the same time, remains able to uphold humans’ well being and dignity for sake of common interests. Pancasila is a tool for unifying all the Indonesian people and filtering values of civilization which are dynamically changing and may not be suitable to national culture. New values are also welcomed as long as not contradictory to basic values of Pancasila. 3.

Materials Structure a.

Materials on Birth of Pancasila with submaterials including : 1)

Philosophical Foundation of Indonesian State.

12 

2)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Mr. Muh. Yamin on May 29, 1945.

3)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo on May 31, 1945.

4)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo

on

May 31, 1945. 5) b.

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ir. Soekarno on June 1, 1945

Materials on Pancasila as a Philosophy and Way of Life of Nation with submaterials including: 1)

Life during Colonial Era.

2)

Pancasila in Pembukaan UUD 1945 (the Preamble of the 1945

Constitution).

c.

3)

Manifestation of Struggle for National Freedom.

4)

Pancasila as Life Philosophy and Moral Ideals of Nation.

Materials on Pancasila as National Ideology with submaterials including:

d.

1)

The Essence and Functions of Ideology.

2)

Pancasila as a National Ideology.

Materials on Pancasila as State Philosophical Foundation with submaterials including: 1)

Pancasila as the Ideals of Law.

2)

Legal Status of Pancasila

3)

Legal Status of Pancasila after the Issuance of UU No. 12 th 2011

(Law No.12 of 2011). e.

Pancasila among Major Ideologies in the World with submaterials including: 1)

Universal Values of Pancasila

2)

Liberalism

3)

Conservatism

4)

Marxism and Communism

5)

Social Democracy and Democratic Socialism

6)

Anarchism

7)

Feminism

13 

8)

Ecologism

9)

Nationalism

10) Fascism 11) Fundamental Islam f.

Pancasila as an Open Ideology in the Globalization Era with submaterials including:

4.

1)

Pancasila as an Open Ideology

2)

Challenges in Actualizing Pancasila

3)

Dynamics of Social Life

4)

Anatomy of Ideological Conflicts (Interests)

5)

The Pancasila Followers Dealing with Conflicts

6)

Pancasila Orientation

Study and Task Completion Plan : The overall learning activity of Subject/Principal Material of Pancasila and

UUD NRI 1945 (1945 Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia) consist of Subject 1 (Pancasila and Its Development comprising 6 modules, 1-6) and Subject 2 (UUD NRI 1945/the 1945 Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia and its issues comprising 4 modules, 7-10) and must be finished in two weeks, as shown in the following :

5.

a.

Week 1 : Module 1-6

b.

Week II : Module 7-10

Learning Instruction To learn subject on Pancasila and Its Development, it is suggested that

participants read several books, such as Restorasi Pancasila Mendamaikan Politik Identitas dan Modernitas) (Restoration of Pancasila Made Peace Politics of Identity and Modernity) (Fisip UI, Jakarta, 2006). Participants should make a summary of understanding on each module to be compared. This will help make it easier understanding of overall contents or materials of Pancasila and Its Development. It is important to note that learning Pancasila and Its Development is relatively different from learning general or universal science of laws since Pancasila is an interpretation of humanity values which are philosophical or abstract, as the supreme legal source.

14 

SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 1 THE BIRTH OF PANCASILA

1.

Description.

BPUPKI

Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan/

(Investigating

Committee

for

the

Preparation of Independence)

discussed, argued, formulated, and eventually made Pancasila ,which originated from the national culture, the state philosophical foundation, which is used as a guideline or basis for the would be established-country, namely Indonesia. The five basic principles first had no name to call until then Ir. Soekarno thought of suggesting a name, Pancasila, he got from a book entitled “Sutasoma” by Mpu Tantular which was written during Majapahit Kingdom era (14th century). Contents and dynamics of values of Pancasila are inherent in its existence itself, whether as a national ideology, state philosophical foundation, life philosophy of the national identity of Indonesia. 2.

Relevancy.

By learning Module 1 on the Birth of Pancasila, the

participants are expected to understand, internalize and decide Pancasila as national ideology, state philosophical foundation and life philosophy of nation as well as national identity. Pancasila has many times proven to save Indonesia from destruction. By comprehending and internalizing Pancasila, participants are expected to be able to properly implement it, so as to make its existence as a national ideology, state philosophical foundation, life philosophy of nation, and national identity grow stronger. 3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 1 discusses: 1)

Philosophical Foundation of Indonesian State.

2)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Mr. Muh. Yamin on May 29, 1945.

3)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo on May 31, 1945.

4)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo on May 31, 1945.

15 

5)

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ir. Soekarno on June 1,

1945. b.

Brief Description. General Description on the Birth of Pancasila. In

preparation of independence, the founding fathers joining BPUPKI designed the constitution and discussed the kind of country that would be established. The various views of our founding fathers resulted in the formulation called Pancasila. Formulation or materials or values of Pancasila originated from Indonesian culture itself which was regarded able to contain diversity in Indonesia. Hence, Pancasila which is the philosophy of nation and way of life and then made the national ideology, is the source of all legal sources so that the constitution (UUD NRI 1945) arranged must reflect the spirit of Pancasila. Please learn and understand Lemhannas’s textbook about the birth of Pancasila (Learning Activity 1).

SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 2 PANCASILA AS PHILOSOPHY AND WAY OF LIFE OF NATION

1.

Description.

For formulating and reaching agreement on Pancasila as

philosophy and way of life of the Indonesian people, our founding fathers had gone through tight discussions and arguments. However, a strong wisdom and spiritual nuance in discussions for achieving common consensus helped find out solutions for the differences in quite a short time. 2.

Relevancy. By learning Module 2 on Pancasila as Philosophy and Way of

Life of the Indonesian people, participants of either the Regular or Short Educational Program as the prospective national leaders are expected to imitate and inherit the national nature of our founding fathers in formulating and deciding Pancasila as the philosophy and way of life of Indonesian people. This also means that in giving substance and meaning to the independence and realizing the ideals of state, we must always root in Pancasila. 3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 2 discusses:

16 

1)

Life during Colonial Era.

2)

Pancasila in Pembukaan UUD 1945 (the Preamble of the 1945 Constitution).

b.

3)

Manifestation of Struggle for National Freedom.

4)

Pancasila as Life Philosophy and Moral Ideals of Nation.

Brief Description. General description of Pancasila as Philosophy

and Way of Life of Nation. There is not any common perception or explanation on the understanding of philosophy of Pancasila until today. Many are afraid that Pancasila is similar to religion and functions solely as unifying tools. Pancasila is translated literally, described into the five basic principles of Pancasila, and formulated into a variety of value systems which are getting increasingly harder for common or low educated people to understand. Pancasila is not a religion, but a philosophy believed and agreed as a truth which contains noble values grounded on religious teachings therein. Pancasila is a teaching emphasizing that a human being is God’s perfect creature, an individual creature that believes in and serves Him as well as a social creature with good moral and behaviours. Implementation of Pancasila in all aspects of national life will reflect one’s moral behaviours and then later portray those of a community (the Indonesian people) accumulatively. As a nation that has formed into a state life or in other words, Pancasila is a state philosophical foundation. Please learn and understand Lemhannas’s textbook on the birth of Pancasila (Learning Activity 2). SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 3 PANCASILA AS A NATIONAL IDEOLOGY

1.

Description.

Essentially, ideology is the result of human reflection due to

his ability to make distance with his living world. There is a dialectic relation between ideology and reality of social life, causing a reciprocal influence which is

17 

manifested in form of one party encouraging ideology to be more realistic, while the other to be more ideal. Ideology does not only reflect the way of thinking of people, but also encourages people to achieve ideals. Thus, it can be seen that ideology is not a mere theoretical knowledge, but a knowledge that must be comprehended and internalized into a belief. Ideology is surely a clear option requiring realizing it. 2.

Relevancy.

By learning module 3 on Pancasila as National Ideology,

participants are expected to understand and comprehend that Pancasila as a national ideology may accept and absorb ideas of other ideologies as long as not in contrast with Pancasila, and could be adjusted to Indonesian culture. 3.

Learning Activity: a.

b.

Learning Activity 3 discusses: 1)

The Essence and Functions of Ideology.

2)

Pancasila as a National Ideology.

Brief Description. General description of Pancasila as National

Ideology. According to Prof. Notonagoro, ideology is identical with state ideals of each country. Close relationship between ideology, politic, and state ideals demands Pancasila ideology to be an open and universal ideology as well as inseparable from other ideologies in the world, including in its struggle for ealing with the impact of globalization era triggered by the progress of relatively rapid changing of science and technology. Please learn and understand Lemhannas’s textbook on Pancasila as an open ideology and national ideology (Learning Activity 3). SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 4 PANCASILA AS STATE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION 1.

Description.

For formulating and reaching agreement on Pancasila as

philosophy and way of life of the Indonesian people, our founding fathers had gone through tight discussions and arguments. However, a strong wisdom and spiritual nuance in discussions for achieving common consensus helped find out solutions for the differences in quite a short time. 18 

2.

Relevancy. By learning Module 2 on Pancasila as Philosophy and Way of

Life of the Indonesian people, participants of either the Regular or Short Educational Program as the prospective national leaders are expected to imitate and inherit the national nature of our founding fathers in formulating and deciding Pancasila as the philosophy and way of life of Indonesian people. This also means that in giving substance and meaning to the independence and realizing the ideals of state, we must always root in Pancasila. 3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 4 discusses: 1)

Pancasila as the Ideals of Law.

2)

Legal Status of Pancasila.

3)

Legal Status of Pancasila after the Issuance of UU No. 12 th 2011 (Law No.12 of 2011).

b.

Brief Description.

General description of Pancasila as State

Philosophical Foundation.

There is not any common perception or

explanation on the understanding of philosophy of Pancasila until today. Many are afraid that Pancasila is similar to religion and functions solely as unifying tools. Pancasila is translated literally, described into the five basic principles of Pancasila, and formulated into a variety of value systems which are getting increasingly harder for common or low educated people to understand. PANCASILA is not a religion, but a philosophy believed and agreed as a truth which contains noble values grounded on religious teachings therein. Pancasila is a teaching emphasizing that a human being is God’s perfect creature, an individual creature that believes in and serves Him as well as a social creature with good moral and behaviours. Implementation of Pancasila in all aspects of national life will reflect one’s moral behaviours and then later portray those of a community (the Indonesian people) accumulatively. As a nation that has formed into a state life or in other words, Pancasila is a state philosophical foundation. Please learn and understand Lemhannas’s textbook on the birth of Pancasila (Learning Activity 4).

19 

SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 5 PANCASILA AMONG MAJOR IDEOLOGIES IN THE WORLD 1.

Description.

Values contained in Pancasila ideology comprise the value

of the One Supreme God; one cultured and noble valued God; and one God with respect to others; university values of humanity;respecting all nations in the world; the value of civilized justice; national value of all for all, all for one, and one for all, people value/value of people sovereignity, common consensus, deliberation, representatives, and value of wisdom; value of social justice in welfare; and value of equality and harmony as well as appropriateness culturally within heterogenous Indonesian society. These values are considered universal since acknowledged as global values. There are actually only two poles of ideology in this world, namely liberalism and socialism, and Pancasila ideology is in between because it balances the natural needs of human beings as individual and social creature. 2.

Relevancy. By learning Module 5 on Pancasila Among Major Ideologies in

the World, participants are expected to realize and understand, as well as feel proud that Pancasila was made national ideology, state philosophical foundation, life philosophy of nation, and Indonesian national identity by the founding fathers since Indonesia was rooted in Indonesian culture, Pancasila ideology, therefore is not an unfamiliar ideology but that from values existing far before Indonesia declared its independence, even before the periods of Srivijaya and Majapahit Kingdom. These values of Pancasila are able to contain all teachings living among Indonesian people. Pancasila has never been congruent with particular religion nor has it been in contrast with particular religion. 3.

Learning Activity: a.

Learning Activity 5 discusses: 1)

Universal Values of Pancasila

2)

Liberalism

3)

Conservatism

4)

Marxism and Communism

5)

Social Democracy and Democratic Socialism

6)

Anarchism

20 

b.

7)

Feminism

8)

Ecologism

9)

Nationalism

10)

Fascism

11)

Fundamental Islam

Brief Description. General description of Pancasila Among Major

Ideologies in the World.

The five principles of Pancasila are interrelated,

inseparable, and must be seen as an intact, unified, and thorough ideology since the establishment of NKRI (the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia), Pancasila has been made life philosophy of nation, state philosophical foundation, and national ideology. History recorded that, particularly in Indonesia, the development of ideology is inseparable from that of politics, and the way around. One of experts at ideology (Freeden) said that ideology is a form of thinking about politics which provides direct access important in understanding its establishment, essence of theory, richness, variety, and origin. Diversity of ideologies in the world originally came from the two contrasting ideas, namely individualism and socialism. Ideas on individualism brought up liberalism ideology, whereas socialism initiated various ideology focusing on social matters. Pancasila is between these two ideas or ideologies. Please learn and understand Lemhannas’s textbook on Pancasila Among Major Ideologies in the World (Learning Activity 5).

SPECIFIC COURSE GUIDELINES MODULE 6 PANCASILA AS AN OPEN IDEOLOGY in GLOBALIZATION ERA

1.

Description.

The waves of globalization and reformation in all aspects of

life have resulted in the rapid changing of society and frequently cause conflicts in social life. Furthermore, openness and freedom coming along with globalization and reformation have initiated various social, political, and cultural events quite significantly influencing Pancasila, as a national ideology. Degradation on national

21 

morals, anarchism, attitudes which put personal and group interests overall, extreme and fanatical understanding of religion, conflicts in several parts of Indonesia and other social issues can be such indications illustrating that civilization is changing dynamically over time and this changing can always be monitored by each human being through the increasingly sophisticated information media. In this case, every Indonesian people is tested his resilience in absorbing, filtering, or adjusting to the new values. 2.

Relevancy.

By learning Module 6 on Pancasila in Globalization Era,

participants are expected to understand, comprehend, and become aware of the impact of globalization on all aspects of nation life, shown by various changes in social life, especially those related to ideology, politic, economic, socioculture, defense and security. It is hoped that participants as prospective national leaders are able to anticipate, predict, attempt to cope with these changes so as to maintain the unity and integration of Indonesia. Such resilience in maintaining national identity or character is necessary in order to respond properly and ensure that the national interests are still secured despite the inevitable changing life. 3.

Learning Activity: a.

b. Era.

Learning Activity 6 discusses: 1)

Pancasila as an Open Ideology

2)

Challenges in Actualizing Pancasila

3)

Dynamics of Social Life

4)

Anatomy of Ideological Conflicts (Interests)

5)

The Pancasila Followers Dealing with Conflicts

6)

Pancasila Orientation

Brief Description. General description of Pancasila in Globalization Western thinking (F. Ratzel and R. Kjollen) stated that human beings

need states and states need living space, making the states living entities (biological entities). Directly or not, a state keeps attempting to broaden its living space. Pancasila ideology views the existences of human beings, states, and living space as a gift from God that must be thanked to and maintained for continuity of common life in reaching common ideals (national ideals). To sustain this life, each human must always adapt to the changes

22 

the Indonesian people must be able to absorb. The impact of globalization which seems like seeking to unify the world and obliterate borders between nations by holding tightly on to Pancasila as a national character collectively agreed. This makes the Indonesian people remain possessing a firm national identity despite the strongly changing civilization. Please learn and understand Lemhannas’s textbook on Pancasila in Globalization Era (Learning Activity 6).

23 

THE NATIONAL RESILIENCE INSTITUTE OF

1

THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA



SUBJECT/PRINCIPAL MATERIAL OF PANCASILA AND UUD NRI 1945 (1945 CONSTITUTION OF THE STATE OF THE REPUBLIC OF INDONESIA)

LEARNING GUIDELINES MODULE 1-6

SUB SUBJECT/PRINCIPAL MATERIAL PANCASILA AND ITS DEVELOPMENT

2016

24 

TABLE OF CONTENTS Module 1/Learning Activity 1 Birth of Pancasila 1

Philosophical Foundation of Indonesian State

2

Contents of Speech Delivered by Mr. Muh. Yamin

3

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo

4

Contents of Speech Delivered by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo

5

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ir. Soekarno Summary Exercises Direction to Answer Exercise

References

Module 2/Learning Activity 2 PANCASILA as a Life Philosophy and Way of Life of Nation 1

Life during Colonial Era

2

Pancasila in Pembukaan UUD 1945 (Preamble of 1945 Constitution)

3

Manifestation of Struggle for National Freedom

4

Pancasila as Life Philosophy and Moral Ideals of Nation Summary Exercises Direction to Answer Exercise

References

Module 3/Learning Activity 3 PANCASILA as a National Ideology 1

The Essence and Functions of Ideology

2

PANCASILA as a National Ideology Summary Exercises

25 

Direction to Answer Exercise

References Module 4/Learning Activity 4 PANCASILA as State Philosophical Foundation 1

PANCASILA as the Ideals of Law

2

Legal Status of PANCASILA

3

Legal Status of PANCASILA after the Issuance of UU No.12 tahun 2011 (Law No.12 of 2011). Summary Exercises Direction to Answer Exercise

References

Module 5/Learning Activity 5 PANCASILA among Major Ideologies in the World 1

Universal Values of Pancasila

2

Liberalism

3

Conservatism

4

Marxism and Communism

5

Social Democracy and Democratic Socialism

6

Anarchism

7

Feminism

8

Ecologism

9

Nationalism

10

Fascism

11

Fundamental Islam Summary Exercises Direction to Answer Exercise

References

Module 6/Learning Activity 6 PANCASILA as an Open Ideology in Globalization Era

26 

1

PANCASILA as an Open Ideology

2

Challenges in Actualizing PANCASILA

3

Dynamics of Social Life

4

Anatomy of Ideological Conflicts (Interests)

5

The Pancasila Followers Dealing with Conflicts

6

PANCASILA Orientation Summary Exercises Direction to Answer Exercise

References

27 

BIRTH OF PANCASILA MODULE 1

Learning Activity 1 1.

Philosophical Foundation of Indonesian State The defeat of Japan in Pacific War in early 1945 caused the Japanese

government to make a promise of independence for Indonesia in order to prevent any rebellions. As a response to that policy, Badan Penyelidik Usaha-usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan/ BPUPKI (Investigating Committee for the Preparation of Independence) was established and chaired by Dr. Radjiman Wedyodiningrat. This committee consisted of 58 members who were divided into several sections and one basic law committee. This basic law committee comprised 19 members, was chaired by Ir. Soekarno, and its name was changed into Panitia Undangundang Dasar (Committee of Constitution) in its development. From this committee, it was formed Panitia Kecil Perancang UUD (Subcommittee of Constitution Designing) and led by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo. BPUPKI held two official sessions. The first session lasted from May 28 until June 1, 1945 and discussed state philosophical foundation, while the second session lasted from July 10 to 17, 1945 and discussed the form of nation, territory, nationality, design of constitution, economic and finance, national defence, education and teaching. There was also an unofficial session, conducted during the period between the first and second session, discussing the design of Pembukaan UUD 1945 (the Preamble of 1945 Constitution), and chaired by Ir. Soekarno. Having accomplished its tasks, BPUPKI was dismissed and then replaced by Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia/PPKI (Committee for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence) on August 7, 1945. PPKI held its first session from Aug 18, 1945, right one day after Independence Proclamation, until August 22, 1945. According to its agenda plan, BPUPKI discussed state philosophical foundation (from May 28, 1945 to June 1, 1945); whom which on May 29, 1945 the speakers invited were Muh. Yamin, Margono, Sosrodiningrat, Wiranata Kusumah, Sumitro, Woerjaningrat, Surjo, Soesanto, Dasaad, Rooseno, and Aris P. Among these speakers, it was only Muh Yamin who delivered a speech.

28 

The next day, on May 29, 1945, there were speakers like Drs. Moh. Hatta, Agus Salim Samsudin, Wongsonegoro, Soerachman, Abdul Kadir, Soewandi Abdul Rahim, Soekirman and Soetarjo. However, it was only Dr. Moh. Hatta who delivered a speech for more than an hour. It was so unfortunate that the speech text was not documented and up until now, it is still being searched for historical clarification. On May 31, 1945, the speakers on schedule were Mr. Muh. Yamin, Sanusi, Soehardjo, Soekarno, and Hadikoesoemo. Yet, only from Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo, Prof. Dr. Soepomo and Mr. Muh. Yamin were speeches delivered. Then, on June 1,1945, the speakers on schedule were Basweand, Muzakir, Ir. Soekarno, Latuharhary, and Soekarjo. But, only from Ir. Soekarno was a speech delivered. Thus, during the first official session of BPUPKI, only five speakers were delivering their speeches on state philosophical foundation, Mr. Muh. Yamin, Dr. Moh. Hatta, Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo, Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo, and Ir. Soekarno. Among these five speakers, only four speechtexts were found. These four included speechtext of Muh.Yamin, that of Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo, of Prof. Dr. Soepomo, and of Ir. Soekarno. Speech text of Drs. Moh. Hatta was not found yet hitherto. During this first session, Mr. Muh Yamin had twice delivered speeches. The first one was about the design of Indonesia’s territory plan. The following are the contents of speeches delivered Mr. Muh. Yamin, Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo, Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo, and Ir. Soekarno. 2.

Contents of Speech Delivered by Mr. Muh. Yamin on May 29, 1945



Peri Kebangsaan (Nationalism) Mr. Muh. Yamin mentioned that if the Indonesian people wished for

independence at that time, there were three tasks that had to be accomplished, namely gathering all necessary materials for establishing a state, formulating constitution and executing the contents of basic law in the established country/ state. The new state had to be in form of a national state (nationale staat or etat national) in line with the normality or natural thing of civilization at that time. Indonesia in the previous era had two states in form of kingdoms (governance at higher level people), Srivijaya and Majapahit. Yet, these two states had already collapsed 400 years ago. Moreover, he mentioned that at that time, there were

29 

more than 300 small kingdoms which tended to be more local and traditional and in which the people each kingdom were not connected from one subkingdom to the others. It was not appropriate anymore if the Indonesian people after independence referred to and reflected to the previous conditions of 300 small kingdoms in running their new governance. Eventhough Srivijaya and Majapahit had once experienced their golden periods, yet, we have to arrange our governance at lower level people. In doing this, we needed not imitate for ours has already been civilized and cultured since thousands of years ago. By referring to present (a few moment after independence proclamation), progress of civilization and also the order of governance at lower level people state. The essences of true governance were collected and made into state philosophical foundation. The principles of our state philosophical foundation had to be grounded on the characters of Indonesian civilization, not imitating or copying constitutions of other countries. Civilization and our will as a nation should become a pattern or characteristic of the would be established-country/ state. The Republic of Indonesia wished by the Indonesian people is the Indonesian national state as a nationaale staat. Imitation and copy from foreign countriess should be treated as mirror solely. 

Peri Kemanusiaan (Humanity) Mr. Muh Yamin said that for the Indonesian people, becoming independent

did not only mean to be free from the Dutch occupation, but also meant to arrange a new society in a new independent state. Independence would liven up sovereignity of a state, both internally (inwards) or externally (outwards). Internal (inwards) sovereignity and independence provided high level protection to every citizen along with his property rights and richness within the state’s borders. External (outwards) independence and sovereignity provided many opportunities to Indonesia for forging relationship with other countries. This was the kind of sovereignity the Indonesian people had wished, not the other, and thus we refused the offer of dominion and protectorate status. We had wished for a sovereign state in order to be able to fully join the nations’ family membership. This membership regulated diplomatic relationship independently. Therefore, sovereignity had to be based on perikemanusiaan (humanity) universally containing humanity and

30 

internationalism for all nations, for the basis of perikemanusiaan

was

internationalism law, and morality/ decency rules of all national and independent states. 

PERI KETUHANAN (BELIEF IN GOD) Mr. Muh. Yamin explained that the Indonesian people who would soon gain

their independence belonged to civilized nation or people, in which the One Supreme God existed in their civilization. Hence, the independent and prosperous Indonesian state would believe in God. God would protect the independent Indonesian state. 

Peri Kerakyatan (State Based on People) 

Permusyawaratan

(Deliberation/Discussions

in

Forum

for

Gaining Unanimity) Shura’ Asysyura (from the Qur’an), verse 38 reads that all matters must be discussed in forums to gain unanimity. According to Mr. Muh. Yamin, there were three reasons to implement permusyawaratan (deliberation/discussions in forums for gaining unanimity): a.

By opening their minds during discussions with other people

to attain unanimity, a person would always walk in God’s path. b.

By conducting deliberations, the burden of state management

was not given to one single person only, but to a great number of people. c.

Deliberations for attaining unanimity diminished the possibility

of someone making a mistake and also a state falling into digression. In the history of Islam, Islamic deliberations for gaining unanimity had long been conducted, as well as when Islam first arrived in Indonesia. However, before religions began to enter Indonesia, this culture on doing deliberations had long been existed in countryside society because this kind of society had long been there since ancent times. The basis of this culture did not disappear during the arrival of Hinduism and Buddhism. It even grew and flourished since Islam arrived in Indonesia, instead.

31 



Perwakilan (Representatives) The Indonesian people’s capability and skills in managing statecraft

had long existed since thousands of years ago proven by as many as 21.000 villages in Java Island, 700 nagari (local term for village) in Minangkabau, the order of negeri sembilan in Malaya, as well as those in Borneo, Bugis, Ambon, Minahasa, and other places. The order of these alliances was not disturbed by the influence of Hinduism, Buddhism, as well as feudalism and colonization. Villages were vilages, no matter how many times the order changed over time, and villages were one of the pillars of traditional alliances which inclined to be similar than different throughout Indonesia. In this order, the people under the position of authority and becoming representatives were chosen for greater order. It was these representatives who discussed of customary law in the statecraft of governance at lower level people, but also became such a guideline for the present (at that time) national wishes in arranging statecraft of governance at middle and higher level. These representatives would become the connectors of statecraft spirit of Indonesian people, and the basis of representatives was an eternal basis grounded on Indonesian culture. 

Kebijaksanaan (Wisdom) State establishment formed a renewal, while a renewal was

inseparable from the belief in God and Indonesian cultural heritage already influenced by feudalism of colonial rulers. Indonesia had to be arranged by healthy logics and nationalism. The educated groups, through movement organizations for independenc, had contributed their minds and physical force for conducting movements. These movements had helped interpret the dynamics and ideals of the Indonesian people. Hikmat kebijaksananan (inner wisdom) becoming the leader of Indonesian people was a healthy nationalism since it meant that we had freed ourselves from anarchism, liberalism, and colonialization spirits. a.

State Concept These three bases previously mentioned brought us to the state

32 

order which was based on reality. We did not stand hand in hand with Plato’s Republica, Aristoteles’s Politea and Thomas More’s Utopia. 1)

Indonesia

rejected

statecraft

violating

the

basis

of

deliberations, representatives, and wisdom. 2)

Indonesia rejected any concepts of federalism, monarchy,

liberalism, autocracy, and Western democracy. 3)

Indonesia rejected any forms of colonialization.

Indonesia

was an independent and fully sovereign national state. 4)

Indonesia rejected any concepts of istibdadi, khilaah, and

filsafatiyah. 5)

Indonesia rejected any basis of colonialization as the basis of

state establishment governance. 6)

Indonesia rejected any actions upsetting the state sovereignity

by playing it like a puppet. By rejecting all of these concepts, Indonesia would realize these concepts: 1)

Indonesia as a people’s state was a unity state which was not

divided, and was established on and in the body of undivided Indonesian people 2)

Indonesia as a people’s state had a sovereignity which was

strongly upheld by the head of state, head of provinces or regions and all Indonesian people. 3)

Head of state, center of governance, regional/provincial

government and village government were elected generally by Indonesian people through deliberations for achieving unanimity. Indonesia as a people’s state constituted a syuria’ governed-state, based on the principle of deliberations for gaining unanimity by knowledgeable and healthy-minded people which were elected by the representative’s concept. 4)

Deliberations, election, and renewal of thinking became the

basis of initiation and decision making of all state matters. 5)

Nagari, villages, and any alliances of traditional law renewed

33 

through nationalism and tme reformation were made the legs or foundation or lower lever of state order. 6)

Central government was formed around the head of state

which was divided into: a)

Vice head of state,

b)

Ministries, and

c)

Center of representatives parliament consisting of

House of Representatives and House of Parliament. 7)

Between higher level and lower level of governance, the

middle level was formed as regional government. 8)

Indonesia as people’s state conducted division of state works

by way of decentralization and deconcentration which did not recognize federalism and disintegration of state. 9)

Indonesia as people’s state became a sovereign member in

the deliberations for gaining unanimity of all nations in the world. b.

State Defense The three basic acknowledgments previously mentioned provided

basis on military, state defence through the use of weapon. Deliberations for gaining common agreement based on religion might result in holy or religious wars. Traditional basis obliged us to defense our country or state againts tyranny, while rationalism encouraged progress in war techniques. c.

Budi Negara (State Moral/ Character) Every state established from a perfect civilization had to possess

good moral conduct or character as a national characteristic or identity . Good moral conduct/ character of a state constituted a rope connecting the people’s souls with the state or country protecting them. 1)

Setia Negara (Loyalty to State) The first state, Syailendra Srivijaya Kingdom was able to

withstand mass waves due to having moral conduct focused on dedication in form of being loyalty to the unitary state. Not dedicating ourselves to our state was such a big mistake. Although the kingdom had long fallen, the culture of being loyal was still deeply instilled in

34 

the people. The second state, Majapahit, possessed a moral conduct which was to completely trust the people’s power. 2)

Tenaga Rakyat (People’s Power) The second state, Majapahit became having a strong position

in Southeast Asia, especially after huge potentials of people’s power were used as effective as possible by Mahapatih (the Great Warlord) Gadjah Mada. Time changed, yet, people’s power remained becoming a potential and at the present time (at that time), all Indonesian people had

gathered

their common

will

to be

independent. Indonesian people’s wish for independence was the basis of their good moral conduct. 3)

Independence The will to gain independence was the third state moral

conduct, Mr. Muh. Yamin explained. The value of this moral was very high since good moral conduct was instilled in the state believing in the One Supreme, civilized, and national God. 

Kesejahteraan Rakyat (Keadilan Sosial) [Social Welfare/Social Justice] Mr. Muh. Yamin mentioned that a state should not be considered as a living

tie narrowing people’s lives or viewed as autocracy or oligarchy. Happiness would occur if the state established from our civilization could secure any great changes in constitution related to the higher, middle and lower level governances as well as all daily economic lives. State or country should therefore relate directly to its people’s will. a.

State’s Territory. The established state or country should include all

territories wished by the Indonesian people. This also meant these country land having Indonesian characteristics. We did not wish any enclaves within this country’s territory. b.

State’s People and Citizens. During the state inauguration, it had to

be decided previously who would become its citizens, regulations on Arabian half-bred or Chinese half-bred. c.

Form of Indonesia. During the inauguration of new country or state,

there increased a member of old-aged and high-civilized world’s family with

35 

its extremely vast, rich, prosperous and gorgeous land as well as its religious people. People’s welfare became the basis, goals, objectives of nation, briefly containing people’s justice and social justice. We were destined to turn from a colonialized territory into an independent country during World War II owing to the help of the Japanese army and all Indonesian people’s hard struggle. The form of independent and sovereign Indonesia was the Republic of Indonesia, in unitaristic concept. d. 3.

The speech delivered by Mr. Muh. Yamin was concluded by a poem.

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ki Bagoes Hadi Koesoemo on May

31, 1945. If the state was messed up and there was no boundarybetween good and evil, God would awake the prophets to lead and build the society towards justice, security and welfare. People lived in society, and could not live without others’ help. We knew that bad attitudes made inconformity in the society. Half of the most andgerous attitudes were greed. To prevent greed, we needed to conduct deliberations for gaining unanimity. In attempt of making better of society, the prophets focused on the improvements of good moral conduct. If all people conducted a good moral, regulations were necessary in order to keep society wellregulated, secured and prosperous. There were four fundamental roles suggested by the prophets: a.

The teaching of believing in God and spiritual objects. Believing in

God might rise good characters and moral conduct and decrease the rise of bad attitudes. b.

The teaching of serving God, being wise and loyal to God would help

human beings. Religious teachings were at first taught, then proven to be useful after implementating them. These ruled how humans approached to their God. c.

The teachings to give charity or conduct good deeds. This meant that

human beings would conduct good doings to parents, children, neighbours, guests, ancestors, and to society. d.

The teachings to fight in God’s path. This meant to voluntarily

struggle for upholding the right.

36 

These four teachings summed up the prophets’ teachings on improving and building the society and state. The relationship between fellow followers of God was like stone in the wall which reinforced each other (Prophet Mohammed SAW). The 350 year-colonialization caused the nation to disintegrate instead of unifying it, whereas religions were God’s guiandce towards worldly and heavenly happiness and welfare. It was not only religious matters that could bring up any conflicts, but also the form of states such as republic, monarchy, federal, or unitary state might trigger them. Deliberations for unanimity had to be based on sacredy and honesty, not individual, group, and selfishness for these might lead to disintegration. In Koran Shura’ Nabil 14, it was mentioned that if we wished for Indonesia having tough people then build this country based on the Koran guiandce and hadith. If wishing for strong economic conditon, then establish a state also based on the guiandce from the Koran. Shura’ Anfal 62 and Shof 2-3-4 and 10-11-12-13 reinforced by mentioning that if we wished for country to be strong in its defence and security, then build it according to His guiandce. If wishing for a just and wise government based on people’s deliberations in gaining unanimity, we were not allowed to force a religion to someone, but establish this country based on Islam... (Shura’ mak 90, Shura 5, Shura Al Imronisa, Shura’ Syuro 38, Shura’ Baqoroh 256). For those who did not agree to establish a country or state based on religion by other reasons, it was hoped not to mix between state matters and religious matters. In the 6000 articles of the Koran, there were only 100 articles regulating on how to give service to God and other heavenly matters, while the rest of them were regulating statecraft and worldly knowledge. It has been 1400 yesars since Isamic law was applied in many Islamic countries. There were also many who assumed that performing pray Shalaah and its obligation laws were not suitable with modern countries. The Nederlands Indie government had once changed Islamic law on heritance in 1922, but then returned into its original in 1934. There was also an attempt to change Islamic law on marriage. There had been many Islamic laws which had been traditions in vilage culture. Most of our heroes were courageous in struggling based on Islamic law. It was hoped that the new Indonesia would be based on Islam and became a firm, strong, tough country.

37 

4.

Contents of Speech Delivered by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo on May 31,

1945. Mr. Soepomo mentioned that the absolute requirements for establishing a country were the existences of territory, people, sovereign government, according to international law, as well as requirement for defensing our homeland. Concerning with the first absolute requirement, namely territory, Mr. Soepomo agreed on the boundaries of Nederlands Indie, but if other territories wished to join, like Nagari Malaka an North Borneo, we would not be objected unless our brothers in Nagari Malaka and North Borneo would. Furthermore, concerning with the second requirement, namely people as citizens, it was obvious that the orignal Indonesian people would autonmatically become citizens, while the half-bred people who wished to be our citizens had to be welcomed. The important things to note were being aware of those who might have double nationality status or even losing nationality. The absolute requirements of running a government were having a sovereign government according to International Law. There were 3 description of state according to what basis the state would be established: a.

Staat union (cenheidsetaat) or united states (Brudstaat) or as state changing (sttenbond)

b.

The relationship between states and religion

c.

Choosing either Republic or Monarchy

Therefore, we needed to know the theories on states and thinking flow of states. We needed to discuss the basis on governance system for sovereign governace according to the international law, whether it would be state union, united states or federation, the relationship between states and religion, and whether it would be in form of republic or monarchy. Thus, according to Mr. Soepomo, it was necessary to understand the theories regaring states. a.

Theory of Individualism by Thomas Hobbes and John Locke, Jean

Jaques Rosseau, Herbert Spencer, as well as H.J. Larki argued that a state was a law society established from contracts among all individuals in that society. Theory of individualism grew and flourished in West Europe countries and the USA.

38 

b.

Theory of Class by Karl Marx, Engel, and Lenin argued that a state

was a tool used by a particular class to oppress other classes. Capitalistic state was the tool used by the bourgoisie to oppress the working class (labours). That is why, it was necessarry to do revolution by the working class (labours) to reclaim power from the bourgoisie, so that the working class might oppress the opposite class, in turn. c.

Theory of Integralistic by Spinoza, Adam Muller, and Hegel argued

that a state was established not for individual or group/class own interests, but to secure the entire people’s interests as a unity. A state was an integralistic arrangement of community. All groups/ classes unified as organic community. A state did not side with one particular strong or weak group or class, nor sided with individual interests. A state existed to guarantee the entire nation life security as an inseparable unity. In addition, Mr. Soepomo mentioned that we could not just imitate or copy the other countries. Each state or country has its own charateristics and socioculture so that what might good for a state was not also good to the others. The structure of Indonesia as a state should be adjusted to Indonesian social structure itself. West Europe with its individualism and liberalism had separated each individual from his social community and there appeared spiritual crisis. This nature had to be avoided from Indonesia’s national development. Soviet Union with its “proletariate dictatorship” might be suitable with social condition of Soviet Union, however, that was in contrast with the original characteristics of Indonesian people. Germany with its national socialism now had given up during the war. Totalitarian principles were related to the same origin and territory in terms of relationship between leaders and its people. This national socialism was a unity principle between the leaders and its people and in line with the Eastern traditions. Japan was based on eternal unity between Emperor, state, and people. Tennoo was the spiritual center of the entire people and state on the basis of kinship solidarity. These unity and kinship solidarity principles were suitable for Indonesia. Mental spirit and spiritual structure of the Indonesian people were having characteristics and ideals of life unity, unity between humans as servants and God, unity between microcosmos and macrocosmos, and unity between

39 

people and their leaders. The original characterics of Indonesian statecraft could still be seen up until today (at that time) in forms of villages, both inside and outside Java in which the leaders unified with their people. Head or leaders of people who held onto traditions always performed deliberations for achieving common consensus. In the nuance of unity between people and its leaders, all groups or classes were covered in the spirit of kinship solidarity and gotong royong (cooperative). Indonesia had to embrace theory of integralistic, theory of unity of state and it s people and for dealing with Indonesian people’s characteristics. Theory of integralistic did not ignore the existence of classes or groups and individuals. State acknowledged the existence of groups or classes in real society, yet all individuals and groups/classes would submit themselves to the state thoroughly as organic parts. Mr. Soepomo also suggested that religious and state matters be separated in the unity state. We would not establish an Islamic state. It was different the definition between Islamic state and a state based on the ideals of Islamic law. In an Islamic state,state and religion were united. Turkey was once an Islamic state, but in 1924, it was not an Islamic state anymore although nearly all of its people were Moslems. Egypt, Iraq, Iran, Saudi Arabia were still Islamic states. Ye, we would not imitate them since Indonesia had different characteristics from them. Those countries still considered adaptations of Sharia’/Islamic law to International needs and the present modern needs. If we were about to establish an islamic state, we would be dragged into being overwhelmed by that issue and we would not be able to establish unity since establishing an islamic state meant that state unified itself with the major or dominan groups or classes and would later cause minderheadan of the minorities. We should establish a national state united in terms of totalitarian. Unity state did not mean a religionless state, since it still held onto a good moral conduct and people’s moral ideals firmly which were suggested by Islam. We did not establish as federation state, either. Policy on centralization and decentralization depended on the respective time,place, and issue. Monarchy or republic was only a matter of form. The important thing was how the head of state unified with its

40 

people.we should not imitate the Werterners in electing our leaders since their individualism teachings were pretty mush different from Indonesian characteristics. To guarantee the leaders unified with their people, a kind of house of representatives needed establishing. Head of state should continuously mingle with this institution so as to figure out people’s will. Unity of leaders and their people should be forwarded to heads of regional level, even those of villages or of ethnics / groups of people. In an integralistic state, the relation of state and economic followed the system of state socialism stating that the vital companies would be organized by state. State would determine time, place and companies necessarily managed by central government or private sectors for the sake of state and people’s interests. In term of land, state authorized all lands and vital mines, yet lands for agricultural sector remained on the farmers’ hands, remembering that the majority of Indonesian people were farmers. Economic of state would be based on kinship solidarity principle. Therefore, cooperative system should become Indonesian economic basis. 5.

Contents of Speech Delivered by Ir. Soekarno on June 1, 1945. For three consecutive days, there had been many who delivered speeches,

but the contents were not what BPUPKI needed, which was state philosophical foundation (philosophische grondslag). Ir. Soekarno argued that “being independent” meant political independence. We should not be too complicated in defining “being independent.” Saudi Arabia gained its independence when more than 80% of its people were illiterate. Independence was like being on a bridge and across the bridge. That was why, we needed to make perfect of the people. We should not think too complicated about a lot of things and be afraid of getting independence. We only needed to gain our independence right now, now, and now (at that time).soviet Union, Saudi Arabia and the USA were apparently able to maintain its independence. Struggling for independence was like getting married, he said. There were those who dared to get married early, those who were afraid to do so, those who thought of having a house first before getting married, etc. Our brother, Marhaen, was brave enough to get married although he only had a mat and a hut. We wished for independence now or never.

41 

After gaining independence, then we freed our people one by one. Then, we worked hard for their welfare, discussing the state philosophical foundation, philosophische grondslag, weltanschaung. Hitler built Germany on the basis of national sozialistische weltanschaung. Lenin established Soviet Union on the basis of Marxistische, while Nippon (Japan) built Dai Nippon on the basis of Tennoo Koodoo Seishin. Ibnu Islam Said built Arab based on religion. We needed to determine first weltanschaung before Indonesia gaining independence and idealists in the world working very hard to formulate and realize their weltanschaung. Lenin established Soviet Union in 10 days in 1917, yet he had prepared weltanschaung in 1895. Hitler took over in 1935, yet he had prepared since 1922. Dr. Sun Yat Sen built China in 1912, yet he had prepared for weltanschaung since 1885, namely San Min Chu I. 

Kebangsaan (Nationalism) We did not establish a state or country only for one individual, one group or

class, but for all people so that the first basis for Indonesia was national principle. We were about to establish Indonesia national state. National principle in this case did not mean in its narrow term. Ernest Rehan defined a nation as Le desir d'etre ensemble, a will to unify. Otto Bauer stated, “ a nation is a unity of behaviours by unity of fate.” These two definitions were outdated after the emergence of geopolitics in which the object was unity of people and their place. We did not only talk about a nation, but also its homeland. Minangkabau people everywhere also felt desir d'etre ensemble although this group was only a small part of Nusantara. The common thing also happened to the Yogyanese, Sunandese, and Bugis people. Nationale staat included all Indonesian people and territory which was a unitary. Based on history, we had twice experienced nationale staat, during Srivijaya and Majapahit periods. During the Mataram Kingdom period, we were indeed independent but not in form of nationale staat. The classical Chinese people did not wish any nationale staat for they embraced cosmopolitanism. However, thanks to Dr. Sun Yat Sen, it changed. 

Internasionalism There was a danger in national principle, which wsas the emergence of

chauvinism leading to uber alles Indonesia. We loved the one homeland; felt

42 

having one nation, one language, but Indonesia was only a small part of the world. We would establish an independent Indonesia as well as aiming at forging kinship between nations. Internationalism could not thrive if not grounded on nationalism, while nationalism needed internationalism. The first and second principle stood tightly hand in hand. 

Mufakat

(Unanimity/Common

Consensus),

Perwakilan

(Representatives), and Permusyawaratan (Deliberations) We did not establish a nation only for one individual, one group/class, but for all, all for one and one for all. To make a state strong, representatives and deliberations for gaining unanimity were necessary. This was the best place to look after religion for Islam. By deliberations for gaining unanimity, we improved everything related to religious matters. The religious groups could use this principle to fight for its interests. 

Social Welfare For three consecutive days, no one mentioned anything about welfare

principle or poverty in Indonesia. Ir. Soekarno questioned whether we wished for independence with capitalists thriving or with prosperous people. Even though there was house of representatives in Europe and the USA, apparently capitalists flourished there. Democracy we needed was not Western democracy, but that of living living friendly, a kind of political economic democracy which could provide social welfare. We knew the story of Ratu Adil (the concept of Just King) in which poor people struggled for creating a new world which was more prosperous, and led by Ratu Adil. Not only did we have common politics, but also that of economic, namely common welfare. Our house of representatives was not merely a house of representatives of political democracy, but also realizing two principles, politiche rechtvaadigheid and sociale recht vaardigheid. In this institution, we discussed all matters, including those of head of state. It was expected that a head of state be elected and a state not in monarch system. We

already

had

four

principles,

namely

Indonesian

nationalism,

internationalism, humanity, and common consensus or democracy and social welfare. The fifth principle was Ketuhanan (belief in God). Not only did Indonesian people have and believe in God in cultural way, with no religiousness selfishness.

43 

It was also suggested to embrace religion in a civilized manner, respectful to each other, having and believing in God and conducting good attitude s well as moral conduct. These five principles were not called Pancadharma since dharma meant obligations. These were called Pancasila since sila meant principle or foundation. If there was any objection, it could be compressed. National and national internationalism as well as humanity could be compressed into socionationalism democracy and welfare could be compressed into 3, namely socio democratie and the left was ketuhanan (belief in God) with respect ful principle to each other. From five

principles,

it

ws

compressed

into

three,

namely

socionalionalism,

sociodemocratie and ketuhanan. These were then caslled Trisila if there was still any objection, then it could be compressed into 1, gotong royong (cooperative based on kinship solidarity). This would be established-Indonesia had to be based on gotong royong principle, and be called Ekasila. There was not any weltanschaung manifesting into reality without hard struggle. It was necessary to struggle hard to realize Pancasila. The establishment of Pancasila did not mean that our struggle had ended. We had just started it from now, instead, but with different characteristics. After the first official session, there were a number of unofficial sessions during the vacan time between the two official sessions; among others were Panitia 9 (Committee of Nine) session by Moh. Hatta, Muh. Yamin, Subardjo, Maramis, Ir. Soekarno, K.H Abdul Kahar Muzakir, Wachid Hasyim, Abikusno Tjokro Soejoso, and Haji Agus Salim. They successfully formulated concept of the Preamble of 1945 Constitution of independent Indonesia they called Djakarta Charter and signed on June 22, 1945. This concept was reported by Ir. Soekarno in the second official session of BPUPKI on July 10,1945. In this concept, state philosophical foundation read, “Ketuhanan, dengan kewajiban menjalankan syariat Islam bagi pemeluk-pemeluknya, menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil and beradab, persatuan Indonesia, dan kerakyatan yang dipimpin oleh hikmat kebijaksanaan dalam permusyawaratan perwakilan serta dengan mewujudkan keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia” (Belief in Almighty God with the obligation for its Muslim adherents to carry out the Islamic law/sharia’). After delivering speech on this Preamble,Ir. Soekarno added, among

44 

others, " masuk di dalamnya ketuhanan dan terutama sekali kewajiban umat Islam

untuk

menjalankan

syariat

Islam,

masuk di dalamnya

kebulatan

nasionalisme Indonesia, persatuan bangsa Indonesia masuk di dalamnya, keadilan sosial, sociale recht vaardigheid masuk di dalamnya. Maka oleh karena itu, panitia kecil penyelidik usul-usul berkeyakinan bahwa inilah preambul yang dapat menghubungkan dan mempersatukan semua aliran yang ada di kalangan anggota-anggota Dokuritsu Zyunbi Tyoosakai ...." (.. included therein the principle of believing in God and especially, obligations for Muslim adherents to carry out Islamic law/sharia’; covering determination of Indonesian nationalism, unity of Indonesian people, social welfare, sociale recht vaardigheid. Therefore, sub committee of idea investigation believed that this is the preamble able to connect and all teachings existing among the members of Dokuritsu Zyunbi Tyoosakai ....) In later question and answer session,there was an objection of whether or not to include the statement of obligations to perform Islamic law for its adherents, since it might emerge conflicts between traditional law and religious law, especially i terms of heritage matters (Minangkabau tradition) and of land property (Malukunese tradition). This was questioned by Laturharhary. Ir. Soekarno answered by saying that it probably need not repeat that preamble the national groups and Muslim groups. So, if this sentence was not included, he believed that the Moslems could not accept this Preamble. Haji Agus Salim added explanation regarding the relation of Minangkabau traditin and Islamic sharia’. In the second official session of BPUPKI on July 14, 1945, chairperson of Constitution Committee, Ir. Soekarno, reported that the concept Pernyataan Indonesia Merdeka ( Statement of Independent Indonesia). This statement was similar to Declaration of Independence of the USA. It started with the first paragraph of Preamble of Constitution (Djakarta Charter) continued by the reasons why Indonesia declared its independence, then continued on to the second paragraph of Preamble. Next, in the third paragraph, there was a statement reading,” ….... MENYATAKAN KEMERDEKAANNYA ...." (“...declare its independence); written in bold and capital letter. In the fourth paragraph, state philosophical foundation was still the same with that of Djakarta charter. There

45 

was no change in state philosophical foundation even until BPUPKI ended its sessions. The first session of PPKI ((Committee for the Preparation of Indonesian Independence) on August 18, 1945, in Tjuo o Sangi In building (now Ministry of Foreign Affairs) was chaired and opened by Ir. Soekarno which then continued by Drs. Moh. Hatta as his deputy to deliver a speech on; obliteration of statement of Independent Indonesia and the old Preamble the replaced it with that of designed by Sub Committee (Panitia Kecil). Next, it was continued by reading Chapter IV State Philosophical Foundation reading, "Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa, menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil and beradab, persatuan Indonesia, kerakyatan yang

dipimpin

oleh

hikmat

kebijaksanaan

dalam

permusyawaratan

perwakilan, serta dengan mewujudkan suatu keadilan sosial bagi seluruh rakyat Indonesia." (Believe in the One and Only God; on the basis of just and civilized humanity; the unity of Indonesia; democracy guided by the inner wisdom in the unanimity arising out of deliberations amongst representatives; as well as by realizing social justice for all people of Indonesia).Ki Bagus Hadikusumo suggested that the statement menurut dasar kemanusiaan yang adil dan beradab (on the basis of just and civilized humanity) be obliterated. In the end of session, it was agreed that the Preamble of Constitution as mentioned in Chapter IV State Philosophical Foundation reading, “Believing in One Supreme God, Just and Civilized Humanity, Unity of Indonesia, Democracy Guided by the Inner Wisdom in the Unanimity Arising Out of Deliberations Amongst Representatives; Social Justice for All People of Indonesia). The Preamble of Constitution was then legal ever since. The contents of speeches delivered by Mr. Muh Yamin and Ir. Soekarno were almost similar. Both proposed five principles and started with word Kebangsaan (Nationalism). For the second principle, Mr. Muh. Yamin proposed Peri Kemanusiaan (humanity), while Ir. Soekarno proposed Internationalism/Peri Kemanusiaan (humanity). Peri Ketuhanan (Belief in God) was proposed by Mr. Muh. Yamin as the third principle, while Ir. Soekarno proposed it as the fifth principle. For the fourth principle, Mr. Muh. Yamin proposed peri kerakyatan, permusyawaratan, dan kesejahteraan (people’state, deliberations, and welfare),

46 

while Ir. Soekarno made it the third principle mufakat, perwakilan, and permusyawaratan (unanimity, representatives, and deliberations). Kesejahteraan rakyat ( People’s Welfare) was proposed as the fifth principle by Muh. Yamin, while Ir. Soekarno proposed Kesejahteraan Sosial (Social Welfare) as the fourth principle. Both Mr. Muh. Yamin and Ir. Soekarno elaborated the first principle very long. Kerakyatan (People’s State) principle was elaborated more detailed by Muh. Yamin while Ir. Soekarno did not elaborate the principle of mufakat (unanimity) in detail. Mr. Muh. Yamin did not name the five principles he proposed whereas ir. Soekarno named them Pancasila. Ir. Soekarno even compressed them into three principles (Trisila) and then again into one (Ekasila). Although Prof. Dr. Soepomo did not elaborate each principle in detail, the contents of his speech contained a strong theory of integralistic. It was so unfortunate that speech text delivered by Drs. Moh. Hatta was not yet found hitherto. Drs. Moh. Hatta proposed that matters regarding individual rights were not so highlighted in speeches by Mr. Muh. Yamin and Ir. Soekarno, and was impossible to be highlighted by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo with his integralistic theory. Both Mr. Muh. Yamin and Ir. Soekarno emphasized that national state was an all for all state. This concept was not integralistic nor it was individualistic. Meanwhile, the concept of integralistic emphasized on the unity of leaders and their people as well as unity the entire state (totalitarian). Ir. Soekarno stated that Pancasila could still be compressed into Trisila and Ekasila. In the principle of gotong royong (cooperativeness in kinship solidarity), Ir. Soekarno had been being bery similar to Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo. Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo was apparently the chairperson for a small team designing constitution of Indonesia so that in the body of constitution, integralistic concept was so deeply felt. The influence of Islamic teaching was strong enough in formulation of state philosophical foundation and consitution of Indonesia although there was no one from Islamic groups who delivered any speech on state philosophical foundation. However, interruptions during speeches and question and answer session in the second official session and unofficial sessions, it could be seen how they really

47 

wished to add kewajiban syariat Islam (obligations to carry out Islamic law/sharia’) both in state philosophical foundation and in the body of constitution. There occured quite long discussions between Islamic groups and national ones within Panitia 9 (Committee of Nine) on the arrangement of Preamble of Constitution. Ultimately, it was decided the Preamble of Constitution with state philosophical foundation mentioning kewajiban menjalankan syariat Islam bagi para pemeluknya (obligations for Muslim adherents to carry out Islamic law/sharia’) or well-known as Djakarta Charter. Concept of communism was not included in the formulation of state philosophical foundation and constitution since the Japanese government dismissed this organization. The Japanese embraced the concept of fascism which was strongly in contrast with communism. Spiritual nuance wishing for independence and using the momentum of vacuum of power also influenced our founding fathers to formulate state philosophical foundation. It was because we realized that the Japanese would immediately mose and be replaced by the Allies (along with the Dutch/NICA). Meanwhile, the Japanese authority in Jakarta attended BPUPKI’s session so that it quite influenced the formulation of state philosophical foundation and constitution. One of them was the making of document of Statement of Independent Indonesia which wished to copy that of the USA’s Declaration of Independence. In this document, it was written a significant role of Japanese armed forces in freeing the Indonesian from the Western (The Dutch) colonial and in allowing Indonesia’s Independence in the end of World War II. On August 18, during the first session of PPKI when the Japanese surrendered and Indonesia gained its independence, in the beginning of session, it was immediately mentioned that “State of Indonesia” and Preamble of Constituion had long been obliterated and replaced with the new Preamble. The statement saying obligations for Muslim adherents to carry out Islamic law/sharia’ was no longer there. The great joy of being independent, a strong kinship solidarity as well as a high level of awareness in dealing with the threat the Allies posed while the Japanese were still in Indonesia had motivated our founding fathers to keep holding deliberations for gaining unanimity and overcoming differences. The emergence of willingness to

48 

prioritize national interests over group/class interests had generated agreement in legitimizing stae philosophical foundation on August 18, 1945. Not all principle matter were solved by holding deliberations for gaining unanimity since the issue on the form of state (whether in monarch or republic) was solved by vote. Summary We have learned the contents of speeches in philosophical foundation of Indonesia state by three speakers and how to make it perfect. Contents of speech delivered by Mr. Muh. Yamin were quite similar to those of Ir. Soekarno. However, Ir. Soekarno with its Ekasila gotong royong (cooperativeness in kinship solidarity) principle was silimar to Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo with his theory of integralistic. There was a strong nuance of spiritual and wisdom in the deliberations held by our founding fathers when formulating state philosophical foundation so that a sharp difference could be solved in a relatively short time. Exercises To strengthen Your understanding on Learning Activity 1, please do the following exercises! 1.

What are the similarities and differences of contents Peri Kemanusiaan (humanity) by Mr. Muh. Yamin and internationalism by Ir. Soekarno in their speeches on philosophical foundation of Indonesian state suggestions?

2.

Why was the concept of state by Ernest Renan and Otto Bauer considered outdated during the speech delivery suggesting state philosophical foundation?

3.

Why was the concept of integralistic so strong, be it in its delivery on philosophical foundation of Indonesian state suggestions or in the announcement of body of 1945 Constitution?

4.

The strong wish to mention statement of obligations to carry out Islamic law/sharia’ for Muslim adherents in the philosophical foundation of Indonesian state made all opinions on it were not accepted during the first session of BPUPKI. However, in the beginning of first session on PPKI on August 18, 1945, the sentence saying obligations to carry out Islamic law/sharia’

for

Muslim adherents

was obliterated

from the

philosophical foundation. What kind of spiritual nuance influenced it?

49 

state

5.

Mr. Muh. Yamin proposed welfare in his speech whereas Ir. Soekarno stated that until today (at that time), there was no one talking about social welfare. What are the differences between people’s welfare by Mr. Muh. Yamin and social welfare by Ir. Soekarno ? Direction to answer the exercise:

1.

Study further the contents of speech by Mr. Muh. Yamin and Ir. Soekarno regarding five state philosophical foundation, particularly the principles of peri kemanusiaan (humanity) and internationalism.

2.

Study further five state philosophical foundations by Ir. Soekarno, particularly the principle of nationalism.

3.

Study further five state philosophical foundations by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo who once became the chairperson of a small team designing constitution.

4.

Study further the spiritual nuance during sessions of BPUPKI.

5.

Study further the contents of speech by Mr. Muh. Yamin and Ir. Soekarno on five state philosophical foundations, particularly the principles of people’s welfare and social welfare.

References Compulsory: Sekretariat Negara. 1995. Risalah Sidang Badan Penyelidik Usaha-Usaha Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI), Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI)

50 

PANCASILA AS A LIFE PHILOSOPHY AND WAY OF LIFE OF NATION

MODUL

2

Learning Activity 2 1.

Life During Colonial Era Experience of living under colonialization for three and a half centuries had

grown a strong desire for freedom. Suffer and poverty brought up the awareness of humanity and justice principle. The experience of being unknowledgeable and retarded had awaken the esteem and spirit tomove forward. Moreover, the experience of being weak and helpless initiated solidarity and commitment from all people to form a power. It was this essence of sharing experience and spirit which constituted acknowlegment of the Indonesian people as fully true human beings nad good treatment of them. Natural characteristics of human being is freedom, being free from any kinds of forces and oppression as well as being free to realize himself based on his own choice. Freedom is a fundamental value inherent to every human as long as it is in terms of inviolable rights, which are freedom for thinking, having a belief, expression ourselves accordong to our own talents and potentials in all aspects of life. There was a tendency to decrease the meaning of freedom during the era of Orde Baru (New Order) since it was regarded restricting the authority of government. As an ethical value, freedom surely demands responsibility for any actions taken. Demand for freedom intrinsically has the natures of anti-colonial, anti-slavery, anti-absolutism, and anti-totalitarian dictatorship. In order to secure the sustainability of freedom, he joins as a social contract, since human being is an individual as well as a member of community, forming a nation tehn establishing the Republic of Indonesia. Thus, a national state and a law state were born. The duty of a state is to protect its people so that they are able to execute their rights, obligations, and self-development well and safely by creating such climate and conditions good for their existence and dynamics. Therefore, state governance constitutes an authority in regulating life in nation and state level

51 

based on the specified law. Hence, it is not right if the authority of government violates the rights inherent to each citizen since it must be responsible to its people as the source of authority. This means that Indonesia is a democratic country or state in term of sovereignity in the hands of its people. The Indonesian people comprise various groups of people with their respective traditions, languages, culture, beliefs, and religions. In this plurality,the Indonesian people who had experienced living under colonial era as a common fate determined to get rid of the colonists ans struggle for their independence together. This unity of determination made the Indonesian people one in the divierity and needed concrete efforts and policies to gain common objectives and goals. The unity did not mean the obliteration of existence and characteristics of every culture or a uniforming effort obliterating local wisdom. However, this unity was a mozaic of elements forming collective power, instead. This power was encouraged by the unity of attitude which appreciated fundamental values mentioned in the Preamble of 1945 Constitution as Pancasila. The vision of Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (unity in diversity) can be strengthened by multiculturalism approach. Plural societies are not born itself multicultural from the beginnng. In the theory of multiculturalism, there contains the principles of democracy, a human rights, equality of genders and others becoming a strong basis in analyzing issues or constellation on current ethnic plurality and culture. Using this approach, vision of Pancasila can understand as well as solve issues of physical violence, sectarian,and primordialism, challenges of disintegration, and the andger of separatism sharply and precisely by providing solutions which are more communicative, dialogues, just, respectful to each other for achieving collective objectives, goals and interests. These things show that Pancasila truly functions as a common agreement of all people for the sake of new Indonesian glory. 2.

Pancasila in the UUD NRI 1945 (the Preamble of 1945 Constitution of the State of the Republic of Indonesia) When talking about Pancasila, we basically refer to principles made as the

52 

state philosophical foundation of the Republic of Indonesia, as stipulated in the fourth paragraphy of Preamble of 1945 Constitution. The Preamble of UUD NRI 1945 constitutes the crystallization of all history of Indonesian national movements up to its climaz point, the Proclamation of Independence. The Preamble of UUD NRI 1945 reflects vision and awareness, ideals of national morals, Proclamation of Independence meaning and Republic of Indonesia established as an institution which is bale to bring the Indonesian people to achieve and realize their wishes collectively. Thus, the Preamble of UUD NRI 1945 should be comprehended thoroughly since each of its paragraphs reveals meaning in its functional relation to the other. The following are the meanings of each paragraph. First : Vision and Awareness of Nation “Bahwa sesungguhnya kemerdekaan itu ialah hak segala bangsa dan oleh sebab itu maka penjajahan di atas dunia harus dihapuskan karena tidak sesuai dengan peri kemanusiaaan dan perikeadilan." (Paragraph 1) (That Freedom is actually a right of all nations and therefore colonization in this world must be removed as it contravenes the humanity and justice) This formulation reflects vision and awareness that the Indonesian people have rights and freedom for their existences as a group of people. Hence, these rights must be acknowledged, meaning that the Indenesian people have rights to be treated well since they have human dignity. This means that nation dignity is truly rooted in human dignity. Kedua : Moral Ideals "Atas berkat rahmat Allah Yang Maha Kuasa dan dengan didorongkan oleh keinginan luhur supaya berkehidupan kebangsaan yang bebas, maka rakyat Indonesia menyatakan dengan ini kemerdekaannya." (Paragraph 3) (By the grace of the Almighty God and motivated by a noble intention, for free national life, Indonesian people hereby declare their freedom) Moral ideals reflected in this formulation are the wish for living as a nation freely. In this context, free is in terms of freedom from colonialization, oppression, suffering, poverty, retardation, fear, and so on. Besides, it also

53 

means free for having opinion and expressing them publicly, for choosing a belief or religion, and embracing it openly, for developing talents and potential through education, for developing professional ability and so on. To sum up, it means freedom to actualize oneself. Ketiga : Legitimation of Struggle for Independence "Dan

perjuangan

pergerakan

kemerdekaan

Indonesia

telah

sampailah kepada saat yang berbahagia dengan selamat sentosa mengantarkan rakyat Indonesia ke depan pintu gerbang kemerdekaan Negara Indonesia, yang merdeka, bersatu, berdaulat, adil dan makmur." (Paragraph 2) (And Indonesian struggle, movement, and freedom have safely brought Indonesian people to the freedom of the State of Indonesia, that is free, united, sovereign, just, and prosperous.) This formulation confirms the national efforts in freeing themselves from any obstacles, pressures, and obtructions coming. The first effort was conducted towards colonialization in order to gain national independence. However, it has been realized that independence basically must be struggled for by all means and level of intensity. This means that freedom is basically “an effort of getting free.” This formulation is thus a legitimation of revolutionary struggle not finished only after gaining independence, but also means further by giving substance and meaning to the independence by all actions in the humanization process. Therefore, the spirit of the Preamble of 1945 Constitution is emancipatory, which is aspiring to move and free ourselves from any kinds of dominations suppressing people. Fourth: Institutional Means "Kemudian

dari

pada

itu…….maka

disusunlah

kemerdekaan

kebangsaan itu dalam suatu undang-undang dasar negara Indonesia yang terbentuk dalam

suatu

susunan negara Republik Indonesia

yang

berkedaulatan rakyat………… "(Paragraph 4) (And then... National Freedom of Indonesia is prepared in a Constitution of the State of Indonesia, formed in a structure of the State of the Republic of Indonesia with people sovereignty based on..)

54 

This formulation shows that the effort for setting free can only be accomplished by the establishment of national state of the Republic of Indonesia embracing people’s sovereignity principle with the goals of protecting all Indonesian people; prioritizing public welfare; educating all Indonesian people; and actively participating in the efforts of world order. Basic principles on the existence of state and the guidelines for setting free of nation are Pancasila,namely Believe in the One and Only God; just and civilized humanity; the unity of Indonesia; democracy guided by the inner wisdom

in

the

unanimity

arising

out

of

deliberations

amongst

representatives; as well as social justice for all people of Indonesia. They are stated particularly and strongly in the Penjelasan UUD 1945 (the Elucidation of 1945 Constitution). Saying that the spirit of the Preamble of UUD 1945 as stipulated in the Constitution obliges the government and other state executives, namely president; cabinet; parliament members; judicial institutions and law enforcement apparatus covering judges, prosecuting attorneys, policemen as well as officials and beauraucrat people to obey the noble humanity moral conduct and hold on to the people’s noble ideals. This means tha political and profession ethics must be obeyed. We need to understand Pancasila and its relevancy in the current era,as can be seen in the following: a.

Pancasila basically constitutes five basic principles reflecting human dignity. Obeying the principles of believing in God, humanity, national, democracy and social justice means upholding human dignity.

b.

Ideals of national morals to live in a state freely are the primary aspiration in national movements and they still apply until now and the future in dealing with the coming challenges.

c.

In line with its functions and emancipatory spirit, developmental movements aim at freeng people from all kinds of obstacles and oppressions. Therefore, it is necessary to realize that the movement of setting free with its opposite power according to its own interests.

55 

3.

Manifestation of Struggle for Freeing Nation There are generally three periods if viewed from the level of emancipation

throughout the history of nation. These three periods are: revolution period, development period, and reformation period. Each period revealed its own indication of success and failure. First: Revolution Period (1908-1950) Revolution was manifested in form of movements setting free the nation from foreign colonialization until its success in establishing the national state which embraces the principle of sovereignity in people’s hands with its self-determination right which is the right to determine its own fate with its own decision. Freeing movements through revolution were initiated by the emergence of national movements as reflected by the establishment of Budi Utomo (1908) aiming to build national awareness and culture, the establishment of political organizations as well as youth organizations which reached its success by declaring Sumpah Pemuda 1928 (Pemuda Pledge 1928), until its peak by declaring Proclamation of Independence on August 17, 1945. This proclamation was eventually officially acknowledged by the Dutch government in KMB (Round Table Discussion) in Denhaag in 1949. This revolution period had been succesful in its emacipatory effects since it was able to achieve the ideals of national morals into praxis (Harkheimer). Praxis is a mix between strong awareness and belief in freedom which becomes the right of each nation and human beings as the citizens, strong will and determinaton in struggling for the rights for freedom, as well as emancipatory actions as the manifestation of freeing movements and self-freeing from any kinds of oppressions. Revolution was done in real actions aspired by patriotic spirit against the colonialists for the sake of common interests as well as willingness to sacrifice in forms of richness, property, family, and life. Revolution was motivated by the struggle for national and state interests over individual and group ones, and also national ssolidarity in terms of helping each other to fight against the colonialists and which of free from discrimination in ethnics, religions, races,

56 

and even primordialism. Second: Development Period (1950-1998) Development started from political development through steps which developed the quality of nation known as nation and character building (Soekarno) since the beginning of independence and during Orde Lama (Old Order 1959-1965). Political development had successfully built the nation by flaring national awareness and solidarity in every soul of the entire people throughout Nusantara which are plural and diverse. During this era, there were formed attitudes showing nationalism, patriotism, anticolonialism, anti-capitalism, and anti-imperialism. However, it had several weaknesses, one of which was the poor management of the more crucial issues on welfare and poverty. Responding to these weaknesses, government during New Order focused on development in economic sector (Soeharto). Until 1980s, economic development had successfully conducted consolidation as well as starting economic cycle so that it was able to produce significant progress in economic sector. Nevertheless, the success in economic development brought along with it social burden and human victims. People were not ready to welcome success in economy, so that there appeared the nature and attitude of being greedy. Greed started from the higher governance through executing centralizing authority on one hand only, authority and, forces cooptation to the executive institutions, repressions on those critical people, and the misuse of Pancasila as a tool for authority and authorized people. Failure in freeing efforts lay on the failure to accomplish the moral ideals in praxis. Progress in economic was quite significant, but the management of the products of economic and prosperity progresses did not work fairly and honestly so that it was held or owned by certain group or elites only. Any criticisms and protests on this reality were handled poorly through violence and oppression by those having authority. The statement on ideals was not proven in reality.

57 

Third: Reformation Period (since 1998) Responding

to

those previously mentioned

abnormality and

deviations, there emerged disappointment from all people. That is why the people demanded thorough reformation and changes by doing total reformation. However, these demands were hard to meet since New Order era had planted “time bomb” that could just explode at any time. Reformation period was at first successful in running democratization as a basis for achieving moral ideals into praxis. The freedom which was struggled for was then misinterpreted as an authority to act anything on one’s own will and became irresponsible freedom. Process and efforts or practical freeing movements probably might not be able to do since the political situation controlled by opportunistic was hard to obliterate. Violence, rapery, murder continued on going, as well as crimes and “premanisme” (preman mean those who collect money from people by physical force or threat, similar to yakuza in japan or triad in Hongkong). Hence, the efforts for realizing moral ideals into praxis in the current era are staggering. The way to the freeing movements can only be opened as long as a strong awareness and determination or will grow in order to deal with and fight against any obstacles and obstructions. 4.

Pancasila as Life Philosophy and National Moral Ideals In the memorandum of DPR GR (parliament during New Order era) July 9,

1966 as legitimated by MPRS resolution (Temporary House of Representatives) XX/MPRS/1966, it is stipulated that Pancasila is a way of life of the Indonesian people which has been purified and solidified into the basis of Indonesian state philosophy. Way of life is weltanschaung, which means the way to run our life. Despite the different terms, the meaning is the same. As a life philosophy or way of life, Pancasila contains insights on essences, origin, goals, values, and the meaning of world and its contents, especially human beings and their lives, be it individually or socially. Nation life philosophy reflects a thorough conception by placing human dignity as a central factor in its functional position towards all matters. This means that insights and values contained in Pancasila are culturally wished to be instilled, inside of people’s conscience,

58 

characters, personality as well as coloring habits, behaviours, and activities of social institutions. These five principles are included in Pancasila, giving meaning in life as well as becoming demands and goals of life, even the standards for all aspects of nation life. Pancasila as a life philosophy and the Indonesian national moral ideals constitutes the core of common spirit of various moral existing in Indonesia. There are many kinds of moral teachings in Indonesia due to the existence of various religions, beliefs and traditions. Each moral has its own characteristics; different from the others which were only applicable to the relevant followers. However, there are also common elements which are general and able to overcome all group concepts. Therefore, it appears that the morals of Pancasila are able to overcome all groups or classes and having national characteristics. Pancasila comprises five moral principles relevant to be the state philosophical foundation of the Republic of Indonesia. The first basic principle demands each citizen to acknowledge the One Supreme God as the Creator and Last Destination, both in the hearts, words, or daily behaviours. It results in Pancasila demanding all people to live in harmony despite the different beliefs. The second basic principle invites all Indonesian people to acknowledge and treat everyone as fellow human who has noble dignity, rights and obligations. In other words, there is an attitude to uphold dignity and rights or act fairly and in civilized way. The third basic principle grows the attitude on people to love their homeland, nation and state, participate in struggling for Indonesian interests, and have solidarity as well as loyalty to fellow citizens. The fourth basic principle invites people to be sensitive and participate in political life and life governance, at least based on their respective status and roles. Finally, the last basic principle invites people to actively contribute, based on their respective abilities and status, on realizing public welfare, which is physical and spiritual welfare as complete as possible for all people. The statement of Pancasila as a life philosophy wishes the morals of Pancasila to be state life morals in terms of demanding state officials and management to respect and obey the moral principles or political ethics. Consequently, the state submits to the morals and thus is obliged to implement it.

59 

Morals become norms of actions and wisdom of state so that they need to made peraturan perundang-undangan (regulations on law). In other words, morals of Pancasila provide inspiration and guiandce in the formulation of laws regulating state life, determining state institutions, their tasks and relationship between them, rights and obligations of citizens, as well as the relationship between citizens and state in humanistic climate and spirit. However, that does not mean that all moral norms must be made juridical norms. Moral norms are determined to be positive law norms as long as the norms regulate physical actions concerning people. Meanwhile, spiritual matters are personal businesses of citizens. This must always be paid attention to in implementation of regulating state towards nation life. Hence, it appears that materials of perundangan (regulations) are only limited to public morality. In association with the implementation of Pancasila in context of individual moral, the state is obliged to create such situation which is able to foster a good moral conduct. In the general explanation on 1945 Constitution, it is mentioned that constitution should contain the contents obliging government and other state officials to maintain noble humanity and moral conduct as well as to hold on to firmly the noble people moral ideals. Finally, in its position as state political ethics meant in the first basic principle, a state is obliged to 1) guarantee independence of each person indiscriminatively to pray or serve God according to their respective religions and beliefs by creating a conducive situation 2) emphasize tolerance and interfaith harmony 3) execute its duty to improve public welfare as a sacred responsibility. The second basic principle obliges 1) the state to acknowledge and treat all of its citizens as human beings blessed with noble dignity, rights and obligations and 2) all the nations as the world’s citizens to jointly build a new better world based on independence, eternal peace, and social justice. The third basic principle obliges the state to defend and develop Indonesia as a unified state, having strong solidarity, harmonious condition; to uphold national culture and personality, as well as to struggle for national interests. The fourth basic principle obliges the state to acknowledge and appreciate people’s sovereignity as well as seeking to make people perform their sovereignity democratically and indiscriminatively through its

60 

representatives. That means that the state is obliged to listen to its people’s voices and fight for all people’s interests. Lastly, the ffth basic principle obliges the state to 1) share its burdens and collective results or products proportionally to all citizens with regarding especially those who are weak so that injustices and arbitrary done by the strong ones towards the weak ones may not occur. Summary The experience of being under colonialism for three and a half centuries had grown a strong desire for living freely, as stipulated in the four paragraphs of the Preamble of 1945 Constitution. The five basic principles of Pancasila constitute ideals and moral demands as the basis of all aspects of nation and state life, which are living in harmony, having tolerance, cooperativeness with each other, which, despite differences in all aspects of life, possess and be unified by the common humanity to struggle for giving substance and meaning to the independence in a democratic, just, and civilized way. Exercise Answer the following questions! 1.

What is the relationship between colonial era and the emergence of basic principles of Pancasila?

2.

What is the meaning of relationship between diversity in unity (arti hubungan keanekaan dalam kebinekaan)?

3.

What are the basic considerations that make Pancasila as the state philosophical foundation of the Republic of Indonesia?

4.

Explain the meaning of each paragraph of the Preamble of 1945 Constitution!

5.

Explain the form of struggle for freeing the nation in periods according to history!

6.

What are the tendency and direction of way of life of the current era?

7.

What are the basic reasons and considerations for preserving Pancasila in the coming years?

8.

Explain the relevancy of nation and character building in the current era!

9.

What is multiculturalism and what is its relevancy to the development of national culture? 61



Direction to answer the questions 1.

Review the essence of people’s wish/will!

2.

Study further on values contained in Pancasila and relate them to the experience of being colonialized!

3.

Study further on contents of each sentence in the Preamble of 1945 Constitution!

4.

Learn the dynamics of each struggle period!

5.

Study further on the second principle of Pancasila!

6.

Study further on Pancasila as a life philosophy and national moral ideals!

7.

Study further on what Ir. Soekarno wished for national spirit!

8.

Study further on Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity)!

References Compulsory: "Aktualisasi Pancasila dalam Perspektif Filosofis Humaniter". Essay of Symposium on Kewaspadaan dan Ketahanan Nasional, Bandung, 2 Mei 2005. Poespowardojo, Soerjanto. 1993. Kebijaksanaan Kebudayaan Nasional dalam Strategi Kebudayaan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama.

Additional: Bourdieu, Piere. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Held, David. Models of Democracy. (Second ed.) 1997. Cambridge: Polity Press. Huntington, P. Samuel. 1996. The Clash of Civilitations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster. Kimlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford Clarenton Press. Kristiyanto, Eddy (ed.). 2001. Etika Politik dalam Konteks Indonesia. Jakarta: Kanisius. Naisbitt. John. 1984. Megatrends. Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives. New York: Warner Books. Parekh Bhikhu. 2002. Rethinking Multiculturalism. Harvard: Harvard University Press. Poespowardojo, Soerjanto. 1989. Filsafat Pancasila. Sebuah Pendekatan Sosio-

62 

Budaya. Jakarta: PT Gramedia. Sekretariat Jenderal MPR RI (2002) dan Setkab RI (2004). Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945. Soekarno. 1959. Di Bawah Bendera Revolusi I dan II. Jakarta. Storey, John. 1993. An Introductory Guide to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo, Singapore: Harvester Wheatsheap. Tarnas, Richard. 1993. The Passion of the Western Mind. Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View. New York : Ballantine Books. Undang-Undang Dasar 1945 (before amendment).

Suggested Textbooks: Lemhannas’s textbooks

63 

PANCASILA AS NATIONAL IDEOLOGY

MODULE

3 Learning Activity 3 1.

Essences and Functions of Ideology Ideology is a complex of knowledge and values which entirely becomes a

basis for a person (or people) to comprehend this universe and all of its contents as well as determining basic attitude to manage it. According to the experience he perceives, a person catches what he sees right or not, good or bad. He will perform activities as manifestations of all knowledge and values he possesses. Therefore, a world with its society life, system and society structure based on his ideological orientation is created. Nonetheless, this does not mean that the world where people are living is not solely a manifestation of ideology since ideology is not something that stands on its own and separated from reality in life. Ideology is a product of culture of a society so that in some cases, it is also a manifestation of social reality. Essentially, ideology is the result of human reflection due to his ability to make distance with his living world. There is a dialectic relation between ideology and reality of social life, causing a reciprocal influence which is manifested in form of one party encouraging ideology to be more realistic, while the other to be more ideal. Ideology does not only reflect the way of thinking of people, but also encourages people to achieve ideals. Thus, it can be seen that ideology is not a mere theoretical knowledge, but a knowledge that must be comprehended and internalized into a belief. Ideology is surely a clear option requiring realizing it. The deeper it is one’s ideological awareness; the stronger it is his commitment to implement it. This commitment is reflected by one’s attitude to believe its ideology as normative rules that must be obeyed in social life. Thus, ideology functions to provide: a.

Cognitive structure, the entire knowledge that can become basis for

understanding and interpreting our surrounding world and natural events. b.

Basic orientation, done by opening insights which give meaning and

show goals in humans’ lives. c.

Norms that become guidelines for a person in taking action.

64 

d.

Knowledge and way for a person to find his identity.

e.

Power that is able to encourage a person to do his activities and

achieves his goals. f.

Education for a person or society to understand, to internalize, and to

make pattern of his behaviours according to norms and orientation contained therein. 2.

Pancasila as a National Ideology As national ideology, Pancasila functions to move people to build the

nations by all efforts covering all aspects of life. Pancasila does not discriminatively determine systems of economic and politics, but any chosen systems should be able to express the primary aspiration. As national ideology, Pancasila basically shows universal values, demonstrating integral-integrative insight and as a modern ideology which is able to boost high spirit. Different from Western ideologies, Pancasila which is born in Eastern cultural and historical background upholds very highly religiousity role which is very longed for in the present era of technocratic civilization. Religious dimension frees human beings from physical and material domination by showing its transendence to Him through spiritual meaning, so that it won’t be out of inspiration, instead, it even offers hopes and perspectives to move forward. Meanwhile, ethical dimension helps maintain human being to possess dignity and struggle for humanity and justice in the world. Therefore, Pancasila offers solutions for crisis happening in the world by keeping the intactness of human being as individuals among civilizations in the world experiencing process of cultural alienation. One of the prominent roles of Pancasila from the beginning of establishment of Indonesia is its function to unify all of Indonesian people and make them into a nation having a distinct character and confidence in it. From the beginning of Indonesian people’s lives during the state establishment, the condition of our people has always been plural and diverse. The Indonesian people are multiethnical, multireligious, and multiideological. These plurality and diversity illustrate interactions between many elements. Various elements in all aspects of life can be seen as seeds that can enrich our

65 

culture which then can build a strong nation. On the other hand, these can also weaken the strength of nation with potential for conflicts and disputes. Process of social relationship is necessary to afford in order to ensure it run centripetally so that samenbundeling van alle krachten (joint unity of all strengths or power or forces) happens. In addition, the Indonesian people’s independence was gained through revolution. That unification of forces or power was extremely necessary as a preparation for all Indonesian people in their struggle for getting rid of the colonialists from Nusantara. Looking at such national situation, the main issue that was necessary to overcome at that time was figuring out how to unify the nation’s unity and strengths or forces which was completely required to begin running the state. In other words, nation and character building was a prerequirement and main duty that was necessary to be done. It was in this political context that Pancasila was perceived as a unity ideology. Pancasila is hoped to be able to provide guarantee for that manifestation of political mission since it is the result of national reference so that each social power or strength feels bound and responsible for the future of state and nation. It also means that Pancasila functions as collective guidelines to solve any differences and political conflicts intergroups and political power, as well. Pancasila is perceived as a synthesis unifying all existing life attitudes in the entire homeland due to the urgency to solve political issues for twenty years since the establishment of state. Various different teachings are met with in Pancasila. Pancasila provides an arena which gives a wide space to move in one hand, while it also provides moral guidelines that cannot be broken, on the other hand. Pancasila can be interpreted in many ways. Yet, no matter how many ways it can be interpreted, it cannot be interpreted by covering contradictory definition. On the other hand, Pancasila cannot be narrowed down anymore so that it may become a monopoly for a particular group or class of people only. That previous perception can be made clearer by Bung Karno’s idea on the analogy between a means or place with its contents. A state is a means or place that can contain anything. Since the Republic of Indonesia was established on the basis of Pancasila, the contents of it must conform the values of Pancasila. That perception, no matter how, gives particular implications.

66 

That means that Pancasila constitutes national ideology which covers and embraces all orientation therein. It also means that the views or ways of life within the society are acknowledged and justified to develop, whether by explicating potentials and values contained therein or by acculturation. Development is necessary to reinforce local or regional culture as a means of people’s articulation. Besides, the existences of those views or ways of life are also necessary to give substance and meaning and enrich national ideology in doing its function to unify unity and integration of nation. By understanding this context, national culture which according to 1945 Constitution is a summary of culture peaks is expected to grow understanding and appreciating attitudes required in living together. In connection with it,political perception giving justification for living right for ways or views of life in attempt of giving substance and meaning to national ideology, particularly and justification for the existence of regional culture in attempt of national cultural development in general, opens the ooportunities of various subejctive interpretations, as well, which are given by every sociopolitical strength or power, on one hand, the various interpretations can truly enrich national ideology and culture. On the other hand, these can also exploit then since it forces a particular subjective view or way only for particular political interests. The view or way stating that Pancasila is a doctrine of revolution as such recorded in the history the exploitation previously mentioned. Moreover, subjective interpretations can reflect a particular concept or group that in fact deviate due to inharmony between its teachings and the values of Pancasila, or only consider Pancasila as solely a tool for showing politeness, as reflected by rebellions in the past. In other words, a view or way of life as a sub ideology is put forth as a rival for Pancasila as the national ideology and forces it by physical force. The appearance of Pancasila as a unity ideology had shown its relevancy and power within these twenty years since the establishment of NKRI (the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia). Pancasila is a political philosophy. The Indonesian people were built with a strong awareness as a nation who have identity and live in unity in the spirit of nationalism and patriotism. Still, there could be seen weakness in the perception in that period. Extreme poverty got less attention as well as response. The government noticed less those people who

67 

wished for better lives. Such situation was perceived by PKI (Indonesian Communist Party) as an opportunity by using it and raising it as the primary political issue. This answers the question why such political organization which conducted rebellion a few moments before in Madiun could draw supports from millions of people only within a short time. Summary As a national ideology, Pancasila is a principle as well as state life orientation which is believed to be able to move the nation to realize the ideals of Indonesia. In line with its universal meaning, Pancasila ideology is open. It means that it should not be primordial or exclusive, yet has to uphold human dignity for collective interests. In solving domestic affairs and dealing with global challenges, Pancasila ideology must be able to perform its emancipatory functions, as well as to improve work ethics and to encourage actions which increase people’s communication in social institutions. Exercise Answer the following questions! 1.

Explain the definition of ideology and its functions in the social life!

2.

What are the characteristics of Pancasila as a national ideology?

3.

Explain the differences between closed ideology and open ideology and give example!

4.

What are the basic characteristics of Pancasila that must become guidelines for its ideological interpretation in all aspects of nation life?

5.

What are the challenges for actualization of Pancasila in the development of nation and state of the Republic of Indonesia?

6.

Explain the importance of national insights and the education on national insight in the current era!

Direction to answer the questions! 1.

Learn the essences and functions of ideology!

2.

Study further the background of Pancasila until it was made ideology!

3.

Study the challenges for actualization of Pancasila!

68 

4.

Study the challenges for actualization of Pancasila if related to national development!

5.

Learn the functions of ideology and Pancasila as national ideology!

References Compulsory Poespowardojo,

Soerjanto.

1990.

Pancasila

Sebagai

Ideologi

dari

Segi

Panandgan Hidup Bersama. Jakarta: BP-7 Pusat. _____.

"Aktualisasi Pancasila dalam Perspektif Filosofis Humaniter". Makalah

dalam Simposium Kewaspadaan dan Tannas, Bandung, 2 Mei 2005. Additional Budi Hardiman, Fransisco. 1990. Kritik dan Ideologi, Pertautan Pengetahuan dan Kepentingan. Yogyakarta: Penerbit Kanisius. Bell, Andiel. 1962.The End of Ideology.Cambridge, Masschusetts, and London: Harvard University Press. Baudrillard, Jean. 1998. The Consumer Society. London: Myths and Struc. Eagleton, Terry. 1981. Ideology an Introduction. London, NY: Verso. Gidden, Anthony. 2000. Sociology. Policy Press. Gray, John. 1993. Post-Liberalism, Studies in Political Thought. London and New York: Routledge. Habermas. 1962. The Structure Transformation of the Public Sphere. _____. 1984. Theory of Communicative Action. Horkheimer, Max. 1976. Traditional and Critical Theory dalam Paul Connerton (ed.), Critical Sociology. Hardmondsworth, Middle Sex. Horkheimer, Max and Th. W. Adomo. 1973. Dialectic of Enlightenment. London. Kenichi Ohmae. 1994. The Borderless World, Power and Strategy in the Global Marketplace. London: Harper Collins Publishers. Mangunwijaya, YB. 1983. Teknologi dan Dampak Kebudayaannya (Volume I). Jakarta: Yayasan Obor Indonesia. Poespowardojo, Soerjanto. 1989. Filsafat Pancasila. Sebuah Pendekatan SosioBudaya. Jakarta: PT Gramedia. Rawls, John A. 1973. Theory of Justice. New York: Oxford Univ. Press. Slavojzizek (ed). 1994. Mapping Ideology. London, New York: Verso.

69 

Soekarno. 1959. Di Bawah Bendera Revolusi I dan II. Jakarta. Toffler, Alvin. 1970. The Third Wave. Toronto, New York, London, Sydney, Auckland: Bantam Books. Sekretariat Jenderal MPR RI (2002) dan Setkab RI (2004). Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945. Suggested Textbook Lemhannas’s textbooks

70 

MODULE

PANCASILA AS A STATE PHILOSOPHICAL FOUNDATION

4 Learning Activity 4 1.



PANCASILA as the Ideal of Law

Pancasila is the ideal of law for nation and state. Rudolf Stamler (Neo Cantian) stated that the ideal of law is a thinking construction directing the law that will be made positive law so that the ideals or goals and objectives the people want to achieve can be regulated and gained. It thus means that ideal of law functions as a guiding star (leitstern) for achieving people’s ideals and goals and objectives as well as a tool for testing if the positive law made and valid in the society runs properly or deviates from the basic values contained in the ideal of law. According to Stamler, a fair law is a law in accordance with the values contained in the ideal of law itself. This thinking or view or way is in line with Gustav Radbruch’s idea emphasizing that ideal of law functions as a regulative standard. It means that it becomes a tool testing whether the positive law is fair and in line with values contained in the ideal of law, as well as functions as a constitutive basis, meaning that the values in ideal of law will inspire and embrace the existing rules in he society. Hans Kelsen and Hans Nawiesky as philosophers of natural law stated that a state basically originates from those individuals joining a society. Then, in that society, it is agreed many rules which become guidelines for collective life, how to execute interests to achieve common goals; rules on the establishment of necessary institutions, on how to elect heads or leaders of people that will live together; on systems of running and managing governance. The agreement to regulate joint life is stipulated into the supreme law, namely constitution, so that constitution has a status as the basic law or basic norm (grundslaagnorms). The values of these basic law or norm must be in accordance with the authentic values of individuals living in the society who execute the common agreement. These values are thus called natural or fundamental norms. Based on the previously mentioned thinking, Pancasila functions as ideal of law or natural or fundamental norms (Staatsfundamental-norms) for the Republic

71 

of Indonesia while UUD 1945 functions as the basic laws for positive laws in Indonesia. Pancasila as ideal of law or Staatsfundamental-norms should therefore meet three required dimensions.

DEVELOPMENT/REGRESSI ON OF AN IDEOLOGY AS  IDEAL OF LAW

 IDEALISM DIMENSION (ANALYTICAL EMPIRICAL) THE RESULT OF THINKING/ CONTEMPLATION OF HUMANS AND IMPLEMENTED IN THE REAL LIFE OF SOCIETY

REALITY DIMENSION (INCREMENTAL) THE VALUES GROW GRADUALLY ALONG WITH PEOPLE; BELIEVED AND BECAME GUIDELINES FOR SOCIAL LIFE





FLEXIBILITY DIMENSION NOT RIGID, CAN BE ADJUSTED TO THE DYNAMICS OF SOCIETY AND ENVIRONMENT



2.

Legal Status of PANCASILA. PANCASILA as state philosophical foundation, as written in the Preamble of

UUD 1945, is basically the intrinsic values of Pancasila, which is the source of all legal sources developing the values of balance, harmony, unity and unitary of nation in order to maintain the unity and unitary of NKRI from Sabang until Merauke, from Miangas archipelago to Rote-Ndau island based on Pancasila and UUD 1945. MPRS Resolution nomor XVIII/MPRS/1966 (parliamentary resolution no. 18 in 1966)

mentioned Pancasila as a national ideology, state philosophical

foundation and nation philosophy. UU no 12 tahun 2011 pasal 7 ayat 1 huruf b (the Act no.12 of 2011 Article 7 Verse 1 Letter b) containing hierarchy of the valied regulations, stipulates that TAP MPR is the valid positive law. NKRI as a law based-state places its citizens to have the equality in law, prioritize the implementation of values of Pancasila in the attempt of law enforcement. The system of national law is still confronting problems concerning the efforts of enforcing the values of social justice for all Indonesian people.

72 

Improvements of national law system are not yet optimal due to many factors: 1) Materials of law, there are still approximately 300 laws inherited from the Dutch colonial rulers which are still valid and waiting for enactment of laws to implement the values of Pancasila, 2) Law Enforcement Apparatus, the low moral and ethics quality of judges, lawyers, and policemen if viewed from critical standards of valued of Pancasila. Improvement of dedication quality of law enforcement apparatus still requires the support and supervision from people so that these apparatuses have the spirit to serve to God when doing his duties and obligations, 3) Means and infrastructure, they are still in poor condition and management, 4) The valid culture in law is still in poor condition. The enforcement of justice value is still poor and needs improving (Hikmahanto, 2006). Besides, the use of violence in trial and corruption are still flourishing among the apparatuses. In the authentic elucidation on UUD 1945, it is stipulated that the important thing is the “spirit” of state officials in running and managing the state towards just and prosperous society which can realize people’s welfare harmoniously, with people’s security and well-order. Comparing to the explanation, the current reality, which is the flourishing well-structured and massive corruption by the public officials, whether in executive and legislative levels needs serious attention by all cadres of national leaders together with all of people. Former President SBY (Soesilo Bambang Y.) had ratified United Nations Convention on Anti-Corruption 2003. It has been issued UU No.7 tahun 2008 (the Act no.7 of 2008) about Legitimation of UN Convention on Anti Corruption, 2003. Implementation of values of Pancasila as state philosophical foundation frequently confronts serious challenges and disturbances that make the cadres of national leaders and all Indonesian leaders aware of responding to those issues. The most worrying issue is when the people do not feel the improvement of welfare in their lives and then leave Pancasila behind since they do not feel any benefits from it. Political elites and cadres of leaders are demanded to have moral consciousness in developing the values of Pancasila as state philosphical foundation. It is necessary to formulate a peraturan perundangan (the Act) binding all citizens in order to increase nationalism and national spirit.

73 

UU No.12 tahun 2011 (the Act no.12 of 2011) on the Formulation of Perundang-undangan (Regulation) has stipulated in pasal (Article) 2, reading that Pancasila as the source of all state legal sources. This emphasizes that Pancasila as Ideal Basis or Principles in National Paradigm is increasingly stronger. Meanwhile, in pasal (article) 3, it reads that UUD 1945 is the basic law in Peraturan Perundang-undangan (regulations of law). Therefore, it is important to develop National Paradigm in order to uniform patterns of thinking, behaviour or attitude, and act for all components of citizens. In the formulation of public policy, visional thinking basis for future orientation being the guidelines for all components of citizens in formulating public policy for arranging materials of law and solving national issues. The needs to develop national system which use thinking basis for Pancasila moral values within the framework of National Paradigm thinking basis become very important. After the Amendment of UUD 1945, there emerged a discourse wishing for returning to the original UUD 1945. However, there were also those who wished for the next amendment to be done in order to make the constitution perfect. It needs noticing that in Article 37 of Amendment of UUD 1945, it is stipulated that in conducting the next amendment, it is necessary to go through such very long process and winding road that it may not even conduct another amendment on UUD 1945. There have actually been agreements on amendment. The first is that amendment which is conducted through addendum. It means that all elements and rules stipulated in the original 1945 Constitution, and the upcoming results of amendment must always be used as guidelines and still as references. The second is that presidential system is still maintained and reinforcement to it should be developed. 3.

Legal Status of Pancasila after the Issuance of UU nomor 12 tahun 2011 (the Act no.12 of 2011) The issuance of UU no.12 tahun 2011 (the Act no.12 of 2011) on the

Making of Regulation (Peraturan) dan Laws (Perundang-undangan) Article 2 and 3

74 

Verse 1 emphasizes that Pancasila is the source of all state legal sources and 1945 Constitution is the state basic law. From that explanation, legislative officials, senators and government should issue laws immediately to describe articles (pasal-pasal) of UUD 1945 after amendment. At least, it is urgent to issue as many as 42 acts (Undang-undang). Every article mentions words saying that for the next management, it will be regulated in acts (UU). Read modules on amendment and socialization of UUD 1945. The urgent issuance of acts (Undang-undang) was later used to correct several articles which have multi-interpretation and tend not yet to be in accorandce with the soul and spirit as stipulated in the Preamble of UUD 1945. All rules (peraturan) and regulations (perundang-undangan) that would be issued should always be criticized by using critical standards of values of Pancasila in order to maintain Indonesian national interests. Eventually, all differences in opinions concerning state management will develop in the national system based on Pancasila thinking basis as ideal basis, 1945 UUD 1945 as constitutional basis, Indonesian Geopolitics of Wawasan Nusantara (the National Archipelagic Outlook) as visional basis as well as Indonesian Geostrategy as conceptional basis. Lemhannas RI develops a comprehensive and integral way of thinking on the basis on National Paradigm, as mentioned previously, to manage the state and solve all national issues.

Summary Pancasila in nation and state life functions as national ideology, state ideology, and way of life of nation, source of all legal sources or national ideal of law. Values contained in Pancasila are cryztallization of the existing values, living and growing along with life of people, and these values are analytically and empirically formulated by the founding fathers (among others Ir. Soekarno, Moh Yamin, Mr Soepomo, Ki Bagus Hadikusumo, Moh Hatta) to become state philosophical foundation. According to Indonesian history, Pancasila has always been made state philosophical foundation. It was proven by its sila (basic principles) which had always been bases or grounds for nation or state life after

75 

Indonesian Proclamation of Independence in 1945 until today (Pancasila is always regulated

in

the

Preamble

of

all

constitutions

applied

in

Indonesia.

Pancasila has dimensions which are real, incremental, ideal, analytical empirical. Pancasila also has flexible or non-rigid dimension. By this flexible dimension, there will be space to adjust to the development of dynamics of society and their environment, although it can also trigger any deviating interpretations from one period of governance to the others. Exercise Answer the following questions! 1.

What is the relationship between the experience of being colonialized and the emergence of basic principles of Pancasila?

2.

What are the basic considerations that make Pancasila the state philosophical foundation of the Republic of Indonesia?

3.

Explain the meaning of each paragraph in the Preamble of UUD 1945!

4.

Explain the manifestation of struggling for freeing the nation in historical periods!

5.

What are the tendency (ies) and direction of way or view of life of the world in the current era?

6.

What are the basic reason(s) and consideration(s) to preserve Pancasila in the future?

7.

Explain the relevancy of nation and character building in the present era!

Direction to answer the questions! 1.

Review the essence or nature of human wish!

2.

Study on the values contained in Pancasila and relate it to the experience of being colonialized!

3.

Study on the contents of each sentence in the Preamble of UUD 1945!

4.

Study on the dynamics of every period of struggle!

5.

Study further on the second basic principle of Pancasila!

6.

Study further on Pancasila as a life philosophy and national moral ideals!

7.

Study further on what Ir. Soekarno wished for national spirit!

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References Compulsory "Aktualisasi Pancasila dalam Perspektif Filosofis Humaniter". Essay of Symposium Kewaspadaan dan Ketahanan Nasional, Bandung, 2 Mei 2005. Poespowardojo, Soerjanto. 1993. Kebijaksanaan Kebudayaan Nasional dalam Strategi Kebudayaan. Jakarta: PT Gramedia Pustaka Utama. Additional Bourdieu, Piere. 1977. Outline of a Theory of Practice. Cambridge: Cambridge University Press. Held, David. Models of Democracy. (Second ed.) 1997. Cambridge: Polity Press. Huntington, P. Samuel. 1996. The Clash of Civilitations and the Remaking of World Order. New York: Simon & Schuster. Kimlicka, Will. 1995. Multicultural Citizenship. Oxford: Oxford Clarenton Press. Kristiyanto, Eddy (ed.). 2001. Etika Politik dalam Konteks Indonesia. Jakarta: Kanisius. Naisbitt. John. 1984. Megatrends. Ten New Directions Transforming Our Lives. New York: Warner Books. Parekh Bhikhu. 2002. Rethinking Multiculturalism. Harvard: Harvard University Press. Poespowardojo, Soerjanto. 1989. Filsafat Pancasila. Sebuah Pendekatan SosioBudaya. Jakarta: PT Gramedia. Sekretariat Jenderal MPR RI (2002) dan Setkab RI (2004). Undang-Undang Dasar Negara Republik Indonesia Tahun 1945. Soekarno. 1959. Di Bawah Bendera Revolusi I dan II. Jakarta. Storey, John. 1993. An Introductory Guide to Cultural Theory and Popular Culture. New York, London, Toronto, Sydney, Tokyo, Singapore: Harvester Wheatsheap. Tarnas, Richard. 1993. The Passion of the Western Mind. Understanding the Ideas That Have Shaped Our World View. New York : Ballantine Books. Undang Undang Dasar 1945 (sebelum amandemen).

Suggested textbooks Lemhannas’ textbooks

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PANCASILA AMONG MAJOR IDEOLOGIES IN THE WORLD

MODULE

5 Learning Activity 5 1.

Values of Pancasila are universal



According to MPR Resolution Nomor XVIII Tahun 1998 (parliamentary resolution no, 18 of 1998), Pancasila is stipulated as state philosophical foundation, national ideology, and philosophy of nation way of life. Pancasila is a philosophy of nation way of life since it is grounded on the Indonesian culture which comprises various races and ethnics having their respectives languages and religions. Inspite of the separated territory they live in, there are still particular values in common that can be found. Overall, these ethnics or group of people believe in God and have cultural ritual in serving their God. Humanistic value as a culture is upheld and respected by all ethnics in Indonesia, including that of common consensus, of deliberations, of representatives, and of wisdom. There had been two countries or states in Indonesian territory which unified the entire Nusantara, namely Srivijaya and Majapahit Kingdom. It means that this vast territory had twice experienced the opportunity being united and unitary. People’s welfare or social welfare is frequently found in the beautiful writings or antique poems or lyrics describing a welfare society. Everyone has experienced values of idealism existing in the last five sentences of the Preamble of UUD 1945 as national ideology. These values have unified the Indonesian people during its independence time and will always unify the Indonesian people forever in the future. There have been many efforts of destroying combination of both efforts. However, until today, these values remain strong as common basis or principle for maintaining the nation unity and unitary. The Indonesian people were once ever constitutionally compelled to implement Konstitusi RIS (Constitution of United Republic of Indonesia) which wwas very much contradictory to national values in Pancasila. However, this constitution did not last long and finally we returned to the temporary consitution, UUD 1950 (1950 Temporary Constitution). Obstacles from imperialism, religious teachings, and communism had countless times conffronted along the history of

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the Republic of Indonesia. But, these confrontations could be overcome through joint struggle between people and law enforcement apparatuses. The long journey of history during the independence era has proven that the Indonesian people are holding on to those values tightly. As state philosophical foundation, Pancasila becomes the basic or ground for basic law of the Republic of Indonesia since it is mentioned formally in the Preamble of UUD 1945. As an ideology, Pancasila must surely be socialized in forms of teachings or doctrines containing basic values, instrumental values, and praxis values. These teachings or doctrines must become references in all aspects of nation life. Until today, we still do not have any clear platforms regarding economy of Pancasila, which scientific formulation, policy and strategy in governmental level contain in the values of Pancasila. Until the present era, there are still many who view Pancasila as solely creation of Ir. Soekarno. During the session of BPUPKI, there were many who delivered speeches suggesting state philosophical foundation, namely Mr. Muh. Yamin, Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo, Drs. Moh. Hatta, Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo, and Ir. Soekarno. From the speakers, Committee of Nine (Panitia 9) then formulated the Preamble of UUD 1945 with its last five sentences becoming state philosophical foundation. Mr. Muh. Yamin proposed five principles, namely peri kebangsaan (nationalism), peri kemanusiaan (humanity), peri ketuhanan (belief in God), peri kerakyatan (people’s state/sovereignity in people’s hands), and kesejahteraan rakyat (people’s welfare). Meanwhile, Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo did not explain in detail the state philosophical foundation suggestion, but in overall, he proposed integralistic concept in the establishment of the Republic of Indonesia. Speech text of Drs. Moh.Hatta has not yet been found hitherto, whereas Ir. Soekarno proposed five

principles,

namely

kebangsaan

(nationalism),

internasionalisme/

peri

kemanusiaan (internationalism/humanism), mufakat (unanimity), kesejahteraan sosial (social welfare), and ketuhanan (belief in God). Besides national values, speech by Mr. Muh. Yamin also contained many authentic Indonesian cultural values. Speech by Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo contained a very strong integralistic concept. Then, Drs. Moh. Hatta suggested national values which also contained strong humanistic values (rights). Speech by Ki

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Bagoes Hadikoesoema contained national values taken from Islamic teachings. Suggestion by Ir. Soekarno contained very strong national values, including the wish for freedom or gaining independence and having principles or foundation for independence. Ir. Soekarno named it Pancasila the five principles he proposed, when tehn compressed into Trisila and Ekasila. Formulation of last five principles in the Preamble of UUD 1945 is a summary of the four suggestions on state philosophical foundation or principles delivered by their speakers. The expressions of Ketuhanan Yang Maha Esa (Belief in God) and Tuhan Yang Maha Esa (the One Supreme God) delivered by Ir. Soekarno and Mr. Muh. Yamin in their speeches. The statement Kemanusiaan Yang Adil dan Beradab (Just and Civilized Humanity) did not exist in speechtext of Ir. Soekarno, Mr. Muh. Yamin, and Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo because Mr. Muh. Yamin mentioned the term peri kemanusiaan (humanity) whereas Ir. Soekarno mentioned

the

terms

internasionalisme/peri

kemanusiaan

(internationalism/humanism). The terms yang adi dan beradab (just and civilized) come from the speechtext by Drs. Moh.Hatta the content of persatuan Indonesia (Indonesian unity) is mentioned in the speechtext of Ir. Soekarno, Mr. Muh. Yamin and Prof. Sr. Mr. Soepomo. The contents of kerakyatan, perwakilan, dan permusyawaratan (people’s state/sovereignity in people’s hands, representatives, and deliberations) are there in the speechtext of Mr. Muh. Yamin, even though for the fifth principle, he proposed kesejahteraan rakyat (people’s welfare). At the end of speechtext of Prof. Dr. Mr. Soepomo, there appeared terms keadilan rakyat (people’s justice), while in the speechtext of Ir. Soekarno, there appeared terms kesejahteraan sosial (social welfare). Speechtext of Ki Bagoes Hadikoesoemo contained values of unity and unitary based on Islamic law, as well as that of humanity, deliberations, justice, and welfare which are entirely based on Islamic law. The summaries of speechtexts of the four speakers are therefore the suggestions on state philosophical foundation, formulation process and changes and perfection of the state philosophical foundation of the Republic of Indonesia which also become national ideology and way of life. Values contained in Pancasila ideology comprise the value of the One Supreme God; one cultured an noble valued God; and one God with respect to

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others; university values of humanity;respecting all nations in the world; the value of civilized justice; national value of all for all, all for one, and one for all, people value/value

of

people

sovereignity,

common

consensus,

deliberation,

representatives, and value of wisdom; value of social justice in welfare; and value of equality and harmony as well as appropriateness culturally within heterogenous Indonesian society. These values are considered universal since acknowledged as global values. Is it necessary to name each ideology? There are many ideologies which do not have names. Each nation has their respective ideologies. The people of the USA must have an ideology, even though it has no name. When the People’s Republic of China was born, Dr. Sun Yat Sen named the ideology San Min Chu I. The Japanese named their ideology Tennou Koudou Seishin. Hitler established Germany using National Socialist Ideology whereas Lenin built Soviet Union with Marxism Leninism concept (Communism). Everything having name is easily socialized as well as criticized and exploited. Karl Marx did not name his teachings Marxisme, yet his followers named his teachings after summarizing his book based on Marxism, whereas, there was not any books he wrote entitled Marxism. The term “ideology” was first coined by a French philosopher, Antoine Destut de Tracy (1754-1836) in 1796. At that time, the influence of feudal government authority and the church were so strong that then emerged reaction known as the Age of Enlightenment. De Tracy viewed ideology as a science about humans’ minds that was able to serve as a guide to the right path to the future. De Tracy wished to continue the progress by improving people in showing which idea was wrong and also developing a system of secular education which could generate better people. It was so unfortunate that cooperation between ideology and science as well as objective study did not last long. This resulted in the diminishing value of the term “ideology.” The term even became a pejorative term which referred to object than science. As a pejorative concept, Karl Marx used this term in his sociopolitical theory. He used the term ideology in all definitions of this word in his book entitled German ideology. The word ideology became famous in Marxism teaching, be it

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by Karl Marx himself or by Lenin who continued the teachings. In its development, the term got infamy since its relationship with MarxismCommunism. New Order still used this term, even made it popular in attempt of socializing Pancasila to public. During New Order era, Pancasila was made sacred by the government who dominated over all aspects of nation life at that time until it became hegemony (ideology according to Gramsci. 1891-1937). An ideology that became hegemony would vanish along with the vanishing regime. Implementing ideology in such era like New Order could enandger that respective ideology. In the current era of reformation, it can be felt that half of the populations have regarded Pancasila as identical with New Order era. The use of ideology can be seen from four approaches, which are: a. Idea as a political thinking b. Idea as norms and beliefs c. Idea as the language of symbols and myths d. Idea as elite power The four approaches in overall are not exclusive. There is a deep tendency that approach 2 and 3 also got followers in terms of power or authority implementation. However, the four approaches demonstrate the different main field of study. The first approach is particularly more associated with “Western”isms, such as liberalism, Marxism, and socialism. The second approach is associated with the collection of views embraced by common people, namely thinkings which incline to be less systematic, such as an assumption of particular group of people to consider it is just natural and normal if they earn a great sum of money which is relatively different from others without articulating capitalistic liberal ideology first. The third approach tends more to symbols and myths, like the image of Ka’ba in the symbol of PPP (Development and Unity Party) showing its Islamic tendency. The fourth approach is associated with how the elites sought to ensure conformity and supports, such as the guarantee for supports for candidates of president or head of regional from its supporting party. History showed that particularly in Indonesia, development of ideology is inseparable from that of politics, or the way around. Political ideology is one

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definition among many numbers of definitions on ideology. Political ideology is a set of beliefs and normative as well as empirical thinking which are relatively coherent and centered on the issues on the essence of human, process of history, and sociopolitical order. Ideology is frequently defined pejoratively to give characteristics on the ideas which appear to be floating, extreme, fake, and fanatical. There are quite many numbers of idealistic and political views on ideology. Their views are relatively different, so that one of the ideology experts, David Mclellan, mentioned that ideology is a concept most difficult to understand among all social sciences. Another expert at ideology, Freeden, stated that ideology is a thinking form of term providing direct access important to understand the formation and essence of political theory, its richness, its diversity, and origin. Scientific investigation on ideology should be placed in the same rank with studies on political philosophy. This shows the strong relationship between ideology and politics as well as the appropriate educational level the subject on ideology should be given. Ideology is a concept which is difficult to understand since it has reached philosophical level so that it is normal if subject on ideology is given at university level. Meanwhile, its praxis value can be taught in the form of subject Budi Pekerti dan Kewarganegaraan (Moral and Nationality) in formal education from primary school level until high school level and in informal education outside the school. 2.

Liberalism The concept on ideology was an invention of modern era so that the

development of political ideologies was inseparable from modernization context which incidentally began in West Europe. In addition to bringing a number of improvements, the process of modernization at the same time also invited disasters and dangers in human. There were two important drastical changes in Western World at that time, namely Industrial Revolution in Great Britain and French Revolution in France. Industrial revolution triggered the development in science while French Revolution encouraged social equality in addition to individual freedom in modern society. In addition to inviting progress, these two revolutions also invited crises on cultural values held tightly on in traditions as well as individual alienation from the society at that time.

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At that time, the European society were still in the culture of agricultural era in which family and kinship bond to the society and to the place they were born and reared were still so strong. The invention of steam machine started industrial era and it also turned culture from agricultural into industrial one. Each cultural transition will cause anomy (confusion due to) losing norms or values to hold on) and those who are difficult or slow to interact will feel alienated (feeling of being exiled or shunned) in the society. At the same time, there was drastical political changing in French from monarchy into republic causing changes in culture from traditional feudal society into the culture which respected freedom and equality. These changes also caused anomy in the society. Preceding those two big events, most of social influences shaping liberal individualism were in forms of holy wars and the emergence of modern sciences in the sixteenth and seventeenth century. Holy wars raised commitments from the liberalists about rationalism and individual equality. The liberalists insisted on the importance of civil and individual freedom. They argued that if they could live freely, they could live according to their respective beliefs without feeling afraid of being threatened by punishment because of their respective religious views, political views, and moral conducts. At the same era, there occured transition from feudalism into capitalism when the capitalists questioned on the freedom for opportunity. The reason was most of opportunities in business were dominated by the feudal class which was inherited to the next generations by birth. The idealists brought up many of new thinkings concerning freedom, equality, and brotherhood known as liberte, egalite, and fraternite. These were the new thinkings which eventually grew liberalism developing into ideology. Liberalism can be considered as a starting point of modernization since this ideology is the same age as the modernization itself, and it was this ideology which boosted the process of changing from traditional society into modern one. In spite of its process since the sixteenth and seventeenth century, this ideology soon came up to the surface especially when people could no longer stand being oppressed by absolute monarchy in France in the eighteenth century. This ideology was relatively fast in getting its followers since it provided better legal

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security on rights and individual freedom as well as social equality which were regarded as natural at that time. Supports for this ideology for individual freedom and right of private vote walked hand in hand, and had reciprocal relationship with capitalistic economy (market desire was only possible if political intervention was nearly zero). It was in this term that liberalism had reciprocal relationship with capitalism. The basic concept of liberalism is actually not much different from the values of Pancasila since what are fought by liberalism, namely liberte, egalite, and fraternite, have already been contained in the values of Pancasila. Principal differences between liberalism and Pancasila lie on the view on freedom. Liberalists acknowledge an extremely dominant and prominent individual freedom, whereas Pancasila considers a state as all for all, one for all, and all for one. Teachings in liberalism did not always go so smoothly. There had also been reactions and criticisms. These reactions and criticisms gave birth to the other teachings which later developed into ideology. Receiving such reactions and criticisms, liberalists conducted introspections on their teachings until in the transition period of nineteenth and twelfth century, liberalism developed into two major teachings, namely socioliberalism and neoclassical liberalism. Socioliberalism is associated with a more positive concept or view of freedom, and bigger interference of state, especially in regulating socioeconomic renewal. Neoclassical liberalism, on the other hand, is associated with the extremely negative concept or view of freedom for market independence. Between the two teachings, socioliberalism is relatively closer to the values of Pancasila that neoclassical one since socioliberalism also pays attention to the role of a state in regulating economic and social sector. During the Cold War, such an ideological war took place between totalitarian concept and that of liberalism. Totalitarian doctrine inclined to be more ideological, utopian, historical, and hollistical whereas that of liberalism inclined to be empirical pluralistic and not aiming to establish an ideal state. The followers of liberalism continued on making improvements in order to deal with the tough challenges from totalitarian doctrine. During this transtion period of twenty first century, there has been a gradual shift from liberalism to social democracy in one hand, and to conservatism in other

85 

hand. Liberalism which inclines to social democracy is getting closer to the values of Pancasila than that which inclines to conservatism. In the liberalism system of social democracy, there are efforts done by the government to control so as to encourage the weak or poor ones to be stronger and the strong or rich ones not to be far stronger by applying progressive tax. Teachings in classical liberalism rooted in the principles of upholding individual rights giving freedom to take over capital and securing open market based on demand and supply where the state is not allowed to interfere in the market. However, in real life these principles resulted in many social phenomena, namely workers who felt only considered by their employers as tools for production and exploited went on strikes and social protests when the price in market was no longer considered normal and rational based on the law of demand and supply (for instance, due to cartel policy), crisis in economic sector occured and the government as the holder of sovereignity was compelled to interfere with the market. These situations had driven several thinkers in economy in European and the USA (in the middle of twentieth century until the beginning of twenty first century) to do a number of corrections on classical liberalism teachings by giving opportunity to the government to function and play its role as regulators and supporters (if necessary) in economic life through its policies providing chances for private sector to be the economic actors and power. This teaching is known as neo-liberalism, and wsas implemented when the USA suffered from crisis in economy in 1960s, 1970s, and 2008s, when the government interfered in economic sector by doing bail-out. Bail-out was done in order to save large industries in the USA suffering from bankruptcy. After economic condition returned to normal, shares owned by the government in these many industries were then sold again to private sectors. The concept of cosmopolitanism flourished since the end of Cold War. This made the liberalists (free market) felt themselves as the followers of major or the most dominant ideology whose existences were obvious and undeniable. This concept of cosmopolitanism grew increasingly widespread along with revolutions in the fields of science, technology, and communication where international connections have become very much closer (becoming global

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village). Concept of cosmopolitanism drove global integration crossong the boundaries of national state’s sovereignity, covering political, economic, social, and cultural integration. The followers of cosmopolitanism believed that nations in the world were dependent on each other and it would be more efficient in meeting their needs if these nations cooperated with each other. Furthermore, they also believed that economic sources were limited in number, and needed maximizing in their process of production, and that consumers would obtain their needs according to the required qualifications in open market. Moreover, they also believed that a state was not allowed to discriminate and restrict any exported or imported products in a country (be it by levying tariffss or by other restricting rules), and that each owner of free share was allowed to invest in any countries and had to be treated equally and indiscriminatively. Those prominent figures of cosmopolitanism were among other, Kenichi Ohmae, Francis Fukuyama, Robert O Keohane, Robert Gilpin. 3.

Conservatism From the very beginning, liberalism in France had triggered scepticism

(apathetic and cynic) on this new ideology. On the previous pages, it has been discussed liberalism which caused anomy and alienation in the society. These people who were anomous and alienated were easily influenced by other ideas stimulating apathetic and cynic which protested the new teaching. This which protested was called conservatism, and later it developed into a new ideology. Conservation was not againts the changes but against these changes which were considered overly forced by particular ideologies. This ideology was very much careful of each changing and made a distance towards each overly optimism. Conservatism emphasized on the physical and humanistic conditions having limited abilities, woth physically and mentally, which were not just easily changed by outside force. In this case, conservatism was more realistic on human conditions. The term konservatif first appeared in France when Chateaubriand (17081848) named it conservateur to the journal he published to refuse the expansion of new politics, primarily the ideas on democracy, which became the primary manifestation of that new politics. This term was soon adopted by other groups

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who were against the progress in democracy in a more radical term. In the USA in nineteenth century, the Republicans used the term konservatif to call themselves whereas in Great Britain, it was used to call Tory’s Party. Conservation regarded realism not as mere doctrine of power, but a doctrine of limitations on the existing creations which were divided into diverse duality conflicts, between physical and mental or between individual and society, as well as between government or authority and those who were governed or authorized. For conservatism followers, dreaming of obliterating these conflicts from the existence of human beings was the sign of the utopian conception on the order. There were similarities and differences between conservatism and the values of Pancasila. Pancasila also did not wish any drastical or extreme changes. Pancasila also paid close attention to physical and humanistic conditions. Differences lied in the way that conservatism totally opposed of the new and forced changing, while this opposition was less recognized in Pancasila. Pancasila still recognized natural conditions which were distinct, different, and could not be regarded the same or equal by nature since the other similarity to conservatism was that “there was no conflict on this difference in human life.” Conservatism developed into three subteachings, namely reactionary conservatism,

revolutionary

conservatism,

and

moderate

conservatism.

Reactionary conservatism considered that all orders in this universe were statical, as things which were well-ordered and each had its own position and if it was out of or deviated from that position, which constituted formulation of anarchy. The followers of reactionary conservatism claimed that stability in economy occured if basing on the consensus of truly spiritual values. They regarded that democracy with freedom would exterminate democracy itself. This teaching was a bit contrasting with values of Pancasila since Pancasila considered the relationship between human being and their Creator, fellow human beings, and surrounding environment as dynamical, developing, and changing over time. Revolutionary conservatism considered statical thinking as degradation. It also stated that realism was an intrinsic acceptance of existing conflicts and struggle was the essence of life itself. This teaching remained believing in the existence of conflicts and struggles to overcome these conflicts. If compared to

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reactionary teaching, this teaching was closer to values of Pancasila. Moderate conservatism considered realism as marked by sympathetic acceptance of existence diversity with commitment to be accomodated, in the frame of cooperation between limited countries or states. Political ideals of this teaching were balanced, compromising, moderate, as well as becoming tolerant to democrates and socialists. This teaching was nearly similar to Pancasila; however there were also differences from Pancasila. For instance, Pancasila did not recognize any opposition position as in moderate conservatism since Pancasila recognized fully the values of deliberations. Conservatism was more frequently called as “the right-wing” for it was considered as contributing less to development. The terms “right-wing” or “left-wing” referred to the chair order where politicians sat in the French Parliament in 1789. Those members who wished for renewal or changing would sit in left of the chair of parliamentary president, while those who agreed less or even did not agree on changing would sit in right wing. The use of terms “right wing and left wing” had given birth to “middle way” as announced by Mac Millan (1894-1986). After the end of World War II, the European citizens began to feel any degradation in spiritual aspect. The relationship between people and the church became more secular as a result of liberal democracy. There were a number of efforts to find compromise between teaching of totalitarian and that of liberal individual. This “middle way” got many criticisms. For instance, during “informal tripartite” meeting between the government, Congress of Trade Association, and industrial confederation in Great Britain. Many experts called this meeting trade agreement using Soviet Union model. The many number of criticisms on “the middle way” then caused a “new right wing” in conservatism to occur. This new right wing had two teachings, economic teaching and political teaching. Economic teaching taught that free society needed free market and state legitimation half of which came from its contribution on creation and maintenance of that free market. For maintaining this thesis, economic teaching argued that the great deed or contribution of the new right wing economy was conducting restoration on rationality from unplanned institutions (free market is one example). In reality, this teaching lacked of ethical basis for its political ideals.

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Meanwhile, political teaching symphatized the ideology of free market. Yet, political teaching changed it by adding awareness on communal and moral factor as well as greater emphasis on nationalism and state prestige. When faced to values of Pancasila, the school of middle way was much closer to the values of Pancasila that those of totalitarian and individualism. It was because this middle way took the positive points of values of totalitarian and individualism while at the same time eliminating any negative points of both ideologies. Although the school of new right wing, especially political teaching was much closer to the values of Pancasila, if compared to middle way, difference was still there. The political teaching of new right wing remained firm on its position while Pancasila, as open ideology, was ready to welcome and accept all schools with doing selections and agreements first to those schools. The influence of new right wing conservatism is more prominent in this transition period of twenty first century, especially because of its contribution to the most distinctive characteristic in this decade which had become a change in the frame of political arguments. For instance, socialism which did not adhere anymore to orthodoxy monopoly; and the involvement of socialist party in judgment again. If this continued to happen, development of conservatism would be increasingly closer to the values of Pancasila. 4.

Marxism and Communism Marxism and communism were the most brutal and radical schools among

those schools which were against liberalism even though the three of them had one thing in common, which was that the three of them grew to support changes in the process of modernism. Marxism emphasized more on brotherhood (fraternite) taken from the slogan of French Revolution, “liberte, egalite, and fraternite.” The followers of Marxism thought that liberalism did not seek to make these three things come true. Equality and freedom accentuated by liberalism only applied partly and not thoroughly. This had proven that liberalism sided with the interests of a few number of people only. Criticisms on capitalism which tore off social justice was the hardcore of Marxism, doctrine in all of its versions, be it Soviet Communism, revisionism, Maoism, catroism, or Western neo-marxism. These criticisms apparently

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engendered autocriticism on liberal society and there had happened a huge change on capitalistic society. This made Marxism imagined capitalism as not bourgeouisi anymore so that Marxism and communism lost their target. Even so, that did not mean that Marxism was useless since everything living in Marxism had been absorbed into general intellectual climate. It can be denied that the success of Marxism lay on the fact that it made people aware of structural injustices in modern society which were partly formed by economic interests. One result of Marxism internal evaluation was the emergence of ideology of democratic socialism and social democracy. There were many things in common between Marxism and Communism. Marxism was the theory whereas communism was the practices of realizations. Marx thought that human beings were practical creatures whose thinking process was regulated by material needs. Humans’ struggles for meeting developing material needs were prettily more “real” than our mental activity. He extremely emphasized on the importance of productive forces (tools and instruments) as well as relations of production (the way human beings organized themselves so that they used their productive forces). If production forces were owned by minorities, production relationship would become exploitative since the majorities were forced to work on low wage, while the parasitic minorities used their economic power to enjoy surplus only for their own pleasure. Marx divided society into two classes, by referring to those who owned tools for production and those who did not. In order to obliterate differences between these two classes, private ownership on tools for production was eliminated, including religion, lag, class conflicts and state oppression. Marx argued that “The history of all hitherto existing society is the history of class struggles,” and he provided a development model that had to go through five phases, namely Asiatic phase, old or antique phase, feudal phase, bourgeois (capitalistic) phase and ultimately, communism phase. If compared, Marxism and communism have similar and different principles to the values of Pancasila. Similar to the values of Pancasila, communism fights for social justice, brotherhood, and equality. The difference lies on the fact that Marxism views class conflict as a tool used by particular groups or classes for

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controlling others, while Pancasila embraces the principle of all for all, all for one, and one for all. Pancasila has value of balance between humans’ relationship with God, with fellow humans and with surrounding environment so that it is in contrast with materialistic teaching in Marxism. Marxism itself was not popular in its place of birth, Germany. Besides not grounded on The German people’s cultural values, in reality, liberalism did not appear as capitalistic as Marxism described. Karl Marx spent his old time in London as a less recognized figure. Lenin then brought and developed ideology of Marxism in Russia for the sake of his group’s own interests in reaching the goal of renewing society within Russian imperium. Lenin proposed three theories on revolution emerging from the lower level and having these following three main characterictics: a.

Working class exclusively, by their own efforts, only able to develop

“trade union awareness” which was basically a form of bourgeoisie awareness because of not able to excess logics of the existing systems. b.

Socialists awareness which was still unfamiliar with daily experience

of proletariates had to be developed through the bourgeoisie intellectuals and which later was given as a gift to those who were still less knowledgeable. c.

Parties were supposed to come from “the working class and for the

working class” and the frontlines were selected from people with any social backgrounds and should submit to the discipline culture of central party. Lenin added the ideology with strategy for reaching his goals so that then, this teaching became marxism-leninism (communism). Marxismleninism was actually adjusted more to the agricultural condition of Soviet Union. When polarization of world powers occured after World War II, marked by the emergence of Cold War between West and East, Stalin utilized this ideology to unify neighbouring countries of Russia into Soviet Union. Eventually, it occured that Comintern Communism led to be a globally widespread organization. Theoretically, there are quite a number of Marxism subschools, such as orthodox Marxism and hegelian Marxism. Orthodox Marxism with its thinkers,

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Kautsky and Plekhanov theoretically affirms from Marx’s book entitled Das Capital. The contents of the book describe the essences of capitalism which possess selfdestructive nature and move towards socialization of production tools. Hegelian Marxism with its supporters Gramsci and Lukacs did not want to interpret it anymore human actions solely from the aspect of mind and spirit. They believed that the huge contribution of Marx’s philosophy lay on the perfect integration between human creativity and socioeconomic materiality. Although men and women work on a structurally specified limitation, they keep in them an autonomy capacity. Marxism in its practice was the communists who soon were known as Communist regime that began to refer to the institutionalizing of marxism-leninism as instrument of tyrannical power. This caused a huge gap between the definition of communism in Marxism version and in practice. There were efforts to set Marxism from responsibility of communistic tyranny in practice by stating that communism revolution took place in those countries not having tolerance tradition, those that were left behind in term of education and those that were not prepared for pure proletrariate revolution, which was the revolution by educated working people. Orthodox Marxism had reminded Lenin of the andger of a revolution since it would cause “dictatorship” over the proletariates and not dictatorship by the proletariates. Tyranny of Lenin’s regime can be seen when Bolshevik people terrorized their opposition parties, oppressed university autonomy, prohibited freedom for press, withdrew property rights on such vast lands, annuled citizens rights of vote, eliminated the intellectuals as well as introduced purging on all aspects of life. Yoseph Stalin, a substitute of Lenin, was more tyrannical in implementing Marxism. The Asian communist following Stalin was Polpot in Cambodia who was famous for his mass murder. Meanwhile, in Europe, there was once also occures in Albania. In China, dictatorship of party and overly self-idolizing were incidentally reinforced by the embraced teaching, namely Confucianism which selected Mao Zedhong as the party’s chairman as well as the supreme leader of the People’s Republic of China. On the highest level, Mao conducted three amendments on Marxism:

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a.

Underestimating the importance of City Proletariate and claiming that

revolution started from hinterlands and was powered by the farmers; b.

Placing awareness of political desire over objective conditions or

materials; c.

Enlarging the class concept covering concept of nations.

Mao refused the terms of class conflict in the revolution as well as the assumption that revolution in China was an internal revolution. Mao considered China as a poor and proletariate country oppressed by the prosperous bourgeois nation. Class conflicts were changed into international issues with nations being the main supporters. In the mid 1960s, Mao’s idolization led to disaster with the emergence of Cultural Revolution which was done by encouraging the working people to make their teachers ashamed and by killing or sending thousands of educated people into jail. Consequently, economic condition drastically declined even though finally the armed forces were ordered to press the already damaged order. Mao died in 1976. After his death, all radical groups were eliminated. China later began to introduce several excellence of market economy without eliminating ideology in political aspect. In the transition period of twenty first century, Marxism was thoroughly discredited although there were still protests by the academicians who wished to separate practical Marxism and which of in the form of ideas. Through Marxism, Marx had made several things which are still valid until today in his criticisms on economic injustices and unfair political claim of bourgeois society. The first communist party in Indonesia which was established by Sneevliet embraced marxism-leninism. When Muso returned from Moscow, the influence of Comintern communism started to penetrate into Indonesian Communist Party, and by the incident of G-30S/PKI, the influence of Maoism was so deep in the Indonesian Communist Party. When Deng Hsiao Ping appeared as the leader in China, there sere several efforts to diminish the influence of Maoism in China as well as obliterate the double standards of Chinese foreign policy (on one hand, it helped the government of a state, while on the other hand, it helped the subversion of Communist Party in that respective country, including in Indonesia). During the Cold War, the USA with its liberalism and Russia with its

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communism fought for influencing nations all around the globe, including in Central America and South America regions. The Cold War began tend after the fall of Russia and its primary ally, Yugoslavia, leading to the subsiding influence of communism. These conditions resulted in the increasingly stronger dominations of liberalism brought the USA and its allies. In developing countries in Asia, South America and Africa, the influence of liberalism ideology (free market) and capitalization grew wilder, not to mention the supports of international institutions like IMF and World Bank which made it far more widespread. Authorization in economic sector by foreign capital and developed countries created a far wider gap between the rich and the poor people. The richness and resources of developing countries flowed to the developed ones. In addition, economic sector in developing countries was highly dependent on the rich countries. These conditions had driven several governments, religious figures, and youth organizations in developing countries to conduct a social renewal movement and national authorization of richness and resources, which is more frequently known as a New Left, which took place, among others in Nicaragua, Venezuela, and Phillippine. 5

Social Democracy and Democratic Socialism Social democracy is the external evaluation result of Western Marxism. This

means organized Marxism. Besides, this term has also contained organized antireformist movements. Democratic socialism was also a term created by its followers referring to an action of releasing one’s self from the reality of undemocratic socialism in the twentieth century. However, in some patterns, it was at least meant to reaffirm the commitment towards transformation of system than merely a better social democracy. Social democracy appeared as a form of dominant socialism in Western World. This democracy became the primary opposition to political conservatism and practical organizations of capitalism. Social democracy was not the only opposition according to the socialists since this ideology had found its enemy from the defenders of status quo. It has found another opposition in the tradition of Marxism denying its socialists mandate and claiming to offer other alternatives intellectually sophisticated and politically great. One issue that is necessary to take into account about social democracy is

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whether it should be viewed as a “revision” on Marxism according to its origin and political tracks, or it would be more accurate to regard it as a political tradition in its own truth. Socialism which was broken into Marxism tradition and social democracy became the fundamental characteristic of most journey of twentieth century history. Socialism as a doctrine was a product of modern era. Its beginning was inseparable from the French Revolution and Industrial Revolution in Great Britain which gave rise to political revolution and later economic and social revolution. Socialism appeared in Great Britain and France in the early decades of nineteenth century. Its thinkers were thinkers of economy and early thinkers of scientific management which started to develop in the end of nineteenth century. Economic machinery should be operated by scientific managers and modern management science started to be developed and which later influenced the relationship between the owners and the labours. Labour organizations emerged and grew so strongly that they influenced legislative institutions in the making of laws on labour. In the end of nineteenth century, there emerged incorporated companies which legal status was clearer so that the world of law began to regulate economic sector. What Marxism feared of capitalism did not happen, yet, Marxism criticisms had been made autocriticisms by capitalist liberalism and led to the birth of democratic socialism. In the twentieth century, management science developed from scientific management into that of human relationship. In that concept of management, human dignity of the employees was getting increasingly paid attention to during this era. In management science, there arose a position as HRD managers in business. This human dignity was more upheld in the business world and later raised new thinkers of democratic socialism. If compared to the values of Pancasila, the values of socialism were obviously contained in the fifth principle of Pancasila social justice for all Indonesian people. Ideologies of democratic socialism and social democracy have a lot of similarities to Pancasila only due to its close relationship with Marxism and that there were relatively many teachings of Marxism adopted by Marxism. If Pancasila puts emphasis on balance, equality, justice between the rich and the

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poor, the employers and the employees, socialism puts more emphasis on the interests of collective society, primarily the lower level people. In this transition period of the twenty first century, many are attempting o develop a new type pf socialism which is still grounded on its old traditions, but which contemporary roles are reformulated. An expert, Michael Harrington explained this as a socialist republicanism that takes place when developments in politics, economy, and social of modern countries direct socialism to a conception of its ethical, multiclass, and decentralized goals based on the creation of the new society, be it in a country or all around the world. 6

Anarchism This has a spiritual brotherhood with communism. Both reject states and

capitalism. If communism puts emphasis on solidarity, anarchism wishes to radicalize individual or collective priority and moral autonomy idea contained in liberalism. Anarchists wish for liberalism to be consequent and to not stop only until the concept of minimal state. The state itself must be obliterated since it is regarded as source impeding individual autonomy and posing a threat towards freedom. Anarchist revolution does not stop until regime changing only, but it continues on the spontaneous obliteration of all authority and legal systems. This is the final goal of anarchism, namely voluntary association of autonomous individuals or self government. Anarchism program constitutes the basic of radical political decentralization tp the last standing individual. As long as liberalism is viewed as an effort of law enforcement (rule of law), anarchism will remain supporting liberalism. On the other hand, anarchism radicalizes liberalism in the principles of freedom and autonomy. The goal of anarchism won’t be practically achieved if rule of law, as the medium and limitation of individual gap, is obliterated. Anarchism is one of the ideologies as well as schools of thought which does exist and needs not to be feared of in daily life. Several anarchists’ thoughts of a state, among others, legal systems and law enforcement of a state are made and implemented for the interests of the ruling class and rich people. The punishment method say that jails are barbarian models; the armed forces power protecting the people are ruthless power instruments which is designed for war; the state is run

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at high cost and it is frequently wasting money in its running. Moreover, anarchism also said that a state practices an inefficient bureaucracy and levies taxes arbitrarily. Hostility on the governing state and organized authority were rooted in the tyrannical and authoritarian monarchy system during the nineteenth century in Russia. With regard to property, anarchism views that individual ownership should be recognized since it will generate the most benefit to many people (William Goldwin). Property should be distributed in places in need of fair contribution of wealth. Developement

of

science management

study also influenced

the

anarchists. They thought that mechanization in industrial sector made human employees sub sytem of that respective management. This made humans into such living robots organized by ther working time cycle according to management system. Machines did not feel tired, while human employees did. Management saw this as inhumane, and later led to the emergence of human relationship management in early twentieth century. If compared to values of Pancasila, Pancasila does not recognize collectivist principle nor does it prioritize individual. Pancasila takes the middle way, which is all for all, all for one, and one for all. Anarchism thus is not similar to Pancasila. Moreover, anarchism rejects rule of law whereas Pancasila is the basic principle of any principle laws in Indonesia. In this transition period to the twenty first century, anarchism is regarded as being on the verge of failure. Many call this ideology as reactionary doctrine and it is not popular. In a softer term, many wil think this ideology as a romantic absurd ideology not able to be in harmony with individualistic, beauraucratic, and urbanistic realities of the world. Nevertheless, we should never underestimate its criticisms on the negative points of state and its bureaucracy, especially in this age that grows more sceptical on the efficiency and benefits of actions performed by states as well as radical spiritual needs to overcome issues on cities, ecology, and industries. 7.

Feminism Feminism used structural inequality within capitalistic liberal society pointed

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out by Marxism as a starting point to reveal a more fundamental inequality within capitalistic society, which was gender inequality. Feminism seeks to convince that sexual oppression is “more fundamental” than “class oppression.” Among the three ideas of French Revolution, egalite (equality) must be realized radically in form of gender equality. Feministic struggle for gender equality has been in accorandce with and inherent in modernization era. The feminists contradict it as unnatural but artificial the emancipation from old prejudice saying that houses or private space are women’s natural locust. Progress in modern technology, such as the use of contraception reveals that women are also able to not depend on domestic functions. Womanhood is not unchangeable. If people argue over womanhood private, distinction of private and public in liberalism would be questioned by feminists since they regard this distinction as artificial and made based on consensus of male-dominated society. The feminists believe that relation of authority is not only in public but also in private, among other, domestic violence to women. Like anarchism and Marxism, feministic criticisms are left far behind by the rapid globalization as well as market economic demand. Feministic demands for gender equality in education, democratic participation, access to profession, etc, seem have yet to change situation much. The great potential of women that makes feministic demands need considering is because women make up half population of the world, perform almost two third of working hours, yet only acieve one tenth of world’s revenue and own less than one hundredth of the world’s property. World is apparently not yet fair to women. Pancasila contains equality value so that there is no difference in rights and opportunity between men and women. Still, Pancasila does not focus on overly special equality between men and women, as what the feminists struggle for. Pancasila contains value of harmony between what is considered as natural and social, so that even though it does not discriminate men and women in terms of rights and opportunity, Pancasila still does not consider men and women are the same. They are naturally and inherently different. In this time, women’s role is getting more prominent in all life sectors, such as in social, political, economic, and security and defence. Recognition of women roles in all life sectors was not purely

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due to feministic demands, but more because of social development taking place in that respective society. Development in politics will trigger that of economic and development in economic will lead to that of social. The biggest obstacle in realizing gender equality in every era is religion, particularly Catholic and Islam which may not allow women to be “imam” (leaders) because of dogmatic teaching. Several verses in holy books (Bible or Qur’an) present husbands’ domination over a family and women as wives who should respect their husbands as the heads of families. 8.

Ecologism Ecologism or biocentrism is an ideology concerning with natural world, while

others with social one. Capitalistic modernization is a form of mother Earth exploitation by humans and it can be analogized between nature and women in feminism and gave birth to a new school of thought, ecofeminism. Industrialization and the use of technology would later make the Earth into an inappropriate place for humans to live. Ecologism seeks to prevent this disaster from happening to humans’ lives. The programs are green economy, green politics, and green society. At a glance, this ideology seems only to repair any damages caused by capitalistic modernization, which is by doing reboization on barren lands. Yet, this ideology actually demands further on changing hedonistic and consumptive lifestyle of the capitalists by leaving anthropocentrism teaching that human beings have more rights over the Earth than other natural creatures. These teachings of ecologism had succeeded in arising ecological awareness since its early establishment in eighteenth century. Ecologism has actually long existed in the culture of traditional society before manipulated and exploited by market economy. Autonomous freedom and equality fought by liberalism were no more than anthropocentrism enandgering the environment. This shows how ecologism systematically brought up existences potentially existing in culture and which were performed by the capitalists. Ecologism was in natural born along human civilization together with its nature and it was not until eighteenth century a thinker like Thomas Maltus appeared and stated that human growth developed geometrically, while production of food developed arithmetically so that many worried that famine might occur in the

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future. Another thinker from the USA, John Muir (1838-1946) had officially urged conservation of natural resources for its utility values. Both of their ideas gave rise to preservationism (Muir) and conservatism (Pinchot) which was handed down to us until today. Ecologism shares a lot of things in common with Pancasila since both recognize the relationship between human beings and their surrounding environment. The meaning of unity as of the third principle Persatuan Indonesia (unity of Indonesia) is not only limited to the unity of all Indonesian people, but also that with the Earth we stand on, as well. Difference lies in the fact that Pancasila also recognizes the relations humans and their Creator and that between fellow human beings. Ecologism will continue to exist and even become more influential in attempt of dealing with global issues, such as environmental issue which affects more strongly in all aspects of human life. There is indeed a little bit difference between ecologism and environmentalism. Green movements are getting more important and close to human life. Green movements which are getting stronger in pointing out issues related to ecological program and stressing it as political element, the future of ecologism will be bright. Nationalism Nationalism is rather different from other ideologies born as reactions or forms and corrections on liberalism. Nationalism as a consciousness and national sentimental feeling has long been there along with human civilization. This ideology does not merely explore modern consciousness, but it has already had genuine collective ideas which are still intact and pure. Any building on those original groups, be it nation, race, or religion can reinforce and make it into a whole again ever fading collective identity as a result of capitalistic modernization process. Elements of modern consciousness, such as the concepts of sovereignity and mass authorization rationality are intertwined with ethnocentric sentiment taken from the past. Modern nationalism was born from French Revolution and is the twin brother of liberalism. Under the category of nation, it is included state principle, nationality, and universal freedom. In the past, people gathered and formed into a nation, and later a state because of race. However, population mobilization as a

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result of starvation, epidemics, natural disasters, and tribal wars in a particular area made it difficult to gather with all people from the same ethnic. Society became multiethnic and heterogenous. This multiethnic and heterogenous society wished for building a nation and a state. Ernest Renan said that the requirement for building a nation and a state is the will to unite. This unity was enhanced by geopolitics, the unity between human beings and the ground they live on. Modern nationalism is democentrical and ethnocentrical. There is a tendency that a nation wishes for bringing out its identity since this identity is a means of reinforcing that respective nation. Identitism will lead to ethnocentrical sentiment which is contradictory to the second principle of Pancasila, Kemanusiaan yang Adil dan Beradab (Just and Civilized Humanity). Humanistic value is a universal value making all nations respect to each other. Ir. Soekarno, in his speech on philosophical foundation of Indonesian state suggested internationalism/humanism to restrict fanatical nationalism inclined to chauvinism and ethnocentrism. There have been a number of thinkers of nationalism, one of whom was Max Weber who said that nationalism is an ideology having influential force which moves people and constituting feeling of becoming a part of something as well as functioning to build a feeling for a national community. Those who spread this ideology gave attributes to their respective states a distinct cultural identity which determined that state to be separated from other states and gave a special place in the historical process. This community is identified by a set of unique characteristics deriving from constitutional, historical, geographical, religious, linguistic, ethnical, and genetical realities. As long as nation state keeps upholding the principle of civil society as a process when all of its people fully enjoy their rights since the matter of nationality is not under the criteria of ethnicity, nationalism cannot be split up from political liberalism into liberal nationalism. Therefore, subjective identities in forms of love (proud) of one’s own country will arouse patriotism that can be differentiated from primary identity (ethnicity). Within a patrional society, universal needs for identity and sense of belonging are frequently filled with an immense objective love (proud) on one’s own country (chauvinism) and ethnic (ethnocentrism). People frequently preserve

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these kinds of feelings by posing as enemy to other different ethnics or groups of people within a country. Such emotion is vulnerable to revolutionary ideas. In this case, nationalism can become a legitimation of hatred towards strangers (xenophobia) and ethnical discrimination (racism). Both liberal nationalism and nationalism with primary identity are incompatible with Pancasila for the ideas of individualism and freedom in liberal nationalism are extremely strong, while primary identity will initiate chauvinism. Internal (inwards) Indonesian nationalism embraces all for all, all for one, and one for all whereas that o external (outwards) embraces the principle of respecting all nations in the world. Pancasila does not recognize discrimination and thus doen not recognize chauvinism. In the transition period to the twenty first century, the influence of ethnocentrism is formidably strong in establishing a state. It can be seen from the breakup of Soviet Union. The original state returned with a strong ethnocentrism on the new state. Yugoslavia broke up again due to ethnocentrism by building the fraction states. Czechoslovakia was also split up owing to the influence of Czech and Slovakian people’s ethnocentrism. Ethnocentrism also drove the people of Quebec in Canada to disintegrate them from Canada. Ethnocentrism also contributed to the Kurdish people in the boundaries of Turkish, Iraq, and Iran wishing for establishing their own state, yet facing obstacle from Turkish, Iraq, and Iran which do not wish for Kurdishtan to establish. 10.

Fascism Fascism views liberal democracy as something which estranges human

beings and poses a threat to social cohesion. Hence, this ideology does not only return to collectivism, but also performs the myth of fascist style leadership in attaining its political goals and objectives, namely mass party, charismatic leaders, the use of terror, and total propaganda. Fascism sees liberalism, conservatism, and communism as enemies. People regard fascism as a failure of modernity, yet there are also teachings which view it as a development phase within the capitalistic modernity itself. This belongs to the most complex ideology since it conjoins conflicting philosophies, such as Plato’s idea of elite authority,

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Rousseau’s public will, Hegel’s priority on individual, Bergson’s idolizing authority and the myth of belief in history, and Sorel’s violence culture. These thoughts were profoundly gathered in one focus functioning as legitimation of total authority. In his book entitled Mein Kampf, Hitler wrote that this economy was the second or third level of utility and economy should be viewed as a part of bigger goals or objectives. Classical fascism attack other ideologies more aggresively, especially communism, conservatism, and primarily liberalism. As a newcomer in politics, fascism positions its existence by attacking the already established ideologies. Classical fascism can be characterized by mass parties using a widespread propaganda and led by charismatic leaders. After 1945, classical fascism was considered as political garbage, then a new fascism emerged and known as neo-fascisms, among which were implemented in several famous regimes like Pinochet in Chile and Saddam Husein in Iraq. Thinkers of neofascisms sought to revise classical fascism, yet neo-fascisms emerged in different forms. There was even one which re-idolized Hitler’s anti-semitism. Several neofascisms supported Europeanism in attempt of saving European from neocommunism. Fascism is incompatible with values of Pancasila since Pancasila rejects chauvinism while fascism idolizes it. The principles of common consensus (unanimity) and humanity in Pancasila are under contradiction against total propaganda and anti-semitism practice implemented in the massacre of millions of Jewish in camps during World War II. In this transition time to the twenty first century, neo-fascisms may probably develop within alienated youth groups, primarily in the former of East Germany which have yet to share common economic condition with those of West Germany. This wide gap makes them want to practice showing distinct identity along with growing number of immigrants coming in to Germany. They become competitors for young people of ex-East Germany in looking for jobs. The use of common currency (EURO) throughout Europe and immigration system helps ease East and West European people to find jobs. Their existences give more opportunities for the alienated German youths to become the followers of neo-fascisms.

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11.

Fundamental Islam If fascism reacts in a complex way towards modernity, fundamental Islam or

Islamism reacts in particular towards an element of modernity, namely secularism. Fundamental Islam is a reaction towards secularism and liberalism. It emerged in attempt of “going back to religious fundamental.” Since it was born as a result of modernization, it can be said that fundamentalism is the son of modernization itself. Theocratic desire was born from confrontation with modernity using modern ways. Old Western thesis argued that fundamentalism was born from its incapability to give respond to crises caused by modernization. Incapability in responding these crises is partly due to the burden of colonial history over Islamic countries and due to global inequality which generates conflicts between North and South at the present. Through anti-liberal and anti-Western attitude, Islamism can be viewed as a late decolonization and fanaticism, puritanism, exclusivism, and extremism contained in teachings and which practices have made Islamism a new religion among the plurality within Islam itself. Islamic fundamentalism is an ideology seeking to reinforce Islam as a political system in modern world. In this case, Islam becomes a total organic system competing comprehensively by the reach of other ideologies and state systems. Within Islam itself, there is diversity, be it that of global, regional, and local. Secularization can become one among a number of meanings marking the relation of state and religion. Many observations on ideologies state that rejection by Islam towards secularism is formidably strong. During the second decade of twentieth century, Turkish became the first Islamic country declaring secularism in its country, despite being the center of the world’s largest Islamic sultanate for ages. From the very beginning when preparing for independence, our founding fathers suggesting philosophical foundation of Indonesian state did not agree on Indonesia based on religion or Islam although more than 90% of its population was Moslems. Our founding fathers found out solution to make Islamic interests able to express. For instance, Ir. Soekarno suggested the principles on unanimity, deliberations, and representatives.

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It is through deliberations and representatives principles the Moslems and adherents of other religions express their aspirations to be discussed to reach unanimity. The principle of nationalism means a state all for all, all for one, and one for all, not only limited to particular groups (of religion, ethnic, or race). In this current era, the possibility of Islamic fundamentalism to flourish is relatively great as a result of the USA policy which is considered less fair towards economic and political conditions in Middle East. The USA remains favouring Israel which is a long lasting enemy of Islamic countries. The USA economic policy on authorization over oil fields in Middle East brought up reactions from Arabian enterpreneurs and led to the establishment of Al Qaeda movements. The USA policy in Iraq invited reactions from other Islamic countries so that a great political changing occured in those respective countries, among others, the victory of Hamas Party in Palestine and the re-emergence of a

more fundamental

governance in Iran. Condition in Iraq is not yet able to predict. However, if the USA cannot manage to decrease the level of conflicts between religious groups in Iraq and possibility of more radical civil wars, these will inflict a lot more victims in both sides (Sunni and Shia’). It is the USA that will be blamed on being the cause by the fundamentalists. All negative issues addressed to the USA become such vitamine for the growth of Islamic fundamentalism in all Islamic countries if there are people who initiate it. Every fundamentalist group in each Islamic country can be organized globally by particular anti-USA groups. In this big and changing world, various thinkings related to ideology as a basis for human order and organization integrated in a state never stops to develop. At at time, human saw that the authority to regulate a state and nation citizens are grounded on ideologies viewing that a king has absolute authority and it makes a king the law of state. At other time, other ideologies developed saying that the King’s authority came from God, so that the ruler’s authority is regulated by the holy books. Then, it emerged a teaching saying that human absolute authority came from individual rights inherent from birth, so that state had to be regulated based on basic law coming from common consensus or agreement between humans.

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Then, it developed such thinking about teaching becoming the basis for regulating life as a state and a nation such as liberalism-capitalism, marxismcommunism, neoliberalism-Islamism,conservatism, democratic-socialism, fascism, anarchism or destructuralism, feminism, ecologism, materialism and globalism as well as cosmopolitanism. Development of ideologies in the world will surely influence the order of Indonesian nation life, not to mention that now all thinkings and knowledge of all schools of thought in this world are easily accessible and learned by anyone by any advanced means of communication, information and knowledge. Thus, Pancasila as a national ideology must be open and able to do self-reinterpretation for adapting to any development of thought or knowledge in the world as well as to the system of interhuman and internation regulation which is based on various ideologies adhered by various humans and state in other part of the world. Summary It has been discussed the main points of ideologies, political ideology as well as Pancasila as an ideology. Modernization which first emerged in France and Great Britain gave rise to a number of ideologies, such as liberalism, capitalism, individualism, and secularism. A new object would invite reaction, and that reaction soon came up from conservatism and Marxism which developed into the present ideologies. Marxism criticisms on liberalism were made autocriticisms by liberalism to do self-introspection and later led to the emergence of social democracy and democratic socialism developing into a new ideology. Liberalism needs state to protect its interests and this brought out reeaction from anarchism which rejected the state as well as capitalistic liberalism. Feminism used Marxism criticisms on modernization by saying that it was a form of oppression on women dignity in struggling for gender equality within society. In line with feminism, the followers of ecologism also judged that modernization and industrialization had resulted in Earth exploitation by humans and therefore the ecologists are struggling for saving the Earth from damages humans inflicted. Liberalism that was born from French Revolution then gave birth to democentrical nationalism. This was under contradiction against ethnocentrism

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as well as chauvinism contained in fascism which also developed into an ideology. Modernization gave rise to secularism which got a tough challenge from religious groups, especially Islam which later brought up Islamic fundamentalism. Exercise To deepen your understanding on Learning Activity 3, do the following exercises! 1.

In the globalization era marked by rapid development in information and transportation, there is a great possibility on the penetration of values of other ideologies which may be incompatible with those of Pancasila. What are the roles and functions of Pancasila as an open ideology in dealing with this situation?

2.

Every phenomenon in human life has both positive and negative extreme polar. What are the positive points of modernization which gave birth to liberalism and what are the negative points if compared to the values of Pancasila?

3.

Fascism with its characteristics in forms of mass parties, having charismatic leaders and strong propaganda had once existed in nation and state life of Indonesian people. Mention the examples!

4.

During New Order era, President Soeharto officially said that no matter how we liked it or not, ready or not, we would welcome economic liberalization. Was it a sign of the strong penetration of liberalism in Indonesian economic system or a warning to our nation that Pancasila as an open ideology was ready to welcome new values necessary to filter by Pancasila and to direct according to the teachings of Pancasila?

5.

Marxism liberalism gave rise to democratic socialism and social democracy. Values of democratic socialism and social democracy are more similar to those of Pancasila. Marxism has long existed in Indonesia since 1912 and Indonesian political system was once close to liberal system in 1950s. Did such criticisms truly happen in Indonesian nation and state life, particularly in politics in 1950s? Elaborate your reason!

6.

Women emancipation as a movement has emerged since the nineteenth century and continues on developing until today. Women’s roles in

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governance have long existed since Majapahit period and the last time was during the administration of our fifth president. Was this emancipation movement had already embraced feminism or it merely followed the mainstream? Elaborate your reason! 7.

Progressive tax and trickle down policy were once mentioned by President Soeharto to Indonesian conglomerates. These two policies emerged as “New Left economic” policy in conservatism. A policy can be made an answer for Marxism criticisms in individualistic liberal economic system. Did these two policies manage to pass through Pancasila’s filter as an open ideology and then implemented in Indonesian economic system? Elaborate your reason!

8.

Many experts argued that identity as Indonesian experiences degradation. In order to instill identity of bein an Indonesian, it is necessary to improve ethnocentrism (viewing that we are excellent or superior to others) even though it is in contrast with Pancasila. How can we improve our national identity without getting trapped in chauvinism (ethnocentrism)?

9.

There was no one of BPUPKI’s members from Islamic groups who delivered speeches on the suggestion of philosophical foundation of Indonesian state. However, their interruptions in speeches as well as in discussions on the Preamble of 1945 Constitution proved that they played a big role so that they made seven words related to Islamic sharia’ in the first principle of Pancasila. Yet, during the first PPKI session on August 18, 1945, it was agreed that those seven words were obliterated. In Indonesian history, the influence and pressure to insert Islamic sharia’ in the body as well as the Republic of Indonesian’s rules on regulation (aturan perundangan) and regional regulation were so strong. How about special autonomy in Aceh which is constitutionally under Islamic sharia’ and how about the issues of Islamic sharia’ on regional regulation at regional governmental level? Elaborate your reason!

10.

Lately, strong criticisms addressed to governmental and state apparatuses grew stronger and engender anomy and alienation in society which makes it possible the development of cynic and apathetic attitude. In this condition,

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people feel as if there were no use of having a state. Can it be called anarchism? Elaborate your reason! Direction to answer the questions! 1.

Pancasila as an open ideology can play a role as a filter and directing corridor by performing its functions, such as socialization, selection, and assessment!

2.

Review topic on liberalism, especially that of related to Pancasila!

3.

Review topic on fascism, especially its characteristics!

4.

Review topic on liberalism, especially that of freedom for political parties if associated with global issues and Pancasila as an open ideology!

5.

Review topic on Marxism, especially that of associated with liberalism injustices and autocriticisms on liberalism to do self-introspection. Review topic on Marxism development in Indonesia when Sneevliet established ISDV (Indische Sociaal-Democratische Vereniging), when Muso returned from Soviet Union, and by the incident of G30S/PKI!

6.

Review topic on feminism and ecologism!

7.

Review topic on conservatism, especially that of new school of thought!

8.

Review topic on nationalism, especially that of ethnocentrism and chauvinism!

9.

Review topic on the module on the birth of Pancasila as well as fundamentalism!

10.

Review topic on anarchism, especially on its demand to dismiss state!

References Compulsory Benge, Eugene J. Pokok-Pokok Manajemen Modern. Eatwell, Roger and Anthony Wright. Ideologi-Ideologi Politik Kontemporer. Sekertariat

Negara

RI.

Risalah

Sidang

Badan

Penyelidik

Usaha-Usaha

Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (BPUPKI). Panitia Persiapan Kemerdekaan Indonesia (PPKI). Suggested textbooks Lemhannas’s textbooks

110 

PANCASILA AS AN OPEN IDEOLOGY IN GLOBALIZATION ERA

MODULE 6

Learning Activity 6 1.

Pancasila as an Open Ideology Pancasila functions to give orientation to move forward, obliging the

Indonesian people to be always aware of life situation they are facing. Rapid development of knowledge, technology, and communication makes world seem smaller and make interdependency among nations grow stronger. This means that national development is not only determined by domestic factors, but is also heavily influenced by capital related factors. The Indonesian people who are busy with attempts to solve domestic problems, such as poverty and social lag, are dragged down into global political network growing more influenced by the immense economic forces. Economc globalization clearly affects deeper, be it in form of dependency threat impeding national efforts towards self-reliance or in form of capital supporting among elite groups which is not always compatible with policy on welfare justice. All of these show that the Indonesian people are confronted with the challenge to survive, namely the challenge to possess way to live and humanely and fairly normal life level. That challenge can only be overcome if the Indonesian people in one hand remain maintaining their identity within national unity bond and in other hand, are able to develop its dynamics in order to be able to compete with other nations. That dynamic relies on the ability to adapt to the new and innovative life process to create much better work and product quality. People’s competitiveness will only increase if people always foster such rational, critical, and creative attitudes. To deal with that challenge, Pancasila is necessary to emerge as an open ideology since “closeness” will only bring to stagnancy. Being open does not mean changing basic values of Pancasila, but to explicate its insight more concretely so that Pancasila possesses a sharper quality to find solutions on new problems. An ideology is regarded as open as long as it is not under compulsion from external, but formed as people’s common agreement and makes it public property, instead.

111 

On the other hand, close ideology makes it absolute totalitary view so that it is impossible for people to make a distance from it or own it. People and even human dignity will be sacrificed for it. An open ideology comprises ideals and basic or fundamental values and is in directly operational so that it needs to be made explicit. Explication is done by facing it to various problems through a rational reflection so that its operational meaning will be revealed. Hence, it is obvious that explication of ideology is done by conducting a critical interpretation and reinterpretation. Then, it will show the power of an open ideology, which is dynamical and flexible, that cannot be shown by that of a close one which withers down ideals and basic or fundamental values as well as only able to show it as fossils. It is necessary to pay attention to several dimensions showing distinct characteristics of Pancasila orientation in explicating basic or fundamental values of Pancasila in order to make it more operable and functional in solving various problems and challenges. There are at least three dimensions, first of which is teleological dimension, showing that development has its goal, namely to realize 1945 Proclamation on ideals. Life is not merely determined by fate, but it depends on the grace of the One Supreme God and human efforts. This dimension thus engenders dynamic in nation life. Human life is not determined by obligation of history which relies on forces of production, as believed in Marxism. A man has such a great degree or dignity that it is not enough if only determined by economc factor. Men have ideals, spirit, will or determination. Therefore, they are able to realize their respective ideals, spirit, will or determination into reality using their creativity. The second dimension is ethical dimension. This means that human dignity has a central position in Pancasila. All development processes are directed to uphold human dignity by creating a humanistic life. Humanistic development should realize social justice in all aspects of life. On the other hand, humans are also demanded to be responsible for any efforts or choices they decide. Ethical dimension demands for a responsible development. The third dimension is integrative-integral dimension. This places humans not individualistically, but in its structural context. A human is a personal as well as

112 

a relation. Therefore, a human must be seen as an overall system covering society, world, and its environment. Development is not only directed to the improvement of human quality, but also that of structural quality. Balance in life can only be secured by this intact insight. Based on that analysis, it can be summed up several guidelines in explicating Pancasila operationally. Explication of Pancasila as an open ideology should take into account these structures in all aspects of social life. The first is the dynamication of social life. It is necessary to create in order to develop such social mechanism which is able to respond to any problems using innovation, creativity, and competitiveness. The second is democratization of people who are able to shape every adult citizen into acting on personal decision and responsibility. Democratic maturity is reflected in individual willingness to see problems in his surrounding, analyze, make a decision, and act on his own choice responsibly. The third is functionalization and refunctionalization of government and social institutions. A system of life has different parts with their respective functions. Dysfunction of a part will disturb the whole system. Yet, an overly burden on a part will also disturb the overall system of movement. Parts of society needs lively and balance cooperation and coordination. The fourth is institutionalization of values, which makes all social mechanisms, not only created in internalization of noble values, but also institutionalization of those values in all aspects of life so that there emerged a supporting relation of actors (those who do) and structures. 2.

Challenges for Actualizing Pancasila Pancasila is essentially a humanistic ideology having emancipatory

characteristic. As an ideology, Pancasila has the power and force to move people to perform real actions in their social life according to the aspirations of values it contains. These acts are emancipatory since they are basically the way to set free our nation from any forms of colonialization, oppression, violence, and domination. In association with that, we must realize that we are now living in global era. Penetration of science, technology, information, capital, and communication makes our world global village (Anthony Giddens), Borderless World (Kenichi

113 

Ohmae), or characterized by Space Compression (D. Harvey) along with its interests flow spreading to all parts of the world. If we are not careful and cannot survive due to having weak personality, we would be dragged down by global influence with its own interests. A process of globalization which brings up challenges and threats for Indonesian people in the current era is the urge of consumerism (Baudrillard). Globalization brings people to be able to see sky scrapers and luxurious hotels to stay and to visit. It also encourages them to fancy malls with their displays on clothing branded with Marks and Spencer, Nike and Adidas, prestigious restaurants such as Starbucks, Kentucky Fried Chicken, and McDonald; advertisements on TV as well as entertainment through multimedia. All of these things do not only offer daily needs commodities, but in a softer manner (unconsciously), they make people think that they are the real needs. It drives people to buy prestige by eating and buying at those restaurants or malls. This makes people live on obscure or unreal life since it does not only involve authentic personal decision making, but also involves the obscure or unreal one owing to the never ending influences of advertisements and TV. Those people who do not realize this condition become increasingly consumptive. People are inherently passive consumenrs and not able to produce their daily needs only by themselves, and these conditions aggravate their attitudes. These conditions have made Indonesia an “importer nation” that is compelled to live on imported daily needs. The Indonesian people are thus living an artificial life. They are made to live in luxury while the fact says that they are poor. This threat on consumerism lies on the fact that the forces of economic cooperations constitute global power able to make consumerism a tool for gaining profit by exploiting these poor nations and making them dependent to those global economic forces. It can be said that consumerism becomes such a tool for mauntaining domination of global economic authority over those suffering nations. In order to make the Indonesian people live freely based on their authentic identity, the Indonesian people should stand up against their suffering. Standing up refers to unifying forces to prevent such consumerism and dependency by changing the national orientation into conducting productive works. Productive

114 

works does not merely mean continuing the previous working ethics traditionally, but also improving a rational working quality. This means we need to grow work ethics which becomes such important matter for productive society. By improving work ethics, the Indonesian people will appreciate their own works and gain confidence since work ethics reflect progress and improvement of human and nation dignity. Leaving any kinds of obscure and artificial life, the Indonesian people will return to be a nation that is aware of its own dignity and value to compete with others. It is important to find a common determination and will. But before that, we need to deal with a tough challenge first, which is opportunism which has deeply rooted in Indonesian culture. Opportunistic attitude has reached to the Indonesian elite groups and resulted in the weakening of internal national resilience, dismissing national commitment, threatening national solidarity and leading to treat national unity and intactness as a mere formality. All of these are happening and first started by an assumption which does not regard and even deny those principles functioning as living norms that must be obeyed by saying that any action is good as long as it is useful for someone and beneficial for fulfilling his interests. So, basically there are not any basic or fundamental values, including those of Pancasila which must be accepted in order to regulate life normatively. It is obvious that this pragmatic attitude creates a wide opening for greed to come in all aspects, among those are greed for wealth (hebzucht), greed for power (heerzucht); and greed for respect (eerzucht) (I. Kant). Greed turns people into thinking to achieve their goals by all means, regardless of whether it is good or not. This makes moral values as guidelines in life ignored conscience and moral consciousness are put aside and enandgered from vanishing. Such opportunistic conditions drive people to act dishonestly, unfairly, and even arbitrarily by misusing authority, performing corruption, collusion and nepotism, committting violence and crimes. These mental dispositions later lead people to be such liars, hypocrites, those who are able to betray their own friends and even sell their own nation and state. In fact, these people have lost their dignity and esteem as human beings. Despite the abundant richness and high status, they are not true human beings. These are the dangers opportunism

115 

may pose to our nation and state. It can drag us down to the lowest level only because of opportunistic actions conducted by particular social, political, or national leadership elites. Is it still possible for the Indonesian people who have already infected with opportunism and faced threat of consumerism to rise and stand on their feet again? We should first realize that these opportunistic conditions provide an increasingly greater chance for domination of global interests and groups over those poor, suffered, and left behind countries. Thar is why,

if we wish to

overcome these national conditions and later establish a unified, integrated, and intact nation, it is necessary for us to seek to improve national cultural resilience and integrate it into the resilience in other aspects of life through communicative and practical actions (Habermas) as real manifestation inspired by emancipatory will and knowledge. Fragmentation of national resilience in all aspects of life will result in that of development success. Forming cultural resilience means conducting reorientation of spirit and the Preamble of 1945 Constitution, in which it principally means struggling for setting free our nation based on values of Pancasila. It is because of this reason that we live in globalization era where new problems and challenges must be reinterpreted properly so that then we can find the right and relevant national policy directions. Setting free is a process of releasing oneself from any domination and dependency into forming attitudes reflecting national identity and living in harmony in healthy interdependency. Then, we need to afford to grow public spheres (Habermas) in our respective regions so that collective and concrete actions and steps can be done as a manifestation of dialogue and communication result. Public spheres means arena of open communication and discussions which is held regularly between various elements of power as social control, such as social organization, press, and mass media, educational and experimental institutions to attain common consensus as a manifestation of setting free the nation from its suffer. 3.

Social Life Dynamics Globalization and waves of reformation in all aspects of life have caused

rapid changing in society and frequently brings out conflicts in social life.

116 

Openness and freedom climate accompanying them gives rise to various social, political, and cultural phenomena which influences are quite significant towards Pancasila as a state ideology. Degradation on national moral, violence, attitudes of placing

personal

and

group

interests,

extreme

and

fanatical

religious

understanding, conflicts in several parts of Indonesia as well as other social issues indicate that state ideology in this country has faded and there is critical issue of identity threatening state unity and integration and implementation of democracy. A series of these previously mentioned phenomena recently signs how our national ideology has weakened its power and many has often questioned Indonesian continuity as a nation and state. The main problem is that we are not aware of ideological wars accompanied by wars between interests in this world, which make developing countries like Indonesia involved in those wars. Wars of ideologies and of interests encompassing politicak, economic, and sociocultural aspects occur at a time and are interconnected. Industrial countries which are thirsty for exploiting economic resources of developing countries force other countries to jump into the waves of globalization. By doing this way, industrial countries force other countries to follow the same way of thinking as well as political, social, and economic systems like them. Demcracy, be it promoted by the followers of liberal democracy or those of social democracy,is half-coercively offered to the third world countries or citizens under the cover of globalization. Developing countries are considered as getting left behind economically if they do not follow political, economic, and social systems of industrial countries. These developing countries respond differently to this pressure. Half of them remain firm with their respective national ideologies and systems through selfisolation or adjustments, while the rest half follow those of big countries since they cannot know how to set themselves free from the big countries. Half countries of citizens have consciousness for fighting against the will of big countries. Those who fight are divided into two, one of which is those who find struggling hard for destroying the big countries as the only way to keep their respective countries survive, dignified, and have distinct personality. Al Qaeda and such can be included into this group. The other group seeking to fight against the Western is the nationalists in all countries who attempt to resist the Western pressure in all

117 

aspects of life by awakening all spiritual and material power of nation in order to keep that nation survive, dignified, and have distinct personality. The world’s major ideologies as represented by liberal democracy and social democracy compete with each other to turn the third world countries into their parts. Al Qaeda and such groups make “Islam” an ideology for their struggle and jihad qital (jihad in term of murdering) are regarded common enemies by the followers of liberal democracy and social demmocracy. Jihad qital used as an ideology to fight against the Western is not a form of monopoly by extreme Moslem groups, but it also piques interests of non-moslems who are under contradiction against liberal and socialist concepts. For instance, a number of terrorist actions moved by Western Moslems who once adhered to Christianity. Indonesia as a region containing huge social and economic potential becomes their battlefield. Half of Indonesian people have unconsciously become allies with the three ideologies. Quite a number of national elites firmly encourage interests of liberal and social democracy concepts without filtering them first. Those who attempt very hard to sell strategic BUMN (national corporations) without considering first public interests stipulated in constitution are example of followers or those who are influenced by liberal democracy concept. Meanwhile, those who often shout for referendum in areas of conflicts are example of followers or those who are influenced by social democracy. Both liberal democracy and social democracy contain positive points as long as their application is compatible with values existing in society. However, whenever people’s values and aspirastions are ignored, these two concepts will turn into such sources of trouble. Ignoring national and local values in implementation of an ideology is the same with welcoming foreigners to take control of our way of thinking. Western countries, either embracing liberal democracy or social democracy, actually have the same goal, which is to obtain influence and authority over economic sources in Indonesia. Oppositions to these democratic groups are those using Islamic symbols as a slogan, half of which are in forms of vulgar and terrorism actions. The rest half of them resist through political and social channels by adopting Middle Eastern Islamic radical concepts. It is this clash between these three foreign ideologies which influences

118 

political and security life in this country. If we are not careful in responding to it, it is not unlikely that Indonesia will be wiped out from global map. Uncontrollable terrorism will drive any forms of foreign interference, even in physical form. Unlimited liberalism will engender anarchism and chaos in all aspects of life, while the huge thoughts of social democratic followers about referendum and decentralization without based on effective national governance will cause national disintegration. 4.

Anatomy of Ideological (Interests) Conflicts The followers of liberal democracy wish the third world countries to do

changes in political, economic, social, and security systems. Change in political system is based on Western democratic principles, such as big autonomy as possible, if necessary, particular disintegration from NKRI (the Unitary State of the Republic of Indonesia). This is meant to make their economic interests able to penetrate into several regions easily since they have a bigger bargaining power than if they deal with strong central government. They even keep seeking to reduce state domination considered as restricting public freedom in politics, for instance by obliterating state authority in dismissing organizations although those organizations might enandger state’s sustainability. The same actions are also performed by the follower of social democracy. Difference lies only in the method and means used to grab political influence, take control over economic sources and influence people’s sympathy and thinking. The goals of followers of both democracies are restricted roles of state; strong roles of private sectors, primarily in business; the smooth market mechanism; deregulation by reducing all restrictions in industries; withdrawal of all trade beauraucratic obstacles; obliteration of tariffs in trade for securing free trade. Actually, it does not matter as long as free trade is able to provide protection for lower and middle level people. The problem is that there are a great number of elites who often ignore public interests since they have fortunately been trapped by Western thinking. In sociocultural aspect, they afford to achieve a great freedom for press and liberalization of overly religious life. These are influential for life as a nation and a state so that people’s thinking and lifestyles are in contrast with religious and traditional values. This affects on the degradation of national identity which

119 

upholds religious life until today. Besides, overly decentralization and increasing primordialism or spirit of indigenous identity threat integration of nation’s overly indigenous decentralization. Spirit becomes a trigger for horizontal conflict, instead, which may endanger sustainability of life as a nation. Not to mention that indigenous identity spirit is basically not accompanied by readiness of those respective regions in running self-governance and confronting wars between the world’s ideologies. Methods used are through economic pressure; forming opinion by mass media; control of the intellectuals by all issues such as human rights, environment, democratization, and their related issues. Those pressures are done, either by foreign policy or non-governmental organization. Embargo policy and such or policy done by borrowing hands of international institutions such as IMF and World Bank are tools for pressuring developing countries. Foreign NGOs through funding institutionss tie up national NGOs to express their interests by changing constitution, laws and various regulations. Multinational Corporation plays quite a big role in this case, especially in authorization of economic sources as well as control over central and regional political elites. In spite of being parallel in terms of both are promoting democracy, it is obvious that liberal democracy and social democracy are in conflict. The followers of liberal democracy spread their influences in Indonesia by emphasizing on changing of political system through influences over parliament and intellectual members.

meanwhile,

the

followers

of

social

democracy

prioritize

on

reinforcement of civil society elements. Conflicts between both democracies often took plac, such as by revealing to public negative points of opposite side like what can be found in the case of environmental pollution PT. Newmont. Another example was the liberalists who encouraged the establishment of Majelis Rakyat Papua (House of People of Papua) becoming the beginning of bicameral system establishment as federation country embrio. On the other hand, the followers of social democracy also showed up by encouraging the establishment of autonomy like Aceh. Various interests of both democracies do not always provide benefits and welfare for all Indonesian people. Turning point of all these conflicts of interests is

120 

in form of resistance by violence. One of these resistances was from Indonesian jihadi groups who spread terrorism issue. The followers of jihadi insist on eradicating Western influence, particularly of the USA. Terror of jihad qital (jihad in term of murder) becomes a symbol and method of struggling for totalistic Islam and upholding Islamic sharia’ as state legal system and Islamic philosophical foundation so that it can be said that its ideals are forming Islamic state and Khilafah Islamiyah. Religious practices tend to be puritanism and against with nationalization of Islamic teachings and there make them despise any Western secular. Jihadi followers keep on seeking to conduct sociopolitical pressure in which frequently done by violence in attempt of shaking of political and security stability. They direct any forms of terror as hard blows for democratic power and rejection towards liberal attituted in morality, lifestyle and politics. To obtain mass influence and forces, they establish groups of exclusive Islamic society. This exclusiveness results in diaspora of jihadi followers in forms of Islamic militants or extremists who politize Islam as their ideology. That enables the jihadi followers to interact with and build a network with groups of Middle Eastern Islamic society who share common missions and struggle lines, particularly Al Qaeda. It is clear that clash between these threee foreign ideologies causes unstability. We can understand how the terror used to fight against influences of social democracy and liberal democracy is harmful. Protests without strong reasons in all national corporations obstruct economic activity. Various products of regulations in contrast with public interests, such as the overly amendment of 1945 Constitution, drive into political unrest, for those who have ever struggled for that changing. 5.

How the Followers of Pancasila Deal with It Since Reformation era, the followers of Pancasila became oblivious by

democratization process because they did not really understand the world’s ideological wars map. There was actually an awareness to rise and stand up on its own, but also feared of being regarded as a New Order supporter for there was stigma that Pancasila was identical with New Order hitherto. They were even

121 

broken down and spreas into various political forces. Therefore, it is necessary to integrate common missions and struggle for facing global ideological wars so that we can maintain Indonesia’s dignity and distinct personality. Indonesia, based on Pancasila as an open ideology, keeps doing adjustments and adoptions to any positive developments of world’s ideologies. Thus, we should keep on performing filtering and reinvention traditions in order not to be dragged down or confused by those global political wars. Filtering effort should be in accordance with Pancasila as a state philosophy as well as common consensus. As a state philosophy, Pancasila contains basic or fundamental values that can be such filter of foreign ideologies coming in since the five principles of Pancasila, constituting an intehrated unity, basically comprise a number of primary values covering Indonesian distinct characteristics. These basic or fundamental values are relevant to democratic paradigms. In brief, Pancasila comprises several filters expectedly able to filter foreign penetration. These values include tauhid (belief in One and Only God), tolerance, pluralism, moderation, and balance. The first value is tauhid (belief in One and Only God). It means that we perceive and internalize to Oneness of God from our respective religious prespectives and are not allowed to compare or even judge other religions. This tauhid value is addressed to establish religious lives according to our respective religious values and not meant to equalize all religions. The second value is tasamuh (tolerance) in religious life and nation life. This is done minimize religious polarization and radicalism as well as traditional primordialism. Diversity, if not accompanied by tolerance, will form an excessive fanaticism. The third value is ta’addudiyah (pluralism). It means acknowledgment on religious, nation, ethnical, and racial differences as well as attempts of maintaining good communication and solidarity as the main prerequisite for tolerance. The fourth value is tasawuth (moderation). It is related to the Indonesian people’s openness towards various developments of world. This modernization attitude does not stand on its own. Besides based on religious and pluralistic principles, moderation should also be accompanied by tawazun (balance) and justice.

122 

The fifth value is tawazun (balance). It gives limitations for freedom (liberalism) so as not to make it go too further. The value is necessary to prevent the emergence of fanaticism, extremism, and radicalism. Furthermore, reorientation and reactualization of Pancasila as state philosophy using the approaches of tauhid, tasamuh, ta'addudiyah, tawasuth, and tawazun become quite contextual and worth trying to implement in dealing with dynamics of world’s ideologies. 6.

Orientation of Pancasila It is important to note that Pancasila is also a basis of change and

orientation for implementation of future development, but not for used arbitrarily for building a narrow minded power and interests. Values of Pancasila include all needs of human rights so that they become bases and life philosophy of the Indonesian people who are heterogenous, whether in aspect of religion, ethnic, race, language, community groups or interests. Then, if compared to other ideologies in the world, orientation of Pancasila is exceedingly different, as previously mentioned. a.

Pancasila is humanity orientation, meaning that it is not only the

second principle (just and civilized humanity), but the rest four principles also become the bases for all aspects of national life. Pancasila is an open ideology oriented towards humanity. b.

Pancasila acknowledges God as the Creator and the Source of

Existence as well as appreciates religious practices and internalization in social life as a meaningful thing. Religious practices and internalization manifested in religious life show that a human is already complete and intact as a person or individual. c.

Visions of Pancasila about humans are always integrative and view

men as both complete and intact human and the whole society. Humans’ lives cannot be reduced in economic aspect only, but we also need to find out the basis of infrastructures in other aspects. Therefore, economic development must be planned integrally with that of other aspects in order to improve life quality. Pancasila views society or people more as an

123 

already revealed cultural reality, both infrastructurally and suprastructurally in all aspects of life. d.

Pancasila also recognizes the existence of levels or classes within

society. This is an undeniable reality. There must always be difference in the interests within society, if which is not regulated well, will result in the rise of clash or dispute. However, this does not mean that social conflict is the characteristic becoming the ground for social relationship. The basis for social relationship is not feud or hatred, but kinship solidarity. This means that each member of society is not treated as an enemy (as in communism context), a stranger (as in liberalism context), except a brother or sister or partner to cooperate with based on solidarity and openness. e.

Pancasila recognizes private property as a necessary factor for

developing human’s personality and maintaining social mobility. This private property, on the other hand, also has social functions. f.

Viewpoint of Pancasila about alienation is connected to the first

paragraph of the Preamble of 1945 Constitution, reading "... kemerdekaan itu ialah hak segala bangsa dan oleh sebab itu, maka penjajahan diatas dunia harus dihapuskan karena tidak sesuai dengan perikemanusiaan dan perikeadilan." (That Freedom is actually a right of all nations and therefore colonization in this world must be removed as it contravenes the humanity and justice.). This means that Pancasila is essentially inspired to eliminate any kinds of alienation. This alienation still exists in this world, whether in capitalist society, communist society, or socialist society. g.

Moral aspect of Pancasila is related to obligation of each Indonesian

citizen to improve common life according to the five basic principles of Pancasila as norms by our respective abilities and skills. Every citizen should morally understand and internalize values of Pancasila with his conscience since they truly show a citizen’s dignity as a human being. Pancasila believes that it is not only the goals that must be ethically good, but the way and means of achieving them must be ethically good, as well. h.

In association with state, Pancasila views a state not as a property of

particular groups or classes only, but it is a property of its entire people so

124 

that a state must consider and respect the interests of its entire people. A state originates from a number of its citizens acknowledged respectively as self-reliant, free, and responsible individual. Therefore, a state based on Pancasila is a democratic state having the principle of power coming from its people, ran by its people through representatives, and executed for the entire people’s interests. i.

In

relation

with

democracy,

Pancasila

based

democracy

consequently does not wish for any dogmatic attitudes within political parties, but wish for growing maturity in attitudes. Therefore, rational critical attitudes should be appreciated and developed in order to improve creatively within parties. Competition between parties in political life must not be understood and viewed only from its negative points, but also in its positive points, that it can be beneficial, as long as executed within the spirit of kinship solidarity. j.

In relation with nationalism, by recognizing the principle of just and

civilized humanity, Pancasla firmly declares that nationalism is a fundamental principle Summary Discussing development of Indonesian nation and state currently, we can understand that the level of collective spirit in all aspects of life has degraded. It is proven by how many people ignore Pancasila as an ideology in nation life, the overly implementation of democracy, an extreme gap in economic life, the increasingly developing corruption culture, unstable security, degradation

of

cultural values, etc. Thus, it is necessary to do comprehensive efforts to grow again sense of collectiveness in order to maintain national unity and integrity by sticking to national paradigms, namely Pancasila as ideal basis, UUD 1945 as constitutional basis, Wawasan Nusantara (National Archipelagic Outlook) as visional basis, national resilience as conceptual basis as well as other unity of regulations as operational basis. In addition, globalization in one hand indeed quickens acquisition of science and knowledge as well as enriches people’s insight. Still, development taking place in globalization process also contains interests, cultural values, or ideologies

125 

which cannot be accepted thoroughly and in line with national interests, cultural values, as well as ideologies having values highly upheld in Pancasila ideology. Noble

cultural

values

of

Indonesian

people,

such

as

sense

of

collectiveness, kinship solidarity, cooperativeness with each other, deliberative representatives, solidarity between interreligion adherents, are getting faded away since they are influenced by foreign ideologies like liberalism and individualism so that the spirit to implement values contained in Bhinneka Tunggal Ika (Unity in Diversity) is weakened. Influences of foreign ideologies also affect on the shift of individual or social characters which were firstly oriented towards public, nation, state interests, into those of individual or groups, or, attitudes which are firstly polite and noble turning into destructive actions. These conditions are included in the factors affecting on the weakened of spirit in implementing values in Pancasila. Exercise 1.

Is it true that there is a crisis of ignorance or apatheticism towards Pancasila?

2.

Globalization has brought quite a number of ironies contradictions, waves of democratization; monetary, economical and political crisis (since the end of 1997) leading to Pancasila which is gradually losing its relevancy. Elaborate this statement!

3.

Explain factors making Pancasila have a harder position and marginalized! Explain also strategic steps urging to overcome those problems!

Direction to Answer the Questions! 1. Learn social life dynamics! 2. Learn anatomy of conflict! 3. Study further on social life dynamics and orientation of Pancasila!

References Compulsory Petras, James and Henry Veltmeyer. Imperialisme Abad 21. Poespowardojo, Soejanto. Filsafat Pancasila. Steger, Manfred B. Globalisasi, Bangkitnya Ideologi Pasar.

126 

Additional Adams, Lan. Ideologi Politik Mutakhir. Adisusilo, Sutarjo, J.R. Sejarah Pemikiran Barat. Besar, Abdul Kadir. Pancasila. Eatwell, Roger and Anthony Wright. Ideologi Politik Kontemporer. Hass, Willy Brandt. Shaping Globalization. Newman, Michael. Sosialisme Abad 21. Thompson, John B. Kritik Ideologi Global. Wibowo, Francis Wahono. Neoliberalisme (Editor l).

Suggested Textbook Lemhannas’s textbooks on ideology.

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