Minex GeoMod&Pit Design
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MINEX TRAINING NOTES Individual Steps and Commands 1. Create project in Minex File > project > project manager 2. Link data folder to project File system tab > select folder > right click > choose “set project directory” 3. Create basic files Borehole B31 Geometry GM3 Parameter MPF File > new > select file type 4. Define seam sequence Borehole DB > edit > create/edit > seam sequence 5. Loading boreholes Including litho and quality Need to create variables Borehole DB > edit > create new variable 6. Fault Modeling Import fault strings and change string type as fault 3D Need to put the faults on separate layers to manipulate them by Seam module > unfault & refault > fault definition Highlight fault > right click > properties > change ident to fault name > enter > close window > start over for next fault To import > file > import > dwg/dxf 7. Unfault the database Give unfault database name and click un-fault borehole Seam module > unfault & refault > unfault borehole 8. Seam Modeling Seam model > ply & splitting > set missing seam (in borehole) > set interpolation > set missing seam (set thickness to zero). 9. Compute unfaulted grid Seam module > multi seam multivariable gridding 10. Refault grid Seam module > unfault & refault > refaulting 11. Flatten grid Seam module > unfault & refault > flatten normal model 12. Model grid Seam module > seam model operation 13. Merge grid Pit design > create merge model 14. Bench grid Pit design > create bench grids 15. Pit Design PIT DESINGPIT DESIGN 16. Reserves Database 17.Generate Reserves
Create Project 1. Make sure computer is rebooted and Minex opened properly File / project / project manager / new / name project
(You can do this before you bring up Minex) 2.PATH SETTING Go to file systems and find the folder you put your raw data into. a. Right click on the folder / set project directory (This links the folder with the project)
Now your total working will be saved under this particular directory
Create Basic Minex Files 1. File / new / borehole db.b31 / next (name it chhatrasal borehole) 2. File / new / geometry.gm3 / next (name it chhatrasalgeo.gm3) 3. File / new / parameters.mpf / next etc.. v black – only open one file v red – can open multiple files
Define Graphics 3-D Area/ WINDOW SETTING 1. Open borehole.b31 and GM3 files first. 2. Go to graphics define 3D area 3. Enter origin x y z (by hitting reset button) 4. Extent of geologic block. 5. Click OK / cancel (Hit navigate button to move around in the planes and zoom). 6. Go to window graphic window (opens graphics window).
Geometry data To create a string define a GMIC by clicking on GM3 definition
Name – xxxxxxx Group – chhatrasal Map – boundary Ident – map Then go to string / create again and draw boundary. Right click – OK.
Class – left
(Do not need if an AutoCad surface contour & boundary map can be imported) Display geometry data To display saved geometry data, StringPlot geometry data
In the below form, select Data Type, Group, Map, Ident, Class name and click F.
Importing Autocad File 1. Make sure DWG file is 2007 version 2. File / import / import dxf/dwg / ….browse / find drawing / select enter / group name CHHATRASA/ map name / SURF CON / hit SCANFILE – layers will show up in layers column, you can also get rid of unwanted layers here, Click OK, Save to GEO file. 3. To plot data go to string / plot geometry data / add data for each column. 4. F4 – Append, F5 – Insert, F6 – Delete, F7 – Copy
GEOLOGICAL MODEL BY GEMCOM (MINEX)
INTRODUCTION: First of all, you must have to prepare database. Normally Following data base are used for preparing geological model in Minex. 1. Borehole Collar Database>Drill hole name,easting,northing,collar elevation, total depth, azimuth & dip 2. Lithology database>Drill hole name,from,to,rock type 3. Quality database> Drill hole name, from, to, ash, vm, uhv, mois, density, etc. 4. Correlated database> Drill hole name, from, to, Seam class, Seam Name. This database can be prepared in any format, usually Excel sheets are used. All databases will be saved in .CSV format. Before starting Minex operation, all data shall be stored in folder & fixed it‟s location at computer‟s hard drive.
Import & Load Collar Data 1. Go to borehole DB / load / File … browse / highlight collar data file – select / create edit / leave format file – blank. 2. Go to variable set up file, left click on Minex variables, 1st row in column three & update variables. 3. This example boreID, X, Y, Z, finalD, Azimuth, Dip, Type / click OK / prompt to save / save / OK. (All the boreholes should have been added in the output window).
To clear output window right click on - window / clear output. (So far we have only selected our input data collar file & specified how the data maps to the Collar variables)
Validating Collar Data, Display Boreholes 1. To validate that the collar data has loaded correctly, report info from bore hole data base. After clearing the output window hit borehole db reporting report collars. 2. Check to make sure that all the information from the collar.csv file is included, if not, save Borehole database by either the icon or - file save save borehole database. 3. Display borehole DB Plot Borehole display OK.
Creating Seam Sequence List Before uploading seam data, prepare seam sequence file. 1. Go to boreholeDB / edit / create / edit seam sequence. Add rows to accommodate the number of seam codes say, B8, B61,B62....,. (F-5 add rows type in interval #‟s for the seam code column)
2. Go to boreholeDB / load / load seam layer intervals. File … browse (make sure boxes are checked to the right) 3. file …. Browse highlight seam sequence data.csv (father from seam, click save) 4. F-4 Append, F-5 Add, F-6 Delete, F-7 Copy 5. Run the seam validation report and check for errors. Go to BoreholeDB / reporting / report seam validation. 6. Downhole survey data, allows for deviation from collar, azimuth & dip, not necessary in chhatrasal. 7. Leave format file blank, minex will insert the .sff after create/edit is finished. Check for errors. 8. Hit variable setup tab, enter minex variables in column three bholeID, from, to, seam class, seam name, hit OK
Load Sample Data Litho 1. Open bhole database either from file or highlight, from file run time file / open bholedb / select bhole.b31 2. Right click on bhole.b31 – select properties. Set read only to false (allows adding variables & titles). 3. Go to bholedb / edit / new bhole variable / enter (csv file , bholeid, from, to, rocktype. Litho Variable Name Rocktype * V Datatype Qual Title 1 Rock (Optional) Title 2 Type (optional) V Variabl Type Alpha Range Fro Numeric Default Min -10,000 Max 10,000
Quality CSV – BH ID, From, To, M%, Ash %, VM%, FC%, Gross CV, UHV (Also prompt for decimal) Variable Name Ash % V Datatype Qual Title 1 Ash (optional) Title 2 Type (optional) V Variabl Type Alpha Range Fro Numeric Default Min -10,000 Max 10,000 4. To edit go back to bholedb / edit / nbu & hit select make sure to hit OK after editing or go to runtime. Chhbhole.B31 / datatypes / quality / & change there. *** Datatype: Descrip, Survey, Domain – are defaulted, no need to enter variables. ***
Loading Lithology Data 1. Go to borehole DB / load / load sample data / choose litho data 2. file …. browse highlight litho data, hit select / create / edit / & then the variable set up tab 3. Make sure the litho is chosen in data type. Data type LITHO V 4. Then highlight the Minex Variables in Column Three Minex Variable Borehole ID From To Litho Rocktype 5. Click OK, Minex will automatically assign a .sff extension to the litho file, Click Save 6. Check output window & correct errors if found.
Loading Quality Data 1. Variables should have been loaded for quality previously during the load sample data entry. Open borehole database again file / open / bholedb / select chhbhole.B31 / right click on bhole.B31 / properties / set read only to false. 2. Go to boreholeDB / load / load sample data file …. Browse highlight quality data csv and leave format file blank. Hit create / edit. 3. Go to variable set up tab. Data type QUAL V. 4. In third column Minex Variable Borehole ID From To Quality M% Ash% VM% FC% KCL / KG RD Click OK, save quality data.sff File, Click OK, Fix errors if any.
Bore hole DB Validity 1. Go to bore hole DB / reporting & validate all data.
Plotting Boreholes 1. Go to borehole DB / plot / profile Function Tab SELECT – Select boreholes SELECT – Highlight holes to profile, OK SELECT TYPES – CMCS Trace Tab o Lithology Fill color / hatch – ROCKTYPE V color select if wanted - Intervals Plot depth intervals, the rest are font settings. - Annotation and Lithology Seam variable annotation - SELECT VARIABLES, Rocktype Sample variable annotation – SELECT VARIABLES, Rocktype Color lithology – SELECT VARIABLES, Rocktype - Sheet Parameters CALCULATE SHEET / OK / Cancel
Sequence of Events After loading borehole data, quality data, collar data and seam sequence data. 1. Fault modelling 2. Generate grids. 3. Calculate total reserves. 4. Pit designs. 5. Generate mineable reserves. FAULT MODELLING To prepare fault model, you need .CSV database or AutoCAD string. It should be surface fault. According to throw of faults, Minex will make fault surface & it will divide entire deposit into several blocks. As a result you will never counter Waste material at barren zone & get actual striping ratio. FROM AUTOCADD STRING: 1. At first copy Cad file (containing surface fault) & paste it to the existing folder at hard drive. 2. Select cad file, right click on it & import faults as string. 3. Put proper Group & Map Name
4. Select all faults & change string type.
5. Go to SEAM MODEL>UNFAULTING & REFAULTING & FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTIONS AS SHOWN IN PIC BELOW
At the time of picking faults. You must have to consider older one first, followed by younger. “Younger fault may cut the older one, but crisscross is not possible” With this view, you may edit the surface fault string. Normal fault throw will be negative & reverse fault throw will be positive. Dip of the fault will be according to digitization, if left side is positive then right side will be negative.
SET MISSING SEAM & INTERPOLATION: Sometimes, it is found that some seams are missing in few boreholes. By Minex, set the missing seam in whole boreholes Interpolate it Then set zero value to thickness of missing seam.(below collar above total depth) 3 steps operation GO to SeamModelBoro seam modelling Splitting & Merging: If in a particular block seam having splits or seam become merged. Then put the name of parent & child name & according to seam thickness provide proper percentage. Save it.
Repeat the same for any other splits seams If every seam is an individual seam, then don‟t need to use it. Set the missing seam in whole boreholes
Just click Ok
Set missing seam thickness zero
UNFAULTED DATABASE All raw borehole databases are faulted database. Assume no faults are present, and then few seams of existing database may be above the OGL. Based on unfault database prepare all seams extrapolated grid surface. Go to SEAM MODEL>UNFAULT REFAULTING>UNFAULT BOREHOLES>GIVE PROPER NAME>CLICK OK. You will see automatically this data base will be current database. Now goto SEAM MODEL>MULTI SEAM MULTI VARIABLE GRIDDING>FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTION ACCORDING THE FIGURE BELOW.
All unfaulted grid surface will save under the said unfaulted folder (DD name Unfaulted) FAULTED DATABASE Based on unfaulted grid surface as input data & also as per throw of faults, prepare a new database, named it faulted database. Where all grid surfaces will be broken along the fault plane. At first you have to create a new directory & named it as refault.
FLATTEN GRIDS After refaulting, all grid surfaces will be divided along the fault surface. At the time of calculation between two grid surfaces, this cutting surface creates some error. Calculation might be discontinuous. To avoid it, introduce flatten model which will stitch all cutting surfaces with null point (having 0 value). Go to> Seam Model>Unfault-Refault>Flatten Normal Model>follow the instruction NB: Variable should be same as like unfault, refault as these grid surfaces will be generated from previous grid i.e. refaulted grid.
MODEL OPERATION: At the time of grid extrapolation, few grid surfaces might be projected above ogl.It should be cut up to the ogl.This operation is known as model operation. GOTO>SEAM MODEL>SEAM MODEL OPERATION>FOLLOW THE INSTRUCTION.
MERGE OPERATION After seam model operation, all grid surfaces are vertically projected up & merged with ogl along the block boundary. Goto>pit design>create merged model & follow the instruction.
Geological model is now completed; you can now calculate insitu volume but it will be geological reserve. To know actual reserve, you must have to design PIT with suitable ultimate pit slope.
Resource Reserves Calculations 1. Creating the TOP Surface a. Make sure your BH & Geometry data bases are open. b. Go to grid compute select origin and extent c. Go to gridding parameters Click grid expansion check box. d. Click OK. 2. Open grid compute date selection window. a. Select borehole collars check box click OK. b. Proceed with gridding Yes. c. Do you wish to save the grid Yes. d. Enter name as TOPS grid. 3. Generating Thickness Grids a. Go to seam model seam model operations. b. Check the box for use reference grids. c. Select the grid as TOPS (it should give origin & extent).
d. Select input DD name as Refault. e. Select Output DD name as Refault. f. Select operations as arithmetic. g. Select radio button as seam thickness, click OK. h. Output window should show results, thickness grids (ST suffix) are generated in Refault.
Reporting Insitu Reserves 1. Go to seam model insitu resource reporting (seam insitu resource report appears). 2. Select DD name as Refault or Unfault. 3. Click on “Create List” button. 4. Go to Limits tab on top 5. Select the TOPS grid in the upper limit 6. Select the lowest seam floor as the lower limit.
Output window shows the insitu resources.
PIT DESIGN HORIZONTAL SLICING METHOD After completion of Merge Model for the designing pit first need to create bench grid, pit string will follow the bench grid. For bench grid follow the steps below: Create a DD for saving the bench grid named it as “BENCH” BENCH GRID CREATION: PIT DESIGNCREATE BENCH GRID. Fill the parameter in create bench grid window and click the “generate list” button:
After creation of Bench grids we need to create bench list here we will have to define the pit bench parameter like slope of wall, slope of strips, berm width for wall & strips. Here we are going to design the ultimate pit consider the wall parameter as for the ultimate pit.
PIT DESIGNCREATE BENCH LIST. Define the bench list file name, select that what you are going to design pit or dump. Considered for pit design: Select “BENCH” DD in grid directory field and click “Fill with Grids”. It will fill all the bench grids in table below. Then change the slope and berm with as per your. Click save button, it will create *.bls file then click “ok”.
On the basis of these parameter now you can design the pit.
For the pit designing go to “pit design” menu and select “pit design” option PIT DESINGPIT DESIGN.
In order to complete pit design use this window in continuation. First option in Design will “Boundary” & “Digitize”.
If you want to change in parameter in bench list, directly can change by clicking Bench list button in right side of the pit design window. Select the bench no. of which you are going to digitize the boundary “toe” or “crest”. (if you selected bench_1 that is our top bench better digitize its crest and if you selected last bench then better select the digitize toe.) Click “Ok” and digitize the ultimate pit boundary. Note: Pit No. will always be numeric value. After digitizing the boundary of toe or crest of ultimate pit it require to project for all benches downwards/upwards. In order to this keep design as Boundary and change the digitize to “Automatic”. Select the projection direction and click “Ok”.
See below window;-
For the ramp design in the “Manual” option in pit design window second tab is “Ramps” Select the Build Ramps and click the “create/edit ramps” button. Edit ramps window will open –
Write the Ramp Name and fill the all parameter for ramp in this window and click “ok” And again in previous window click on “Fill table”.
Select the ramp points as below
Next come to first tab “Bench & Projection Selection” and select the projection and check the (tick) “Update Selection after Expansion” option. Continue to click “ok” till end of you bench.
For control display the pit select the follow option: PIT DESIGNPIT DESIGN DISPLAY It will open this window:
After the designing the ultimate pit boundary we need to design the strips: Change in pit design window design as “Strip” and “Digitize” see below:
Digitize a strip from left to right using the Snap to Line digitising option
For more strips select “Offset” option and offset by strip width and give strip from 1 to Nth strips you want to create. Estimate how many strips you will need. You can do this by using the Query tool to find the width of the pit at bench 1 (perpendicular to the strip line) and then divide this by the intended width of the strips. In this example, the number of strips might be 1630/100 = 17.
It will offset according to digitizing direction of strip string in left or right direction.
For projection strips downwards or upwards select the “Normal Automatic” option. For whole strip simultaneously select “Multiple strips” or can select “Single strip” for one by one projection.
If strips string cutting the pit boundary then select the “Interpolation” option in window and click “Ok”. See below snap.
When all the strips are within the boundary, project the strips up (say from bench 24 to bench 1).
a. Choose Pit Design > Pit Design. b. Fill in the form to do a “normal automatic” projection from say,bench 24 to bench 23, and click
The Status bar informs you that Minex is projecting the strips.
Project the strips for each bench one at a time (or two at a time), correcting any errors in the Strings. Correct any string errors by moving or editing points in the strip. Save your geometry file. Make the first strip and the last strip and project them up. Enter the following parameters in the Pit Design dialog box.
Click Digitize. When the Status bar shows the prompt to digitize the start of the strip, digitize two lines that cut across the pit boundary as shown in the following image.
Click Ok in the Pit Design dialog box to create the first string for all the benches. The string ID for the first strip is -1. Create the last string similarly: a. Select the Last check box. b. Click Digitize. c. Digitize two lines as shown in the following image.
Click Ok to create the last strip for all the benches The string ID is one more than the string that was the previous last string. Create the strip ends a. Enter the following parameters in the Pit Design dialog box.
Blocks Before doing the following task, make sure you have created benches, strips (including the first and last strip), and the strip ends.
Creating Blocks 1. Make sure the benches and strips of your pit are displayed. The pit used in this example is pit 7. Substitute the pit number of your pit for this. 2. Enter the following parameters in the Pit Design dialog box, and click Ok:
3.Digitize a line, on the left side of the pit, that is perpendicular to the strips, and accept the string.
The block lines should cover the entire pit. This shows you approximately how many block lines you will need to divide the strips into blocks. 4. Now create the blocks lines more precisely.
a. Count the number of blocks you need, and enter it as the End number in the Pit Design dialog box. b. Click Ok in the Pit Design dialog box, and digitize with the first block line close to the pit boundary. 5. Enter parameters to generate blocks as shown in the following image, and click Ok:
The blocks are generated.
6. Show only the blocks on one of the benches, for example bench 10.
Validating Blocks Validate the Blocks and Correct Errors This task presents some examples of block validation errors and how to fix them. See Diagnostic Tools and Possible Problems with Blocks for more information about the different types of block validation errors and their solutions. 1. In the Pit Design dialog box, enter the following parameters, and click Ok. This will validate only bench 24. You can validate the other benches later. You might
You might see errors in the output window, correct them. When there are no errors you will see the message that the pit is valid (for the range of benches that you specified).
Also, in the graphics window, the block number should appear in the centre of the block. Save the geometry file.
Create a Reserves Database If you do not already have a reserves database, you should create one. After you have created a reserves database, it appears as a .dbr file in the Minex Explorer.
Setting Up Codes and Layers You set up codes to help ensure that mining equipment is used to mine the types of material (such as coal or parting) for which it is designed.
Codes The codes file contains a series of codes and values which you can use for all layers. The following image shows the contents of a typical codes file:
Layers In the context of a reserves database, a „layer‟ is a layer of overburden, coal, or interburden. A typical layers file is named Layers.min.The following is an example of a Layers.min file.
Set up Codes and Layers 1. Choose Reserves > Initialise > Edit Codes and Layers. 2. Click in the Codes section, and navigate to CODES.MIN. 3. Click Select. 4. Click in the Layers section, and navigate to LAYERS.MIN. 5. Click Update Code Info. The Layers table is updated with the codes from the Codes table. 6. Click Validate Layers to validate the information in the Layers table. The validation checks the layer order and identifies any missing roof or floor grids. You might see an error , if so correct them. You should now be able to load and edit a Codes file and a Layers file. Next, you will add a pit to the reserves database.
Adding a Pit Choose Reserves > Initialise > Add Pit. Fill in the form as shown in the following image.
It is a sensible convention to enter a „reserves database‟ pit number that is the same as the „geometry‟ pit number (that is, the pit number of the pit design that you will use). You can use a .MIN file or a .OLC file as the layers file. Click Ok. In the Output Window you will see an image confirming your action.
Generate Reserves Minex needs a pit design to generate reserves. Each pit design is stored in a geometry file. Make sure the geometry file is open. Choose Reserves > Build > Generate Reserves. Fill in the form as shown in the following image:
Click Auto Range. Click Ok. If there are any errors, correct them and generate the reserves again.
Adding Quality Variables Choose Reserves > Initialise > Add Quality Variable. Fill in the form as shown in the following image.
Click Add Variable. Click Ok. You have now defined the MOIST variable.
Import Quality Defaults Open reserves database (*.dbr) if it is not already open. Choose Reserves > Import > Import Quality Defaults.
Click Create/Edit. Fill in the form by doing the following steps: a. Click Select Pits, and select pit 7. b. Click Select Variables, and select RAWRD. c. Enter a file name of rd.csv. d. Click Add to List.
Click Ok in the Define Quality Variable Defaults form. Choose Reserves > Import > Import Quality Defaults. Click , Navigate to the quality variable csv file. Click Ok.
Creating a Status Report The status report is a very flexible and easy-to-use report that you can use to find total waste and coal volumes for the pits, benches, strips, blocks, and layers that you choose. Choose Reserves > Reporting > Status Report. First, run a report to show the results for say, pit 7, bench 10, strip 14, block 14, and layer DLC
Creating a Detailed Report. Choose Reserves > Reporting > Detailed Report. Fill in the form as shown in the following image: To add the variables, click Variables Select, and select them.
Next, you will digitise a limiting polygon, but first here‟s an explanation of some of the important sections and fields of the form: Select Variables. In this section, you specify the variables to appear in the report. Pit Selection. In this section, you specify which pits, benches, strips, blocks, and layers to include in the report. Use Limiting Polygon. Select this check box (and then click one of the adjacent buttons) to limit the report to the area within the polygon. Report Type. You can select .txt or .csv as the file format. On many computers, Excel is the default application for CSV files. When that is true, you can select Open CSV report in default application to make sure that the report will open in Excel after you click Ok. Click Dig and digitise a limiting polygon in graphics. Click Ok.