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MCI 8102

MARINE CORPS INSTITUTE STAFF NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS CAREER DISTANCE EDUCATION PROGRAM

MILITARY STUDIES MARINE BARRACKS WASHINGTON, DC

MILITARY STUDIES (8102) Course Introduction

Scope

The responsibilities of SNCOs increase with every rank reached. As an NCO, you will need continuing education on a variety of subjects to master these additional responsibilities. Technical and tactical proficiency is the hallmark of the Marine Gunnery Sergeant. This course covers a wide range of subjects that will enhance your abilities in maintaining the high standards expected of the senior noncommissioned officer ranks.

References

The following references were used in the writing of this course: • • • • • • • • • • • • • • •

Manual for Courts-Martial United States (2000 Edition). FMFM 3-2, MAGTF Command and Control Support. FMFM 6-1, Marine Division. FMFM 6-4, Marine Rifle Company/ Platoon. FMFRP 2-12, Marine Air Ground Task Force: A Global Capability. FRFRP 0-14, Military and Associated Terms. MCDP 3, Expeditionary Operations. MCRP 5-12C, Marine Corps Supplement to the Defense Dictionary of Military and Associated Terms. MCRP 5-12D, Organization of Marine Corps Forces. MCWP 3.33.1, Marine Air Ground Task Force Civilian and Military Operations. MCWP 3.40.1, Marine Air Ground Task Force Command and Control. Miller, William M. Col. USMC, Johnstone, John H. Maj., USMC, A Chronology of the United States Marine Corps 1775-1934 Volume 1, 1934 Marine Corps University Archives. Leatherneck, December 2001 pg. 64. Marine Corps Historical Pamphlet, United States Marine Corps Ranks and Grades 1775-1969. Historical Division HQMC, 1969. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

References, continued

• • • • • • • • • • • • •

Table of Contents

O’Quinlivan, Michael. Enlisted Rank Insignia in the U.S. Marine Corps 1798-1958, Historical Branch, G-3. Headquarters U.S. Marine Corps, 1958. www.marinemedalscom www.history.navy.mil www.usmc.mil/historical.nsf MCO P10520.3B, Marine Corps Flag Manual. Simmons, Edwin Howard, The United States Marines A History, 3rd edition Department of the Navy, Naval Historical Center, Washington, D.C. Stuart, James, letter dated 31 January 1860. Official Report of Col. Robert E. Lee, U.S.A. to Adjutant General, U.S. Army dated 19 October 1859. Millet, Alan R., SEMPER FIDELIS, The History of the United States Marine Corps: Macmillan Publishing Company, Inc. 1980. United States Marine Corps, record Group 127, National Archives of the United States, Washington, D.C. Marine Corps Historical Center, Reference Section, History Branch, History and Museums Division. Washington, D.C. MCO P1020.34F, Marine Corps Uniform Regulations.

The following is the table of contents for this course. Study Unit -1 2 3 4

Estimated Study Time

Title Course Introduction Military Justice The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) Marine Corps History Changes to Uniforms Review Lesson Exercise

Page i 1-1 2-1 3-1 4-1 R-1

You will spend about 9 hours 55 minutes completing this course. This includes the time you will need to study the text, complete the exercises, and take the final examination. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

ii

Course Introduction

Course Introduction, Continued

Reserve Retirement Credits

You earn 3 retirement credits for completing this course. You earn reserve retirement credits at the rate of one credit for each 3 hours of estimated study time. Note: Reserve retirement credits are not awarded for the MCI study you do during drill periods if awarded credits for drill attendance.

Summary

The table below summarizes all important “gateways” needed to successfully complete this course. Step

When you

1

Enroll in the program

2

Complete the selfpaced text Pass the final examination

3

MCI Course 8102

Then you will

iii

Receive your program material Arrange to take the final examination Receive a course completion certificate

For more information Refer to the Program Introduction Refer to the Program Introduction Refer to the Program Introduction

Course Introduction

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Course Introduction

STUDY UNIT 1 MILITARY JUSTICE Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 40 minutes

Scope

Many factors have motivated the Congress of the United States to provide a separate military justice system. Crimes in the military society--unauthorized absence (UA), disobedience, disrespect, and conduct unbecoming of a Marine, as examples, have no match in civilian criminal law. Military leadership requires you to participate in administering the criminal law process to the extent it affects your subordinates. This participation reinforces your leadership and control over those factors that influence the fighting capacity of the Marine Corps.

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to

In This Study Unit



Define the purpose of the military justice system.



Explain the rules for a court-martial.



Identify which offense has been committed.



Conduct a lawful search.

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Military Justice System Lesson 2 Searches Lesson 3 Laws of Land Warfare

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 1

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Study Unit 1

LESSON 1 MILITARY JUSTICE SYSTEM Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Scope

This lesson provides a broad overview of the military justice system. It addresses subjects that are vital to staff non-commissioned officers with Marines under their charge or who are advising a commanding officer on military justice matters.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to •

Identify the purpose of the military justice system.



Identify the sources of the military justice system.



Identify the levels of the military justice system by function.



Identify the limitations of each punishment’s authorization.



Identify the convening authority by levels of justice. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Background Information Sources Process Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP) Summary Court-Martial (SCM) Special Court-Martial (SPCM) General Court-Martial (GCM) SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused Courts of Military Review (CMR) United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA) United States Supreme Court Lesson 1 Exercise

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See Page

1-3 1-5 1-6 1-9 1-10 1-13 1-15 1-16 1-17 1-21 1-22 1-23 1-24

Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Background Information

Purpose

The purpose of the military law and justice system is to provide a framework of law that regulates the military forces of our nation and ensures discipline, high morale, good order, and just treatment.

Military Law

Military law is “the body of law which regulates the military establishment of a nation.” This body of law includes acts that establish the missions of the various branches, their authorized strength, and all the details that are required to administer the Armed Forces. The National Security Act of 1947 is an example of this type of act. The military justice system is the part of military law that corresponds to criminal law in civilian life.

Jurisdiction

The military justice system applies to active duty military personnel, retired or reserve members who are entitled to pay or benefits, cadets, and midshipmen. A complete listing of persons covered is given in Article 2 of the Uniform Code of Military Justice (UCMJ).

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Sources

Order of Precedence

The present system of military justice derives its authority from various sources in a precedence that must be followed. The following five sources below are listed in order of precedence: • • • • •

The Constitution The UCMJ The Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM) Congressional legislation Service regulations

The Constitution

The Constitution of the United States is the supreme law of the land. From it, the President, Congress, and the Supreme Court derive their authority. Section 8 of Article I grants Congress the authority to make rules for the regulation of land and naval forces, and by extension, air forces. The provisions of the Constitution apply to military justice unless specifically excluded by the Constitution itself.

The UCMJ

Using its authority under the Constitution, Congress enacted a code of 140 articles to provide a basis for the administration of justice for the Armed Forces. Article 36 of the UCMJ authorized the President of the United States to prescribe the actual procedures to be followed when implementing the provisions of the UCMJ. The UCMJ may also be referred to as “the Code.” Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Sources, Continued

The Manual for Courts-Martial (MCM)

Under the authority delegated by Congress, the President issues the MCM, which is the basic directive implementing the UCMJ. It sets forth such things as trial procedures, rules of evidence, and maximum punishments for violations of the Code. The MCM is divided into six parts followed by an appendix. Part I

Name Preamble

Function Gives the source of military jurisdiction, what agencies may exercise military jurisdiction, and the nature and purpose of military law. II Rules for The MCM gives the rules that govern the Courts-Martial procedures and punishments in all courtsmartial and also some preliminary, supplementary, and appellate procedures. This is a descriptive analysis of procedures for military justice. III Military Rules Gives the rules about evidence applicable in of Evidence courts-martial, including summary courtsmartial. IV Punitive Articles Articles 78-134, UCMJ, are the punitive articles. Article 77, Principals, and Article 79, Accessory After the Fact, explain who is punishable under these articles and explains accessory after the fact. V Nonjudicial Explains the procedures for NJP including the Punishment authority, limitations of punishment, and (NJP) appeals. Appendixes Include the Constitution of the United States, UCMJ, maximum punishment chart, and an explanation of various forms. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Sources, Continued

Service Regulations

MCI Course 8102

The Department of Defense, an executive department, and the Navy Department issue directives as authorized by Congress. An example of a directive is the Judge Advocate General Manual (JAG Manual) which contains instructions for implementing parts of the UCMJ and the MCM, which are unique to the Navy and Marine Corps.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Process

Levels of Justice System

Basically, the military justice system provides a means to enforce military laws. Once a violation of the code has been brought to the attention of the proper authorities; the commanding officer investigates the charge to determine the validity of the allegation. Based on the results of this investigation, the commanding officer then decides if prosecution is warranted, and, if so, at what level. The levels of the military justice system are • • • • • • •

MCI Course 8102

Nonjudicial punishment (NJP) Summary Court-Martial (SCM) (lowest level court) Special Court-Martial (SPCM) (intermediate level court) General Court-Martial (GCM) (highest level court) Court of Military Review (CMR) United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA) United States Supreme Court

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP)

Article 15 “NJP”

NJP is often referred to as Article 15, company punishment, NJP, office hours, and captain’s mast. The term “mast” originated from the area around the main mast of sailing ships, the center where the ship’s company gathered. The area also served as a place for floggings and other punishment. Therefore, in the Navy, an Article 15 punishment is known as a “mast” or “captain’s mast.” In the Marine Corps, the customary name of the proceeding is “office hours.”

Convening Authority

Company commanders and an OIC, given authority, may award NJP to both enlisted and officers of their command. They may not, however, delegate their authority. For example, a colonel may not give a by-direction authority to a captain to award NJP to an individual when the colonel is the convening authority.

Objective of NJP

The primary objective of NJP is to correct the offender for minor breaches of discipline without the stigma of a court-martial conviction. Used properly, such authority in the hands of commanding officers can be an effective tool for promoting good order and discipline within the military. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP), Continued

Authorized Punishments

Article 15 (office hours) punishments can be imposed together or limited by grade. Sentences awarded can, at a future time, be vacated. Below are punishments that can be imposed by grade of the convening authority.

Company grade officers can impose

• • • • • • •

Field grade officers can impose

• • • • •

Correctional custody for 7 days Forfeiture of not more than 7 days pay Reduction to the next inferior pay grade Extra duties for not more than 14 days Restriction for not more than 14 days Admonition or reprimand Correctional custody for not more than 30 days Forfeiture of not more than ½ of 1 months basic pay per month for 2 months Reduction to the next inferior pay grade Extra duties for not more than 60 days Restriction for not more than 60 days Admonition or reprimand Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Nonjudicial Punishment (NJP), Continued

Right to Appeal

If NJP is imposed, the accused must be informed of his right to appeal the punishment to the next superior authority if he feels that the punishment is unjust or disproportionate to the offense. The superior authority to whom the appeal is made, as well as the officer who imposed the punishment, may at any time suspend probationally any part of the unexecuted punishment. He may remit, mitigate, or set aside the punishment, whether executed or unexecuted, and restore all rights, privileges, and property affected.

Appeal Procedures

This appeal must be in writing. The accused must submit it within five working days of imposition of punishment. A Marine who has appealed may be required to undergo any punishment imposed while the appeal is pending. If action is not taken on the appeal within five days after the appeal was submitted and if the service member has so requested, any unexecuted punishment involving restraint or extra duty must be stayed until action on the appeal is taken.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Summary Court-Martial (SCM)

Function

The function of the summary court, the lowest level court, is to exercise justice promptly with a simple procedure for non-capital offenses such as • • •

Unauthorized Absence (UA) Disrespect Disobedience

Jurisdiction

Summary courts-martial have jurisdiction to try only enlisted persons subject to the Code for any non-capital offense made punishable by the Code. Officers may not be tried by summary courts-martial.

Convening Authority

A convening authority is a person empowered by law to create a courtmartial. The lowest unit commanding officer in the Marine Corps who may convene a summary court-martial is a battalion/squadron commander with the exception of the officer ranks authorized by Articles 22 and 23, UCMJ, and Section 0115, JAG Manual. Anyone who may convene a special or general court-martial may also convene a summary court-martial.

Composition

A summary court-martial is composed of one commissioned officer on active duty. According to Naval policy, the summary court-martial officer must be a Navy lieutenant or Marine captain. In some commands, the officer designated must be a major. The officer should be appointed on the basis of age, training, experience, length of service, and judicial temperament. The summary court-martial officer does not have to be a lawyer; he may carry any MOS. He acts as judge, jury, trial counselor, and counselor for the defense.

Power

A summary court-martial has the power to subpoena witnesses, take depositions, and punish for contempt of court. All witnesses must testify under oath or affirmation. There are no challenges in a summary courtmartial. A summary court-martial is a Federal court, and a conviction will follow a Marine throughout his/her remaining military and civilian career. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Summary Court-Martial (SCM), Continued

Rights of the Accused

At a summary court-martial the accused has the right to • • • • • •

Authorized Punishments

Refuse trial by a summary court-martial Consult with counsel before making decisions about the court Be represented by a civilian counsel at his own expense if such representation would not delay the proceedings Cross-examine witnesses and examine evidence Call witnesses and introduce evidence Remain silent

SCM can punish the offender with • • • • •

Confinement for 30 days Hard labor without confinement for 45 days Restriction for 60 days Forfeiture of two-thirds pay per month for 1 month Reduction in grade to the lowest enlisted pay grade

Note: In the case of noncommissioned officers above the fourth pay grade (sergeants and above), the summary court-martial may not adjudge confinement or hard labor without confinement and may reduce in grade only to the next lower grade.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Special Court-Martial (SPCM)

Purpose

The purpose of this court is to exercise justice for cases that are serious but non-capital, such as desertion, assault, larceny, and robbery. The special court-martial (SPCM) is also described as an intermediate level court.

Jurisdiction

Special courts have jurisdiction to try officers and enlisted persons subject to the code for any non-capital offense made punishable by the Code.

Convening Authority

Only battalion and squadron commanders or above and those officers authorized by Articles 22 and 23, UCMJ, and section 0115 of the JAG Manual may convene a special court-martial.

Composition

The special court-martial is composed of at least three members and a military judge.

Rights of the Accused

Accused persons appearing before a special court-martial have the same rights as persons appearing before a general court-martial. These rights are discussed on following pages.

Authorized Punishment

This is any punishment that is not limited by the code except: • • • • • •

Death Dishonorable discharge Dismissal Hard labor without confinement for more than 3 months Confinement for more than 6 months Forfeiture of more than 2/3 pay for more than 6 months

The most severe sentence is 6 months’ forfeiture, 6 months’ confinement, reduction to private, and a bad conduct discharge. This is generally referred to as “6, 6, and a kick.”

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

General Court Martial (GCM)

Purpose

The purpose of this court, the highest level court, is to exercise justice for cases that are of a very serious nature including capital offenses, such as rape, manslaughter, arson, treason, and mutiny.

Jurisdiction

This court may try officers and enlisted personnel.

Convening Authority

The general court-martial may be convened only by those flag or general officers in command of units or activities designated by section 0115, JAG Manual in addition to those authorized by Article 32, UCMJ.

Composition

The general court is composed of at least five members and one military judge.

Authorized Punishment

A general court-martial may award any allowable punishment to include death, confinement, reduction, forfeiture of all pay, and discharge.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused

Cannot Refuse

The accused cannot refuse either a special or general court-martial.

Detailed 27(b) Counsel

When a case is referred to a special or general court, a military counsel must be detailed for the accused. This counsel is referred to as a “27(b)” counsel because the officer must meet the qualifications under Article 27(b), UCMJ. Basically, the officer must be a • • •

Right to a Military Lawyer

Graduate of an accredited law school Member of the bar of a Federal court or the highest court of a state Judge advocate as certified by the judge advocate general of his/her Armed Force.

In addition to the right to detailed counsel, the accused at a general or a special court-martial has the right to have a military counsel of his/her own choice defend him, if such counsel is available. Such a requested counsel must meet the same qualifications listed under Article 27(b), UCMJ. The accused has a right to the assistance of both a requested counsel and a detailed counsel. The detailed counsel can be excused if the accused so desires.

Availability of Requested Counsel

In determining whether a requested counsel is reasonably available, all the facts and circumstances should be taken into consideration, including the duties and the geographical location of the requested counsel and military situation. No particular reason for the request of the accused is required. For example, a Marine stationed in Iwakuni, Japan, may request a Marine lawyer from El Toro, California because he wants the help of someone from another base. Even if the accused does not know this attorney personally, the attorney must be provided unless his duties would prohibit his leaving his post. Distance and cost alone are not a reason for the attorney to be unavailable. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused, Continued

Civilian Representation

In addition to representation by a military counsel of his/her own choice, a civilian lawyer can also represent the accused. The civilian lawyer must be retained at the expense of the accused. The civilian counsel must be a member in good standing of a state or Federal bar. The detailed military counsel can be retained to assist the civilian counsel or may be excused altogether.

SelfRepresentation

An accused may represent himself at any trial by court-martial. The court may accept a request for self-representation only after advising the accused of his rights to be represented by qualified counsel. The military judge determines if the accused is capable of representing himself.

Non-legal Representation

At a general or special court-martial at which an accused can receive a bad conduct discharge, a civilian or military member who is not a lawyer (nonlawyer) cannot represent the accused. However, a non-lawyer may be present at the defense table for consultation.

Guidelines on Attorney Contact

Headquarters Marine Corps (HQMC) has published recent guidelines as to when an accused who is in pretrial confinement must be contacted by an attorney. Within 24 hours after the commencement of confinement, a judge advocate must personally visit the accused. Within 72 hours after the commencement of pretrial confinement, the detailed counsel or requested counsel must personally interview the accused.

Method of Trial

The accused in a special or general court-martial has the right to choose among three alternatives what person or group of persons will sit in judgment. The alternatives include • • •

Trial by judge Trial by a panel of officers Trial by a panel of officers and enlisted personnel

The decision on the alternatives must be made before the trial with the assistance of the defense counsel. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused, Continued

Trial by Judge

The first alternative that an accused has is to be tried by a military judge alone who will determine guilt or innocence, and the sentence, if the accused is found guilty. The qualifications for a military judge are set forth in Article 26(b), UCMJ: He must be a commissioned officer, a member of a state or Federal bar, and certified as a military judge by the Judge Advocate General of the Navy. Such certification is normally given to judge advocates (captains and above) who have had trial experience as defense or prosecuting counsel.

Panel of Officers

The second alternative that the accused has is the panel of officers that the convening authority has designated for his court. Before trial, the order designated by the court members is made available to the accused and his counsel. The attorney can then determine whether it would be in the best interest of his client to be tried by the officers designated or to select a different alternative. The panel of officers may be no fewer than three members for a special or five members for a general court-martial.

Panel of Mixed Rank

The third alternative that the accused has, if he is enlisted, is to elect a trial by a panel of officers and enlisted personnel. If the accused requests that enlisted personnel be added to the court, then at least one-third of the court must be enlisted. If dividing the numbers of court member’s results in a quotient with a fraction, the number of enlisted members is rounded up (2 1/3 becomes 3). Upon such a request from the accused, the convening authority details an appropriate number of enlisted personnel to sit as court members. The enlisted personnel on the court cannot be from the same unit as the accused and they must all be senior in rank to the accused.

Sentencing

If the accused is found guilty, the same persons who tried him will sentence him. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

SPCM and GCM Rights of the Accused, Continued

Right to Challenge

The accused has a right to reject certain court personnel after they are detailed. This is called the right to challenge. The two types of challenge are • •

Challenge for Cause

Challenge for cause Peremptory challenge

Rules-Court-Martial 912(f)(1) lists the grounds upon which a military judge or court member may be challenged for cause. For example, if any one of the members of the court is a witness for the prosecution or was an investigating officer in the case, he would be excused from participating in the case upon challenge from either side. In addition to any pretrial investigation they may have done, both counsels have the opportunity during the first stage of the trial to question the court members and the judge to determine if any grounds exist that form the basis for the challenge for cause. If the judge finds a legitimate basis for the challenge, he will dismiss himself or the challenged member automatically.

Peremptory Challenge

MCI Course 8102

The peremptory challenge is an arbitrary challenge. When a peremptory challenge is made, the challenged member is automatically excused without any deliberation. There is only one peremptory challenge for both sides, and the peremptory challenge may be used only against a court member, not the judge.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Courts of Military Review (CMR)

Within JAG

These courts are established within the office of the judge advocate general (JAG) of each military department.

Types of Cases

They decide questions of law and fact and review sentences that involve punitive discharge, confinement for one year or more, or dismissal of an officer.

Automatic Review

This is an automatic review except when the accused waives or withdraws appellate review in accordance with (R.C.M.) 1110, MCM, 1998.

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA)

Highest Appeals Court

Although all citizens have ultimate recourse to the Supreme Court of the United States, The United States Court of Military Appeals (USCMA), established by Congress under the authority of Article I of the Constitution, is the highest appeals court within the military justice system.

Composition

The USCMA is composed of three civilian judges whom the President appoints. They serve for terms of fifteen years.

Types of Cases

The USCMA decides questions of law. It interprets, and if necessary, modifies the UCMJ and subordinate regulations.

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

United States Supreme Court

Military Justice Act of 1983

MCI Course 8102

The new feature of the Military Justice Act of 1983 provides for the U.S. Supreme Court to review, at its discretion, certain military cases where the USCMA has acted. This court is also referred to as the highest court in the land.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 8 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

The purpose of the military justice system is to _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________ _____________________________________________________________

Item 2

One source for the military justice system is a. b. c. d.

the Magna Carta. congressional legislation. the laws of land warfare. legal judgements. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 3 Through 6

Matching: In the space provided place the letter of the level of the military justice system in column 2 that best describes the function listed in column 1. The answers in column 2 maybe used only once. Column 1

Column 2

Function

Level of the Military Justice System a. Nonjudicial punishment (NJP) b. Summary Court-Martial (SCM) c. Special Court-Martial (SPCM) d. General Court-Martial (GCM) e. Court-Martial

___ 3.

___ 4.

___ 5. ___ 6.

Item 7

How long do you have to appeal NJP? a. b. c. d.

Item 8

For serious but non-capital offenses such as desertion, robbery, larceny, assault etc. Simple procedures for minor offenses such as disrespect, unauthorized absence, or disobedience Office hours For cases very serious in nature including capital offenses (rape, manslaughter, arson, treason, etc.)

14 working days 7 working days 5 working days 24 hours

Who can convene a General Court Martial? a. b. c. d.

Captain in the Army General officer Colonel in the Marine Corps Major in the Judge Advocate Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item Number Answer 1 Provide a framework of law that regulates the military forces of our nation and ensures discipline, high morale, good order, and just treatment. 2 b 3 c 4 b 5 a 6 d 7 c 8 b

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Reference Page 1-5

1-6 1-15 1-13 1-10 1-16 1-12 1-16

This lesson provided you with information about the basis of the military justice system, the types of punishments and courts, the rights of the accused, and the levels of appeal. The next lesson will discuss searches.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 SEARCHES Introduction

Estimated Study time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

Just as the fifth amendment of the Constitution protects you from testifying against yourself, the fourth amendment safeguards your right to physical privacy. This lesson will cover what types of searches are legal and the limits to physical privacy.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

In This Lesson



Identify the definition of probable cause.



Identify the legal objects of a search.



Identify the types of lawful searches.

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Probable Cause Legal Objects of a Search Types of Searches Lesson 2 Exercise

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See Page 1-27 1-28 1-29 1-30 1-35

Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Probable Cause

Definition

Probable cause exists when there is a reasonable belief that the property, or evidence sought is located in the place or on the person to be searched.

Waiver

Just as the right to remain silent may be waived, Marines may voluntarily give up their Constitutional protection from unreasonable searches.

Authority

If a Marine does not desire to waive this Constitutional protection, and you still wish to search the individual Marine or their property, then you must be able to show that the search is reasonable to gain the authority to search.

Basis for Probable Cause

To legally search an individual or their property, you must first show probable cause or obtain that individual’s willing consent to do a search of their property. Failure to do so will cause any results of the search to be inadmissible as evidence in a trial by court-martial.

Fruit of the Poisoning Tree

Knowledge of what constitutes a lawful search and seizure is very important because only evidence seized during a lawful search is admissible in a courtmartial. Evidence seized through leads obtained during an illegal search is inadmissible. This tainted evidence is known as the “fruit of the poisoning tree.”

Example

Pvt. Smith’s commanding officer (CO) searches her off-base apartment because the CO believes the private is hiding marijuana there. During the search, the CO finds no marijuana, but discovers a letter in which the private tells a friend that she has hidden marijuana in her car. The CO searches the car and seizes the marijuana. Neither the letter nor the marijuana is admissible in court because the search of the apartment was unlawful. Military personnel have no authority to search an off-base residence in the United States.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Legal Objects of a Search

Four Categories

Only certain items are legal objects of a search. To conduct a legal search, the objects you look for must fall under one of the following four categories • • • •

Instruments of the crime Evidence of the crime Fruits of the crime Contraband

Instruments of the Crime

These are items which have been used to commit a crime, but which are not illegal to have, such as a stocking mask and hunting knife.

Evidence of the Crime

These are items, beyond actual weapons, which could link the accused to a crime, such as blood-stained clothing or a gunshot wound.

Fruits of the Crime

These are items in the possession of the accused as a result of the crime, such as stolen jewelry or a stolen car.

Contraband

These items are illegal to possess under any circumstance. During an authorized search, they may be seized.

Resisting Arrest Search

In a search of an individual resisting arrest, you may search for and seize items that a suspect could use to escape or resist arrest.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types of Searches

Six Types

There are six types of searches • • • • • •

Search Authorized by Commanding Officer

Searches authorized by commanding officer Necessity searches Searches pursuant to a search warrant Consent searches Searches incident to lawful apprehension Searches where no expectation of privacy exists

The most common type of search is the one authorized by a commanding officer. The search must be within the commanding officer’s area of jurisdiction and is limited to property and persons subject to military authority. This authority may not be delegated. Civilians and their property may not be searched. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types of Searches, Continued

CO’s Search Limitations

A commanding officer’s ability to authorize a search is limited by several factors. The commanding officer •

Is limited by the probable cause requirement as to what can be searched. He may search only where he reasonably believes evidence will be found.



Can authorize a search of personnel only within his command, jurisdiction, whether they are on or off base, and in any area or property under his control. This area or property must be on base.



Can also authorize a search of his command which includes all government property or property owned by personnel under his authority. For example, a commanding officer could order a search of a Marine’s room on base if he had probable cause, but not of an apartment in a civilian housing area. The commanding officer could also authorize a search of a Marine’s private vehicle if it were on base.



Must be neutral and detached and must perform his duties with a judicial, rather than a police attitude. For example, a commanding officer is not permitted to personally conduct a search he has authorized. He cannot authorize a search when he has been personally involved in gathering information, which would lead to probable causes to authorize such a search. The order must be sure to state precisely what person or place is to be searched and the object of the search. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types of Searches, Continued

Necessity Search

In some cases, there may not be time to obtain authorization from the CO to conduct a search. In cases where immediate action is necessary to prevent the removal or destruction of evidence, a necessity search may be conducted. In such a case, you must not only establish probable cause, but also show that the commanding officer could have properly authorized the search if there had been time. You must demonstrate that the circumstances preclude obtaining permission in the normal way.

Searching Outside of Jurisdiction

Occasionally, a commanding officer may find that there is probable cause to search an area outside his jurisdiction. If the area is subject to military control, the appropriate commanding officer, who has been contacted and given the evidence for probable cause, can authorize the search. In the case of off-base civilian property, the case is brought to the attention of the civilian authorities having judicial powers over the suspected area. Upon being convinced that probable cause does exist, the civilian judiciary issues the warrant, which is then served by appropriate civilian law enforcement agency. Military personnel may act as observers, but do not take an active part in the search.

Consent Search

In this case, the owner of the property or the person to search freely gives their consent to search. No probable cause is needed in this kind of search. Promises of better treatment or threats should never be used to gain consent. If there is no legal right to search, consent to search should not be induced by any means.

Article 31 Warning and Consent Search

When asking suspects for their consent to search, it is not required to give Article 31 rights and warnings; however, it helps to establish that the consent was voluntary if you have given the warnings. If the suspect does not want to make a statement or answer questions without a lawyer, you may still ask him whether he consents to a search. It is best to advise the suspect that he has a right to withhold the consent before asking him to consent. It is always proper to have a third party present during a search to protect yourself from being accused of illegal actions during or after the search. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types of Searches, Continued

Search Incident to Lawful Apprehension

When a lawful apprehension is made, the apprehending personnel are authorized to conduct a search of the person being apprehended and the immediate area in which the person was apprehended. This search, which is designed to prevent the destruction or disposal of evidence and to protect the person performing the apprehension by revealing any weapons, must be conducted as soon as possible after the apprehension.

Who May Apprehend

Any officer, warrant officer, staff noncommissioned officer or noncommissioned officer can apprehend anyone who falls under the UCMJ.

Who May be Apprehended

The law states that you can apprehend a person only when you have probable cause to apprehend or to quell any disturbance of verbal or physical nature. This can include civilians within military jurisdiction. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Types of Searches, Continued

What May be Searched

The law allows for the search of an apprehended person, his body and clothing and the immediate area where the person has been apprehended. The law allows you to search in a manner to protect yourself. If in the course of a search you find incriminating evidence, it may be seized.

Search Where No Expectation of Privacy Exists

The right to be free from unreasonable searches applies only to an individual’s body and property. It does not apply to government property used by the accused in the execution of his duties. Areas such as office desks, government vehicles, etc., may be legally searched without consent or probable cause since no expectation or right of privacy exists. On the other hand, areas such as wall lockers, used mainly for personal gear, do fall under the provisions of the Fourth Amendment. For example, a wall locker used to store personal gear cannot be searched without probable cause; the wall locker and its contents would be considered personal property and therefore protected by the Fourth Amendment.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item.

Item 1

Which of the following is considered a reasonable belief that a crime has been committed and that the item being searched for is in the place being searched? a. b. c. d.

Item 2

Which of the following is a legal object of a search? a. b. c. d.

Item 3

Not a good enough reason to search Probable cause A fact admissible in court Evidence of the crime

Marine in possession of pistol on private property Marine in possession of marijuana on private property Marijuana found in Marine’s a car off base Marijuana found in Marine’s car on base

Identify which of the following is a lawful search? a. Search authorized by the commanding officer. b. Search authorized and conducted by the commanding officer. c. PFC Warrior consents to a search after being told, “Things could go easier for you.” d. PFC Warrior consents to a search after being told, “We are going to search anyway, you could make it easier.” Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer b d a

Reference 1-28 1-29 1-30

This lesson provided you with information on obtaining proper authorization for searches and on how to conduct a lawful search. The next lesson will discuss the laws of land warfare.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 LAWS OF LAND WARFARE Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

A soldier can justifiably kill his military enemy counterpart who is trying to kill him, but it would be a criminal act to attack or kill a member of the enemy population whose fate is irrelevant to the outcome of the conflict or an enemy that is disarmed and is attempting to surrender. In this lesson, we will cover the sources of the law, basic concepts and forbidden targets, and tactics and techniques that violate the laws of war.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

In This Lesson



Identify the sources for the laws of land warfare.



Identify a noncombatant.



Identify factors that may contribute to violating the laws of land warfare.

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Background Concepts Forbidden Targets, Tactics and Techniques Enemy Captives and Detainees Unlawful Acts and Orders Responsibilities of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer Lesson 3 Exercise

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See Page 1-37 1-38 1-39 1-40 1-41 1-43 1-44 1-45

Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Background

Sources of the Law

Laws of land warfare are ideas of honor and civility that were created to maintain some compassion at a time of war. The laws of land warfare were derived from two principal sources. • •

Treaties Customary laws

Treaties

Certain treaties have long been a source for the laws of land warfare. Two that the United States has adopted for the use during armed conflicts are the Hague Rules of 1907 and the Geneva Convention of 1949.

Customary Laws

Customary laws came about due to practices in war that were and are so universally undesirable or contemptible that their condemnation has assumed legal force. The rationale behind customary laws is that there can be definite advantages to observing certain restraints during war. Causing unwarranted suffering and pain to the enemy or cruelty to a local civilian population, which has nothing to do with accomplishing the mission at hand, can cause a loss of tactical superiority and dehumanize those involved in conducting the act. This may also lead to defeat on the battlefield. The white flag of truce, which came to be respected during the middle ages, is just one example of conduct in accordance with a customary law.

Purpose of the Laws of Land Warfare

The purpose of the laws of land warfare is an attempt to regulate and reduce the violence of war by

MCI Course 8102



Protecting both combatants and noncombatants from unnecessary suffering



Safeguarding fundamental human rights of persons who fall into the hands of the enemy



Hastening the restoration of peace

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Concepts

Effects

The laws of land warfare place limits on the exercise of an enemy’s use of power in an armed conflict. They require that opposing forces refrain from using any degree of violence unnecessary for the prosecution of military operations. The laws of land warfare require that combatants conduct hostilities so as to avoid undue suffering.

Military Necessity

Military necessity is the application of force which justifies those measures (not forbidden by law) required for securing the complete submission of the enemy.

Unnecessary Suffering

Unnecessary suffering recognizes the humanitarian need for restraint even in the violence of combat. This principle applies not only to the degrees of violence, but also to dishonorable or deceptive acts which would encourage abuse.

Binding on States and Individuals

The laws of land warfare are binding on all combatant nations and members of their respective Armed Forces.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Forbidden Targets, Tactics, and Techniques

Improper Actions

The laws of land warfare cover actions that are considered improper on the battlefield. There are portions of the laws that cover the safeguarding of defenseless people and property not directly involved with military activity. The use of unlawful targets, techniques, and tactics may be dangerous in itself. It is likely to enrage enemy soldiers, causing them to fight harder or to use illegal methods of their own.

Noncombatants

All persons participating in military operations or activities are considered combatants. This distinction is not always easy to make. Guerrillas often mix with or disguise themselves as civilians. Noncombatants are persons not participating (meaning that they don’t have an RPG, AK-47, or grenade in their hand) in military operations or activities. They include

Common Rules

• • • • • •

Civilians Medical personnel Chaplains POWs and detainees Sick and disabled Wounded



Individuals parachuting from a disabled aircraft are considered helpless and are noncombatants. On the other hand airborne troops exiting a aircraft for the purpose of combat would be considered combatants and can be fired on while still in the air. Don’t fire upon any medical personnel, vehicles, buildings, tents, or other facilities used for the care of the wounded, sick, and disabled. You cannot mark yourself or your position with a medical service symbol unless you have been designated to perform such duties. You are not allowed to attack villages, towns, or cities unless required by the mission. You do not destroy a town, city, or village to remove one sniper. Using poisons or chemical weapons is against the laws of land warfare. The laws of land warfare prohibit the alteration of weapons or ammunition to inflict undue suffering and dismemberment to the enemy. Flame throwers, napalm, and shotguns are not forbidden by the laws of land warfare. Using a bullet with an altered tip, however, would be considered an act that violates the laws of land warfare.



• • •

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Enemy Captives and Detainees

Terminology

The terms captives and detainees will be used here instead of prisoners of war because the laws of land warfare apply to all persons who come under your control in combat. You capture combatants and detain noncombatants.

Signals

Enemy soldiers may signal you by waving a white flag, or abandoning their positions with their arms raised as the enemy did in the Persian Gulf War. The way they signal their desire to stop fighting may vary, but you must allow them to give up once you receive the signal.

Restrictions When Dealing with Captives

There are certain restrictions to follow when dealing with captives. The four restrictions with captives are •

When you capture enemy soldiers or detain noncombatants during combat, you must treat them humanely.



You may question captives or detainees for military information, but never use threats or other forms of coercion. An enemy captive is required to give only his rank, serial number, and date of birth.



You must safeguard captives and detainees from dangerous combat activities. Captives and detainees can dig foxholes or bunkers for their own protection but are not required to work in support of war.



You may search captives or detainees for military intelligence or items that could be harmful to themselves or friendly troops. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Enemy Captives and Detainees, Continued

Civilians and Private Property

MCI Course 8102

It may be difficult to understand the rage and anguish of seeing personal rights abused and property destroyed. Our nation has not been torn by the devastation and destruction of war (the attacks of September 11th 2001 are the exception to what is being addressed in this lesson). There are four general rules when dealing with civilians and private property in combat: •

Provide protection for civilians from verbal and physical attacks. Women in war zones will be protected from rape and forced prostitution.



Do not take non-military items while searching dwellings in enemy towns, villages, or cities.



It is lawful to move or resettle civilians if it is urgently required for military reasons.



Do not start fires in civilian homes or dwellings or burn their property unless the necessities of war urgently require you to do so.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Unlawful Acts and Orders

Confusion Fear and Stress

All Marines have a duty to prevent criminal acts where U.S. forces are involved. In the dehumanizing environment of war, wearied Marines can lose their sense of identity. Marines become fatigued from lack of food and sleep. The experience of constant violence may lead to general confusion, fear, and stress. The result can be the deterioration of discipline and moral values within a unit. These factors can cause Marines to commit unlawful acts. However, atrocities or illegal acts of war do not become more acceptable because they were committed by Marines who were “in the bush” too long.

Required Action

If you see an act being committed that is clearly a violation of the laws of land warfare, you must act to prevent it. If the crime directly and immediately endangers your life or the life of another person, you may use deadly force to prevent it.

Orders

Any order to commit a crime, such as murder, rape, arson, torture, or pillage, is in violation of the laws of land warfare. Such an order is clearly criminal and unlawful. This order would also violate any common sense rules of decency, social conduct, and morality, and not be in standing with what the Marine Corps would find acceptable in an armed conflict.

Crimes

You must report any and all crimes in combat. If a crime involves your immediate superiors, report it to their superior. An individual may be tried and convicted for crimes committed in combat even after they have left service.

Example

Marines who kill captives and detainees cannot excuse themselves from the act by stating that they were told to “take care of them” and took it as an order to execute them.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Responsibilities of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer

Prevent Violations

The SNCO must take all possible measures to prevent violations of the laws of land warfare by subordinates. He is responsible if he has knowledge of a crime and fails to take steps to ensure compliance with the laws of land warfare. He must ensure that his subordinates do not violate the laws of land warfare. Ignoring the actions of subordinates does not remove the SNCO from responsibility for their actions.

Reasons for Violations

When combat occurs, it is frequently sudden, unexpected, and characterized by extremely violent action, savage behavior, and intense danger. These violent acts of combat tend to bring out certain behaviors which could be possible reasons for violations of the laws of land warfare. There are five main reasons this could occur. • • • • •

Fear Stress Personality problems Frustration Fatigue

Psychological Danger

Seeing a fellow comrade wounded or killed will have a traumatic impact on yourself or your Marines. Combat is a brutal event, and casualties are to be expected. The shock of seeing friends killed tends to bring out an “eye for an eye” mentality which can lead to a violation of the laws of land warfare. This psychological danger can happen to any Marine regardless of rank.

SNCO Leadership Factor

The SNCO must be aware of problems caused by the horror and confusion of battle. He must ensure that commands are obeyed and that the commands are in conjunction with the laws of land warfare. The leadership of the SNCO is the cornerstone of Marines in combat and will be the factor that can prevent any violation.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

Which of the following is a source of the laws of land warfare? a. b. c. d.

Item 2

Select the noncombatant from the following choices. a. b. c. d.

Item 3

The Constitution The Hague Rules The Magna Carta The Articles of War

Enemy soldier with a radio Enemy soldier riding a bike Man with a dog Uniformed woman in vehicle

Which of the following can be a factor in violating the law of land warfare? a. b. c. d.

Happiness Stress Cowardice Corruption Continued on next page

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the correct answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer b c b

Reference 1-38 1-40 1-44

This lesson provided you with information about the laws of land warfare and on the responsibilities staff noncommissioned officers have for compliance with those laws.

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Study Unit 1, Lesson 3 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 2 THE MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE (MAGTF) Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour, 15 minutes

Unit Scope

This study unit teaches you how the operational forces in Marine Corps units are formed into Marine Air Ground Task Forces (MAGTF) for deployment, training, and combat operations. This study unit also teaches you about the Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF).

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to •

Identify the elements of a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF).



Identify the purpose of a MAGTF.



Identify the components of a MAGTF.



List the components of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF).



Explain the concept of employment of a SPMAGTF.



State the mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF).



List the components of a MEF. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2

Overview, Continued

In This Study Unit

This study unit contains the following lessons:

Topic Lesson 1 The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF), and Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF) Lesson 2 Employment of a Marine Air Ground Task Force

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Study Unit 2

LESSON 1 MARINE AIR GROUND TASK FORCE Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

The objective of this lesson is to teach you the elements and structure of a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF), and a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF).

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to • Identify the four basic forces of a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF). • Identify what the Command Element (CE) provides the MAGTF. • Identify what the Ground Combat Element (GCE) provides the MAGTF commander. • Identify the mission of an Air Combat Element (ACE). • Identify the units that make up the Combat Service Support Element of a MAGTF. • Identify some of the mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF). • Identify the size of a SPMAGTF. • Identify the concept of employment of a SPMAGTF. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Marine Air Ground Task Force Command Element Ground Combat Element Air Combat Element Combat Service Support Element Mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF) Lesson 1 Exercise

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See Page 2-3 2-5 2-9 2-10 2-13 2-16 2-18 2-19

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Marine Air Ground Task Force

Background

The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) organization is based on combined arms integration of ground combat, aviation combat, and combat service support elements into a cooperative team under a single Marine commander and command element (CE). The concept for this organization traces its origins back to the 1920s when the Marine Corps shifted its primary mission from defending advanced naval bases to seizing them. In adopting this new mission, Marine Corps planners had to address many problems associated with making landings on hostile shores. Foremost among these problems was developing a tactical unit that had the combat potential, balance, and flexibility necessary to accomplish amphibious warfare.

Composition

The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) is the Marine Corps’ principal warfighting organization for all missions across the range of military operations. The MAGTF provides a combatant commander in chief or other operational commanders with a versatile expeditionary force for responding to a broad range of crisis and conflict situations. They are designed to be light enough to get there and heavy enough to win battles. MAGTFs are balanced, combined arms forces with organic command, ground, aviation, and sustainment elements. MAGTFs are organized, trained, and equipped to perform forward-presence, crisis-response, and full-scale combat missions. MAGTFs are a general-purpose air-ground-logistics forces that can be tailored to the requirements of a specific situation.

MAGTF Structure

While uniquely task-organized for specific missions, all MAGTFs share certain characteristics in their organization. The structure of the MAGTF determines what its capabilities and limitations are and what types of missions it can undertake.

How A MAGTF Operates

Whether Marines are rescuing American citizens from turmoil, providing humanitarian aid to foreign refugees, or fighting a high-intensity war against technologically advanced adversary, they will operate in some form of a MAGTF. Marines routinely organize, train, deploy, and operate as MAGTFs. Tailoring MAGTFs for specific missions through task organization is standard procedure. As a result, the MAGTF is a cohesive military organization with a well-understood command relationship and operating procedures. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Marine Air Ground Task Force, Continued

Organization

The following defines the organization of a MAGTF. • • •

Elements

Configured to accomplish a specific mission Commanded by a single commander Structured the same regardless of size

The MAGTF always has the following four elements: • • • •

Command element (CE) Ground combat element (GCE) Aviation combat element (ACE) Combat service support element (CSSE)

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Marine Air Ground Task Force, Continued

MAGTF Types

As a reference for sizing and capability, MAGTFs are categorized into the following five types: • • • • •

Scalability

Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) Marine Expeditionary Brigade (MEB) Marine Expeditionary Force Forward (MEF Fwd) Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) Special Purpose Marine Expeditionary Force (SPMAGTF)

The following table shows how MAGTFs may be deployed. MEF Win Our Nation’s Battles MEB Crisis Response MEF Fwd Forward Elements of a MEF

MEU (SOC) Presence and Engagement

SPMAGTF Specific Mission Orientated

Major Theater War Smaller-Scale Contingencies

Smaller MEF Presence

Promote Peace and Stability

Specific Crisis Missions

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Marine Air Ground Task Force, Continued

Concepts

The statutory mission of the MAGTF is to provide the Fleet Marine Force (FMF) with the ability to • • •

MAGTFs’ Common Characteristics

Seize or defend advanced naval bases. Conduct land operations in support of naval campaigns. Perform other duties as directed.

All MAGTFs share certain common characteristics, regardless of their size or mission, as shown below. Common characteristics • • • • • • • • • • • •

MCI Course 8102

Readiness for expeditionary service Strategic mobility Capability for forcible entry Environmental versatility Capability for independent action Sea air-land coordination Logistic strengths and limitations Flexibility Tactical surprise Capability with naval, joint, and combined operations Sea basing Forward basing

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Command Element

Command Element History

Despite its obvious wartime usefulness, the concept of a separate MAGTF headquarters was abandoned after the Korean War. The new ad hoc policy called for the commander of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) to assume control over the MAGTF. Emphasis was on the ground combat role with the aviation and logistic elements serving in supporting roles. After the Vietnam war, the Marine Corps reemphasized its amphibious mission and reactivated the concept for separate headquarters for MAGTFs as they were formed. Under the more formal system, the MAGTF headquarters became the Command Element (CE).

Command Element

The Command Element (CE) provides the command and control necessary for the effective planning and execution of all military operations. It is normally a permanent headquarters, and also includes units that provide intelligence, communications, and administrative support in general support of the MAGTF.

Responsibility

The MAGTF is made up of several distinct combat and CSS elements. It is the Command Element’s (CE) responsibility to synchronize all of the elements of the MAGTF into an integrated team focused on the single battle. The CE also has to be adaptive to working in a joint or multinational environment. The Command Element (CE) of a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF)

MCI Course 8102



Provides the MAGTF command and control system for ground, air, and Combat Service Support (CSS) forces.



Facilitates sequencing of additional MAGTFs as necessary because of its modular design.



Consists of the commander, staff, and surveillance, reconnaissance, and intelligence element.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Ground Combat Element

Definition

FMFRP 2-12 defines the GCE as…The MAGTF element that is taskorganized to conduct ground combat operations. GCEs are constructed around an infantry unit that varies in size from platoons or companies of 40 to 200 Marines to one or more divisions of approximately 20,000 Marines. GCEs also include appropriate combat support and combat service support units. Normally, there is only one GCE in a MAGTF.

Basics

The Ground Combat Element (GCE) is a potent, flexible organization structured to respond to the full dimension of crises and conflicts. The GCE is one of the MAGTF commander’s fists (as is the ACE; you can use both of them as you would in a boxing match). You can use the GCE to exploit the principles of maneuver and firepower in the conduct of ground combat operations. Given the expanse of options available to MAGTF and joint planners, it is imperative that you develop an understanding of what the GCE brings to the fight.

Ground Combat Element

The ground combat element (GCE) is task-organized to conduct ground operations in support of the MAGTF mission. During amphibious operations, it projects ground combat power ashore using transport helicopters from the aviation combat element and organic and Navy landing craft. It may have any composition required by the mission, although normally it is built around an infantry unit reinforced with artillery, reconnaissance, armor, engineer, and other forces as needed. The ground combat element may range from a light, air transportable unit to one that is relatively heavy and mechanized.

Capabilities

Capabilities of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) are listed below: • • • •

Extraordinarily flexible Employable in virtually all climates and places Enjoys combat power from numerous sources Sustains itself for a finite period if properly task-organized Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Ground Combat Element, Continued

Limitations

Employment

Some limitations of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) are listed below: •

Lack of organic mobility assets. The total Assault Amphibious Vehicle (AAV) and motor transport assets of the Marine division will “lift” almost one third of the assigned infantry units.



Lack of organic combat power when compared to Army units, specifically in the areas of armor and artillery. To compensate for this fact, the GCE is heavily dependent upon the ACE’s ability to provide timely and effective close air support.



The operational reach of the GCE is also limited by its shallow organic logistics infrastructure. It requires significant support from the CSSE for sustainment in prolonged operations conducted over distances greater than 75 miles.

The Marine Ground Combat Element (GCE) operates as an integral component of the MAGTF. It does not operate independently, but receives its mission from the MAGTF commander. The GCE is employed as •

Task-oriented (primary focus): The defeat of the enemy by application of superior military power at decisive places and times.



Combat power: The GCE is capable of maneuvering to advantage and applying in combination direct and indirect fires against the enemy.



Task-organized (mission-oriented): The grouping of all tactical, administrative, and service elements as a result of mission analysis, assignment of tasks, and construction of the organization to accomplish a specific task. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Ground Combat Element, Continued

Responsibility

The GCE of a MAGTF • • •

Mission

MCI Course 8102

Conducts ground combat operations. Consists of an infantry unit varying in size from a rifle platoon to three Marine divisions. Contains organic combat support and combat service support units.

The mission of the Ground Combat Element (GCE) is to provide the MAGTF Commander with an expeditionary ground force prepared to conduct combined arms operations across the spectrum of conflict and in any operational environment.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Air Combat Element

Marine Aviation Assault Support Definition

FRFRP 0-14, Military and Associated Terms, defines Marine aviation assault support as…The use of aircraft to provide tactical mobility and logistic support for the MAGTF, the movement of high priority cargo and personnel within the immediate area of operations, in-flight refueling, and the evacuation of personnel and cargo.

Air Combat Element

The Air Combat Element (ACE) is one member of the MAGTF taskorganized combined arms team. The ACE supports the MAGTF mission by performing some or all of the six functions of Marine aviation: • • • • • •

Antiair warfare Assault support Offensive air support Air reconnaissance Electronic warfare Control of aircraft and missiles

The ACE is normally built around an aircraft organization augmented with appropriate air command and control, combat, combat support, and combat service support units. The ACE can operate effectively from ships, expeditionary airfields, or austere forward operating sites and can readily and routinely transit between sea bases and expeditionary airfields without loss of capability. The ACE can range in size and composition from an aviation detachment with specific capabilities to one or more Marine Aircraft Wings (MAW).

Uniqueness

One of the most important differences between a MAGTF and other comparably sized tactical units is that a MAGTF has a sizable organic aviation component.

ACE as Part of MAGTF

All MAGTFs have three important elements led by one commander: • • •

Ground Combat Element (GCE) Aviation Combat Element (ACE) Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Air Combat Element, Continued

Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW)

The ACE and the four groups listed below fall under the Marine Aircraft Wing (MAW). • • • •

Marine Aircraft Group (Fixed Wing) (FW) Marine Aircraft Group (Rotary Wing) (RW) Marine Wing Support Group (MWSG) Marine Air Control Group (MACG)

Greatest Benefit

The greatest benefit aviation assault support provides is the ability to quickly maneuver ground forces to take advantage of fleeting battlespace opportunities.

Benefits to MAGTF

Air assault benefits the MAGTF by

Role



Combining speed and focus to shape the MAGTF battlespace



Adding depth while allowing the commander to maneuver forces away from enemy strength



Allowing the commander to move equipment or personnel via rapid movement to a place and time where the enemy will be placed in a predicament and forced to react instead of acting

The ACE of a MAGTF does the following: • • • •

Conducts air operations and provides air support to the GCE and CSSE Integrates air-ground combat operations Consists of aviation units sized from one reinforced helicopter squadron to three Marine aircraft wings Contains organic combat support and combat service support units Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

2-14

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Air Combat Element, Continued

Limitations

Limitations of air assault support include • • • • • • •

Limited visibility Effects of weather Landing zone ID Time on station Reduced radius of action Communications Enemy defenses (drives how assault support operations are conducted)

The biggest limitation, as in all aviation operations, is a sophisticated air defense system.

Employment

Employment of air assault support includes • • • • • • •

Mission

MCI Course 8102

Attack (Timing is critical to ensure unit is in place before the main attack kicks off.) Exploit Pursue Secure and defend Recon in force Conduct a raid Support the MAGTF in the defense

Marine aviation provides the MAGTF commander with a unique force. This force is ready for deployment and employment and is capable of meeting the MAGTF’s requirements across the spectrum of conflicts. To meet these requirements, Marine aviation performs the six doctrinal functions.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Combat Service Support Element

Definition of Logistics

The official Dictionary of Military Terms, 2nd edition, 1992, defines logistics as the science of planning and carrying out the movement and maintenance of forces. In its most comprehensive sense, those aspects of military operations include • • • •

Foundation of Logistics

Design and development, acquisition, storage, movement, distribution, maintenance, evacuation, and disposition of material Movement, evacuation, and hospitalization of personnel Acquisition or construction, maintenance, operation, and disposition of installations Acquisition or furnishing of services

For much of human history, armies have had little need for logistical support. They carried weapons that never needed a resupply of ammunition. Their horses and other animals found their own forage. The men themselves usually found enough food as they moved through the countryside. No modern military force can, however, function very long without a steady supply of the sinews of war. Advances in technology and organization have made modern military forces more powerful and lethal than ever before. These advances have also made today’s military completely dependent on constant logistical support.

Requirement

To function for any length of time, the MAGTF needs its organic combat service support element (CSSE).

Combat Service Support Element

The Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) provides a full range of support functions from sea bases aboard naval shipping or from expeditionary bases ashore. The CSSE provides sustainment and logistical support external to the MAGTF. MAGTFs can augment this organic sustainability by external support from the Navy, other services, and host nation support organizations. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Combat Service Support Element, Continued

Responsibility

The CSSE of a MAGTF: •

Provides a range of CSS functions and capabilities



Complements the CSS capabilities of GCE, ACE, and CE



Consists of the following type units: • • • • • • • •

Mission

MCI Course 8102

Supply Landing Support Maintenance Transportation General Engineering Health services Communications Headquarters and Service

Provide the MAGTF commander with a support element that may range in size from a Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) Service Support Group (MSSG) to a Force Service Support Group (FSSG) tailored to provide for the total range of logistics support.

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF)

Mission

SPMAGTFs accomplish specific missions when the planning time is adequate to tailor forces to an actual situation. Missions may range from noncombatant evacuation to disaster relief and humanitarian assistance. They are designated as SPMAGTF (location).

Examples of a SPMAGTF

SPMAGTF Liberia was formed from elements of the II Marine Expeditionary Force and deployed from Camp Lejeune, North Carolina, to relieve the 22d Marine Expeditionary Unit (special operations capable) deployed off the coast of Liberia in April 1996. Another example is SPMAGTF that conducted Operation Eastern Exit, the evacuation of the U.S. Embassy in Mogadishu, Somalia, in January 1991. It was formed from elements of the 4th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, deployed in the Gulf of Oman for Operations Desert Shield and Desert Storm in 1990-1991.

Components

A SPMAGTF may be any size, but normally it is a relatively small force--the size of a Marine Expeditionary Unit (MEU) or smaller--with narrowly focused capabilities chosen to accomplish a limited mission.

Concept of Employment

A SPMAGTF may be task-organized deliberately from the assets of a standing Marine expeditionary force and deployed from its home base for a particular mission, or it may be formed on a contingency basis from an already deployed MAGTF to perform an independent, rapid-response mission of usually limited scope and duration. Common missions of a SPMAGTF include raids, peacekeeping, noncombatant evacuation operations, disaster relief, and humanitarian assistance. For example, a special purpose MAGTF was deployed to Haiti to restore democracy, conduct peacekeeping operations, and provide humanitarian assistance. SPMAGTFs are normally designated by the mission location or operation name, such as “SPMAGTF Somalia” or “SPMAGTF Support Democracy.”

MCI Course 8102

2-18

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 8 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

What are the four basic task forces that are formed to make a MAGTF? a. Marine Expeditionary Unit, Command Element, Ground Combat Element, Aviation Combat Element b. Marine Expeditionary Force, Division, Headquarters Element, Force Service Support Group c. Ground Combat Element, Aviation Combat Element, Combat Service Support Element, and Command Element d. Division, Wing, Support, Marine Expeditionary Force

Item 2

What does the Command Element provide to the MAGTF? a. b. c. d.

Item 3

Ground support Command and control Air support Service support

What does the GCE provide to the MAGTF commander? a. Air operations and provides air support to the Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) and Air Combat Element (ACE) b. Ground combat operations c. Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) capabilities of Ground Combat Element (GCE), Air Combat Element (ACE), and Command Element (CE) d. A staff, surveillance, reconnaissance and intelligence Continued on next page

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

Air units sizing from one reinforced helicopter squadron to three Marine Aircraft Wings are all part of the __________________ of the MAGTF. a. b. c. d.

Item 5

Which of the following units is one of the Combat Service Support Elements of a MAGTF? a. b. c. d.

Item 6

Maintenance Infantry Close air support Landing Force Operations Center (LFOC)

What is the mission of a Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF)? a. b. c. d.

Item 7

Ground Combat Element (GCE) Command Element (CE) Combat Service Support Element (CSSE) Air Combat Element (ACE)

To use all available forces to accomplish the mission. To accomplish a large scale operation in a short period of time. To utilize all assets of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF). To accomplish specific missions when the planning time is adequate.

Special Purpose MAGTFs (SPMAGTFs) may be any size, but normally they are a relatively _______________ force. a. b. c. d.

large small well defined bulky Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

2-20

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 8

Common missions of a SPMAGTF include raids, peacekeeping, noncombatant evacuation operations, disaster relief, and a. b. c. d.

humanitarian assistance air alerts large scale envelopments counterinsurgency operations Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

2-21

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer c b b d a d b a

Reference 2-6 2-9 2-12 2-13 2-17 2-18 2-18 2-18

This lesson has shown you the basic breakdown of the Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) and the Special Purpose MAGTF (SPMAGTF). The following lesson will highlight in detail the Marine Corps’ employment considerations of a MAGTF.

2-22

Study Unit 2, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 EMPLOYMENT OF A MAGTF Introduction

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Lesson Scope

The objective of this lesson is to teach you the employment of a MAGTF.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

In This Lesson



Identify the mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF).



Identify the components of a MEF.

The lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) Components of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) Lesson 2 Exercise

MCI Course 8102

2-23

See Page 2-23 2-24 2-26 2-27

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)

Marine Expeditionary Force

While sharing the characteristics with all MAGTFs, the Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) is the largest and most capable fighting force of the MAGTF. It has no fixed structure, but is task-organized and designed to handle specific duties. The MEF may range in size from half the assets of a division and aircraft wing to multiple divisions and aircraft wings. The total number of Marines and Sailors in the MEF may range from 30,000 to over 60,000. Whatever the size of a combat force, it is supported by an appropriate Combat Service Support Element (CSSE).

Size

The MEF is the largest of the MAGTFs. It consists of the following: • • • •

Locations

MEF: GCE: ACE: CSSE:

Command element One or more Marine divisions (MARDIV) One or more Marine aircraft wings (MAW) One or more force service support groups (FSSG)

To facilitate implementation of the Marine Corps MAGTF doctrine, the Marine Corps has established permanent MAGTF command elements at the MEF and MEB levels, throughout the world. These elements consist of a commander, who may concurrently command another unit, and a nucleus staff of officers and enlisted personnel. The three Marine Expeditionary Forces are • I MEF Camp Pendleton, California • II MEF Camp Lejeune, North Carolina • III MEF Camp Courtney, Okinawa

Mission

The Marine expeditionary force (MEF) is the principal Marine Corps warfighting organization, particularly for larger crises or contingencies. It is capable of missions across the range of military operations. Each MEF consists of a permanent command element and one Marine division, Marine aircraft wing, and force service support group. Each forward-deploys Marine expeditionary units on a rotating basis. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

2-24

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Mission of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), Continued

Specific MEF Missions

The Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF), operating independently or as a service component of a larger joint or multinational force, might include a wide-range of expeditionary operations such as •

Amphibious operations • • • •

• • •

Sustained operations ashore in any geographical environment Commitment as a follow-on reinforcement for a smaller MAGTF Operations in support of a maritime campaign, such as the seizure or defense of an advanced naval base



Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) operations • • • •

MCI Course 8102

Assaults Raids Demonstrations Withdrawals

Counterinsurgency Terrorism counteraction Peacekeeping Peacetime contingency operations

2-25

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Components of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)

Components

MCI Course 8102

The size and composition of a deployed MEF can vary greatly depending on the requirements of the mission. A MEF can deploy with not only its own units but also units from the other standing MEFs, the Marine Corps Reserve, or other Services. A MEF normally deploys by echelon. The lead echelon of the MEF, tailored to meet a specific mission, is designated the MEF Forward (FWD) and may be commanded by the MEF commander personally or by a designated commander. The MEF (FWD) prepares for the subsequent arrival of the rest of the MEF or other joint or combined forces. However, the deployment of the MEF (FWD) does not necessarily mean that all the forces of the standing MEF will follow. This would occur only if the entire MEF were required.

2-26

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete exercise items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

The Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF) is the Marine Corps’ ______________ warfighting organization. a. b. c. d.

Item 2

The MEF has ______________________ but is task-organized and designed to handle specific duties. a. b. c. d.

Item 3

only principal smallest most effective

a very strict fixed structure issued tasks assigned positions no fixed structure

Which is (are) mission(s) of a Marine Expeditionary Force (MEF)? a. b. c. d.

Amphibious assault Military Operations Other Than War (MOOTW) Commitment as a follow-on reinforcement for a smaller MAGTF All the above Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

2-27

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

The size and composition of a deployed MEF can vary greatly depending on the a. b. c. d.

size of the Ground Combat Element (GCE). requirements of the mission. requirements of the Combat Service Support Element (CSSE). location of the mission. Continued on next page

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2-28

Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below provides the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the page listed for each item. Item Number 1 2 3 4

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer b d d b

Reference page 2-24 2-24 2-25 2-26

This lesson has shown you the basic breakdown of the employment of a Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF).

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

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Study Unit 2, Lesson 2 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 3 MARINE CORPS HISTORY Overview

Estimated Study Time

2 hours, 40 minutes

Unit Scope

This study unit will give you a better understanding of historical events that have impacted doctrine, tactics and how the Marine Corps conducts business.

Learning Objectives

After completing this study unit, you should be able to

In This Study Unit

·

Identify the origins of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer (SNCO).

·

Identify significant events in Marine Corps history.

·

Identify the historical event with the doctrinal outcome.

·

Identify the SNCO contribution to the Marine Corps.

·

Identify social issues that have caused the Marine Corps to change.

This study unit contains the following lessons:

Lesson 1 Lesson 2 Lesson 3 Lesson 4

MCI Course 8102

Topic History of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer Evolution of the Marine Corps Marine Corps History in the 19th Century The Twentieth Century Marine Corps

3-1

See Page 3-3 3-15 3-29 3-51

Study Unit 3

(This page intentionally left blank.)

MCI Course 8102

3-2

Study Unit 3

LESSON 1 HISTORY OF THE STAFF NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICER Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson focuses on origins of Marines and Staff Noncommissioned Officers (SNCO) in history and how the rank structure has evolved in the Marine Corps.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

In This Lesson

·

Identify the origin of the SNCO rank.

·

Identify the year the grade of Gunnery Sergeant was created.

·

Identify the year the grade of Staff Sergeant was created.

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Origin of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer Ranks The SNCO Rank Structure Lesson 1 Exercise

MCI Course 8102

3-3

See Page 3-3 3-4 3-5 3-12

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Origin of the Staff Noncommissioned Officer Ranks

General

The staff noncommissioned officer originated out of a need for senior enlisted leadership. These senior enlisted Marines served as advisors in different work fields (Military Occupational Specialties) and as commanders of shipboard detachments.

Continental Marines

In establishing the Continental Marines, Congress specified that “no person be enlisted but such as are good seamen, or so acquainted with maritime affairs as to serve with advantage by sea”. This emphasis on ship’s detachments meant, proposed battalions would be broken up into small groups and the organizations would have a comparatively simple enlisted rank structure. The grades that evolved were those of sergeant, corporal, drummer or fifer, and private.

Reestablishing the Marine Corps

The U.S. Navy was permanently established in 1798. As a department of the Navy, the United States Marine Corps came into being. As far as ships’ detachments were concerned, the old pay grades and titles used by the Continental Marines were carried over but the Act for Establishing and Organizing a Marine Corps also provided for staff noncommissioned officers. Provisions allowed the Commandant to appoint a staff consisting of a sergeant major, a quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a fife major. This rank structure would remain in effect until 1832.

Post War of 1812

Following the War of 1812, the Navy shouldered the heavy burden of protecting American interests throughout the world. Many naval vessels had no Marine officer; a sergeant was responsible for the duties of a ship’s detachment. In 1833 congress created the grade of orderly sergeant to reflect the responsibilities of the position held by these sergeants at sea.

MCI Course 8102

3-4

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

The SNCO Rank Structure

General

The staff noncommissioned officer corps has evolved as compensation for billets requiring highly trained professionals. The need for these SNCO’s are displayed in the evolution of our rank structure.

First Sergeant

In1834, an important step in the evolution of the modern first sergeant was made when three orderly sergeants were employed as clerks at Headquarters Marine Corps to fill the need for senior enlisted Marines with clerical and bookkeeping skills. Although these men eventually were replaced by civilian clerks, their employment as administrative specialists did set the groundwork for the creation of a first sergeant. Official documents referred to the noncommissioned officer in charge of a ship’s guard detachment as a first sergeant. Not until July of 1872 was the title “orderly sergeant” officially dropped in favor of the more descriptive “first sergeant.” Continued on next page

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3-5

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

The Gunnery Sergeant

During the war with Spain a measure enacted on 5 May 1898 authorized the grade of gunnery sergeant. Much confusion reined around this grade until March of 1899 when a law was enacted that set forth the enlisted grades and the authorized strength of each. The legislators paused to place the gunnery sergeants on an equal level with the first sergeants in everything but pay. The gunnery sergeant would receive an additional ten dollars a month for his skill with naval ordnance, small arms, and signaling. A candidate for the grade of gunnery sergeant was tested primarily in naval ordinance. With the development of new signal equipment, some gunnery sergeants were trained in operating and maintaining radios. Still others specialized in telephone communication or in using electrically controlled coastal defense mines.

Gunnery Sergeant Insignia

The original design of the gunnery sergeant chevron consisted of three chevrons and three bars with the “device of the school of application,” a crossed rifle and naval gun behind an eagle, globe, and anchor. In 1904 the insignia was revised to three chevrons with a bursting bomb and crossed rifles set on a scarlet field. The chevron below reflects the revisions of 1904. Gunnery Sergeant 1904

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

3-6

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Mid-level Technical Grades

Sergeant and quartermaster sergeant were developed to fill the gap in the technical fields. The first group of staff sergeants received their warrants in the spring of 1923. On 10 December 1925, the Commandant requested the establishment of the ranks of master technical sergeant and supply sergeant. The purpose of requesting the new ranks was to reward men performing technical duties necessary to the operation of a large post or in the Marine aviation field. On 6 October 1926, the rank of paymaster sergeant was approved by Secretary of the Navy.

Staff Sergeant

The Marine Corps had multiple variations of the staff sergeant chevron dating back to the naval traditions with symbols from our military occupational specialty (MOS) field represented in the center of the chevron.

Insignia

Below are a couple of examples of staff sergeant rank from 1935: Platoon Sergeant

Staff Sergeant, Mess

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Upper-level Technical Grades

The ranks of technical sergeant, master gunnery sergeant and platoon sergeant were established during autumn of 1935. The ranks were necessary because of the continuing misuse of gunnery sergeants. The rank of master gunnery sergeant was created to give opportunity for further advancement to specialists in ordnance and gunnery. Technical sergeant, the same grade as gunnery sergeant, was authorized for noncommissioned officers holding the title of gunnery sergeant but performing duties entirely different from ordnance.

Technical Sergeant Insignia

The rank of Staff Sergeant and Technical Sergeant both had multiple ranks. Below are some examples of the technical sergeant chevrons from 1936: Gunnery Sergeant

Drum Major

Supply Sergeant

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

3-8

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Adequate Titles

The problem of finding adequate titles for each rank in the Marine Corps was not solved during the course of World War II. By mid-January 1944, SNCO rank structure was arranged in the table below. The table also reflects pay grades before they were inverted in 1949: Pay Grade

General Service

Ordnance

1

Sergeant Major 1st Sergeant Master Gunnery Sergeant Master Technical Sergeant

Master Gunnery Sergeant

2

Gunnery Sergeant Technical Sergeant

Gunnery Sergeant

3

Platoon Sergeant Staff Sergeant

Platoon Sergeant

Aviation, Band, Engineering, Communication, Special staff offices Master Technical Sergeant Quartermaster Sergeant Paymaster Sergeant Master Steward Master Cook Technical Sergeant Drum Major Paymaster Sergeant Steward 1st Class Cook 1st Class Staff Sergeant Steward 2nd Class Cook 2nd Class Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

3-9

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Rank Designation

By the end of World War II, certain branches had eased standards for the requirements for promotion. This caused a great deal of dissatisfaction, since men performing the same duties in different fields were promoted by different standards. On 1 December 1946, the new designations of rank went into effect. Branch titles such as commissary were abolished but the old titles such as first sergeant or platoon sergeant could be used when applicable in informal conversation. The table below illustrates the change in SNCO rank structure: Pay Grade 1

2

3

Old Rank Sergeant Major First Sergeant Master Gunnery Sergeant Master Technical Sergeant Quartermaster Sergeant Paymaster Sergeant Master Steward Master Cook Gunnery Sergeant Drum Major Supply Sergeant Steward 1st Class Technical Sergeant Platoon Sergeant Chief Cook Steward 2nd Class Cook 2nd Class Staff Sergeant

New Rank Master Sergeant

Technical Sergeant

Staff Sergeant

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

The SNCO Rank Structure, Continued

Policy Change

Between 1946 and 1958, there were three major changes in the SNCO rank structure. First, the Career Compensation Act of 12 October 1949 turned the pay-grade numbering system upside down by placing privates in pay grade E1 and master sergeants in grade E-7. Second, the Marine Corps announced in December 1954 the establishment of two additional titles within grade E-7. The rank of sergeant major was to take precedence over the newly redesignated first sergeant, which was placed above the master sergeant. Third, the job of first sergeant or sergeant major was too important to be classed merely as an administrative specialty. This re-emphasis on the role of the senior noncommissioned officers was followed by a sweeping revision of enlisted grades and ranks of the Marine Corps in 1958, after Congress amended the Career Compensation Act of 1949 and authorized two new pay grades, E-8 and E-9.

1963 to Present

With another revision new technical leadership was considered introduced into the top SNCO levels, in recognition of ever-increasing complexity of waging modern warfare, by permitting E-8 and E-9 billets to be filled also by occupational specialists. Since technical adeptness was required of others besides the technical sergeant, this title ceased to have value and was deleted. The rank of master sergeant was moved up to E-8 and the void was filled with the reintroduction of gunnery sergeant at the E-7 level. The rank of master gunnery sergeant was revived to provide leadership in occupational fields at E-9. The Chevron of Master Gunnery Sergeant and Sergeant Major would become 3 stripes with three rockers and a bursting bomb or star in the middle. The Master Sergeant chevron would be identical except for crossed rifles in the center vice a bursting bomb and one less rocker. First Sergeant would have the same number of stripes and rockers but with a diamond in the center vice crossed rifles.

MCI Course 8102

3-11

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

15 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

Provisions in the year ________ from the Act Establishing and Organizing the Marine Corps, allowed the Commandant to appoint the first SNCO rank. a. b. c. d.

Item 2

In 1798 the Commandant appointed an enlisted staff consisting of a sergeant major, a a. b. c. d.

Item 3

1770 1776 1798 1832

quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a fife major. quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a first sergeant. master sergeant, a fife major, and a first sergeant. drum major, a fife major and a first sergeant.

The grade of gunnery sergeant was authorized on a. b. c. d.

10 November 1775. 5 May 1898. 5 May 1901. 6 June 1944. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

3-12

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

The first group of staff sergeants received their warrants in the spring of ________ to fill the gap between sergeant and quartermaster sergeant. a. b. c. d.

1923 1925 1926 1935 Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

3-13

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Solutions

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items, refer to the reference page. Item Number 1 2 3 4

Summary

Answer c a b a

Reference 3-4 3-4 3-6 3-7

In this lesson, you learned about the origins of the SNCO and the history of the multiple ranks and grades of past and present. In the next lesson, you will learn about the evolution of the Marine Corps and how it was initially employed.

MCI Course 8102

3-14

Study Unit 3, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 EVOLUTION OF THE MARINE CORPS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson is designed to focus on the evolution of the Marine Corps. You will read about how the need for a rapidly deployable force from both sea and land provides a continuing mission for our Corps and ensures its survival as well.

Learning Objectives

After completing this lesson, you should be able to

In This Lesson

·

Identify Gooch’s Marines.

·

Identify the date of the first amphibious landing by Continental Marines.

·

Identify the year of the act that approved establishment and organization of a Marine Corps.

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Marines In History Continental Marines Marines Under Way Establishment Of The United States Marine Corps Lesson 2 Exercise

MCI Course 8102

3-15

See Page 3-15 3-16 3-18 3-20 3-23 3-26

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Marines In History

Introduction

The following lesson will give you information on the first known use of Marines and will provide information on how our lineage led to the establishment of the Marine Corps as a permanent organization.

Roman Marines

The first documented use of Marines by an organized Army dates back to the Roman Empire. Rome had special legions of “milites classiarri” or soldiers of the fleet. These special legions served at sea aboard ships and act as landing parties if needed.

Royal Marines

The British Royal Marines were formed on 26 October 1664 during the early stages of the second Dutch War. King Charles II sanctioned a decree in council for the formation of The Duke of York and Albany’s Maritime Regiment of Foot. The1200 man regiment had the specific designation for service afloat and fell under the command of the navy.

Gooch’s Marines

In 1740, England had raised four colonial battalions of 3,000 men for service against Spain. Alexander Spottswood of Virginia was their first commander however, he died just a couple of weeks after assuming command. Command of the Marines then transferred to Colonel William Gooch. These men would later be known as Gooch’s Marines, after their leader. In July 1741, Gooch’s Marines secured Guantanamo Bay, Cuba as a forward base for the British Navy.

Colonial and State Marines

Although no formal organization of Continental Marines was authorized prior to 10 November 1775, it was common practice to have Marine detachments aboard warships of all types. Records dated 3 May 1775 show the existence of American Marines on the payroll of the Massachusetts sloop Enterprise. Before there were any Continental warships, numerous Marines were serving aboard vessels belonging to the colonial or state navies. All states had navies except New Jersey and Delaware which sent out only privateers. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Marines In History, Continued

The Original Eight

MCI Course 8102

The first recorded reference to American Marines is in a letter dated 25 May 1775 that eight well spirited and equipped Connecticut State Marines escorting money for troops to Albany, New York. These troops were dispatched by the Governor of Connecticut in response to a request of “men and money needed” by the garrison at Fort Ticonderoga. These Marines are often referred to as the “Original Eight.”

3-17

Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Continental Marines

Introduction

It is probable that at no period in naval history were Marines more important than they were during the Revolutionary War. In many instances, Marines displayed their steadfastness and discipline whether under fire or maintaining order aboard the vessel.

The Need for Marines

In the 1770s, no one argued against the shipboard use of Marines. They were as much a part of the ships’ furniture as were its sails or guns. The Marines preserved order and discipline and manned shipboard cannons. The rule of thumb was “one gun, one Marine,”

Two Battalions of Marines Established

On 30 October 1775, Congress named a naval committee with John Adams of Massachusetts as one of its seven members. The exact location of the meeting place is not certain however; tradition has it that the committee met on the second floor of Peg Mullin’s Beef-Steak House at the corner of King Street and Tun Alley in Philadelphia, Pennsylvania. Accordingly, the committee put together a resolution, and on 10 November 1775, that resolution was passed by the Congress: Resolved, that two Battalions of Marines be raised consisting of one Colonel, two lieutenant Colonels, two Majors and officers as usual in other regiments, that they consist of equal number of privates with other battalions; that particular care be taken that no person be appointed to office or inlisted into said Battalions, but such are good seaman, or so acquainted with maritime affairs as to be able to serve to advantage by sea, when required. That they be inlisted and commissioned for and during the present war between Great Britain and the colonies, unless dismissed by order of Congress. That they be distinguished by names of the first and second battalions of American Marines, and that they be considered a part of the number, which the continental army before Boston is ordered to consist of. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Continental Marines, Continued

Recruiting

On 28 November 1775, John Hancock, president of Congress, signed a captain’s commission for thirty-one-year-old Samuel Nicholas, better known for his fishing and fox-hunting skills than for his maritime prowess. Captain Nicholas immediately began organizational efforts in Philadelphia. Fifers and drummers were sent out to gather up recruits for the two battalions by parading through the towns and playing music. The drums, as Benjamin Franklin noticed, were painted with the coiled rattlesnake and the motto “Don’t Tread on Me.” The recruiting rendezvous was Tun Tavern, but it is more likely that it was the Conestoga Wagon, a tavern owned by the Nicholas family. Five companies, approximately 300 Marines, were recruited by early December 1775 with muskets and accouterments provided by Pennsylvania’s Public Safety Committee.

Continental Colors

MCI Course 8102

The Continental Marines had no set regulation regarding colors at the beginning of the Revolutionary War. Many different colors varying in shape, size, and color were used. Below is an example of one variation that was carried by Continental Marines:

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Marines Under Way

Introduction

While Captain Nicholas was assembling his Marines, the Continental Navy was putting together its first squadron of ships. Throughout the month of November, a number of merchant ships for use by the Continental Navy had been purchased for conversion at a wharf in Philadelphia.

First Raid

Commodore Esek Hopkins was placed in charge of the fleet which put to sea on 17 February 1776. Altogether, there were about fifteen hundred men in eight ships, including three hundred Continental Marines with Captain Samuel Nicholas serving as the senior Marine officer. On 3 March 1776, Captain Nicholas lead a force of two-hundred Marines and fifty sailors ashore in two captured sloops. Under the cover of 12 guns from the sloop of war Providence, the landing party went ashore unopposed and marched against Fort Montagu, New Providence Island. This was the first amphibious landing by Continental Marines. The Marines took possession of all useful stores belonging to the Crown with the only retaliation being 3 shots from the fort’s 12 pound guns. After spiking the cannons, the defenders withdrew and the Marines pushed forward by occupying the fort. Captain Nicholas ran up the Grand Union flag, not yet called the Stars and Stripes, and occupied the fort for the night. The next day the landing force took Fort Nassau and arrested the British Governor. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Marines Under Way, Continued

War for Independence

During the War for Independence, the Continental and State Marines saw duty ashore during land campaigns but they spent the majority of the war aboard naval vessels manning the ships guns or as landing forces. After the Trenton-Princeton campaign of 1777, Captain Nicholas’ battalion was reduced to an ineffective fighting force. Reduced by transfers, casualties, and desertions, the three original companies joined General Washington’s army in its winter quarters at Morristown and disappeared as a distinct unit. The responsibility for recruiting Marines fell to the individual Marine officers assigned to various Continental ships from that point forward.

Mid-War

The Marines spent the next year of the war taking part in multiple ship to ship encounters, river operations along the Mississippi, and making a second landing in New Providence, Bahamas. The newly adopted Stars and Stripes, authorized by Congress on 14 June 1777, was raised over a foreign fortification for the first time at New Providence Island in the Bahamas. Also, a Marine detachment under the command of John Paul Jones made two raids against Great Britain near Whitehaven taking the war to the Crown’s homefront. Several other engagements took place in foreign waters. In July 1779, Continental and Massachusetts State Marines stormed Banks Island, Maine, then a province of Massachusetts. The outnumbered British Marines withdrew and two days later, the Americans launched their main assault against the British position on Bagaduce. Leading the attack were Continental Marines.

The Last Years

In the last years of the war, Marines aboard naval shipping found it difficult to venture out in search of combat due to so few American ships still being in service and British ships becoming more numerous. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Marines Under Way, Continued

Continental Marines Disbanded

Following the signing of the Treaty of Paris in 1783, four of the five remaining ships in the regular Navy were sold to help pay for war debt. This left only the Continental frigate Alliance in active service with the regular navy. On 3 June 1785 Congress authorized the Board of Treasury to sell the Alliance, the last vessel of the Continental Navy, for economic reasons. With the selling of the frigate, the small Marine guard commanded by Lieutenant Thomas Elmwood turned in its equipment and the last of the Continental Marines were mustered out and officially disbanded.

The Alliance’s Ensign

MCI Course 8102

Below is an example of the Naval Ensign that flew from the frigate Alliance in October 1779.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Establishment of The United States Marine Corps

Introduction

The ratification of the Constitution in 1790 established the legal basis for the armed forces of the new United States. In 1794, Congress took action to reactivate the Navy. As in the Revolutionary War, if there were to be Navy ships, Marines would be needed to preserve order and discipline and man shipboard cannons.

Six Frigates Authorized

The necessity of defending the nation’s sea-borne commerce finally moved Congress to create a naval force in the spring of 1794. With the beginning of the wars of the French Revolution of 1793, British warships began interfering with American trade with France, and French Warships with American trade with Great Britain. Another threat was from Algerian Corsairs who were also seizing American vessels. To deal with the shipping issues, the building of six frigates was authorized under the Naval Act of 27 March 1794. At the beginning of 1796 the United States negotiated peace with Algiers. The act authorizing the six frigates was put on hold even though the President urged an extension of the act to complete the construction of the frigates. Of the six frigates, only three were partially completed.

Quasi-War With France

France had been America’s major ally in our war for independence. The new government of Revolutionary France viewed the 1794 commercial agreement with Great Britain as a violation of France’s 1778 treaties with the United States. In retaliation the French increased their seizures of American ships that were trading with the British. Congress authorized vessels of the United States to capture armed French vessels off the coast of the United States, initiating an undeclared quasi war with France. Authorization was given to resume work on the three frigates and production began on the remaining three that were originally authorized so that an effective navy could be established. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Establishment of The United States Marine Corps, Continued A Marine Corps

On 11 July 1798 President John Adams received and approved “An act establishing and organizing a Marine Corps.” The year 1775 had seen the creation of the Continental Marines. Now there would be United States Marines. William Ward Burrows was appointed Major Commandant of the Corps. There were Marine quotas for the new ships instead of detachments since there was no corps yet established from which they could be detached. Senate amendments had taken out the provision for battalion organization therefore, Marines would be governed by Articles of War when ashore and Naval regulations while afloat. The Revolutionary War was a learning experience in shore establishment and in operational forces. Problems arose in procurement, provisioning, manning of ships, delegation of authority, and planning for an extensive campaign. Despite all these problems, the newly reestablished Navy/ Marine Corps team succeeded in achieving its goals of implementing national policy.

New Uniforms

The new Corps was issued uniforms left over from General “Mad Anthony” Wayne’s legion from the Revolutionary War. The uniform jackets were blue with red facings, a round hat trimmed in yellow with the brim turned up on the left side, tight blue trousers with a thin scarlet stripe, and leather stocks. The uniform would remain in effect until 1804 and this version of it would be the beginning of our familiar “dress blue.”

1798 Uniform

Below is a photo of a reproduction Marine uniform from 1798.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Establishment of The United States Marine Corps, Continued

Establishment of Marine Barracks Washington

MCI Course 8102

In June of 1800 the capital was moved from Philadelphia to Washington. On 31 March 1801, President Jefferson and Major Commandant Burrows rode out in search of a location of the new Marine Barracks. They decided upon a square in Southeast Washington bordered by Eighth, Ninth, G, and I Streets, because “it lay near the Navy Yard” and was within easy marching distance of the Capitol. The barracks would be laid out in typical nineteenth-century barracks style with the Commandant’s house on the North side. The barracks was remodeled in 1900 and retains the same appearance today. The barracks is often referred to today as “8th and I.”

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 4 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

The four battalions of Marines recruited by England in 1740 for service against Spain became known as ___________ Marines. a. b. c. d.

Item 2

The first amphibious landing by Continental Marines took place on _________ when they landed at New Providence. a. b. c. d.

Item 3

Hardy’s Casey’s Gilham’s Gooche’s

3 March 1776 4 July 1776 10 November 1775 3 March 1775

President____________ approved an act establishing and organizing a Marine Corps. a. b. c. d.

George Washington John Adams William Burrows Thomas Jefferson Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

The President signed an act establishing and organizing a Marine Corps on. a. b. c. d.

Item 5

10 July 1798. 11 July 1798. 31 March 1801. 10 July 1801.

On 31 March 1801 Major Commandant _________ and President___________ rode out in search of a location for the new Marine barracks in Washington. a. b. c. d.

Burrows, Jefferson Nicholas, Washington Mullins, Adams Hardy, Nichols Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item number 1 2 3 4 5

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer d a b b a

Reference 3-16 3-20 3-24 3-24 3-25

This lesson has shown you the events leading up to and the establishment of the United States Marine Corps. The following lesson will highlight the Corps significant actions and changes in the 19th century.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 2 Exercise

LESSON 3 MARINE CORPS HISTORY IN THE 19th CENTURY Introduction

Estimated Study Time

30 minutes

Lesson Scope

The purpose of this lesson is to explain by example how Marines were used and the doctrine they enforced during the 19th century.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson you should be able to ·

Identify the Marines’ first priority mission during the War of 1812.

·

Identify when the first American forces set foot on Mexican soil during the War with Mexico.

·

Identify why Marines were tasked with the Harper’s Ferry mission

·

Select the date the Confederate States Marine Corps came into existence.

·

Select how the Marine battalion was used at the battle of First Manassas.

·

Select the lessons learned at Fort Fisher.

·

Identify the date the first Marine Brigade was formed. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Early 1800s War of 1812 War with Mexico War Between the States 1866 to the 1890s Spanish-American War Lesson 3 Exercise

MCI Course 8102

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See Page 3-29 3-31 3-32 3-35 3-38 3-44 3-45 3-47

Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Early 1800s

General

The early 1800s saw the Marine Corps continue to grow in proficiency and ability to enforce international policy. This was accomplished with small parties of Marines serving in other countries, shipboard defense, and the establishment of additional barracks.

Service in Tripoli

The four Barbary States of North Africa--Morocco, Algiers, Tunis, and Tripoli--had plundered seaborne commerce for centuries. Surviving by blackmail, they received large sums of money, ships, and arms yearly from foreign powers in return for allowing the foreigners to trade in African ports and sail without interference, through Barbary waters. They demanded money, seized ships, and held crew for ransom or sold them into slavery. After the war for independence, American merchant ships were being seized by pirates and the crews enslaved. In 1799, the United States entered into an agreement with Tripoli to pay $18,000 a year for unhindered shipping in the Barbary area. Agreements were also reached with the three other Barbary states.

Pirates in Tripoli

As the demands increased from the Pacha of Tripoli, the United States became less willing to accommodate them and ultimately refused to do so. On 14 May 1801, the Bashaw of Tripoli declared war on the United States for the refusal of payment. The result was a United States naval blockade of the coast, gunboat actions, and the bombardment of coastal defenses. Some of the more highlighted actions were the liberation/ burning of the American frigate Philadelphia in 1804 and the storming of the Barbary pirates’ harbor fortress at Derne. Lt. Presley O’Bannon’s Marines were the first United States forces to raise the national colors in the country during this engagement. It is from this engagement that the phrase “to the shores of Tripoli” came into being. In June of 1805, a peace settlement was reached.

Continued Actions at Sea

MCI Course 8102

After the Barbary Pirate War, Marine action was limited mostly to ship to ship conflicts with British vessels. They did see small engagements with Spain and set up posts in Charleston South Carolina, New Orleans Louisiana, and Cumberland Island off the coast of Georgia.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War of 1812

General

The British Navy maintained their ranks by forcing sailors into service, mostly from captured vessels, a practice referred to as impressment. By 1812 the number of impressed American seamen had grown to six thousand. To obtain the release of these seamen, President Madison was forced to ask Congress for a declaration of war which was approved on 18 June 1812.

Frigate Duels

The second war with Great Britain started off with intense frigate duels. Within the first four months, in actions taking place from Newfoundland to Bermuda, the United States had sunk three British frigates.

The Lake Squadrons

Due to a small and inefficient force of Marines on Lake Ontario, the Marine Corps closed down the barracks at Charleston, South Carolina and marched the Marines to Sackets Harbor on Lake Ontario. A similar Marine march took place from Washington, D.C. to Lake Erie. On Lake Ontario, Marines took part in the defense of the naval base at Sackets Harbor. Additionally, Marines were attached to a brigade of Army regulars in the campaign along the Niagra. The additional taskings on land left several ships without Marines, causing borrowed men from Army infantry units to serve as Marines aboard ships on Lake Champlain. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War of 1812, Continued

Defending Washington and Baltimore

On 19 August 1814, a British landing took place at Benedict, Maryland. Upon landing the British organized forces and set out for Washington with the intent to divide the country and give Britain claim to New England. The American forces defending Washington consisted mainly of unorganized militia. Among this organization was a battalion of 114 Marines organized by LtCol. Wharton from the ranks of the Marine Barracks in Washington. The two forces met at Bladensburg, Maryland on 24 August 1814. The American Militia put up little resistance and scattered. This left only a small contingent of Marines and sailors to defend the road to Washington. The Marines and sailors made a valiant stand and held off three successive British charges. After delaying the British for two hours, the almost encircled contingent was forced to withdraw to avoid being completely surrounded.

The Battle of New Orleans

At New Orleans, Major Daniel Carmick’s Marines, approximately 300 strong, had been fighting Creole pirates. On 16 September 1814, Carmick’s Marines burned the pirate stronghold at Baratataria. With the threat of British attack, the Marines were attached to Major General Andrew Jackson’s forces in the defense of New Orleans. The American forces took up a defensive line behind the Rodriguez canal. One flank tied in to the Mississippi River and the other with a swamp. The Carmick’s Marines defended the center of the line. The main British attack came on 8 January 1815. The British launched a 5,300 man frontal assault towards the American line. Waiting behind fortifications were some 3,500 Americans with another 1000 in reserve. After 20 minutes of fighting the British suffered over 2,036 casualties. The Americans, by some accounts, had as few as 21 total casualties. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War of 1812, Continued

The War is Over

The treaty of Ghent was signed on 24 December 1814. The war was over before the battle of New Orleans ever started. Even so, New Orleans was not the last engagement of the war. Ships at sea could not be informed of the treaty, so isolated actions at sea continued for another six months.

Expeditionary Forces

The Marines’ first priority had been to provide detachments to Navy ships and then to the lake squadrons, but the Marines never had the needed manpower to accomplish this assignment. Company-sized units fought at Bladensburg and New Orleans but no thought was given to forming an expeditionary force or a permanent battalion structure.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War with Mexico

General

War with Mexico was the inevitable result of America’s westward and southwestern expansion against the frontiers of the southern republic. In April 1846, Mexican troops crossed the Rio Grande and attacked a detachment of United States Cavalry. Congress therefore declared war on Mexico on 13 May 1846.

First U.S. Troops on Mexican Soil

On 18 May 1846 the invasion of Mexico commenced. The first American forces to set foot on Mexican soil were Marine skirmishers from the frigates Cumberland and Potomac, commanded by Captain John H. Aulick, USN.

Action on the West Coast

From May to October 1846 Marines made over 12 landings along the coast of California and Mexico to launch offensive operations against Mexican occupied towns. During that same time period, 26 Mexican ships were captured by U.S. warships with Marines stationed aboard.

Operations in the Gulf of Mexico

The immediate naval problem in the Gulf of Mexico was to establish a blockade and provide secure sea-borne communications for the task force operating in the area. Advance naval bases along the coast would need to be secured to help accomplish the mission. A landing force was put together by combining all the ships Marine detachments that were operating in the area. Captain Alvin Edison was put in command of the 200-man Marine Battalion. The Marine Battalion, augmented by sailors, made several raids against secondary Mexican ports. In March 1847, a landing force brigade was organized by the Army. The core of this force was the Marine battalion and the combined force was successfully employed in securing the Mexican towns of Alvarado and Tuxpan. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War with Mexico, Continued

San Juan Bautista

In June 1847, the naval Brigade landed at San Juan Bautista, the last remaining port of entry for a river campaign. On June 14th, the force advanced 40 miles upstream with no contact, but the following day enemy opposition was encountered in strength. The naval force encountered a riverine obstruction covered by sniper fire and enemy batteries. The landing force put ashore and began the task of clearing the enemy batteries. The Marines and sailors advanced under naval gun fire that followed them up the river. By late afternoon, the landing force had captured 12 pieces of artillery and approximately 600 muskets and had run off all Mexican defenders from San Juan Bautista. The capture and neutralization of San Juan Bautista was the last major amphibious operation of the Gulf Squadron. Conducted smoothly and expertly, the campaign reflected a high degree of amphibious technique and mutual co-ordination between the fleet and its landing force.

Assault on Chapultepec Castle

To seize Mexico City, Chapultepec Castle, which dominated all avenues of approach, would have to be taken first. The battle plan called for the main assault to storm the western face of Chapultepec Castle while another division attacked the southern face. The leading units were comprised of hand picked forces to be used as storming parties. The lead wave of the southern element was lead by Marine Captain John G. Reynolds, and was comprised of 40 army and Marine volunteers. The remainder of the Marine Battalion was assigned the task of supporting the storming party and leading the entire division in the attack. On 13 September 1847 at 0805, the storming party moved out under the cover of an artillery barrage. Within 20 minutes, the storming party was up and over the walls of the castle and engaged in hand-to-hand combat with the enemy. Marine casualties numbered 24 during the assault. While the assault was going on, the right flank of the support, which was comprised of company C of the Marine force, outflanked and overran the Mexican artillery that was positioned on the Veronica Causeway. The Marines continued to pursue the fleeing enemy and in doing so broke up a counter attack launched by a unit of Mexican Lancers. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War with Mexico, Continued

Into the Gates of Mexico City

At the San Cosme Gate, the Marines went in with 26 men from the U.S. 4th Infantry. The combined force took the gateway and forced entry into Mexico City, being the first U.S. troops to set foot into the city. The following morning, the main body of Marines was assigned the task of clearing the Palicio Nacional of enemy. On top of the Palace of the Motezumas, a Marine cut down the Mexican colors and hoisted the United States flag. As the Army commander arrived on the grounds, he found the surrounding streets guarded by United States Marines.

A New Motto

Until 1848, the Marine Corps standard bore only the traditional motto, To the Shores of Tripoli. Upon the Marines’ return to Washington, D.C., the people of the city presented General Henderson with a blue and gold standard with a new motto: From Tripoli to the Halls of the Montezumas. Following the close of the Mexican War came the first verse of the Marines’ Hymn. According to tradition, this verse was written by a Marine on duty in Mexico. The author transposed the phrases in the motto on the Marine Colors so that the first two lines of the Marines’ Hymn would read: “From the Halls of Montezuma, To the shores of Tripoli.”

Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo

After the fall of Mexico City, no organized Mexican government existed. After Manuel de la Pena, the President of the Supreme Court, became acting president of Mexico, the United States negotiated the Treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo. After the signing of the treaty on 2 February 1848, the United States gained land that encompasses present day California, Arizona, New Mexico and portions of Utah, Nevada, and Colorado.

Service in China and Japan

After the war with Mexico, the Marines continued to make various landings in China and Japan to protect American lives and property. Even though the Corps was few in numbers, Marines were involved in several events which gained respect throughout the world for our country.

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War Between the States

General

The principles and loyalties that divided the nation in 1861 were also felt in the Marine Corps. Several of the Corps’ most experienced Marines were natives of the South and resigned to join the Confederate States Forces, but even with the loss of manpower to the Confederate States, the United States Marines were among the few active duty troops available to respond when war was declared.

Events Before the War

As states began to secede from the Union, Federal navy yards and forts became targets for the native forces of the Southern States. In January of 1861, Marines were sent to Charleston, South Carolina in an attempt to bolster defenses at Fort Sumter. During the same month, Marines garrisoned Fort Washington and Fort McHenry, Maryland. In April, 110 Marines were sent to Fort Pickens, Florida to reinforce the last defenses remaining in Union hands.

Harpers Ferry

At 8 p.m. October 16, 1859, John Brown, disguising himself as a Mr. Smith, led a raiding party of 21 men toward Harpers Ferry, where they captured the night watchman and cut the town’s telegraph lines. Encountering no resistance, Browns raiders seized the federal arsenal, an armory, and a rifle works along with several million dollars worth of arms and munitions. Upon completion of all these tasks, Brown sent out several small detachments to round up hostages and liberate slaves. The church bell began to toll at some point during the night, warning local families of a problem at the arsenal. Local townspeople arose from their beds and gathered in the streets of Harpers Ferry and within a few hours, Brown’s party was forced to retreat to the Arsenal firehouse finding themselves surrounded and all avenues of escape cut off. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War Between the States, Continued

Quick Reaction Force

Marine First Lieutenant Israel Green, future Adjutant and Inspector of the Confederate Marine Corps, was assigned the task of leading 86 Marines with two 12 pound Dahlgren howitzers from the Marine Barracks in D.C. to Harpers Ferry. Although 150 soldiers from Fort Monroe were ordered to the Arsenal, The Marines were the only available force who could react with the speed needed. Upon arrival, Lieutenant Green reported to the on site commander, Army LtCol. Robert E. Lee.

Marines Assault the Arsenal

The following morning, Lt. James E. B. Stuart, an aide to Lt.Col. Lee, presented a demand to Brown for his surrender. At this point Lt. Stuart recognized “Mr. Smith” as being the infamous John Brown, having dealt with Brown during his service in Kansas. Upon Brown’s refusal, Stuart waved his hat as a signal for the Marines to commence their assault. Lt. Green led the 24-man assault party, armed with sledge hammers, a heavy ladder, and bayonet tipped muskets. Lieutenant Green, with sword drawn, was the first inside a small opening created in the right door. Lieutenant Green located Brown and made a stab at him; however, the blade bent against the thick leather of Brown’s belt. Green then grasped the sword by the blade and hit Brown in the head knocking him unconscious. As the rest of the Marines rushed in, two of Brown’s men were bayoneted and one Marine was shot dead. The melee was over quickly with the Arsenal in Marine hands and John Brown’s party in custody. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War Between the States, Continued

Early Doctrine

After war was declared on 15 April 1861, General Winfield Scott, Senior Army Commander, proposed his “Anaconda Plan” which called for the cutting off all imports and exports from Southern ports. This would be attempted through a blockade and the seizing of major ports and forts on the Southern coast. Although this sounds like a typical mission for the modern Marine Corps, the Corps of 1861 was not the fighting force we are today. Marine Commandant Colonel John Harris felt that “such invasions were better handled by the Army.” He preferred to keep the Marines at their standard practice of guarding ships. This policy was continued when Major Jacob Zeilin became Commandant in 1864. Marines were used in landings, raids, riverine operations and assaults, but not on any large scale. This was in part due to the small size of the Corps, which was less than 3000.

Confederate States Marine Corps

The Confederate States Marine Corps came into existence on March 16, 1861, as part of “An act to Organize the Navy” passed on that date by the Confederate States Congress. Initially destined to form a six-company battalion, subsequent legislation increased the authorized strength of the Corps to regimental proportion. Only two SNCO billets were authorized in the original table of organization, a Sergeant Major and a Quartermaster Sergeant. Due to a lack of trained seaman in the Navy, the Corps remained in and around Richmond until the summer of 1862. Many of the Marines were sent to the various ships in the Navy for duty. In addition to duty afloat, they were detailed as guards at the naval stations. Before the end of the war, Confederate Marines would participate in eleven different land campaigns and at least seven engagements on board ship. The campaigns do not include the multiple batteries and Navy Yards manned throughout the South. These Marines served in small detachments on board ship and on shore throughout the South. They formed the nucleus of ships’ gun crews, as trained artillerymen for coastal defense, and as volunteers for hazardous duty on board ironclad vessels. After the battle of Saylers Creek in 1865, the Confederate Marine Corps nearly ceased to exis. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War Between the States, Continued Battle of 1st Manassas

With the newly formed Confederate Army threatening the outskirts of Washington, D.C., a 353-man Marine battalion was formed from the ranks stationed in Washington. The Marines shipped out to Manassas, Virginia under the command of Major John G. Reynolds and were assigned to the Army of Northeastern Virginia under the command of Army Brigadier General Irvin McDowell. The Marine battalion was assigned as permanent support to Captain Charles Griffins’s West Point Battery. The two armies had been engaged in combat since that morning. Late in the morning, the Marines were sent into the fray with the West Point Battery. Behind them pressed the 14th and 27th New York State Militias. The Marines and New Yorkers had performed admirably and subsequently helped to push back the Confederate line a mile and a half from their original position.

Henry House Hill

As events started to slow down, the West Point Battery and another battery were deployed in an exposed position on Henry House Hill. The Marines and a detachment of New York militia were ordered forward to support the batteries. As the New Yorkers were enroute, J.E.B. Stuart’s Cavalry, of Harpers Ferry fame, charged into the militia forcing them into a rout. With no flanking support and 44 casualties, the Marine line also gave way. This was reported to the Secretary of the Navy as “the first instance in Marine Corps history where any portion of its members turned their backs to the enemy.”

The North Carolina Coast

For the remainder of the war, Federal Marines served at sea in support of the Union naval blockade along the Eastern seaboard. Marines participated in amphibious attacks, raids and landings. On 28 August 1861, a combined Marine-Army force of 250 men landed in surfboats, supported by naval gunfire from USS Minnesota, Wabash and Cumberland, to attack Fort Clark, North Carolina. Within a few hours, the fort was captured. By noon of the following day, Fort Hatteras had been captured in subsequent operations ashore. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War Between the States, Continued

The First Marine SNCO to Receive the Medal of Honor

Orderly Sergeant Christopher Nugent was the first Marine staff noncommissioned officer to receive the Medal of Honor, serving on board the USS Fort Henry on Crystal River, Florida on 15 June 1863. Reconnoitering on the Crystal River on this date and in charge of a boat from Fort Henry, Orderly Sergeant Nugent ordered an assault on a Confederate breastwork fortification. In this assault, the orderly sergeant and his comrades drove a guard of 11 Confederate soldiers into the swamp, capturing their arms and destroying their camp equipage while gallantly withholding fire to prevent harm to a woman among the fugitives. On 30 July 1863, he further proved his courage by capturing a boat off Depot Key, Florida, containing two men and a woman with their baggage.

Establishing Naval Bases

During January of 1862, a detachment of Marines was sent to Cairo, Illinois to establish a Naval base of operations. During a similar operation, but on a much larger scale, on 24 April of 1862 the Federal Navy made its way to the mouth of the Mississippi to seize New Orleans as a base of operations. First ashore were the Marines from the USS Pensacola. The Marines seized key buildings and grounds and set up a base of operations until follow on forces from the Army arrived.

Amphibious Assaults

The United States Marines participated in two major amphibious assaults during the war. The first was at Charleston, South Carolina. On the night of 8 September 1864, five 100-man divisions (4 Navy and 1 Marine) made an assault on Confederate held Fort Sumter. The troops received almost no training or preparation for the assault. The result was catastrophic. Only 150 Marines and sailors ever made it ashore. Of these, 44 Marines were killed, wounded, or captured. A valuable lesson in the use of mission specific training and command and control was taught. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

War Between the States, Continued

Fort Fisher

The second assault took place at Ft. Fisher, North Carolina on 13 January 1864. Under the cover of a naval bombardment, 400 Marines and 1600 sailors landed on the Carolina coast northeast of the fort. The landing forces mission was to distract the defenders of the fort so a larger Army landing force could assault the northwestern edge of the fort. Upon landing, the sailors prematurely assaulted the fort in an uncoordinated attack. The Marines, after forming into companies, joined in the assault on the fort. Forty yards short of the fort, the sailors broke and ran. The demonstration had worked in making the fort’s defenders believe this was the main assault and the Marines and sailors had left 309 casualties on the beach. Once again a lack of training, practice, and correct organization on the part of all forces in an amphibious assault led to unnecessary casualties.

The Last Engagement for the Confederate States Marines

In the last days of the Civil war, an important battle took place at Saylers Creek, Virginia. The Confederate Marines, as part of the Naval Brigade, were assigned to Lieutenant General Ewell’s Corps, Army of Northern Virginia. Having lost their flank support, Ewells Corps began receiving fire from all sides. As the Corps began to crumble under the heavy numbers of the Federal Army, one unit, the Marines and sailors of the Naval Brigade, remained firm, withstanding several cavalry charges and murderous enemy fire. Only after General Ewell had been captured and the rest of the army destroyed did the Marines lower their flag in surrender. This would be the last use of Confederate Marines as an effective fighting force.

End of the War

With the surrender of the Army of Northern Virginia in April of 1865 and shortly thereafter the Army of Tennessee, the war for the most part was over. The majority of the Confederate Marines returned to their homes in the occupied South and endure years of reconstruction. Their Federal counterparts would resume peacetime duty aboard ships and barracks throughout the reunited country.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

1866 to the 1890s

General

With the war over and the nation attempting to regain its stability, the Marine Corps settled down to peacetime service. While some Marines performed routine duty in the states, others were assigned to the large number of naval vessels that returned to their foreign stations.

Duty on Board Naval Vessels

On board naval vessels, Marines served in such places as Egypt, Cuba, Mexico, Uruguay, Argentina, Chile, Columbia, Panama, Haiti, China, Formosa, Alaska, and Korea. The Marines conducted landings in many of these places but for the most part, the mere presence of Marines and Navy ships was enough deterrence to protect American lives and interests on foreign shores.

The First Marine Brigade is Formed

On 2 April 1885, the Commandant of the Marine Corps received orders from the Secretary of the Navy to organize and dispatch a battalion of Marines to Aspinwall, Panama to protect American interests. Within 24 hours a battalion of 232 Marines from 5 different barracks was formed and sailed from New York. On 6 April a second battalion was formed with Marines from various barracks along the Southeastern coast. Shortly thereafter, a third Marine battalion was formed from ships detachments and the barracks at Pensacola. Once all three battalions had reached Panama, they were formed into a single Marine Brigade, the first ever formed.

Sergeant Major Thomas F. Hayes

Sergeant Major Thomas F. Hayes, Sergeant Major at Marine Barracks Washington, D.C. during the later part of the 19th century, had served in the British army and was an experienced combat veteran. During his time at 8th & I, Sergeant Major Hayes, following British custom, was given charge of initial parade-ground training of new lieutenants at the school of application. This SNCO, while serving as a subject matter expert, contributed to the training and development of parade ground drill. Probably because his successors had not been accustomed to this usage of an SNCO, the practice died with Sergeant Major Hayes.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Spanish-American War

General

By the 1890s, Spain had lost most of its empire, but in the Caribbean it still had Cuba and Puerto Rico. In the Pacific it retained Guam and the Philippines. The war of 1898 was started over Cuba’s efforts to win its freedom.

The USS Maine

On 25 January 1898, the USS Maine arrived in Havana Harbor to protect American lives and property. On the calm night of 15 February 1898, 20 minutes after taps, the forward portion of the ship was rocked with a tremendous explosion under the waterline. The battleship sank in the harbor carrying down 266 crewman, including 28 Marines. Mystery surrounded the sinking of the Maine. Public outcry called for war against Spain with the battle cry “remember the Maine.” On 21 April of the same year, under a joint resolution of Congress, war was declared on Spain.

Guantanamo Bay

In April 1898, The U.S. Navy scouted the Guantananamo Bay area as a base location for the war. A landing force was organized into six companies--five infantry and one artillery. Additionally an old merchant ship, renamed the USS Panther, was refitted to serve as a transport specifically for the Marines. On the 8th of June, 650 Marines landed under the cover of naval gunfire and set up an advance naval base. The Marines served as the spearhead for the American forces landing in Cuba. Four days after the landing, two companies of Marines stepped off on a mission 2 miles away to destroy the Spanish water point in the Cuzco Valley. The Marines were again assisted with naval gunfire from the dispatch boat Dolphin. During the action, sergeant John H. Quick exposed himself repeatedly to hostile fire to direct the naval gunfire. For his actions that day, Sgt. Quick would be awarded the Medal of Honor.

Combined Arms

During the Spanish-American War, the operations of the Marine Battalion made important advances. The battalion was part of the Atlantic Fleet, similar to the modern day FMF. Its organization was no longer part of the ship’s company, rather it was a self-contained unit built around combined arms. The mobile base of operations was the Marine transport ship Panther. The Marine landing force set the standard for employment of U.S. Marines that would last until the middle of the twentieth century. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Spanish-American War, Continued

The Treaty of Paris

MCI Course 8102

On August 12th, one day before the fall of Manila, Spain agreed to get out of Cuba and to cede Puerto Rico and the island of Guam to the United States. On December 10, 1898 the Treaty of Paris was signed officially bringing the war with Spain to an end.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3

Lesson 3 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 7 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

During the War of 1812, the Marines’ first priority was to provide _____________________and then to the lake squadrons. a. b. c. d.

Item 2

On __________the invasion of Mexico commenced. a. b. c. d.

Item 3

detachments to Navy ships gun crews to land forces detachments to land forces rapid deploying infantry detachments

18 May 1846 16 October 1860 18 May 1856 16 October 1856

Although 150 soldiers from Fort Monroe were ordered to the Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, the Marines were the only available force that a. b. c. d.

could bring mounted forces that were needed. could react fast enough with the speed needed. knew the course of action that was needed. had information on John Brown that was needed. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

The Confederate States Marine Corps came into existence on _________, as part of “An act to Organize the Navy” passed on that date by the Confederate States Congress. a. b. c. d.

Item 5

During the battle of 1st Manassas, the Marine Battalion was assigned as _____________ to Captain Charles Griffins’s “West Point Battery.” a. b. c. d.

Item 6

litter bearers ammunition bearers permanent support information runners

At the battle of Fort Fisher, lack of ___________and correct organization on the part of all forces in an amphibious assault led to unnecessary casualties. a. b. c. d.

Item 7

November 10, 1860 October 16, 1860 March 16, 1861 November 10, 1861

training, practice, ships, firepower, rifled muskets, assault boats,

The First Marine Brigade was formed in __________ at Aspenwall, Panama. a. b. c. d.

April 1865 January 1885 April 1885 April 1898 Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

Lesson 3 Exercise, Continued

Solutions

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer a a b c c a c

Reference 3-35 3-36 3-40 3-41 3-42 3-44 3-45

This lesson has shown you the historical events that displayed the variety ways that Marines were utilized and the changes in Marine Corps task organization. The following lesson will continue to cover historical events that have impacted doctrine, tactics and how the Marine Corps does business.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 3 Exercise

LESSON 4 THE TWENTIETH CENTURY MARINE CORPS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

35 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson is designed to focus on the origins, tactics, contributions and social issues that have caused the Marine Corps to change in the twentieth century.

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to ·

Identify the mission of the Marine Corps Advance Base School.

·

Identify the date of the first Marine aviation detachment commissioning.

·

Identify the date and designation of the first enlisted pilots.

·

Identify the date the first women Marines were enlisted.

·

Identify how Marine Regiments were initially used in the Spring of 1918 during World War I.

·

Identify the purpose of the Tentative Landing Operations manual.

·

Identify the role of the Landing Vehicle, Tracked (LVT) at Tarawa.

·

Identify the helicopter’s mission in Korea.

·

Identify the reason the landing at Inchon was conducted.

·

Identify the purpose of Operation Pegasus. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Introduction, Continued

In This Lesson

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction The Boxer Rebellion Turn of the Century Advances World War I The Interim Years 1919-1940 World War II The War in Korea Marines in Vietnam Beyond 1975 Lesson 4 Exercise

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See Page 3-51 3-53 3-55 3-58 3-63 3-68 3-76 3-81 3-87 3-90

Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

The Boxer Rebellion

Introduction

In the late 1890s, many countries were actively involved in Chinese affairs. The United States wanted an open door policy in which there would be opportunities for trade and business in China, but resentment against foreigners and Christians, because they were outsiders, swelled among some Chinese citizens. Anti-foreign sentiment resulted in the rapid growth of a Chinese secret society known as the I Ho Ch’uan, (Righteous Harmonious Fists), but referred to by Westerners as “Boxers.”

Marines are Sent In

The Boxers initiated hostile actions in and around Peking, including the burning of railroad stations. The foreign legations began to fear for their well being and requested help from their governments. A detachment of U.S. Marines, under the command of Captain Myers, was among the first troops to respond.

The Legations

The graphic below depicts the locations of foreign legations in Peking.

Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

The Boxer Rebellion, Continued

Multi-National Force

On 31 May 1900, the detachment of Marines boarded a train for Peking. Onboard with the Marines were 79 British Marines, 75 French sailors, 72 Russian sailors, 51 German Marines, 39 Italian sailors, 30 Austrian Marines, and 24 Japanese Special Naval Landing Force. The problem within the force was the lack of an overall commander but it would be the predecessor of the multi-national peacekeeping force. Eventually U.S. Marine Captain John Myers took charge of the force, organized a chain of command and made sure that all forces worked in a joint effort. As an SNCO, you may encounter similar situations while working with local government agencies or with foreign forces on a combined operation. The Marines manned the southern section of the Tartar City Wall with their German counterparts. On 27 June, the Chinese made an attempt to assault the wall and were wiped out by the accurate rifle fire from the defending Marines and Germans. Eventually a relief expedition was formed. It set out from Tientsin and was able to relieve the multi-national force in Peking. During the 75-day siege of the Legation Quarter, outnumbered 100 to 1, the Marines performed with skill and coolness while under fire. Along with the other foreign detachments, they held the key position on the Tartar Wall that separated the Legation Quarter from the rest of the city.

Result of the Rebellion

MCI Course 8102

The United States was able to play a significant role in suppressing the Boxers uprising because of the large numbers of ships and troops deployed in the Philippines as a result of the US conquest of the islands during the Spanish-American War of 1898 and subsequent Philippine insurgent activity. As a result of the Boxer Rebellion, many American politicians felt the need to retain control of the Philippines and maintain a strong US presence in the far East.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Turn of the Century Advances

Introduction

After the turn of the century, the Marine Corps gained valuable experience in operating against irregular forces in the Caribbean and highly trained regular troops in Europe. World War I saw the Marines fighting as part of an American Expeditionary Force in Europe. Aviation units began to develop, cooperating with ground forces in preparation for the utilization of the Marine Corps air/ ground team concept.

Marine Corps Advance Base School

In 1910, the Marine Corps Advance Base School was established at New London, Connecticut. The missions of this school were to ·

Train Marines in the handling, installation, and use of advance base material.

·

Investigate what types of guns, gun platforms, mines, torpedo defenses, and other equipment might be best suited for advance base work.

·

Study such military and naval subjects as pertaining to the selection, occupation, attack and defense of advance bases, or expeditionary service in general.

This would be the first institution of its kind ever established, and therefore a milestone in U.S. Naval history. From this point on, the Marine Corps would have a professional school to focus thinking on amphibious warfare and the expeditionary capabilities of the Corps. Birth of Marine Aviation

The Aviation Detachment, Advance Base Force was commissioned on 27 December 1913. The detachment consisted of two officers, seven enlisted men and two Navy flying boats. The Marine Corps continued to lead the way by sending the first completely equipped American Aviation unit to depart the United States for war service in late December 1917. The First Marine Aeronautic Company reported for anti-submarine duty in the Azores in January of 1918. In October 1918, Squadron No. 9 of Marine Aviation, as part of British Aviation group, made the first raid over enemy lines in France by Marine aviation. Marine pilots conducted independent raids far behind enemy lines, performed reconnaissance, and conducted bombing and air droppable re-supply missions. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Turn of the Century Advances, Continued

Enlisted Pilots

In 1916, the first class of eight Navy petty officers and two Marine sergeants received formal pilot instruction at Pensacola, Florida. The first enlisted pilots to be designated naval aviation pilots and wear naval aviator wings graduated in 1920. During the 1920’s, the need for enlisted pilots more than doubled due to a lack of officer pilots. A law enacted in 1926 by Congress required that 30%, later lowered to 20%, of the total number of Navy pilots on active duty be enlisted pilots. By December 1947 some 5000 enlisted men of the Marine Corps, Navy and Coast Guard had been designated naval aviation pilots. In the same year Congress repealed the requirement for enlisted pilots. The last enlisted naval aviation pilot retired from service in 1981.

Advances in Uniforms and Weaponry

In 1903, a standing-collar khaki blouse, cut like the blues blouse, was adopted. In 1912 it was also realized that a winter field uniform was needed. Drawing on the Corps’ traditional status as light infantry, it was decided to adopt forest green with bronze hardware as a winter field uniform. Additionally, the Marine Corps adopted a uniform for tropical climates. This uniform was called the P1912 Marine Khaki Uniform. It was made of a medium khaki colored light cotton/ canvas material and cut to the same pattern as the forest green uniform. The rifle that the Marines carried in the Spanish War, Boxer uprising and part of the Philippine insurrection, was the underpowered Lee 6mm. In 1900 the Marine Corps began conversion to the more powerful .30 caliber KragJorgensen. In 1906 the Corps upgraded to the 1903 Springfield Rifle. The first Marine Corps automobile was purchased in 1909. Between 1909 and World War I, the Marine Corps acquired 72 motor vehicles. Two of these vehicles were King armored cars, laying the ground for the early beginnings of a shift to mechanized warfare. This was the first use of motor vehicles in a tactical capacity by any United States service. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Turn of the Century Advances, Continued

Marine Corps Marksmanship

Before 1899 the Marine Corps had no real regime of marksmanship training. As of 1899, 98 Marines were qualified as sharpshooter or marksman, the only two qualifications in use at the time. Under Sergeant Major Haye’s coaching, the Marine Corps began preparing a rifle marksmanship team for competition shooting. In 1901 the team participated in the Hilton Trophy match and finished sixth. In 1903 the Marine Corps hired its first full time rifle coach, a 56 year old Maryland dentist, who led the Marine team to a fourth place finish at the National Rifle Matches. The Marine Corps was well on its way to setting a high standard for itself as expert rifleman which the German Army would get to know all to well at Belleau Wood.

Women Marines

On 12 August 1918, Opha Mae Johnson was the first of 305 women to be accepted for duty in the Marine Corps Reserve. Most women filled recruiting billets or clerical positions at Headquarters Marine Corps to release male Marines to serve in France. On July 30, 1919, orders were issued for separation of all women from the Marine Corps due to downsizing and demobilization after the war.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

World War I

Introduction

In the summer of 1914, war was spreading all over Europe. The Germans invaded Belgium, then outflanked the French defensive fortifications and headed for Paris. The United States tried to retain its neutrality and stay out of the European war. With the international scene undergoing dramatic changes, President Woodrow Wilson had no choice but to ask Congress for a declaration of war in April of 1917.

War Preparations

Just before asking Congress for a declaration of war, the President increased the Corps to 693 officers and 17,400 enlisted men. On 16 April the Marine Corps Reserve, 3 officers and 33 enlisted men, was mobilized. On 22 May 1917 Congress voted to increase the Marine Corps to 31,197 men to allow it to be able to accomplish its pre-war missions of the Advance Base Force, ship’s guards, and security forces for the Fleet and Shore Establishment. To provide operational training and permit organization of tactical units, a new 6000 acre base was established at Quantico, Virginia. This new base would provide all the assets that would be required: training areas, deep-water approaches for transports, and a main railroad line. Seven regiments would be raised at Quantico for the war, five infantry and two artillery. The new 3,600 man Marine infantry regiments were bigger and different from anything of the kind in the past. The regiment consisted of three 1,100-man battalions, a regimental machine gun company, and headquarters and supply companies. There was one automobile, 3 motorcycles, 59 horses, and an array of mule drawn wagons, water carts, and rolling kitchens. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

World War I, Continued

Deploying to France

The first Marines to be deployed to France as part of the American Expeditionary Forces (AEF) were the 5th and 6th Marine Regiments. These Marines would become some of the first Americans to fight in France alongside General Pershing’s Army troops. By 23 October 1917 these two regiments were joined by the 6th Marine Machine Gun Battalion and formed the 4th Brigade of Marines, AEF. Initially, during Spring of 1918, the Marine regiments were employed individually alongside French regiments. Later on, the regiments were reunited and given a sector of their own supported by the Army’s 12th field artillery. The Marines conducted raids, night patrols, and endured artillery barrages and gas attacks. During the first 53 days of trench warfare, the Marines sustained almost 900 casualties.

Marine Sergeant Major at Belleau Wood

The photograph below depicts a Marine Sergeant Major with one of the first trucks that Marines would receive in France.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

World War I, Continued

Bois de Belleau

On June 6, 1918, the U.S. Second Division, to which the Marine Brigade was attached, started offensive operations against the German Army. The Marine Brigade had captured hill 142 and Bourchesches by the end of June 6th. On the 8th, 9th and 11th of June, battalions of the 5th and 6th Marines fought their way up the long axis of Belleau Wood. By nightfall on 12 June, the Marines had broken through the third and final German line and, except for some ground around a battered hunting lodge in the Northern most edge of the wood, the Marines held Bois de Belleau. On 13 June the Germans launched a counter attack preceded by massed artillery and Mustard gas. The Marines held fast, maintaining a line at Bouresches. From 15 to 22 June, to provide rest and refitting of the Marines, the Army’s 7th Infantry relieved the Marines. Without having any forward progress, the Marines returned to the lines and commenced offensive operations on the night of 23 June. After four more days of fighting, Major Maurice Shearer of the 3rd battalion, 5th Marines reported “Woods now U.S. Marine Corps’ entirely.”

Map Of Belleau Wood

The map below shows the area of Belleau Wood that the Marines fought in.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

World War I, Continued

Tactics

Belleau Wood saw several firsts in the ever-changing Marine Corps policy and tactics. Large formations of Marines fought against well-trained, equipped, and led forces. Marines scratched out shallow rifle pits wherever the front lines lay, and nicknamed them foxholes. World War I would show the importance of machine guns, aviation, heavy artillery, and the techniques of trench warfare.

Teufelhunden

After a tour of the Marines by the Assistant Secretary of the Navy Theodore Roosevelt, the wearing of collar emblems was authorized for enlisted Marines. Additionally, the nickname “devil dog” originated from the battle. The Germans thought that their defensive position in the woods could not be taken but they had not planned on the fierce fighting ability of the Marines. The persistent attacks delivered with unbelievable courage over hazardous terrain soon had the Germans calling the Marines “Teufelhunden”, referring to the fierce fighting dogs of legendary origin known as “devil dogs.” The achievements of the fourth brigade of Marines in the Chateau-Thierry was twice recognized by the French. The first act of recognition, which changed the name of the Bois de Belleau to “Bois de la Brigade de Marine, was a tribute spontaneously made to the successes and to the losses of the Marine Brigade. It shows the deep effect that the retaking of Belleau Wood and other near-by positions from the Germans had on the feelings of the French. The second act of recognition by the French were the citations of the Fourth Brigade, the Fifth and Sixth Regiments, and the Sixth Machine Gun Battalion of Marines awarding them the French Fourrage’re.

Gunnery Sergeant Daniel J. Daly

On the morning of 10 June 1918, an attack launched by 2/6 from Lucy Le Bocage into Belleau Wood ran into heavy German machinegun fire. Gunnery Sergeant Daly worked his way around the flank of the machinegun position to destroy it unassisted using hand grenades and a .45 pistol. After shouting words of encouragement, Gunnery Sergeant Daly led his Marines in a frontal assault, then returned to carry his wounded to safety while under heavy fire. Already awarded two medals of honor for valor in China and Haiti, Gunnery Sergeant Daly received the Army Distinguished Service Cross, and the Navy Cross for his conduct at Belleau Wood. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

World War I, Continued

Other Duties Abroad

Even though the war raged in Europe, Marines still had to perform their prewar missions. Marines saw service in Haiti, Santa Domingo, and Cuba. Additionally the Marines were defending the newly purchased Virgin Islands and had detachments at St. Thomas and St. Croix defending U.S. interests against incursions by German submarines.

Occupation Duty

The Marines would see serious fighting for the last two weeks of the war in the final stages of the Meuse-Argonne offensive. Marines would again spearhead Army attacks and ultimately contribute to the final capitulation of the German Army. Although the fighting was over, from 11 November to the end of 1919 Marines would remain in Germany on occupation duty.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

The Interim Years 1919-1940

Introduction

During the years between World War I and World War II, Marines were kept busy with interventions in · · · · · ·

Vladivostok, 1919 United States, 1921 to 1927 Dominican Republic, 1924 Honduras, 1924/5 Nicaraugua, 1927 to 1933 Haiti in 1934.

The Marine Corps would also continue to develop doctrine and begin a distance education program. Marines as Mail Guards

According to the postmaster general, from April 9, 1920 to April 9, 1921 there were 36 major mail robberies in the United States that netted armed thieves more than $6,300,000. In April of 1921, over 2,200 Marines were dispatched to guard trains, trucks, buildings and transfer stations. The Marines were withdrawn in March of 1922. In October of 1926, there was a recurrence of armed robbery of the U.S. Mail, and the Postmaster General asked for 2,500 Marines. President Coolidge issued an executive order once again placing Marines on mail guard. The Marines remained on guard until the first Marines were recalled in January of 1927. During both of the Marines’ tours of guard duty, not a single piece of mail was lost to a robber. Marines would continue to be counted on throughout the twentieth century as a force in readiness that could effectively control civil duress.

Marine Corps Institute

The Marine Corps Institute (MCI) was opened on 2 February 1920 in Quantico, Virginia under the name “Post Schools.” The name was changed to MCI in June of the same year when courses were opened to Marines and their dependants worldwide. This was the first such institution in the Armed services to offer a world-wide system of free correspondence training. On 10 November 1920, MCI was moved to Washington, D.C. Today MCI is responsible for providing nonresident occupational skills courses and professional military education and for developing and providing Marine battle skills training and training materials to support the Individual Training Standards system within the Marine Corps. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Parachute Marines

In 1927, Marines pioneered dropping troops by parachute at Anacostia, in Washington D. C. when 12 Marines jumped from a transport plane during an exercise. Later that year, successful jumps were made over the Potomac River. Each parachutist carried a rubber boat, inflating it on the way down and holding it under him as he landed. This was the first step in the creation of Airborne forces.

First Combat Dive Bombing Attack

While serving in Nicaragua, a 37 man Marine detachment stationed at Ocotal, capital of Nueva province, was besieged by an 800 man Liberal faction on 17 July 1927. At 1230, in inclement weather, five DH-4, Marine piloted airplanes armed with four 25 pound bombs and a full compliment of machine gun ammunition, took off en-route to what would be the first combat dive bombing attack in history. After a brief reconnaissance by two airplanes to locate the Marines on the ground, the planes dove on the Liberals from heights of 1,000 to 1,500 feet expending their ordinance on the surprised Liberals. Approximately 300 Liberals were killed in the combined firepower of ground and air elements. This would set the precedence for future use of close air support in Marine Corps doctrine. The Marine expeditions in Nicaragua were ideal proving grounds for new tactics in air support of ground forces. Liaison planes kept in constant touch with ground patrols and, using panel markers, would attack by dive-bombing bandit forces encountered by patrols. It soon became normal procedure to supply patrols with food, clothing, ammunition and equipment by parachute drops. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Early Training of Expeditionary Forces

In the early 1920s, a series of land maneuvers were conducted by the Advance Base Force stationed at Quantico. In October 1921, the Advance Base Force conducted exercises at the Wilderness Battlefield in Virginia. The following year, the whole force hiked from Quantico to Gettysburg, Pennsylvania to reenact the 59th anniversary of the battle. Several distinguished guests, including the President, turned out to observe the Marine maneuvers. These exercises continued through 1924 with similar exercises held at New Market, Virginia and Sharpsburg, Maryland. Although not war time maneuvers, the exercises served a useful purpose in exercising troops and equipment, practicing deployments, and reminding the public that there was a Marine Expeditionary Force. The Marine Corps trained abroad as well. In January 1922, a reinforced expeditionary battalion from Quantico conducted landing exercises at Guantanamo Bay and Culebra. In March 1923, a detachment of Marines conducted a small amphibious exercise in Panama. The following summer saw Marines making practice landings at Cape Cod.

Amphibious Training

In 1923, Major Holland Smith, the first Marine to be assigned to the planning committee of the Joint Board of the Army and Navy, was sent to the West Indies to find suitable training areas for amphibious training. The eastern end of Vieques Island, off the coast of Puerto Rico, was found to be ideal. The maneuvers of early 1924 were conceived on a broad scale involving the Marine Expeditionary Force, Atlantic Fleet, and some Army forces. The landings practiced organization and defense of an advance base and an assault landing. Planners took the mistakes made and applied the lessons learned to amphibious maneuvers the following year. Additionally, two new experimental landing craft were tested. One was a troop barge that was 50 feet long, had twin engines, and armor protection. The other was a boxlike amphibious tank mounting a 75mm gun. Although both vehicles proved to be substandard in seagoing conditions, many of their features would become standard equipment on landing craft adopted 20 years later. On 15 April 1925, the staff and students of Marine Corps Schools at Quantico became the landing force staff for a maneuver exercise. This was Quantico’s first amphibious command-post exercise, and the first recorded such exercise in U.S. history. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Fleet Marine Force

In 1933, Major General John H. Russell, while serving as acting Commandant, made a far-reaching recommendation to the Chief of Naval Operations regarding the mission of the Marine Corps. The recommendation stated “the Marine Corps should have a striking force, well equipped, well armed, and highly trained, working as a unit of the Fleet under the direct orders of the Commander-in-Chief. This force will be included in the Fleet organization as an integral part thereof, subject to the orders, for tactical employment, of the Commander-in-Chief U.S. Fleet.” On 7 December 1933, the Secretary of the Navy issued General Order 241 creating the Fleet Marine Force, (FMF). Marine Corps Order 66, General Russell’s implementation order, was issued on the 8th of December. With the creation of the FMF, a full-time organization of Marines could now begin to perfect the art of amphibious war.

Amphibious Doctrine

With the creation of the FMF, the Commandant saw the need for a detailed document showing how to conduct amphibious landings. The Commandant assigned the student body of the Schools at Quantico the task of writing the manual. The students at the school represented some of the most experienced Marines in amphibious operations of the time. The manual was divided into tactics, staff functions, and training and established a two part Amphibious Task Force, the landing force and the naval support groups consisting of the transport group. The naval support group , covering group, air group, and fire support group. After two revisions, the Tentative Landing Operations Manual was published in July 1935. This manual created amphibious doctrine as it would be practiced throughout World War II.

A Lack of suitable Landing Craft

The Tentative Manual for Landing Operations included an overall description of the state of the art in landing craft design up to 1934. However, little progress had been made in the development of craft specifically designed for landing troops and supplies. Being fully aware of the unsuitability of existing craft for landings, the Marine Corps formed an equipment board consisting of eleven members, later expanded to twenty, who served on a part-time basis to design and recommend types of equipment for amphibious operations. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

The Interim Years 1919-1940, Continued

Roebling’s Alligator

In 1937, Donald Roebling field tested a tracked amphibian designed for use in the Florida Everglades. Life Magazine covered the field tests and published an article with pictures showing the “Alligator” moving through swamp, water and climbing steeps embankments. The Commanding General of the FMF read the article and forwarded it to the Commandant of the Marine Corps. After viewing the vehicle and about 400 feet of movie film, the Navy’s Continuing Board for Development of Landing Craft approved steps to be taken to procure a pilot vehicle for further testing.

Landing Vehicle Tracked

Roebling completed redesigning the vehicle to military specifications in October of 1940. The aluminum hulled vehicle was almost 21 feet long, eight feet wide, and weighed about 8,000 pounds. It attained speeds up to 29 mph on land and almost 10 mph in the water. After several tests, Mr. Roebling was awarded a contract for 100 Alligators but with the modification that they be made out of steel vice aluminum. Subsequently Food Machinery Corporation was awarded the contract for official design of the vehicle, now officially known as the LVT (1). The development of the amphibian tractor was one the most important technical contributions to ship to shore operations and revolutionized amphibious warfare.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

World War II

Introduction

The United States was thrust into World War II when the Japanese attacked Pearl Harbor on 7 December 1941. The Corps would make bold advances in conducting the business of war.

Pearl Harbor

The surprise attack by Japanese Forces at Pearl Harbor devastated the American Pacific Fleet. By the end of 1941, the Marines at Pearl Harbor had reorganized and shipped out to reinforce the garrisons at Johnson Island, Midway, and Palmyra.

Guam

Immediately after Pearl harbor, the Japanese attacked other U.S. Islands manned by Marines. The island of Guam was hit by aerial strikes for two days before Japanese naval landing forces attacked the island. On 10 December 1941, over 5,500 Japanese troops landed on Guam. After a short engagement the 153 Marines and 80 man Insular Guard, natives officered by Marine NCOs, were ordered to cease firing by the Naval governor of the Island. This would be the first U.S. territory to fall to Japan. The Japanese would continue their offensive into early 1942 with operations on Wake and Bataan.

Midway, The Turning Point in the Pacific

The Japanese Fleet launched a pre-dawn attack on 4 June 1942. The fleet approached Midway in two groups, a striking force built around four carriers and an occupation force of amphibious troops in transports. The Marine garrison had been reinforcing since late April in anticipation of an approaching attack. The island had reinforced its coastal defense guns, doubled the garrison size, and stationed a fighter squadron and dive bomber on the island. The Japanese had planned to attack, land troops, and hold the island as a step off location for future offensive operations. Continued on next page

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Marine Air Power during Midway

The Marines took their first decisive part in the battle at 0616 hours on 4 June 1942 by attempting to intercept a flight of Japanese bombers from the carrier forces. The first wave of aircraft hit Midway Island about 0630. Although outnumbered 4 to1, the 25 outdated Marine fighter planes put up a gallant stand. After the initial engagement 15 Marine pilots were dead and the Midway shore installations were in a shambles. While the first attack was going on 16 Marine dive-bombers attempted to attack the Japanese fleet. The dive-bombers inflicted little damage to the fleet and lost half their numbers.

Shifting to the Offense

As the Japanese planes landed safely back aboard their carriers, carrier based U.S. Navy planes attacked the Japanese fleet. During this second melee, 3 of the 4 Japanese carriers were destroyed. Later that evening the final carrier was severely damaged by an attack made by planes from the U.S.S. Enterprise. The engagement was a victory for the United States and a disaster for the Imperial Japanese Navy. From this point on, the Marines would shift their focus from defensive to offensive actions.

Island Hopping Campaign

In August 1942, Marines landed on Guadalcanal in the Solomon Islands, beginning the long island hopping campaign. Allies began rolling back Japanese captured islands which would require coordinated air, land and sea operations by the Army, Navy, Marines and other Allied forces. Offensive operations continued in the South Pacific with major battles fought in 1943 on the Solomons and New Guinea. By fall of the same year, US forces moved Westward capturing Tarawa in the Gilbert Islands. By early 1944, Allied forces had neutralized Japanese attack bases in the Bismarck, Caroline, and Marshal Islands. By mid 1944, American forces had closed in on the outer defenses of Japan and prepared for the final push. Continued on next page

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World War II, Continued

Desegregation

On June 25th 1941, President Franklin D. Roosevelt signed executive order 8802 establishing the Fair Employment Practice Commission. This order prohibited racial discrimination by any government agency. On June 1, 1942 recruitment of black Marines began. On 18 August 1942, Headquarters and Service Battery of the 51st Composite Defense battalion was activated at Montford Point, North Carolina. Later on, these Marines would be nicknamed Montford Point Marines. From July 1942 through the end of the war, 20,000 black men were trained at Montford Point and served in segregated units either overseas or at a depot stateside. In the fall of 1949 President Harry S. Truman established a policy of full integration ending segregated units in the Marine Corps.

Women Marines Reintroduced

The Marine Corps Women’s Reserve was established in February 1943. Women Marines performed in similar capacities as they had in World War I. In addition to clerical work, their numbers included parachute riggers, mechanics, radio operators, mapmakers, motor transport support, and welders. By June 1944, women reservists made up 85% of the enlisted personnel on duty at Headquarters Marine Corps and almost two-thirds of the personnel manning all major posts and stations in the United States and Hawaii. Following the end of World War II, demobilization of the Women’s Reserve proceeded rapidly.

Raiders

With the outbreak of the war in the Pacific, a need had arisen for a highly trained guerrilla force that could infiltrate occupied territory and assist resistance groups, perform reconnaissance, conduct raids, and assist landing forces. On 16 February 1942 the 1st Raider battalion was designated. Three days later, the 2d Raider Battalion was re-designated. The raider battalions soon received first priority in the Marine Corps on men and equipment. Training focused on weapons practice, hand-to-hand fighting, demolitions, night operations, and physical conditioning. The 1st Raider Battalion based its table of organization on the eight-man squad, with a leader, two Browning automatic riflemen, four riflemen, and a sniper. This would lay the groundwork for later in the war of the standard 4 man fireteam for all Marine infantry. Continued on next page

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World War II, Continued

Navajo Code Talkers

In an attempt to remedy a security problem of communications over nonsecure and non-encrypted lines, the Marine Corps looked to Navajo Indians for a possible solution. Navajo Indians were recruited as communicators that would transmit messages in Navajo, hoping the Japanese would not be able to identify the unwritten Navajo language. Starting with Guadalcanal, the code talkers participated in all the major Marine Corps engagements in the Pacific. The Japanese, who were skilled code breakers, were unable to decipher the language and never cracked the code used by the Marines.

Lessons Learned from Amphibious Warfare

While planning for the landing on Betio Island (Tarawa), Marine and Navy planners wondered if there would be enough water over Betio’s reef during the time of the assault to permit landing craft to get across. Nautical charts and tidal data for the Gilbert Island chain were almost 100 years old. To answer the question, Marines insisted that the leading assault waves land in amphibious tractors that could negotiate the reef.

Line of Departure (LOD)

The LOD allows the Naval Commander, through his primary control ship, (PCS), to control the movement of the waves of landing craft to the beach and thus coordinate their movement with the firing of naval gun fire and air support.

Role of LOD in Planning for Tarawa

Planning for Tarawa used some standardized control measures from previous campaigns and refinement of amphibious doctrine to organize the movement of landing craft. Amphibious assaults adopted the “line of departure,” LOD, as the start line for the dispatch of waves to the beach. At Tarawa the LOD was 6,000 yards from the beach, ran parallel to the beach to permit a strait run, and the start point was marked by an anchored control vessel

H-Hour

As the leading waves approach the beach, close coordination is important to ensure that the supporting fires cease just before the landing forces touching down. At Tarawa this coordination was attempted using a timeline. The amphibious tractors were scheduled to hit the beach at H-hour, a standardized term that designates a particular time. If something delays the assault waves or pushes them ahead of schedule, H-hour is adjusted. Continued on next page

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World War II, Continued

Maintaining the The forming of the initial waves for the assault landing went fairly well, Timeline despite some initial difficulty in forming of the waves and some last minute

shelling of the beach, but the lead wave was 15 minutes behind schedule. Due to the late start over the LOD, H-hour was pushed ahead from 0830 to 0845. The next difficulty was the lead waves of amphibious tractors were older model LVT (1)s which forced the faster LVT (2)s in wave two to slow down to maintain the 300 yard interval between waves. H-hour was now shifted to 0900. Due to poor communications of the time, not all fire support assets were aware of the adjusted timeline. Dust and smoke from the fire support on the beach concealed the progress of the lead waves in the boat lane. Naval gunfire ceased at 0855 to allow air support to make their runs just ahead of the lead wave. Amphibious Tractor

One major problem at Tarawa was in communication from the amphibious tractors to the fire support assets. The lead wave had fallen behind even more and was unable to make the 0900 timeline. The first wave touched down at 0910. If the LVT crews had effective communication assets, they would have been able to communicate the adjustment of the timeline. The last 15 minutes of movement was conducted unsupported. This allowed for the defenders of Tarawa time to reoccupy their defenses positions and begin delivering fire onto the lead waves. The only Marine fire support was the machineguns mounted on the LVTs just before the operation. Additionally the lightly armored LVTs had recently been equipped with 3/8 inch boiler plates on the cab of the vehicle to protect the crew. Earlier operations had shown the cab of the vehicle could be easily penetrated by small caliber weapons. This modification would be the predecessor to a fully armored version of the LVT. After the initial movement of troops to the beaches, LVTs immediately assumed logistical roles by bringing supplies in from boats at the edge of the reef and evacuating casualties out to boats at the reef or to ships out at sea. Continued on next page

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Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel

Only the first three waves that came ashore were in the armored LVTs. The subsequent waves had to come ashore in flat bottomed boats, Landing Craft Vehicle Personnel, LCVP. Since there was not enough water over the coral reef (only a few inches) to float the LCVP, troops had to be dropped off 500 to 800 yards from shore. The Marines waded ashore in chest deep water while being exposed to a deadly crossfire from the defending Japanese. Casualties in the follow-on waves ranged from 35 to 70 percent before reaching shore. In the view of what happened at Tarawa, General Holland M. Smith made the statement “After Tarawa, I made up my mind that all future landings would be spearheaded by [the] amphibious vehicle.”

Outcome of Tarawa

Tarawa was the bloodiest fight yet in the history of the Marine Corps. On DDay plus 3, Betio Island was secured. Of a total of 4,836 Japanese soldiers and Korean civilian laborers on Betio, only 146 were captured. The remainder died while conducting a stubborn defense of the island. For the Marines total casualties were 3,149, about 12 percent of the overall force. The Marines would take their lessons learned and use them to make the final refinements to the amphibious doctrine that would be used throughout the remainder of the war. The subsequent landings in the Pacific employed doctrine that was revised due to the outcome of Tarawa. This would lead to success against similar targets with fewer casualties and in less time. The drive in the Pacific continued with landings at Peleliu, The Philippines, Iwo Jima and Okinawa. Continued on next page

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World War II, Continued

Why Iwo Jima

Iwo Jima was strategically important as an air base for fighter escorts supporting long-range bombing missions against mainland Japan. Because of the distance between mainland Japan and U.S. bases in the Mariana Islands, the capture of Iwo Jima would provide an emergency landing strip for crippled B-29s returning from bombing runs. The seizure of Iwo Jima would allow for sea and air blockades, the ability to conduct intensive air bombardment and to destroy the enemy’s air and naval capabilities.

Preparations for Iwo Jima

By 1945, U.S. forces in the Pacific had grown in strength to permit simultaneous amphibious assaults in the Luzon Islands and on Iwo Jima. Additionally, Pacific forces were preparing for another major landing at Okinawa. The American Pacific forces could now overwhelm Japanese air and naval counterattacks against their amphibious task force by the means of the attack carrier force. Other developments were used to benefit the landing at Iwo Jima as well. By 1945, Marine tactical aviation squadrons had carriers of their own and could provide close air support throughout each remaining amphibious campaign. The Pacific fleet now had sufficient specialized amphibious landing ships to deliver needed assets ashore in order to support the landing. The Marines had recently received Navy Mark I flame throwers for the turrets of eight Sherman tanks. These would prove an invaluable tactical advantage against Iwo’s complex cave system. The most overlooked development was the combat experience that SNCOs that were filling leaderships roles throughout the Marine Corps had gained during the previous three years.

Results of Iwo Jima

The 36-day assault resulted in more than 26,000 American casualties, including 6,800 dead. Of the 20,000 Japanese defenders, only 1,083 survived. The capture of the island provided an essential base for bomber operations. By war’s end, several hundred B-29 bombers had made unscheduled landings on the airfield. Continued on next page

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World War II, Continued

Ending of Hostilities

MCI Course 8102

With the end of the war in sight, the final offensive was planned on mainland Japan that would involve all six Marine Divisions. To speed up the end of the war and to prevent more American bloodshed, President Harry Truman ordered the dropping of two atomic bomb devices on Japan. Emperor Hirohito surrendered at 0615 hours on 14 August 1945 ending the war in the Pacific theater of operations and beginning another tour of occupation duty for the Marines.

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War in Korea

General

On 25 June 1950, the postwar peace was brought to a close when Communist troops of North Korea invaded South Korea. The initial U.S. involvement started with a containment action. The US 7th Fleet moved between China and Formosa. On 27 June, the United Nations passed resolution recommending immediate aid in restoring peace in South Korea. The United States was named executive agent to carry out the UN effort.

First Marines in Korea

The first Marines to land in Korea were a 5 man demolition team off the cruiser Juneau. They went ashore in a whaleboat from the Destroyer Mansfield to plant two 60 pound demolition charges in a railroad tunnel South of Chongjin.

The 1st Marine Provisional Brigade

By early July the situation was rapidly deteriorating in South Korea and UN forces were being pushed back to an ever-shrinking pocket near Pusan. The Joint Chiefs of Staff voted to commit a Marine Regimental Combat Team and a Marine Air Group to the war in Korea. On 7 July 1950 the 1st Marine Provisional Brigade, over 6,500 men, was activated. The Marines showed an amazing ability to pull together and ship out a large Marine combat unit in only six days. The Brigade would be used until its deactivation on 12 September at which time it would be folded into the 1st Marine Division.

The Pusan Perimeter

The Marine Brigade landed at the port of Pusan on 2 August and stepped off on operations the next day at 0600. Immediately Marine Air elements began bombing enemy positions. The Brigade’s ground force would be employed as a reserve ready to fill any weakened part of the line at a moment’s notice. In just over 30 days the Marines had inflicted an estimated 9,900 enemy casualties and destroyed masses of enemy equipment. On 11 September the Brigade was embarked on Naval shipping in preparation for the landing at Inchon. Continued on next page

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War in Korea, Continued

A Plan to Relieve Pusan

A plan was conceived to conduct a turning movement by making an assault landing at Inchon. With the belief that the North Koreans had committed all their troops against the Pusan perimeter, planners felt the landing would see no heavy opposition. With all their forces committed down south, the North Koreans would be forced to pull forces away from Pusan to deal with the new threat, thus taking pressure off the forces at Pusan.

Map of Korea

The map below shows the position of the Pusan perimeter, the route of the North Korean Army, and other key locations.

Continued on next page

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War in Korea, Continued

The Landing at Inchon

Preparatory naval gunfire and aerial bombardment for the landing began on 13 September 1950. The 1st and 5th Marines performed the initial invasion on the morning of the 15th. Resistance and casualties were modest, and initial objectives were quickly secured. Supplies and troops quickly funnled into the port of Inchon. The Marines pushed forward to Seoul and secured Kimpo airfield enroute. After days of fighting in a MOUT environment, Seoul was taken. The UN had termed the campaign as “decisive”. The morning after the initial landing, the defenders of the Pusan Perimeter went on the offensive. The rest of the month saw the North Koreans falling back from Pusan and begining a retreat back North. The plan to take pressure off of Pusan had worked.

Crossing the 38th Parallel

A plan was developed for the 8th Army to drive North as far as Pyongyang, North Korea’s capital, and for the 10th Corps to trap the North Koreans from retreating from the South. The decision to cross the 38th parallel was a major turning point in the war. By crossing the 38th Parallel, the UN forces were brought into direct conflict with the Peoples’ Republic of China. Although top planners did not believe the Chinese would step in, or if they did step in, they would be annihilated by massive UN airstrikes. By late October, Pyongyang had fallen to US forces. Troops were ordered to close within 30 to 40 miles of the Manchurian border and simultaneously occupy all of North Korea. This meant the Marines would move into the Chosin and Fusen Reservoirs.

The Chinese Enter the Fight

The day after Thanksgiving, 1950, the Marines were ordered to push forward and advance until they reached the Yalu River. Senior Marine leaders realized this new plan would expose both flanks of the Marines. The Chinese attacked the 8th Army’s right wing and drove back the offensive. The Marines were attacked on the night of 27 November in 20 degree below zero weather. Although the Marines held off the attacks, they were ordered to halt the movement to the Yalu River to allow time for regrouping and the reopening of supply lines. Continued on next page

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War in Korea, Continued

Fighting Withdrawal

The entire Marine Force was ordered to withdraw in the face of overpowering numbers of enemy troops that surrounded them. The break out began at 0800 1 December when 3rd Battalion 5th Marines led the force Southward. With support from Marine Corsairs, the Marines fought their way to Hagaru, suffering 1500 casualties the whole time in constant exposure to subzero weather. Before the withdrawal was complete, the 1st Marine Division would defeat seven Chinese Divisions in the running fight from Hagaru to Hamhung and evacuation via the Sea of Japan. By 14 December 22,215 Marines had been withdrawn and were on board transports heading South to Pusan. The following days would see the fall of Seoul, Inchon and Wonju. The war in Korea would continue until the cease fire was signed on 27 July 1953.

Rotary Wing Techniques

Rotary wing aircraft had come too late to have any effect on tactics in World War II. Following the war, the Marine Corps took the lead in developing techniques and procedures for this new aircraft. Since 1947 the Marine Corps was pioneering helicopter combat techniques at Quantico. Using this new found technology, four HO3S-1 helicopter with four OY-2 observation planes, would make up Marine Observation Squadron 6 (VMO 6) that would deploy with the Marine Brigade to help form an air-ground team. The helicopters provided command and control capabilities, communications, evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions. In the first month of use in Korea, the helicopters conducted over 580 flights including the first helicopter combat mission.

New Gear and Lessons of Korea

In addition to the use of the helicopter, the Marine Corps saw the introduction of lightweight plastic body armor. This resulted in a startling drop in fatal abdominal and chest wounds. Another Marine first was the thermal boot which would help eliminate frostbite on the feet of ground troops and pilots. Of the lessons learned from Korea, the use of the amphibious landing as the most powerful tool we have was probably the greatest, considering 71% of the earths surface is covered by water. Another valuable lesson was the soundness and superiority of Marine and Navy air support doctrines. The value of immediately ready, professional expeditionary forces to deploy with little notice proved a great value at Pusan and Inchon. Continued on next page

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War in Korea, Continued

MAGTF

The Marine Air Ground Task Force (MAGTF) concept was first tested in combat with the rapid deployment and highly successful operations of the First Marine Provisional Brigade in the early days of the Korean War. This MAGTF was rapidly formed and deployed and was instrumental in stopping the North Korean offensive to drive United States forces from Korea. The Marine Corps concept of creating expeditionary combined arms forces that exploited the synergy of task organized Marine aviation, ground combat forces and combat service support, was codified by the National Security Act of 1947. Public Law 416 passed by the 82nd Congress in 1952 further solidified the nature of the MAGTF. This law ensured that the Marine Corps would be organized with three aircraft wings and three combat divisions.

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Marines in Vietnam

General

In February of 1965, the U.S. military commander in Vietnam, Lieutenant General William C. Westmoreland, requested two battalions of Marines to protect the American air base at DaNang against possible attack from 6,000 Viet Cong that had massed in the vicinity. At 0600 on 8 March 1965, Amphibious Task Force 76, moved into the Harbor at Da Nang, South Vietnam. Shortly after 0900, the first Marines of the landing force, the 9th Marine Expeditionary Brigade, splashed ashore and began the 10 year tour of Marines in Vietnam. The Marine air-ground team in Vietnam was known as the 3rd Marine Amphibious Force (III MAF) and was composed of the 1st and 3rd Marine Divisions, the 1st Marine Aircraft Wing, Force Logistics Command and various supporting elements. This was the largest field US Marine command deployed on the battlefield up to this time.

Short Airfield for Tactical Support, (SATS)

The Short Airfield for Tactical Support (SATS) is a rapidly constructed expeditionary airfield that can be erected near a battle area to provide air support for amphibious Marine Forces. The expeditionary airfield has aluminum runway matting, arresting gear, and catapults. The need for such a tactical airstrip in the vicinity of Chu Lai brought about the introduction of the SATS in Vietnam. The first SATS runway was operational on 1 June 1965 and was landing A-4 Skyhawks.

Combined Action Platoon Program

Building on counterinsurgency experiences of Marines in Haiti and Nicaragua, innovative Marines created the Combined Action Platoon (CAP) program in South Vietnam in 1965. This program placed small teams of Marines, led by noncommissioned officers, in the hamlets and villages throughout the Marines’ area of operations. These Marines earned the trust of the villagers by living in the village while protecting the people. Marines led and trained the local people’s defense forces, learned the languages and customs of the villagers, and were very successful in denying those areas under their control to the enemy. The CAP program became a model for success in counter insurgencies Continued on next page

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Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Hill 488

One of the most outstanding examples of SNCO leadership of the entire war was the defense of Hill 488. 1st Platoon, C Company, 1st Reconnaissance Battalion commanded by Staff Sergeant Jimmie Howard was ordered to hold an observation post with an 18-man platoon. At 2200 on 15 June 1965, a North Vietnamese Battalion attacked Hill 488. After the LP/ OP fell back, the platoon dug in and threw back each enemy assault. SSgt. Howard was severely wounded but continued to direct his Marines and call in fire support. With no hand grenades left and in some cases throwing rocks at the enemy, the Marines held out. At dawn the following morning, five Marines lay dead and every other man was wounded. As evacuation helicopters came in, SSgt. Howard continued to call in airstrikes in order to secure the landing zone. When Howard’s platoon was finally relieved they were down to only 8 rounds of ammunition. SSgt Howard would be awarded the Medal of Honor for his actions on Hill 488.

Khe Sanh

Khe Sanh was an advance combat base with an airstrip located in the mountainous jungle of Northwest Vietnam. On the morning of January 21, 1968, NVA forces launched a long awaited attack and began a siege of the remote outpost. During the initial NVA attack, the main ammunition dump was hit and exploded resulting in the loss of a major portion of the bases ammunition. For 77 days, NVA divisions repeatedly attacked Khe Sanh with artillery, 122mm rockets, mortars, Soviet made PT-76 tanks and human wave attacks. The base was literally surrounded and could only be resupplied by cargo planes and helicopters that dropped over 840 tons of ammunition and supplies to the besieged Marines. The Marines dug-in and prepared to wait out the siege until reinforcements could be brought up. Continued on next page

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Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Operation Pegasus

Operation Pegasus was designed to be a massive, joint allied drive in the Khe Sahn plateau area to give some much needed relief to the defenders of Khe Sahn. The operation was delayed because of lack of supplies and needed equipment and because heavy fighting had broke out in Hue City as a result of the Tet Offensive. Finally, on 25 March Operation Pegasus was begun. The 4-phase operation was started with a diversionary attack to draw NVA forces away from the troop buildup areas. On the 1st of April 1968, under the cover of air and artillery, elements of 1st Battalion 9th Marines began attacking about 2,500 meters South of the airfield. The Marines assaulted hill 471 and secured the key terrain by 1730 hours the same day. Four days later, 1st Battalion 9th Marines turned back a major counter attack on hill 471 by NVA trying to dislodge the Marines from the hill. The next day, a combined Allied task force linked up, relieved the Marines on Hill 471 and began securing the terrain outside of Khe Sanh. Finally, Marines were able to continue conducting patrols outside of Khe Sanh. The siege had ended. Eventually the forward base at Khe Sahn was deactivated and all the troops were pulled out of the area.

Hue City

A major target of the Tet Offensive was the city of Hue. The attack on Hue City was different from the other targets of Tet because of the city’s revered status. The enemy planned to capture the city in one swift blow. The attacking forces believed that once the city’s population realized the superiority of the NVA and VC, they would immediately join forces against the Americans. Late in the evening on 30 January, NVA troops commenced the attack on the city. VC guerrillas who had earlier infiltrated the city began to occupy most of the city’s major buildings. NVA troops rushed into city while sapper units attacked key outposts. Within a short time the city was completely occupied by enemy forces. Continued on next page

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Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Counter attack into Hue

Requests came from Hue City for immediate reinforcements. Due to poor communications and believing the attacks to be only diversionary, only company-sized relief columns were sent to the relief of the city. The under strength companies meet heavy resistance and suffered high casualties in there attempt to reinforce Hue City. Once the gravity of the situation was realized, relief efforts became more organized and more supported. South Vietnamese troops and three U.S. Marine battalions counter-attacked and engaged in the heaviest fighting of the entire Tet Offensive. They took the old imperial city, house by house, street by street, aided by American air and artillery strikes. It was a slow and tedious task eliminating the NVA resistance that had dug into the MOUT environment. U.S. forces were making headway in their efforts when the NVA counterattacked at 1300 on 5 February. By 1500 the counterattacks had been repulsed and the Marines continued to push forward. At 1603, Marines had made significant advances and the Stars and Stripes were flying over the city. Several more days of heavy fighting remained before the Southern half of Hue was secured.

Casualties at Hue

The final tally of casualties had enemy dead at 5,113. Marine casualties totaled just over 1,000 while the South Vietnamese suffer over 2,000 casualties and the U.S. Army close to 600. When the battle ended, the city of Hue lay ruined. The South Vietnamese government immediately launched a rehabilitation program designed to provide food, clothing and shelter to the inhabitants of the city.

Marine Advisors

With the departure of the last ground combat units, the only Marines still fighting the NVA or VC were those serving as advisors to the South Vietnamese Marine Corps, which the U.S. had been doing since 1954. By fall of 1971, the advisors in Vietnam spent most of their time training the South Vietnamese Marine Corps in small unit tactics, the use of U.S. weapons, and the coordination of air and artillery support. Marine advisors would remain in Vietnam until the signing of the ceasefire on 28 January 1973. Continued on next page

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Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Operation Frequent Wind

On 26 March 1975, the 9th Marine Amphibious Brigade, about 6,000 men, was reactivated as part of a force needed for the evacuation of Americans and key South Vietnamese from the Vietnamese capital of Saigon. After careful planning, the Tan Son Nhut air base was chosen as the evacuation site. The plan called for the evacuees to assemble at a prearranged signal after which Marine CH-53 helicopters would then pick them up, move them to one of a dozen ships waiting off the coast and return for another load. The process would be repeated until all evacuees were processed. Early on the morning of April 29th, 1975, NVA rockets impacted into the area of Tan Son Nhut Air Base. After viewing the damage sustained, U.S. ambassador Graham Martin made a call to the Secretary of State with the request to close the U.S. Embassy in Saigon. Operation Frequent Wind was commenced in lieu of the recent events. Continued on next page

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Marines in Vietnam, Continued

Evacuation Begins

The first group of 12 CH-53s set down at 1506, 29 April 1975. Within minutes Marines secured the compound, establish a command post and loaded the first group of evacuees onto the helicopters. Throughout the evacuation process, artillery shells and rockets impacted in and around the perimeter. During the evacuation word was received that more than 2,000 personnel needed to be evacuated from the downtown embassy building. The plan had called for all personnel to move to the airfield for evacuation due to the small size of the embassy compound. To stabilize the situation, three platoons of Marines were immediately sent to the embassy compound in order to reinforce the perimeter that was being swarmed by South Vietnamese civilians wanting to be evacuated. At 0030 hours evacuation of the airfield was completed and all efforts were shifted to completion of operations at the embassy. Evacuation continued throughout the night with helos touching down about every ten minutes and departing with a full load of evacuees. At 0752 the last personnel, 11 Marines, boarded a CH-46 and headed out to safe shipping.

The End of Marine Involvement in Vietnam

MCI Course 8102

The departure of the last 11 Marines from the embassy signaled the end of over 20 years of Marine Corps involvement in Vietnam. During the Marines involvement in Vietnam they had participated in a variety of operations under a wide range of conditions. From amphibious landings to non-combatant evacuations, whatever the task Marines performed admirably and continued to improve and develop on tactics and doctrine.

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Beyond 1975

General

After Vietnam Marine Corps strategy and tactics continued to change to meet the demands of an ever-changing world situation. Large-scale combat operations had become much less frequent extinct and the Corps began to focus more on rapid deployment to hotspots around the globe.

Rapid Deployment Force and MPS

The Marine Corps played a key role in the development of the rapid deployment force, a multi-service organization created to insure a flexible and timely military response around the world. The Marine Corps contributed to the forward deployed, sea-based, naval expeditionary force with the introduction of the Marine Expeditionary Unit, MEU. The MEU s a self-sustained, amphibious, combined arms air-ground task force capable of conventional and selected maritime special operations of limited duration in support of a combatant commander. The maritime prepositioning forces (MPF) concept was developed to enhance the capability by pre-staging equipment needed for combat in the vicinity of the designated area of operations, and reduce response time as Marines travel by air to link up with maritime prepositioning ship (MPS) assets. The MPF concept has been validated with the extremely successful employment of MPF in combat operations during Operation Desert Shield/ Desert Storm, and in humanitarian assistance operations such as Operation Sea Angel in Bangladesh, 1991, and Operation Restore Hope in Somlia, 1992-93. This concept has provided the combatant commanders with a very flexible capability to rapidly deploy and sustain combat and humanitarian forces throughout the littorals. Continued on next page

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Beyond 1975, Continued

Beruit, Lebanon

In August 1982, Marines deployed to Beruit, Lebanon as part of a multinational peace keeping force in response to a request from the governments in Lebanon. The Marines’ mission was to provide a presence in Beruit. The Lebanese government hoped this would help to establish the stability necessary for the Lebanese government to regain control of their capital. This mission required the Marines to occupy positions in the vicinity of Beruit International Airport and establish and maintain close continuous liaison with the other forces deployed as part of the multi-national peacekeeping force. On October 23, 1983 a truck bomb supposedly planted by Iranian terrorists, killed 241 US Marines when the vehicle crashed through gates and exploded in the Marine barracks at Beruit, Lebanon. Even with the setback of the truck bombing, the Marine presence remained in Lebanon until 31 July 1984, with the deactivation of the joint task force.

Persian Gulf

In August 1990, Iraqi military forces crossed the Kuwaiti border and began converging on the capital of Kuwait City. Within a short period of time, Iraqis had pushed all the way to the border of Saudi Arabia. As a result of Iraq’s actions, a multi-national peace keeping force was sent to the Persian Gulf Between August 1990 and January 1991, more than 92,000 Marines deployed to the Persian Gulf as part of Operation Desert Shield. Operation Desert Storm was launched January 16, 1991 with a massive air campaign. While two Marine Expeditionary Brigades waited off the Kuwaiti Coast, ground forces stepped off on operations beginning February 24 with the 1st and 2nd Marine Divisions launching offensive operations into occupied Kuwait. One hundred hours after the ground offensive began, almost the entire Iraqi Army in Kuwait was either destroyed or surrounded. On 28 February 1991, offensive combat operations ceased at the direction of the President of the United States. During the 100 hours of combat, Marines had destroyed or captured 608 enemy armored personnel carriers, destroyed 432 artillery pieces, 5 FROG missile sites, totaled up 1,510 enemy killed in action, and captured over 20,000 prisoners of war. Continued on next page

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Beyond 1975, Continued

Humanitarian and Diplomatic Missions

MCI Course 8102

In the 1990’s Marines demonstrated their flexible, rapid response capabilities by conducting noncombatant evacuation operations, NEOs, in Liberia and Somalia to rescue diplomats and civilians. Marines also conducted humanitarian missions in Bangladesh, the Philippines, and Northern Iraq. Marines additionally took part in counter-drug efforts, assisted in battling wild fires, hurricane and flood relief operations in the United States. Today Marines are forward deployed and kept in a constant state of readiness to meet situations worldwide whether keeping peace in Kosovo or fighting terrorism in Afghanistan.

3-89

Study Unit 3, Lesson 4

Lesson 4 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 10 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

An element of the Marine Corps Advance Base Schools mission was to a. investigate what types of guns, gun platforms, mines, torpedo defenses and other equipment might be suitable for advance base work. b. provide recruit training and specialized gunnery skills. c. investigate civilian shipping and study blockading operations. d. train rapid deploying infantry detachments.

Item 2

The Aviation Detachment, Advance Base Force was commissioned on a. b. c. d.

Item 3

18 May 1913. 27 December 1913. 18 May 1926. 27 October 1937.

In 1916 the first two Marine Sergeants received formal pilot instruction at Pensacola, Florida. They were the first Marine enlisted pilots to be designated a. b. c. d.

Marine Air Corps members. Marine Flying Group. Naval Aviation Pilots. Naval Flight Officers. Continued on next page

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3-90

Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise

Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Item 4

Women first enlisted in the Marines on a. b. c. d.

Item 5

How were Marine Regiments initially used in the spring of 1918? a. b. c. d.

Item 6

As support troops only alongside tank companies As ammunition bearers for French artillery regiments Individually alongside French regiments Individually alongside British regiments

The purpose of the Tentative Landing Operations Manual was to create a. b. c. d.

Item 7

12 August 1917. 12 August 1918. 1 August 1919. 12 August 1919.

individual training standards. vehicle landing formations to be used in the assault. amphibious doctrine. assault boat doctrine.

At Tarawa, after the initial movement of troops to the beach, LVTs immediately assumed a. mess operations by bringing hot chow ashore to frontline troops. b. logistical roles by bringing supplies in from boats at the edge of the reef and evacuating casualties. c. combat service support roles by bringing supplies in from boats at the edge of the reef and maintenance items ashore. d. forward service support roles and relayed message traffic from troops ashore to navy shipping. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise

Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Item 8

The mission of the helicopter during the Korean war was to provide a. command and control capabilities communications, evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions. b. accurate close air support communications, evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions. c. a symbol of hope for the South Koreans and provide communications, evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions. d. humanitarian relief operations communications, evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting and perform scouting missions.

Item 9

The assault landing at Inchon was made to a. b. c. d.

Item 10

take pressure off the forces at Pusan. free American POW’s being held in Seoul. liberate civilians being held against their will in coastal towns. liberate the capital city of Seoul.

The purpose of Operation Pegasus was to a. make a final U.S. drive to push all of the NVA out of Vietnam. b. take key cities along the main supply route into North Vietnam. c. conduct a joint allied landing along the Eastern Coast of North Vietnam to give some much needed relief to the South Vietnamese Army along the coast of the Red Sea. d. conduct a joint allied drive in the Khe Sahn Plateau area to give some much needed relief to the defenders of Khe Sahn. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

3-92

Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise

Lesson 4 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer a b c b c c b a a d

Reference 3-55 3-55 3-56 3-57 3-59 3-66 3-72 3-79 3-77 3-83

This lesson has shown you the how the Marine Corps has changed its doctrine from the time of the Boxer Rebellion to the current war on terrorism in Afghanistan and way of conducting operations to meet threats both domestic and on an international level.

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise

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Study Unit 3, Lesson 4 Exercise

STUDY UNIT 4 CHANGES TO UNIFORMS Overview

Estimated Study Time

1 hour

Unit Scope

Upon becoming a SNCO, you have gained the privilege of wearing uniforms that distinguish you from the regular enlisted personnel. Since you have stepped up to a level that you can now be recognized differently from the NCOs, this study unit is important to you because it will give you the understanding of the different items that a Staff Noncommissioned Officer (SNCO) can wear that a Noncommissioned Officer (NCO) cannot.

Learning Objectives

After completion of this study unit, you should be able to

In This Study Unit

·

Identify the differences between Staff Noncommissioned Officer uniforms and Noncommissioned Officer uniforms.

·

Identify the proper wear of the evening dress uniform.

This study unit contains the following lessons: Topic Lesson 1 Staff Noncommissioned Officer Uniforms Lesson 2 How to Wear the Evening Dress Uniform

MCI Course 8102

4-1

See Page 4-3 4-13

Study Unit 4

(This page intentionally left blank)

MCI Course 8102

4-2

Study Unit 4

LESSON 1 STAFF NONCOMMISSIONED OFFICERS UNIFORMS Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson is designed to help you identify items you can wear on the uniform once obtaining the Staff Noncommissioned Officer rank (SNCO).

Learning Objectives

Upon completion of this lesson, you should be able to

In This Lesson

·

Identify the uniform changes that are made on promotion from NCO to SNCO.

·

Identify the proper wear of the changed items.

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia Optional Uniform Articles Lesson 1 Exercise

MCI Course 8102

4-3

See page 4-3 4-4 4-8 4-10

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia

SNCO Rank Insignia

The rank insignia will be worn with the single point up and centered on the outer half of each sleeve. It will be placed four inches below the shoulder seam (three inches for first sergeant/master sergeant and above) except as otherwise noted below.

Green Service Coat

The rank insignia on the green service coat will be worn as shown in the illustration below: · · ·

With green on scarlet rank insignia Four inches (4”) below shoulder seam (3 inches for 1stSgt/MSgt and above) Centered on the sleeve

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-4

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia, Continued

Short Sleeve Khaki Shirt

The rank insignia on the short sleeve khaki dress shirt will be worn as shown in the illustration below: · ·

With green on khaki rank insignia Centered between the shoulder seam and the bottom edge of the seam (men) or peak of the cuff (women)

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-5

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia, Continued

Long Sleeve Khaki Shirt

The long sleeve shirt with the rank insignia will be worn as shown in the illustration below: · · ·

With green on khaki rank insignia Four inches (4”) below the shoulder seam (3 inches for 1stSgt/MSgt and above) Centered on the sleeve

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-6

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Wearing of the SNCO Rank Insignia, Continued

Dress Blue Coat

The dress blue coat rank insignia will be worn as shown in the illustration below: · · ·

MCI Course 8102

With a gold on scarlet rank insignia Four inches (4”) below the shoulder seam (3 inches for 1stSgt/MSgt and above) Centered on the sleeve

4-7

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Optional Uniform Articles

Items

The following uniform items are optional for the SNCO as indicated and may be purchased from sources other than the Marine Corps supply system, provided these items bear the USMC identification.

French Cuff Khaki Shirt

The men's khaki shirt with French cuffs will be of the same design and style as the standard shirt except with French cuffs instead of barrel cuffs. Officers and SNCOs may wear the French cuff shirt optionally for duty, leave, liberty, parades, and ceremonial occasions at the commander's discretion.

Cuff link

The SNCO gold plated Marine Corps emblems superimposed cuff links set (may include matching tie clasp) will be worn with the French cuff khaki shirt. Below is an example of the superimposed cuff links:

Waist Plate

Enlisted men will wear the white web coat belt with waist plate with the blue and blue-white dress "A"/"B" uniforms. This belt may also be worn with the male enlisted blue dress "C" and "D" uniforms when the sword is prescribed. Enlisted women will wear this belt with the blue dress uniform when armed with the NCO sword. The waist plate worn by SNCOs will be the same as the NCO waist plate except that it has an ornamental stamped design with the Marine Corps emblem in the center. Below is an example of the SNCO waist plate:

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-8

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Optional Uniform Articles, Continued

Boatcloak

The boatcloak, made of dark blue broadcloth material lined with scarlet wool broadcloth, is an optional item that may be worn by male officers and SNCOs with evening dress and blue dress "A"/"B" uniforms for official and social functions. It will not be worn when the blue dress uniform is worn as the uniform of the day.

Dress Cape

The dress cape, made of dark blue polyester-wool tropical material lined with scarlet satin rayon cloth, may be worn by female officers and female SNCOs with the evening dress and blue dress “A” and “B” uniforms for official and social functions. It will not be worn when the blue dress uniform is worn as the uniform of the day.

Chukka Boots

Chukka boots are authorized for male officers and SNCOs only. · ·

Officer Service Uniform

The Chukka boot is a high top dress shoe. This shoe may be worn with all service and dress uniforms.

SNCOs are authorized to wear officers' service uniforms. These uniforms are authorized at all times to include formations with other Marines. SNCOs who wear this uniform are not required to maintain equivalent enlisted service uniforms. Male SNCOs who wear service coats of officer-type fabric must have the large pockets sewn down in the same manner as the pockets on the enlisted service coats. Shirts worn with these uniforms may be of any cloth of adopted standard. Enlisted branch of service insignia and enlisted grade and service stripes will be worn with optional officers service uniforms.

MCI Course 8102

4-9

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1

Lesson 1 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete items 1 through 3 by performing the action required. Check your answers against those listed at the end of this lesson.

Item 1

What are the uniform changes that are made from NCO to SNCO? a. b. c. d.

Item 2

The cuff links set will be worn with what kind of shirt? a. b. c. d.

Item 3

Dress cape, officer service uniform. Cuff links, chukka boots, boatcloak. French cuff khaki shirt, waist plate with ornamental stamped design. All the above.

Khaki shirt with barrel cuffs. Khaki shirt with French cuffs. Khaki shirt with French barrel cuffs. None of the above.

Who is authorized to wear the chukka boots? a. b. c. d.

All senior SNCOs All SNCOs and officers Only male SNCOs and officers Only male SNCOs and NCOs Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-10

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise

Lesson 1 Exercise, Continued

Solutions

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item number 1 2 3

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer d b c

Reference 4-8 through 4-9 4-8 4-9

This lesson has shown you the proper wear of the rank insignia and the optional uniform items that are offered to the SNCO. The following lesson will introduce you to the evening dress and how the uniform is worn.

4-11

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise

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MCI Course 8102

4-12

Study Unit 4, Lesson 1 Exercise

LESSON 2 HOW TO WEAR THE EVENING DRESS UNIFORM Introduction

Estimated Study Time

20 minutes

Lesson Scope

This lesson is designed to help you properly wear and identify the wear of the Evening Dress uniform.

Learning Objectives

After completion of this lesson, you should be able to

In This Lesson

·

Identify the proper wearing of the evening dress uniform.

·

Identify the occasion to wear the evening dress uniform.

This lesson contains the following topics: Topic Introduction The Wear of the Male Evening Dress Uniform The Wear of the Female Evening Dress Uniform Lesson 2 Exercise

MCI Course 8102

4-13

See page 4-13 4-14 4-17 4-21

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

The Wear Of The Male Evening Dress Uniform

Evening Dress Jacket

The jacket is a round-shell design made of dark blue gabardine fabric. The jacket, with rolled collar, shoulder straps with red piping, and peaked cuffs, is worn open held together with two small uniform buttons with a one-inch (1”) link.

Collar Insignia

Dress collar insignia will be worn in the eyelets provided, with the wing span horizontally parallel to the deck and eagles facing inboard.

Rank Insignia

Distinctive 1890's style gold on scarlet insignia of grade will be worn on the jacket sleeves, placed three inches below the shoulder seam and centered on each sleeve, which will be flat pressed.

MCI Course 8102

4-14

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

The Wear Of The Male Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Devices

When wearing the evening dress uniform the miniature breast insignia and miniature medals will be worn as shown in the illustration below. ·

Miniature breast insignia is centered 1/8 inch above the top row of the medals.

·

Miniature medals will be centered on the left lapel with the top of the holding bar approximately one inch (1”) below the left lapel notch. If regulation size holding bars will not fit on the lapel, medals may extend beyond the lapel edge onto the jacket's left breast.

·

The miniature insignia will be centered 1/8 inch above the miniature medals, or if no medals are authorized, the miniature insignia will be centered on the lapel at the position prescribed for the top of the medal bar.

·

The miniature service/identification badge will be placed on the left front panel on an extension of an imaginary line formed by the three front buttons of the left panel. The badge will be placed midway between the top button and the point where the imaginary line meets the lapel.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-15

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

The Wear Of The Male Evening Dress Uniform, Continued Trouser

Evening dress trousers will have a long waist, high back, without hip or side pockets, buckle straps or belt loops; suspender buttons will be inside the waistband.

Shirt and Accessories

The men's white pleated soft-bosom shirt is an evening style shirt with a turned-down collar. The shirt has a pleated front with two to three buttonholes for studs on the front shirt placket and French cuffs. The dress cuff links and studs sets will be plain gold or gold-plated, of concave design. Cuff links and studs will be worn with evening dress uniforms. A scarlet cummerbund, black bow tie and white gloves will also be worn.

Barracks Cover

The Barracks cover will be composed of the frame cap with enlisted dress crown or black leather/synthetic leather (high gloss) chinstrap with two 27line gold uniform screw post buttons. It will also include gold branch of service insignia and a cloth or vinyl white crown.

Occasion For Wear

SNCOs may choose to wear the SNCO evening dress uniform in lieu of the blue dress uniform for social functions (club affairs, dinner parties, dinner dances and evening celebrations in honor of the Marine Corps Birthday) in which civilians attending would normally wear the white or black tie.

MCI Course 8102

4-16

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform

Jacket

The jacket is of black polyester-wool tropical fabric with black rayon lining. The collar is of scarlet wool tropical without ornamentation. The jacket is semi-form fitting, waist length, with rolled lapels, peaked cuffs, but without shoulder straps.

Collar Insignia

Dress collar insignia will be worn in the eyelets provided for both men and women.

Rank Insignia

A reduced version (70% of original size) of this insignia will be worn on female SNCO evening dress jackets, 3 inches below the shoulder seam.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-17

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Devices

On the women's evening dress jacket the miniature breast insignia, medals and service/identification badges will be worn as shown in the illustration below. · Miniature breast insignia is centered 1/8th inch above the top row of the medals. · Miniature medals will be placed centered on the left lapel with the top of the holding bar at the lapel's widest part. If regulation size holding bars will not fit centered on the lapel, medals may extend beyond the lapel's edge onto the jacket's left breast. · The service/identification badge will be placed centered on the left front panel with the bottom of badge about two inches higher than the top button. The placement of the badge may be adjusted slightly to ensure the proper flat appearance.

Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-18

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Skirt

Shirt and Accessories

Cover

The evening dress skirt is of black polyester-wool tropical material with center back pleat and fully lined with black rayon lining. There are three skirts that are currently approved for wear: ·

The floor length long black skirt.

·

The short evening dress skirt will be knee length and will be of the same material as the long skirt.

·

The old-style long skirt (without center back pleat) may continue to be worn until replacement is required.

The items listed below can be worn with the female evening dress uniform: ·

The women's white ruffled tuck-in dress shirt with black polyester-wool necktab and white pearl buttons

·

Red cumber

·

White gloves which may be worn or carried

·

The purse may be carried at the individual's option with the evening dress uniform

The dress cap will not be worn except when participating in a ceremony. When participating in a ceremony, women will wear the white vinyl dress cap with the black synthetic leather (high gloss) chinstrap. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-19

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

The Wear Of The Female Evening Dress Uniform, Continued

Occasion For Wear

MCI Course 8102

SNCOs may choose to wear the SNCO evening dress uniform in lieu of the blue dress uniform for social functions (club affairs, dinner parties, dinner dances, and evening celebrations in honor of the Marine Corps Birthday) in which civilians attending would normally wear the white or black tie.

4-20

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2

Lesson 2 Exercise

Estimated Study Time

10 minutes

Directions

Complete the following items. Check your answers against the correct answers at the end of this lesson. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item

Item 1

What size medals are worn with the female evening dress uniform and where are they placed? a. Standard size medals and 1/8 of an inch above the left beast pocket. b. Miniature medals and centered on the left breast pocket c. Miniature medals and centered on the left lapel with to top of the holding bar one inch below the left lapel notch. d. Miniature medals and centered with to top of the holding bar at the lapels widest part.

Item 2

The three types of skirts females can wear with the evening dress uniform are the a. b. c. d.

Item 3

long skirt, short skirt, and old-style long skirt. modified version, semi-short skirt, and standard-style long skirt. floor length and short length skirt, and standard-style long skirt. long skirt, short skirt, and modified long skirt.

On which occasion is the evening dress uniform worn in lieu of the blue dress uniform? a. b. c. d.

Retirement ceremonies Marine Corps ball Burial detail Color guard detail Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

4-21

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

Lesson 2 Exercise, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the exercise items. If you have any questions, refer to the reference page listed for each item. Item number 1 2 3

Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer d a b

Reference 4-18 4-19 4-20

This lesson has show you the how to wear the evening dress uniform and the occasions for wearing it.

4-22

Study Unit 4, Lesson 2 Exercise

MILITARY STUDIES REVIEW LESSON EXAMINATION Review Lesson

Introduction

The purpose of the review lesson examination is to prepare you for your final examination. We recommend that you try to complete your review lesson examination without referring to the text, but for those items (questions) you are unsure of, restudy the text. When you finish your review lesson and are satisfied with your responses check them against the answers provided at the end of this review lesson examination.

Directions

Select the ONE answer that BEST completes the statement or that answers the item. For multiple choice items, circle your response. For matching items, place the letter of your response in the space provided.

Item 1

A system to promote good order, discipline, and regulate the behavior of the armed forces of the United States is the definition of a. b. c. d.

Item 2

military justice. an NJP court-martial. the Uniformed Code of Military Justice. a special court of inquiry.

What aided in the establishment of the U.S. Military Justice System? a. b. c. d.

The Constitution The Joint Chief of Staff Congress The Supreme Court Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-1

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 3

Select the proper level of justice for a serious non-capital offense. a. b. c. d.

Item 4

Identify the level of military justice that conducts simple procedures for minor offenses. a. b. c. d.

Item 5

Nonjudicial punishment Summary Court-Martial General Court-Martial Special Court-Martial

Select the level of justice that is referred to as “Article 15.” a. b. c. d.

Item 6

Nonjudicial punishment Summary Court-Martial Special Court-Martial Court-Martial

Summary court martial Non-judicial punishment Court-Martial General Court-Martial

In cases involving capital offenses and serious offenses what level of justice would be used? a. b. c. d.

Special Court-Martial Nonjudicial punishment General Court-Martial Capitol Court-Martial Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-2

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 7

Who has the authority to convene a General Court Martial? a. b. c. d.

Item 8

A Marine has _____ days to file an appeal for an Article 15 judgment. a. b. c. d.

Item 9

10 hours 12 hours 5 days 2 days

What justifies a search? a. b. c. d.

Item 10

Captain in the Air Force Colonel in the Marine Corps Only the prosecution for the court Brigadier General in the Army

Not a good enough reason to search Probable cause A fact admissible in court Evidence of the crime

Which of the following is a legal object of a search found by military police? a. b. c. d.

A Marine found with drug paraphernalia on base. A Marine found with drug paraphernalia off base. A Marine found with an automatic weapon off base. A Marine found with stolen wallet off base Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-3

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 11

What is considered a lawful search? a. Search authorized by the commanding officer. b. Search authorized and conducted by the commanding officer. c. PFC Coors consents to a search after being told, “Things could go easier for you.” d. PFC Coors consents to a search after being told, “”We are going to search anyway, you could make it easier.”

Item 12

What is a source for the laws of land warfare? a. b. c. d.

Item 13

A woman with a basket on her head walking down a road in a combat area is be considered a a. b. c. d.

Item 14

The Bill of Rights The Articles of Confederation The Hague Rules The Corps Values of 1775

combatant. enemy. noncombatant. civilian carrying an unknown item.

Which of the following is a factor in violating the law of land warfare? a. b. c. d.

Happiness Fatigue Cowardice Corruption Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-4

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 15

The Marine Air Ground Task Force is made up of how many elements? a. b. c. d.

Item 16

3 4 5 6

The command element a. conducts ground combat operations. b. contains organic combat support and combat service support units. c. facilitates sequencing of additional MAGTFs as necessary because of its modular design. d. integrates air-ground combat operations.

Item 17

Which of the following is true of the ground combat element of a Marine Air Ground Task Force? It a. conducts air operations and provides air support to the combat service support element and air combat element. b. conducts ground combat operations. c. compliments the combat service support capabilities of the ground combat element, air combat element, and command element. d. consists of the commander, staff, and surveillance, reconnaissance, intelligence group element.

Item 18

The ____________ integrates air-ground combat operations. a. b. c. d.

ground combat element command element air combat element combat service support element Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-5

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 19

The _____________ complements the combat service support capabilities of the ground combat element, air combat element, and the command element. a. b. c. d.

Item 20

When planning time is adequate, and the force can be tailored. Disaster relief, humanitarian assistance and noncombatant evacuation operations are all possible mission of a a. b. c. d.

Item 21

MAGTF. SPMAGTF. MEF. CSSE.

The Marine expeditionary unit is normally the size of a a. b. c. d.

Item 22

Marine expeditionary unit Marine expeditionary force Marine expeditionary brigade combat service support element

special purpose Marine air ground task force. Marine expeditionary force. Marine platoon. Marine company.

Peacekeeping, noncombatant evacuation operations, and disaster relief are all common missions of a a. b. c. d.

Marine expeditionary force. Marine expeditionary brigade. Battalion landing team. Special purpose Marine air ground task force. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-6

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 23

For particularly larger crises or contingencies, the Marine Corps’ warfighting organization is normally the Marine a. b. c. d.

Item 24

The size and composition of a deployed MEF can vary greatly depending on the requirements of the a. b. c. d.

Item 25

mission. size of the Marine expeditionary force. timeline. attached units.

In _______ the Commandant of the Marine Corps appointed the first SNCO rank. a. b. c. d.

Item 26

expeditionary unit. expeditionary force. expeditionary brigade. rifle platoon.

1770 1776 1798 1832

In 1798, enlisted Marine staff consisted of a sergeant major, a. b. c. d.

a quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a fife major. a quartermaster sergeant, a drum major, and a first sergeant. a master sergeant, a fife major, and a first sergeant. a drum major, a fife major, and a first sergeant. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-7

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 27

The grade of gunnery sergeant authorized on a. b. c. d.

Item 28

In what year did the first group of staff sergeants receive their warrants to fill the gap between sergeant and quartermaster sergeant? a. b. c. d.

Item 29

1923 1925 1926 1935

In 1740, ___________ Marines was created because of England’s need for four Battalions of Marines during the war with Spain. a. b. c. d.

Item 30

10 November 1775. 5 July 1798. 5 May 1898. 5 May 1901.

Hardy’s Gilham’s Gooche’s Harley’s

Where did the Continental Marines land on 3 March 1776? a. b. c. d.

New England New Providence Hampshire, England Sussex, England Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-8

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 31

When did President John Adams approve the act that established and organized the Marine Corps? a. b. c. d.

Item 32

The mission of the Marine Corps during the War of 1812 was to provide a. b. c. d.

Item 33

detachments to Navy ships and then to Lake Squadrons. advance naval landing parties and protection of the ships captain from insurrection. gun crews for the ships cannons and sharpshooters for boarding parties. detachments to Navy ships and protection of the ships crew.

On what date did the Marines first step foot on Mexican soil during the war with Mexico? a. b. c. d.

Item 34

10 November 1776 11 July 1798 31 March 1801 10 March 1801

18 May 1846 18 May 1856 16 October 1856 16 October 1860

During John Brown’s raid on the U.S. Arsenal at Harpers Ferry, the Marines were requested because a. b. c. d.

they were the only available force who could react with the speed needed. of their artillery attachments. of the highly trained sharpshooters were attached to their force. Lieutenant Israel Greene had negotiator training that was required. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-9

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 35

On ________________ the Confederate States Congress passed an “An Act to Organize the Navy” which summarily created the Confederate States Marine Corps. a. b. c. d.

Item 36

What was the mission of the Marine Battalion during the Battle of First Manassas? a. b. c. d.

Item 37

General service troops Ammunition handlers Cannoneers Permanent support for an artillery battery

During the second assault at Fort Fisher, unnecessary casualties were the result of poor____________________ and incorrect organization on the part of the forces that took part in the amphibious assault. a. b. c. d.

Item 38

November 10, 1860 October 16, 1860 March 16, 1861 November 10, 1861

ships supporting fires training, practice, proper landing craft execution, administration and logistics

When was the first U.S. Marine Brigade formed? a. b. c. d.

Shortly after 2 April 1865 when all remaining Federal forces were consolidated near Appomattox Court House. Shortly after 2 April 1885 when all three battalions reached Panama. When all Marine companies were consolidated for deployment to Haiti on 2 April 1875. When all available Marines were placed together in one unit for the War with Spain on 2 April 1898. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-10

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 39

The mission of the Marine Corps Advance Base School is to train Marines in a.

b. c.

d.

Item 40

The aviation detachment Advance Base Force was commissioned on a. b. c. d.

Item 41

the handling, installation, and use of advance base material: to investigate what types of guns, gun platforms, mines, torpedo defenses and other equipment might be best suited for advance base work; and to study such military and naval subjects as pertained to the selection, occupation, attack, and defense of advance bases, or expeditionary service in general. the handling, installation, and use of advance base material: to investigate operations and tactics of enemy landing forces. preparing positions that would be utilized to defend harbors, jetties, and river crossings; and to study such military and naval subjects as pertained to the selection, occupation, attack, and defense of advance bases, or expeditionary service in general. maximizing mobility assets of the landing force; to investigate enemy defensive positions in an opposed landing operation.

18 May 1913. 27 December 1913. 18 May 1926. 27 October 1937.

In what year did the first Naval Aviation Pilots graduate from formal pilot training? a. b. c. d.

1914 1915 1919 1920 Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-11

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 42

Who was the first female Marine to be accepted into the Marine Corps Reserve in August of 1918? a. b. c. d.

Item 43

In the Spring of 1918, Marine Regiments were initially employed as individual units alongside of French Regiments. a. b.

Item 44

True False

What manual was published in July 1935 that stated nature amphibious doctrine would be practiced throughout World War II? a. b. c. d.

Item 45

Molly Marine Opha Mae Johnson Clara Barton Clara Johnston

The Marine Corps Manual Amphibious Landing and Fire Support Manual Tentative Landing Operations Manual Gilham’s Amphibious Doctrine Manual

What mission did the Landing Vehicle Tracked (LVT) have at Tarawa? a. The movement of supplies from amphibious shipping to a secure beachhead. b. Fire support vehicles for the forward observers and subsequently served as ambulances for the transportation of the wounded. c. The LVTs were employed as communication vehicles to assist with command and control from the front lines. d. The LVTs mission at Tarawa was to transport the initial assault waves of troops from ship to shore, and then assume a logistical role. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-12

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 46

What missions did the helicopter perform in Korea? a. Command and control capabilities, communication, close air support, and artillery spotting b. Command and control capabilities, close air support, evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting, and scouting missions c. Transportation of high ranking officers to critical locations in a timely manner and on call medevacs d. Command and control capabilities, communications, evacuation of wounded, transportation, artillery spotting, and scouting missions

Item 47

Which form of offensive maneuver was used at Inchon with the intent of forcing the enemy out of his position at Pusan without assaulting him? a. b. c. d.

Item 48

Frontal attack Flanking attack Envelopment Turning movement.

The purpose of Operation Pegasus was to a. be a massive joint Allied drive in the Khe Sanh Plateau area to give some much needed relief to the defenders of Khe Sanh. b. get Marine reinforcements into Khe Sahn as quick as possible. c. be a massive, all Marine drive into the Khe Sahn Plateau area to give some much needed relief to the defenders of Khe Sahn. d. be a massive, joint allied drive in the Saigon area to give some much needed relief to UN forces fighting in the city. Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-13

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Item 49

How is the rank insignia worn on the green service coat? a. b. c. d.

Item 50

Who is authorized to wear the French cuff khaki shirt and the waist plate with ornamental stamped design? a. b. c. d.

Item 51

All NCOs All SNCOs Only male SNCOs Only male NCOs

The rank insignia worn on the male evening dress uniform is patterned after the ________style. a. b. c. d.

Item 52

With gold on scarlet rank insignia 4 inches below the shoulder seam. With green on scarlet rank insignia 4 inches below the shoulder seam. With green on khaki rank insignia centered below the shoulder seam. With gold on khaki rank insignia centered below the shoulder seam

1770s 1780s 1860s 1890s

Where is the service/identification badge worn on the female evening dress uniform? a. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches higher than the top button b. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches below the bottom edge of the miniature medals c. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches higher than the bottom button d. Centered on the left front panel with the bottom of the badge 2 inches below the top button Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-14

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Answers

The table below lists the answers to the review lesson examination items. If you have questions about these items, refer to the reference page of the course text. Item Number 1 2 3 4 5 6 7 8 9 10 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 27 28 29 30

Answer a a c b b c d c b a a c c b b a b c d b a d b a c a c c c b

Reference Page 1-5 1-6 1-15 1-13 1-10 1-16 1-16 1-12 1-28 1-29 1-31 1-38 1-40 1-45 2-6 2-9 2-10 2-14 2-17 2-18 2-18 2-18 2-25 2-26 3-3 3-3 3-5 3-6 3-16 3-19 Continued on next page

MCI Course 8102

R-15

Review Lesson Examination

Review Lesson, Continued

Answers continued

Item Number 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 44 45 46 47 48 49 50 51 52 Summary

MCI Course 8102

Answer b a a a c d b b a b d b a c d d d a b c d a

Reference Page 3-22 3-33 3-34 3-38 3-39 3-40 3-42 3-44 3-54 3-54 3-56 3-57 3-59 3-66 3-73 3-75 3-76 3-80 4-4 4-8 4-13 4-17

Now that you’ve completed the review lesson examination, it’s time to show that you have mastered this course by completing the final examination. Take your final examination booklet and the DP-37 to your training NCO or any authorized proctor so that you can complete the course.

R-16

Review Lesson Examination

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