Minimising Post Harvest Loss of Tomato

July 13, 2017 | Author: Praveen Sapkota | Category: Tomato, Vegetables, Packaging And Labeling, Horticulture And Gardening, Food And Drink
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IAAS, Rampur, Campus...


A proposal on:

Identification of efficient packaging and transportation methods to minimize post harvest loss of tomatoes

Submitted to: Mrs. Kalyani Mishra Lecturer, Course in-charge Department of Horticulture Institute of Agriculture and Animal Science Rampur, Chitwan, Nepal

Submitted by: Praveen Sapkota Class Roll No: 19 Exam Roll No: BSc Ag 6th Semester IAAS Rampur, Chitwan Nepal

July 2006

Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


Section A Total Budget: Rs. 7, 11, 792

Duration of Research: Start-August 2006 End- August 2008

Project location: Rampur, Chitwan

Date of submission: July 4th 2006

Project title: Identification of efficient packaging and transportation methods to minimize post harvest loss of tomatoes.

Project Coordinator: Praveen Sapkota Rampur Chitwan Nepal Tel: 9845026716 Email add: [email protected] [email protected] [email protected]

Collaborators: Socio economist: Sarbottam Piya Post harvest horticulturist: Rakesh Awale Out reach officer: Santosh Adhikari Lab technician: Diwash Bista District agriculture development office, Chitwan

Responsible Organization: IAAS, Rampur Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


LOGICAL FRAMEWORK Narrative summary Goal- Farmers income increased through identification of efficient packaging and transportation method Purpose- Identification of efficient packaging and transportation method to reduce post harvest losses. Output(1) Efficient packaging and transportation method to reduce post harvest losses identified (2) Effective technology for efficient packaging and transportation method generated.

(3) Research finding published.

(4) Dissemination and extension of the technology. Activities 1.1 Collection of information about different types of packaging and transportation methods. 1.2 Field survey to know deferent packaging and transportation methods.

1.3 Field trial to identify and transportation method. 2.1 Past reviews about effective technology for efficient packaging and transportation method. 3.1 Analysis of the result 3.2 Published in leaflet 4.1 Gathering traders



4.2 field demonstration and training Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july 4.3 Frequent follow up

OVI By Aug 2008, farmers income increased by 20%

MOV -Visited report

Important assumptions Biotic and abiotic factor remain suitable.

By Aug,2008, post harvest losses reduces by 20%

-Market observation

Farmers will technology

By Jan, 2007, Most efficient packaging and transportation method identified. By Jan, 2007, Most effective technology for efficient packaging and transportation method generated. By July, 2007, good quality reports, pump lets published. By Jan. 2008, 100 farmers and traders trained.


Most efficient packaging and transportation methods is among the available packaging and transportation method. Technology will be cost effective minimizing post harvest losses.

Field observation



Report Budget will be available Field visit Adequate extension personnel and budget will be available.

By Aug, 2006, information collected at least about 5 packaging and transportation methods. By Oct, 2006, Field survey conducted to know different packaging and transportation methods. By Jan, 2007, Most efficient packaging and transportation method identified. By March 2007, information About effective technology for efficient packaging available. By may 2007 analysis of result. By Sept, 2007 at least 1 leaflet published. By Dec,2007, 100 farmers and traders Gathered By Jan,2008;at least 100 farmers trained, 5 Demonstration ByMarch,2008,frequent follow for 5 times


Information will be available about packaging and transportation methods.


Farmers and traders will cooperate.

Field observation

Budget will be available.

Past reviews will be available Report

Budget will be available. Report Budget will be available Report Report

Farmers and Traders will Cooperate. Budget will be available.


Annual report

Farmers and traders will Cooperate. 4

Section B PROJECT INTRODUCTION AND PURPOSE Background Tomatoes (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill), belongs to the nightshade or Solanaceae family and to the genus Lycopersicon, is grown all over the world. The genus comprises a few species of annual or short-lived perennial, herbaceous plants. It is a warm-season plant and requires relatively long growing season to produce profitable yields. It is used as salads, soups, sauces, juice and in several cooked forms (Saini, 1996).It is grown in nearly all home gardens and a large percentage of market gardeners and truck growers. As a processing crop it ranks first among the vegetables. Tomato is one of the most highly praised vegetables consumed widely and it is a major source of vitamins and minerals. (Shanmugvelu, 1981). The areas under tomato crop and number of farmers growing tomato have been increasing due to high income obtained from this crop compared to cereals and other annual crops (Budhathoki et al., 2001). It is estimated that 22,000 hectares of land is under tomato in Nepal with productivity of 10.5 ton/ha. This productivity is lower as compared to that of world (25.7tonnes/ha) (Zhiling et al., 2000). The poor productivity is due to the factors partly associated with the pre-harvest practices and partly with the lack of appropriate post harvest techniques post harvest factors include the lack of cold storage facilities, transport problem, lack of sound marketing facilities post harvest diseases, insects and pest (Budhathoki et al., 2001). Post harvest losses of tomato are a paramount factor that should be considered by all. In fact, the amount of losses recorded after harvesting reflects the efficiency of the marketing system. A mostly post harvest loss of tomato occurs during packaging and transportation. Assessments on postharvest deterioration have shown loss of 20 –30% while transporting from field to market. The rate of losses depends upon the produce itself and upon environment, establishing each produce requirements for post harvest handling. What problems or need is the project aimed at? Tomato is a perishable vegetable crop and has higher degree of post harvest loss, Due to its perishable nature; farmers are losing a bulk of the produce each year. After harvest packaging materials and transportation also play significant role in postharvest losses. Bamboo baskets and crates are mostly used in terai regions, while Doko are used in hilly areas. The main causes that post-harvest handling practices are not efficient. Physical losses and quality reduction are significant under the local traditional packaging and transpiration procedures Baskets and sacks are carried on top of buses, which results in rough handling conditions that are the main factors responsible for high losses and quality reduction. Pressure due to high load also play vital role in quality deterioration of tomatoes.

Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


Tomatoes get bruised, pierced, squeezed due to improper handling and undergo different level of deterioration. These types of post harvest losses causes’ loss of investments and labor and on the other hand, create environmental pollution (Bistha, 2002). Additional monetary losses are also incurred due to damaged produce, which brings lower prices in the market. Who will be the beneficiaries? All the farm families who are engaged in commercial cultivation, handling, packaging and marketing will get the beneficiaries.

Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


Section C What work has previously been done or currently pursued towards purpose and activities of the project? Raconsley has reported that the post harvest losses could be reduced from 15-30% by using “upright cone” baskets together with dry grass as packaging materials between layers of fruit in place of “inverted cone” baskets. Ben- Yehoshua et al., investigated the effects individual seal packaging of tomato fruits in a 10-mm thick film of high density polythene on the development of fruit blemishes to be effective. Devkota and Ghale, 1992 stated that the post harvest loss in tomato crops in Nepal was upto 17.85% during marketing affair. Various methods of packaging tomatoes are currently in use. For local markets little attention is given to method of packaging or to the kind of package used. The top layer of fruit is often placed by hand and too often this layer of fruit is much better than the reminder in the package (Thompson, 1931). Results of several studies have shown that the major problem in tomato production and marketing is lack of efficient packaging and transportation methods. Gautam et al., (2002) conducted participatory rural appraisal at major tomato growing areas of Dhading, Kavre, Chitwan and Kalimati market and reported 10-15% post harvest loss. This loss was mainly due to improper handling practices. Specific research conducted in Teari (Lalbandi), in Kalimati market, and in retail shops in Kathmandu, showed that backsets and sacks carried on the top of buses, results in rough handling conditions, and are the main factors responsible for high losses and quality reduction. So, farmers and traders in Lalbandi, subsequently decided to begin using mini-trucks with full loads of tomato in plastic crates (Shakya, 1995). According to Spillman and Davis, (1929) the containers most commonly used for the shipment of tomatoes are the 6-basket crate, the 4-basket flat, the California box, the New Jersey 20-quart crate and the Climax basket. In the first two the fruits are packed in till baskets, while in the others they are packed without sub containers. Spill man and Davis state over 50 percent of the carload shipments are, made in the 6-basketand the 4-basket crate. Agnihotri and Ram in 1970 had reported that the treatment of tomato fruit with 6 and 9% waxol-o- emulsion prolong the post harvest life by retarding ripening and minimizing loss of weight during handling and transportation. Work and Carew in 1970 have reported that vegetables should be packed so as to give a good finish to the package. This means orderly arrangement, smooth surface and usuallu a reasonable bulge or arch. The practice of wrapping tomatoes in paper before packing is common one in many regions where the crop is grown for shipment. Wrapped fruits stand

Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


long distance shipment better than unwrapped fruits. Wrapping adds to the expense and results of studies.

Section D Outputs and activities The consumption and demand of tomato is increasing every year in Nepal mainly due to rapid growth in urban population. Tomatoes are considered as high value crop by APP. They are the cheap source of nutrients and income per unit area of land is high compared to other crops. They are also less risky to grow than fruits and provide quicker return as seasonal crop: so this study is very necessary to identify suitable post harvest packaging and transportation methods, which will go a long way to prevent the post-harvest loss and eventually encourage poor farmers for more intensive and extensive cultivation of this crop. The production of tomato is not able to meet the market demand due to high post-harvest losses and tomatoes have to be imported form India. So this study is necessary to identify efficient post harvest handling which will help to reduce post harvest losses and to meet the market demand, which in turn will help to maintain domestic demand. Farmers are reluctant about the storage and packaging materials that have forced them to accept low prices in the local market even though they produce quality tomato fruits. Goal: Farmer's income increased through identification of efficient packaging and transportation method. Purpose: Identification of efficient packaging and transpiration method to reduce post harvest losses What are the means of verification for the outputs? (1) Efficient packing and transporting method to reduce post harvest losses identified. (2) Effective technology for efficient packaging and transporting method generator. (3) Research findings published. (4) Dissemination and extension of the technology. Describe the project activities: 1.1 Collection of information about different types of packaging and transportation methods. 1.2 Field survey 1.3 Field trial to identify efficient packing and transportation method.

Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


2.1 Reviews of past work 3.1 Analysis of the result. 3.2 Publications 4.1 Gathering farmers and traders. 4.2 Field demonstration and training to the farmers and traders. 4.3 Frequent follow-up procedures. Methodology of activities 1.1 Collection of information about different types of packaging and transportation methods. Multidisciplinary team including postharvest specialist, socio economist 1.2 Field survey Multidisciplinary team of socio economist, post harvest specialist, environment experts and local tomato traders develop questionnaire and assess the cost of transportation and demand of good quality tomatoes done by visiting four cities i.e. Siraha, Bara, Kathmandu, and Nepalgunj. 1.3 Field trail Different methods of packaging and means of transportation will be used. 2.1. Review of past work Effective technology for efficient packaging and transportation method collected from books, internet, and 2 member will visit different cities of India namely, Banglore, Mumbai. Calcutta. 3.1 Analysis of result Data processing will utilize Microsoft excel for quantitative and qualitative analysis. Descriptive statistical tools like frequency count, percentage, mean will be used according to the need of he dimension of the study where ever required. 3.2 Publications Research findings will be published in national and international papers/ journals and also will be distributed to the local farmers and traders. 4.1 Gathering farmers and traders. Farmers and traders representing the major tomato-growing region will be selected and seminar will be conducted to disseminate the newly generated technology and information about the improved packaging and transportation method. 4.2 Field demonstration and training to the farmers and traders.

Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


Field demonstration and training will be conducted to farmers and traders in order to help them to adopt new improved technology. 4.3 Frequent follow-up procedures. A team including post harvest specialist, representative of local growers and traders will frequently visit major growing areas to check the adoption of new technology. Beneficiaries 1. Primary beneficiaries Tomato-growing farmers 2. Secondary beneficiaries Wholesalers, Retailers Middleman 3. Tertiary beneficiaries Consumers Developmental workers Academics Researchers Section E: Personal involved Post harvest specialist: Indra Bahadur Thapa Socio-economist: Pramod Gautam Trader: Secretary of traders’ union. Farmers groups Risk and Assumptions 1. Local growers and traders will co-operate with the researcher. 2. Active participation of collaborator. 3. Fund will be available at time. 4. Most efficient packaging and transportation method will be selected. 5. Biotic and abiotic factor remain favorable.

Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


Gant Chart Activity No.

1.1 1.2 1.3


3.1 3.2 4.1



Aug Sept. Oct. No. Dec Jane Feb Mar. Apr. MayJuneJuly. Aug. Sep.Oct. Nov. Dec.Jan FebMar. Apr. May.Jun. July. Au. 06 06 06 06 06 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 07 08 08 08 08 08 08 08 08


Collection of Information Field survey Field trial to identify efficient packaging and transpiration method Past reviews about effective technology Analysis Published in leaflets Gathering Farmers and traders Field demonstration and training Frequent follow-up

Section F : Total financial support requested as budget summary:

S. N.


Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july

Year 1 (NRS)

Year2 (NRS)

Year3 (NRS)

Total (NRS)



Staff cost


Operational cost































Packing materials





Training and





Equipments and supply


publication Subtotal


Over head 5%


Contingency 5%




Praveen Sapkota, 2006 july


References Agnihotri, B.N. and H. B. Ram, 1970. Prog. Hort ., 2(3) 63-66. Ben Yehoshua, S. I. Kobiler and B. Shaprio, 1980. Effects of individual seal packaging of fruits in film and high density polythene (HDPE) on various postharvest blemishes of citrus and tomatoes. Hort, Sci. Abstract, 15: 93 Budathoki, K., P.R. Bhurtyal and N.G. Pradhan. 2001. Effect of rain shelter on offseason fresh tomato production in the hills of Nepal. In: South Asia Vegetable Research Network Phase II. Proceedings of the final workshop 3-8 June 2001, Bangkok, Thailand. Devekota, L.N. and M.S. Ghale. 1992. In A.K. Thomson (Ed). 1996. Post harvest technology of fruit and vegetables. Blackwell science Ltd., 25 John street, London, pp. 11-12. Paul Work and John Carew, 1970. Vegetable production and marketing, New York state college of Agriculure, Cornell University. Rawnsley, J, Crop storage technical report no.1 , Food Research and Development Unit, Ministry of Agriculture , Accra, Ghana, Food and Agriculture Organization, Rome , Italy, 1998. Saini, G.S. 1996. A textbook of vegetable production. Aman Publishing House, Meerut, India. Shakula, Ganesh. 1995. Studies made on post-harvest handling on Fresh vegetable. Pp. 89-90. IN: D.K. Saraf and N.J. Thapa (ed). Proceeding of the seminar/workshop on vegetable sector development in Nepal (1995), His Majesty Government, Ministry of Agriculture, Department of Agriculture Development, Vegetable Development division, Kathmandu, Nepal. Shanmugvelu, K.G., 1981. Production Technology of vegetables crops. Spillman, H. A. and R. W. Davis, 1929. Containers used in shipping fruits and vegetables Farmers’ bull, 1579. Thompson, H. C. 1931. Vegetable crops. 2nd edn. Mc Graw-hill book company, inc., New York. Zniling, W., P.P. Subedi, M. Gajewski, K.A. vowoter and E.J. Ekefan. 2000. Post harvest technology of field grown tomato: Present situation and future prospect. International course on research and development in post harvest biology and technology, the volkani center, Bet Degan, 50250 Israel- 2nd February,- 1 March 2000.

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