Modern A Formation
A modern version of the classic "A" formation direct-snap (shotgun) offense used by the New York Giants under ...
THE MODERN "A" FORMATION F ORMATION A Playbook
by Ted Seay
Copyright © 2006 by Edmond E. Seay III
TABLE OF CONTENTS
Introduction The “A” Formation System The Run Game - Straight Series The Run Game - Half-Spin Runs The Passing Game Attacking with the “A”
Page 3 Page 5 Page 8 Page 18 Page 23 Page 29
INTRODUCTION: Taking the “A” “A ” Train This is the sequel to a brief paper I wrote in 2004 on one of the most interesting direct-snap offenses I have yet encountered -- the "A" formation that Steve Owen invented and coached with the New York Giants from the late 1930's to the early 1950's.
In his 1952 autobiography My Kind of Football Football,, Coach Owen described how the A formation came about: I had the idea for the A formation from the first time I saw Link Lyman [a tackle for the Chicago Chica go Bears in the 1930's who experimented with varying his splits when he lined up on defense] slide off from the customary tackle position. He showed me what line splits could achieve. I worked out the formation first in 1935 but did not use it until 1937, against the Redskins in Washington...we finished second in '37 and went with the A all the way in '38 to win the world title by defeating Green Bay 23-17. 23-17. But I am not going going to claim the A did it all -- we had a bunch of mighty good players, who would have been stars in any formation. My theory behind the A was this: I wanted to spread without losing concentrated attacking power, and yet keep the defense scattered along a wide front so that it could not jam in on us at any point. To do this I hit on the idea of deploying my line strong to one side, and my backs backs strong to the other side. So far as I know this was an original formation. In the A, the line shows four men to the right of center and two to the left. But in the backfield the weight is to the left of center, with the wingback out on the left flank. The formation can can be run in the other direction, with line strong to the left and backs heavy to the right. The A exaggerates the effect of a split line, to carry the spread into the backfield. When first introduced, we did not use the man-in-motion before the snap, but that factor was soon developed for Ward Cuff.
Steve Owens won the Heisman Trophy for Oklahoma in 1969; Steve Owen coached the New York Giants from 1930-1953. While there is a book which includes includes information about about the “A” formation and which spells the coach’s name as “ Owens”, that is incorrect -- Owens was the player, Owen was the coach.
From wingback he moved toward the slot between left half [quarterback] and fullback, with the timing to arrive there as the left half spun to make his fakes or hand offs. This reverse alone made Cuff one of the great backs of football. When we first experimented with the A we had used the standard single wing, and in practice we called my new system A and the single wing B. After noting the possibilities the new formation opened up, we thought it should rightly head the alphabet as A, and we forgot about B and the other twenty-four letters as well. Coach Owen added that the “A” formation was also excellent for quick-kicking. (My Kind of Football Football - Joe King, ed.: David McKay, New York, York, 1952.) 1952.) Steve Owen's teams were always known for their defense, and were generally composed of two-way two-way players. Both of these facts facts limited his capacity to explore the outer limits of “A” formation football, in my opinion. I have taken his concepts and added some modern passing ideas from the Mouse Davis Run and Shoot attack, the Hal Mumme Air Raid offense, and from the Bunch Attack that has been popularized over the past few years by Andrew Coverdale and Dan Robinson. The numbering and nomenclature that follow are entirely mine, as are the borrowed pass plays. The runs, however, are pure Steve Owen. The half-spin series that he introduced confounded defenders all over the NFL, and remains one of the best and most deceptive play series I have yet encountered. I believe Steve Owen has been seriously overlooked as an offensive innovator, and I think it is time he received his due for the intriguing “A” formation. I hope that the 16 plays contained in this brief playbook will help in some small way to achieve that recognition.
THE “A” FORMATION SYSTEM
NUMBERING AND PLAY-CALLING The “A” formation numbering and nomenclature systems are listed above. Both the holes (large numbers across the top) and the backs (small numbers beneath the position abbreviation) are numbered. Plays are all called with with three digits: First digit=series: digit=series : 000 - Straight series run without motion motion - ball snapped to FB or BB; 100 - Straight Straight series run with motion motion - ball snapped to FB or BB. With these two series, the second digit indicates the ball carrier (BB=2, FB=4), and the third digit indicates the hole. 200 - Passing play, play, ball snapped snapped to QB’s numbers. numbers. With this series, the second digit means the play is run with no motion (0) or with motion (1). (1). The third digit is reserved for the pass route package. 300 - Half-spin running play, play, ball snapped snapped to QB’s wing-side elbow. Finally, the second digit in the half-spin series indicates the eventual ball carrier (the ball is always snapped to the QB first), and the third digit indicates the hole.
PERSONNEL REQUIREMENTS REQUIREMENTS Split End: This is not a position for Smurfs -- the “A” formation split end should have a bit of size and blocking ability, as well as the kind of football quickness that will help him gain gain separation from man man defenders. He will normally split from the OT by about 10-15 yards (although we can line him up as close as 1 yard outside the OT, and can even replace him in that position with a second TE). Tight End: A prototypical tight end, big, strong and a good blocker with hands. Not too many deep pass routes for him, but plenty of angle blocks on linemen and backers in the defensive core. Wingback (1 (1 back): back): Speed kills. This should be the fastest man on your team who can catch a football. I believe fast people can be taught how to run the half-spin sweep well, but you can't teach good runners speed. Like the SE, the WB must be able to block downfield, although he is called on more often to drive a defender deep, then screen him off from the ball once he reacts up to the run. Blocking Back (2 back): back): This is a "third guard" who can be taught to catch short passes in the flats. He should love blocking, and and especially laying people out on blindside trap blocks. Fullback (4 back): The heart and soul of your running game. Once defenses unbalance themselves to shut down the half-spin sweep (Play 311, page 18), you have to be able to hurt them with traps and dives up the middle to the FB. Quarterback (3 back): back): Very similar to the T-formation T-formation QB, with lots of faking, ball-handling and passing. If you have a good good runner who is also your best passer, you can play him here -- but if your best and fastest runner can pass a bit, put him in at wingback and install an option pass for him. Outside Tackle: Must be a superior one-on-one blocker with quick feet --- out on an island with lots of running plays coming his way. Rarely asked to block more than one gap over, and no pulling or trapping to speak of. Inside Tackle: Tackle: Should be your biggest, strongest lineman. Limited pulling, mostly down blocks and cut-offs. Middle Guard: Your premier puller and trapper. Should be big and and strong enough to serve as the point man in a three-man wedge with IT and C. Center: Must be steady, willing to work hard to master the long snap to three different backs, and the art of snapping and then blocking either gap or straight ahead.
Quick Guard: Guard: Another good puller, but mainly down down and cut-off blocks. Should be a good one-on-one pass blocker. Line Splits: The three offensive linemen in the middle of the formation -- the Center, Middle Guard and Inside Tackle Tackle -- split "for comfort". That means they line up an inch or two from each other, with the MG and IT lining up their helmets on the Center's belt. The Outside Tackle, Quick Guard, and Tight End End all line up a yard yard apart from the man inside them. The OT and QG are also lined up with their helmet even with the Center's belt, but the TE can take a bit more of the ball -- he only needs to make sure he is not in the neutral zone. The Wingback lines up a yard outside and and a yard behind the TE. The Blocking Back lines two feet behind the Quick Guard, with his outside foot behind the QG's inside foot. The Fullback is 4.5 yards deep, directly behind the Center; Center; and the Quarterback is 4 yards deep, directly behind the gap between the MG and IT. The only variation I have made on Coach Owen's classic “A” formation is to split the SE out by 10-15 yards, depending on the tactical situation on the field. I am a strong believer in semi-open formations in football, although I would consider bringing in a second TE to replace the SE in short yardage or goal line situations. In that case, the second TE would line up a yard outside the OT.
THE RUNNING GAME: 000 SERIES Even though I consider the half-spin series to be the center of the “A” formation attack, I am starting off with straight series runs without motion by the wingback. When conditions are wet, muddy, and/or windy, you want a core offense to be able to call upon. I will show the same plays with motion (100 series) starting on page 13. Play 024: 024 :
This is essentially a trick play, but one that the defense is forced to respect by the placement of the Blocking Back in the crease between the Center and Quick Guard, where he can receive a snap at any moment. The MG, C and QG need to block the gap directly in front of the BB to make this play work. work. The method shown is only one possibility. An excellent "reward" play for linemen, to give them a carry late in the game as thanks for their service in the trenches.
Play 042: 042 :
Your best power running back behind three down blocks, a kick-out, and three lead blockers. The FB starts outside for three steps before cutting sharply into the hole. The spacing of the “A” formation formation line should ensure blocking angles all along the defensive front. We split the SE out to widen the defense on the Split side of the formation, then we run off-tackle with power inside the wide defender(s). If your SE is a good enough receiver to draw coverage from 1.5 or even 2 defenders, the off-tackle play inside him will be extremely effective.
Play 043: 043 :
A useful counter off the previous play. If the defense starts to over-adjust to the off-tackle threat, Play 043, an adaptation of the classic Wing-T tackle trap (134 C.T.), can really cut a swathe through the defensive interior. Play 043 should also be run exactly as diagramed in Play 042, except that the Fullback takes a tighter angle to the off-tackle (2) hole, then cuts back sharply and follows the block block of the pulling Outside Tackle. Blocking Back and Quarterback pick off any defensive leakage back toward the hole, but there probably won't be much -- the off-tackle threat is a strong one.
Play 044: 044 :
An inside power play with little pretense of deception. The Fullback follows the lead blocks of the Quarterback and Blocking Back. Back. The "middle 3" linemen can block it Wedge as illustrated, or Zone.
Play 045: 045 :
Basic power off-tackle off-tackle to the Wing side of the formation. Middle Guard has the important kick-out block on the EMLOS defender, but there are three down blocks on the playside and three lead blockers (Blocking Back, QB, and Inside Tackle) as well. Fullback takes three steps toward the sideline and cuts, just like Play 042.
THE RUNNING GAME: 100 SERIES The 00 series plays can and should also be run with the WB going in half-spin (30 series) motion. motion. This makes it much harder for the defense to tee off on the half-spin series when you do run it. Play 124: 124 :
You will often see the middle LB vacate his position and drift toward the Split side of the formation formation when the WB goes goes in motion. One way to attack this adjustment is to run one of the FB plays from the half-spin series (343 or 344, pp. 21-22). Another way, however, is to call 124 and run your Blocking Back through the gap which the MLB has vacated. An easy 5-6 yards gained this way will embarrass the MLB into staying home when the WB goes into motion -- so that you can then run the 311 sweep and 312 long trap (pp. 18 and 19, respectively).
Play 142: 142 :
The advantages gained from running this play with motion may seem minimal, since the defense is probably looking at the 1 and 2 holes as your likely point of attack once you you send the WB in motion. However, I believe in being prepared for unusual defensive alignments and adjustments, and there is no new teaching involved in running the play this way, so I have included it.
Play 143: 143 :
You may not end up calling 144 or 143 very often, but again, I have included them to demonstrate what you can do with no extra teaching and in case you are facing special defensive adjustments to motion.
Play 144: 144 :
Here the WB is in perfect position to add to the power blocking ahead of the FB. He forms a “flying wedge” with the BB and QB on on the edges of the C-MG-IT C-MG-IT “troika”.
Play 145: 145 :
The WB’s motion can help turn this straightforward off-tackle run into a misdirection play if the defense is over-reacting to motion.
THE RUNNING GAME: 300 SERIES The Owen half-spin series from the “A” formation anticipated the "Orbit" sweep by several decades, and was by all accounts a really tough series to slow down, much less stop. Play 311: 311 :
This is the essential threat of the “A” formation half-spin series. In play 311, the ball is snapped to the point where the quarterback will be when he halfspins, allowing him to move forward and accept the snap in one motion. He hands the ball to the wingback, then fakes to the fullback before bootlegging away from the sweeping wingback. The fullback takes a lateral step, as he does with all the plays in this series, to give the wingback time to pass in front of him. He then gives a great great fake of taking the hand-off from the quarterback, and plunges full speed into the line ahead of him, looking to attract attract as many defenders as possible with his fake. If he is tackled at the LOS, he is doing his job. The wingback takes the hand-off and heads for the hash marks, numbers, and sidelines. This is a wide play, and speed matters.
Play 312: 312 :
Slight deception regarding the point of attack, although the EMLOS defender may not think it slight. After a steady diet of of hooking him inside on Play 311, he now gets kicked out and the cavalcade of blockers heads downfield inside of him. Easy to get defenders overshooting the POA on this play. Call it when the defense starts bringing the EMLOS defender hard upfield to cut off the 311 sweep.
Play 336: 336 :
The QB bootleg off the half-spin action. action. It provides the vital third threat that makes the half-spin series go. Defenses cannot load up to the sweep side or in the middle, or else the bootleg will break them. MG pulls and tries to hook the EMLOS defender to the Wing side of the formation. BB slides out through the line and into the Wing side flat, while TE cuts to the Corner after faking an inside block -- the cut should take place at about +5 yards. SE runs a Shallow Shallow Cross, while WB turns his Swing route into a deep Wheel, and can become a "transcontinental" throwback possibility for the QB. The QB should look at the BB first -- if he is open, throw the ball; if he is covered, throw it to TE if you are being pressured, or run if you are not. The QB’s path will will probably be wider than diagramed -- he must get around the EMLOS defender if this play is going to work.
Play 343: 343 :
The inside complement to the outside threat posed by Play 311. We will trap the first DL to the Wing side of the Center, with the Fullback taking the ball inside the trap block of the MG.
Play 344: 344 :
A counter trap to the fullback, Play 344 will gain yards after the defense starts to adjust to the 311/343 311/343 portion of the series. This play is a good way way to hit off-tackle to the Wing side with deception -- you can count on a number of defenders following the motion back, while others will be planted in the middle waiting for the quick trap to the fullback. fullback. Play 344 serves almost as a Counter Gap play once you establish the first two running plays in the series.
THE PASSING GAME: 200 SERIES 201 Choice Choice :
Choice is a classic Run and Shoot route package adapted to the modern “A” formation. The other receivers clear out for SE, who runs a route based on on how the cornerback plays him: If the corner plays inside leverage, run a Speed Out at +5 yards; if the corner presses, run the Fade route; if the corner plays outside leverage, run the 3-step Slant; and if the corner maintains more than a 6 yard cushion, run a 3-step Hitch. If the QB feels more than one defender on SE, he slides across to the next receiver inside, BB, then TE and WB.
202 Stick: Stick:
A great ball-control route package, but with a very effective deep shot built in. BB runs a quick Shoot at +1 yard deep, looking for the ball as soon as he breaks outside; TE runs a Stick, breaking outside at +6, while WB runs a landmark Fade that puts him about 16 yards wide of his tackle and at about +10-12 when the ball is thrown. SE runs a quick Post on the backside. Coverdale and Robinson call this “Turn”. QB is thinking Stick -- the Shoot pattern pattern becomes a reaction if the defender takes the Stick away. Zone coverage: The flat defender is QB's read. If he hangs and takes away away TE's Stick, throw the Shoot Shoot immediately to give BB space to run to. to. If he jumps the Shoot, TE will have lots of space to make make the catch. Hit his downfield number with the ball to let him spin and head straight downfield in the same motion. Man coverage: BB's hidden position complicates his man's job enormously -there are too many bodies to run through to cover the quick Shoot with any reliability. Switching won't work, work, either -- notice all three patterns are breaking outside, leaving an inside switcher with nothing but air to cover. We probably have a speed mismatch somewhere, most likely WB's Fade -- if QB can hold the ball and wait, you can hit a big play.
203 Space: Space:
Once you establish 202 Stick as a consistent package, the Wing-side Corner will start flying wide and deep as soon as he sees the WB release on what looks like his landmark Fade from 202. In 203 Space, Space, however, the WB cuts vertical at about +4 yards yards and curls back inside to look for the ball. ball. TE runs a shortish (+7) Hook route. Like the WB on his Mini-Curl, the TE will show his numbers to the QB if he is open. With the BB’s Shoot route, this gives the QB an easy distribution of three receivers separated by significant amounts of horizontal space, but not so deep that he has to hold the ball for long. long. The SE will run a conditional Slant route on the backside -- Slant if the defender is 5 or more yards off you at the decision point (about +3 yards), otherwise Fade. The easiest way to read this is from SE to TE to WB to BB, backside to frontside. If you have an experienced QB, however, especially at the HS level or above, you can have him make the WB his object receiver -- look to him first and throw if he’s open. Otherwise, if the Mini-Curl route is invaded from outside, look next to BB’s Shoot; if the Mini-Curl is invaded from inside, go to the TE’s Hook. Either way, save this package for situations where the defense is playing a loose zone or man man coverage, trying to stop the deep pass. The yards-aftercatch potential from 203 Space is excellent.
As much as I like the Bunch Attack of Coaches Andrew Coverdale and Dan Robinson, I am not a big fan of their Bunch Mesh route package from the “A” formation. To me, the Whip-Read route by the #1 receiver in the Bunch is just not as easy to run or effective when you run it from a tight wing, as from the Single Wing or “A” formation. However, I like the “Under” tag that Coach Coverdale has developed for the Mesh package so much that I have made it one of the principal parts of the “A” passing game. The TE runs a Corner route and the BB a Shoot route just as they would for the Bunch Mesh package. However, the SE and and WB run Shallow Cross routes that mesh near the LOS with the WB crossing over the SE to scrape off any tight man coverage. The QB thus has three receivers in his line of sight at various depths, making the reads on this play extremely easy. You can either hold the ball and look for the TE deep, dropping down to the BB and SE as necessary; or you can prioritize the BB’s Shoot route and come inside to the SE if the Shoot isn’t there. The WB becomes an option for the QB if the defense starts to ignore him. Finally, you can also tag the SE with anything you want after the defense starts to grow accustomed to his Shallow Shallow Cross -- a Post, Dig, anything. anything. You will find it very easy to get him in one-on-one coverage situations with this route package.
The next two pass route packages use half-spin motion by the WB, but since I do not suggest using aggressive line blocking, they cannot really be classed as play action. Instead, they operate best if the defense is expecting a pass. pass. The TE Cross package package is an old favorite of Norm Chow’s Chow’s from his BYU days. It gives the QB a triangle read on the SE’s Go route deep, the TE’s Shallow Cross coming from the backside, and the WB’s Swing route outside and down low. The BB should check for a blitz by the ILB or OLB to his side, then release into a Wheel route on the backside of the play to keep the secondary honest. The QB should “peek” first at the SE’s Go to see if there is an easy six points on offer; from there he can check down to the WB (sooner) or or TE (later). The WB’s Swing route is also the “Q” (quick) route in this package, where the QB can go with the ball right away if he feels pressure
216 Floo Flood d:
The Flood mechanism has been in use for many years by many teams. It gives the QB three receivers in his line of sight at different depths, and allows him to check down quickly and easily. Because all three receivers start start on the wing side of the formation at the snap, this play develops quicker than 204 Under. In addition, the motion by the WB adds an element of misdirection. Use of the half-spin motion followed by pass blocking should cause two things to happen: the linebackers will surge forward at the snap, then "bail out" deep when they see the pass-block key from the offensive offensive line. This in turn should allow both the BB and TE to get out into their routes quickly and easily. The QB should peek at the TE’s Corner route, then come down to the BB and finally the WB. The WB’s Swing route is also the QB’s “Q” (quick) (quick) route in this package in case of early defensive pressure.
ATTACKING WITH THE “A” I will address the remarks that follow to two audiences: Direct-snap coaches: The best way to view the “A” formation is as Steve Owen designed it -- a formation with the backfield strong in one direction and the line strong in another. If you currently run an unbalanced formation, defenses you face which are comfortable with the idea of shifting one man over to your strong side will show strong schizoid tendencies against the “A” -- which way do they shift? If your formation formation is balanced, the defense will probably probably line up its middle man over your center, but may not feel comfortable staying aligned that way for long. In any event, you you will have a psychological psychological advantage simply by coming out and lining up in (or even better, shifting into) the “A”. The 000 series will be very familiar to those of you who run a power series in your offense. The 100 series adds adds the wrinkle of “half-spin” “half-spin” motion by the WB WB to keep defenders honest. The 300 series, as I have noted before, is one of the best and most deceptive half-spin half-spin series I have seen anywhere. It is just as as effective as Mark Speckman’s Fly offense, in my opinion, and involves many of the same elements -- a motion back threatening a fast sweep; a QB with his back to the defense “dealing the cards” as backs run by him, then dropping and either setting up to pass or bootlegging outside, away from the sweep; and a powerful thrust inside by the FB, who in this attack is your best power runner. Finally, the 200 series combines some of the most advanced concepts in the modern passing game with the classic “A” formation, along with a split receiver to try and draw more defenders away from the offensive core than was the case with Steve Owen’s original version. The whole passing game is there -the deep shot, the ball-control pass, the action pass with the QB threatening both to run and throw the ball, and even a draw play of sorts -- you can run 024 or 124 with the QB faking a drop-back pass to influence the linebackers. QB-under-Center coaches: I do not recommend recommend the “A” formation formation as a “surprise” offense that you you can install to throw opponents off-guard. I think you would be much better served by trying the single wing instead, if that is what you are looking for. There is really no point in installing the “A” unless you’re planning on running the 300 half-spin series, and in my opinion it is too learning-intensive to be able to throw in as an afterthought or change-up offense. If you are interested in changing over to a direct-snap offense, on the other hand, I don’t think you can find a better combination of power, deception and passing potential than the “A”. If you would like more information on installing the offense, feel free to e-mail me at seayee AT hotmail DOT com.