Migration From 4G to 5G

February 9, 2018 | Author: slysoft.20009951 | Category: 4 G, Lte (Telecommunication), Mimo, Lte Advanced, Wi Fi
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Problems resulted from the 4G migration to 5G...

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Migration from 4G to 5G - Revolution or Evolution ? Sept. 4th, 2013 The 6th International Workshop on 5G Yukitsuna Furuya Tokyo Institute of Technology

1

General Mobile Technology Trend by Generations 1st Generation Radio

FM

2nd Generation

3rd Generation

TDMA

CDMA

4th Generation OFDMA

CS

PS

Network

IMS

Tel Service

Data 2

What is 4G ? Officially IMT-A Mobility is 4G. High Enhanc IMT-2000ed IMTBut people call LTE 2000 Enhancement as 4G, since there is a large change from Low 3G. 1

10

New Mobile Access

100

1000

Peak Useful Data Rate (Mb/s)

What will be 5G then ? Nobody knows yet 3

My view on Generation technology Start from limited area

Cover the whole area

Replace the previous generation

If there is a technology called 5G, it must be applicable to Macro Cell 4

Requirements to future Macro Cell technology Very high flexibility, although many people say higher bit rate

5

Frequency allocation to mobile operators in Japan Band NTT docomo

700M

900M 1.5G 1.7G 2G

UQ

30

WCP

30

30

Softbank E-mobile

Wilcom

30 30

*1

30 20

30 20 20

*2

40

Total

2.5G (MHz) 160 110 90 50 30

KDDI

20 20

800M

40 40 40

30

*3

31.2

Total: 500MHz 17% of spectrum below 3GHz Small portion compared with industry size

31.2

6

Current wireless systems • Below 3GHz, many different usage – Broadcasting (TV, radio ) – Special Mobile Radio

• Ship, Railway, Taxi, Truck, Electricity, Gas

– Public radio

• Military, police, ambulance,・・・

– Satellites

• LEO, Mobile satellites, GPS

– Amateur radio – Wireless LAN, PAN – And so on

• Too many systems ! 7

From national economy viewpoint • Government should maximize economical value of spectrum • Mobile systems are far more spectrum efficient than other systems – Late comer – Very high traffic demand compared with spectrum allocated

• Each system has its own requirements, but many of then can be covered technically by mobile systems 8

SMR system trends • SMR systems are based on either TRTRA or iDEN, – Police, ambulance, disaster warning, train, ship, taxi, electricity, gas,,,,

• They need to change to broadband systems • There are many independent SMR systems, each of them has a small chunk of spectrum – This makes broadband difficult – Infrastructure cost is high, because many overlapped coverage by independent systems 9

SMRs should adopt LTE for broadband • LTE can provide wireless broadband service with high spectrum efficiency, much higher than SMRs • Cellular systems will converge to LTE – Because of its market size, cost of equipment will come down , even if it is complicated

• LTE will keep evolving – Big industry effort is spent on 3GPP to make LTE system better – Even if some function is not in LTE now, it will be included in the future 10

Band operation re-arrangement Railway A

Railway B

Taxi

Electricity

f Operator X New Service

t

New Service

TDMA 11

frequency

OFDM Arrangement

New Service

time

12

Additional requirements to LTE • Most SMRs require exclusive spectrum resource – This can be realized appropriate resource allocation. TDMA is an example – It can be introduced to LTE – High reliability is also required

• Many SMRs require group call function – LTE already have eMBMS

• Some SMRs require strong security – LTE security is reasonably strong – If necessary, it can be enhance by higher protocol 13

Running LTE SMR (1) • Currently, SMR license is divided into small pieces – Each company has 100KHz or 200KHz band

• A new operating company, handling many SMR license should be established and that operator should deploy broadband LTE – FirstNet is a good example – The operator should guarantee traffic to previous license holders

• Several business models are possible 14

Running LTE SMR (2) • There will be surplus frequency resource for new services since LTE spectrum efficiency is higher than current SMR • Who will use the surplus resource on what, should be determined based on LTE network investment • Business model should be deeply discussed

15

700MHz band allocation in US

Band 17: AT&T:LTE Band 13: Verizon:LTE

Band 14: Public Safety Broadband Military, police, ambulance,, combined broadband Operator will be the FirstNet, part of government 16

Basic FirstNet concept • A new band is allocated for broadband public safety in US – 99% area coverage of US

• FirstNet will provide service – FirstNet is a new US organization to run braodband public safety

• Technology is LTE • FirstNet will share the network with mobile operators – To reduce the investment on base stations

• US government made some functional request to 3GPP 17

Restoration form a disaster

・On emergency, communication tool is very important ・Special consideration should be paid on safety wireless 18

Introduction of Very Low Rate

Expand the coverage of non-damaged base station Activity has started in 3GPP under M2M WI

19

TV broadcast should be LTE based • Currently, digital TV systems use their own transmission method – US, JAPAN, EU, China has their own standards

• All digital TV should be TD-LTE based – Two-way communication capability on TV will help a interesting TV program a lot – Ratio can be 20 down, 1 up link – No technical difficulty exist – Global standard – Internet TV, Mobile TV will be much simpler 20

TV broadcast should be LTE based • TV White Space will be effectively used by two way communications • Spectrum license holder can be broadcaster or other people • 3GPP WI: L-band for Supplemental Downlink in E-UTRA and UTRA is a starting point of this, same as MediaFLO.

21

PMSE should be LTE based • PMSE (Program Making Special Event) is a communication system to deliver TV signal to center site • If it is LTE based, it can use cellular LTE system, when spectrum resource is available. • Currently, TV white space usage is under consideration. • If both broadcasting and PMSE are LTE based, white space can be used very effectively 22

Wireless LAN can be LTE based • Wireless LAN physical layer can be LTE layer 1 – Wireless LAN chip is already produced enough – Cost down effect LTE WLAN is not so large – Interwork between LTE-WLAN will be easier

• WLAN MAC should be CSMA-CA based – CSMA-CA is essential for unlicensed band – 3GPP may better consider introduction of CSMACA to LTE

23

What should not be LTE based • PAN (Personal Area Network) should not be changed to LTE – For a short distance communications, spectrum efficiency is not an issue – In many cases, cost and power efficiency is more important than spectrum efficiency for PAN – LTE is not designed for such a purpose

24

Summary on LTE convergence • Most of the wide area wireless systems are better evolved to LTE • This does not mean mobile operator should control most of the spectrum – There should be considerations on non-economic value

• If most of the systems deploy LTE, there will be a vast economical benefit as a whole • US FirstNet is the starting point of this activity – US may introduce LTE TV broadcasting as well 25

Conclusions • High speed transmission in higher frequency is important, but we should look at lower frequency optimization as well • LTE will be applied to almost all wide area wireless systems – US will lead this through FirstNet – Broadcasting will (may?) be LTE based as well

• Next change to mobile radio technology is to increase flexibility so that it can be applied to many other wireless systems 26

5G Mobile Communication Networking Technology Professor WANG Jing Tsinghua University, China [email protected] 2013.07.17.

Outline  Future

Requirements  Technology Developments  Hyper-cellular Architecture  Conclusions

Future Requirements

Future Requirements 

Mobile terminal market

Mobile Service Market 

Over 3 billions of Laptops, Pads and Smart phones



Over 5 billions of download applications

Mobile data traffic is doubled every 13 months

Requirement Forecast 

Total subscriber base increases 10% YoY 



Mobile broadband penetration to reach 100% by 2020

Traffic volume per subscriber increases 25-40% YoY 

Traffic volume increases by:  

x150-500 from 2010 to 2020 and x3000-30000 from 2010 to 2030

The 1000x data challenge (ref 2010) may likely happen during the period 2022-2026

Technology goals of the 5G 

METIS Project Objectives

• C5G Project Objectives • • • •

Area Data Throughout of 25 times Improvement to 4G Frequency Efficiency of 10 times Improvement to 4G Service Data Throughput of 10Gbps Energy Efficiency of 10 times Improvement to 4G

Technology Developments

Air Interface Technologies

4G UMTS

3G 2G

GSM

1990

GPRS

EDGE

1995

5G

??? LTE-C

LTE

LTE-A

LTE-B

HDPA

HSPA+

UMTS-A

EDGE+

2000

New Air Interface

QAM+OFDM+MIMO

GMSK+CC +TDMA QPSK+TC +CDMA

2005

Evolution

2010

2015

2020

Transmission Technology Contributions

Where are we going to? MIMO

ICIC

System Architecture Evolution  

R99R5R8 (3GPP) From Tree to full mesh

Coverage Limitations Frequency efficiency of cell edge Environment Downlink Uplink (bit/s/Hz) (bit/s/Hz) Indoor 0.1 0.07 Microcellular 0.075 0.05 Base coverage 0.06 0.03 urban High speed 0.04 0.015

Average frequency efficiency Environment Indoor Microcellular Base coverage urban High speed

Downlink (bit/s/Hz)

Uplink (bit/s/Hz)

3 2.6 2.2

2.25 1.80 1.4

1.1

0.7

Small Cell Limitations • Path loss exponent decreases with reducing cell size because of LOS happening more • Inter-cell Interference increases Significantly with Decreasing of Path loss exponent

Capacity (users/MHz/km2)

Network capacity does not improve Continuously with decreasing cell size because of ICI Cell size

Possible Solutions for 1000x 

3x increase in spectrum  



6x improvement in spectral efficiency 







Re-farming Existing bands for more efficient use New licensed bands, including higher frequencies for hot-spot Higher-order modulation to 256QAM to increase the amount of data transported per Hz of spectrum 3D MIMO and massive antenna beam forming with arrays of as many as 100+ antenna elements Coordinated multiple point transmission and interference management techniques to improve cell-edge performance

56x higher average cell density in HetNet configurations 





The addition of many layer cells including macro, micro, pico, femto, relay, phantom, …… Traffic Balancing and offloading of many modes including 2G, 3G, 4G, 5G, WiFi, …… Clouds of antennae will provide the biggest boost to capacity through extreme frequency reuse.

Source:http://www.wiseharbor.com/index.html

ICI Cancellation Performance 仙





古 北 路

芙 蓉 江 路

档案馆 运动场

AP1 虹古路

AP2

• 4X4 MIMO • 20MHz Bandwidth @ 3.5GHz • APs(antennas only) connect Computing Unit by RoF

MT AP1+AP2 CoMP

only only

Source: China FuTURE Project

•TACSGSM:4 times(2G) •GSM  UMTS:2.5 times(3G) •UMTS  LTE:2.5 times(4G)

Spectral Efficiency x 25

Lessons learnt from Past 40 Years

Spectrum Employed x 25

Network density improves system capacity of 60 times compared other domains.

Source: http://www.arraycomm.com/technology/coopers-law

5G Technologies should Enable ‘Net Work’ 

CoMP: ICIC 



Cell Density: 250m33m  



Algorithm + Architecture Small cell, phantom cell HetNet: layers and modes

Mobility:  

Handover:horizontal and vertical Connectivity:always online

Hyper-Cellular Architecture

Hyper-Cellular Architecture (HCA) 

Separating the Coverage of C-Plane and D-Plane   





Seamless coverage of C-Plane/U-Plane Soft coverage of D-Plane Soft access mode matching Unified Signaling Procedure of diverse systems

D-Plane Implemented by Distributed Wireless Communication Systems (DWCS)  

Virtual Node-B Virtually Cell

Separating the Coverage of C-Plane and D-Plane 

The decoupling of the control signaling coverage and traffic data coverage

Coverage Example  

Soft access mode matching Unified Signaling Procedure of diverse systems

C-Plane

GSM 900MHz

D-Plane

WiFi 2.4GHz

LTE 3.5GHz

DWCS Based D-Plane

Node C1

Node C2 Node A MT1

Cable/Fiber MT2

Node C3

Node C4

Elements in DWCS 

NodeA: Antenna Units 



NodeC: Computation Units 



MT oriented Processing

Virtual Cells 

2013/8/27

High performance mashed network

Virtual NodeB=NodeAs+NodeC 



Modems, filters,…

Connection Between NodeA and NodeC 



Interfaces between air and fiber

MT oriented coverage 23

Inter-Antenna Interference Cancellations under DWCS 

MTs with WCDMA voice 1

Outage probability

0.1

m=1,=3 m=2,=3 m=4,=3 m=1,=4 m=2,=4 m=4,=4

0.01

1E-3

1E-4 10

20

30

40

50

60

70

80

Number of mobiles per antenna

Source: IEEE Communication Magazine, 2003

90

100

110

DWCS Example – C-RAN 

C-RAN is proposed by the China Mobile (CMCC) 

Baseband processing is Centralized logically



Radio processing is Cooperative



Computation Units is real-time Cloud



Systems is Clear (Green ), energy saving systems

C-RAN Construction BBU Pool



BBU Pool

BBU Pool

X2+ PHY/MAC PHY/MAC



X2+ PHY/MAC

PHY/MAC

PHY/MAC

PHY/MAC

负载均衡 高速交换

Real-time Cloud Fiber Transmission

Cooperative Radio

Distributed RRU RRU

RRU

RRU

RRU RRU

RRU

RRU

RRU

RRU

HCA Advantages 

Connection Suitable for Diverse RANs  



 

Different operation modes: 2G, 3G, LTE, WiFi, …… Different coverage layers: Macro, Micro, Pico, Femto, Relay, Phantom, …… Different AI constructions: eNodeB, NodeB, DAS, C-RAN, DWCS, ……

Energy Management: AP on/off, Power control, …… Good Performance  

Good Connectivity & Mobility Flexibility, Scalability, Cost & Energy efficiency

Challenges of HCA Realization 

Optimize Coverage of C-Plane  



Optimize Coverage of D-Plane   



Service oriented UE oriented Energy oriented

Redefine Radio Resources 



Unified signaling capacity Special services in U-Plane

Time slot, frequency band, location, beams, mode, layer, etc.

Redefine the signaling procedure 

Defining Cell-ID, Synchronizing, Accessing, Handover, Paging, Power control, Radio resource management, etc.

Challenges of DWCS Realization 

High Quality Network Broad band up to Tbps  High timing accuracy reach ps  Full meshed connection 



High Performance Computing Units Reconfigurable  Scalable  Reliable  Real-time Cloud 

Conclusions Networking technologies play an important role in the 5G systems  The Hyper-Cellular architecture splits coverage of signaling and data to meet the evolution of mobile networks  DWCS can meet requirements of radio technology evolution 

5G 포럼 WORKSHOP

김성국, 이호원

Past Decades 

All-IP 



IP absorbed other communication protocols

Personalization Customized services  Smartphone is a personal computer 



Mobile 



Most used information device is a mobile phone

Social Sharing information with acquaintances  Users produce information 

Smartphone   

The biggest disruption 3G(4G) + Cloud service + Mobility Mobile device is not inferior but superior

Future Internet Trends 

Scalability billion (2008)  2 billon (2014) PCs  200 million (2008)  2 billion (2014) smartphones  5 exabytes (2005)  990 exabytes (2012) data  13 exabytes (2010)  42 exabytes (2014) consumer monthly data 1



Heterogeneity  vehicles,

 

sensors, smartphones, home appliances

Mobility From Internet of contents to Internet of services

Accelerating Trends 

On-demand  Context-aware

information  Services should be ready before requested 

Personalization  From



Mobile  New



personal device to personal service services will start from mobile services

Social  More

information will be spread through social network

New Challenge 

Information inequality  Access

to information is a part of basic right  Bigger gap between economic status 

Cyber security  Mobile



services are more prone to security attack

More intelligent devices  How

to embed intelligence into more mundane devices

New Service Area 

Conquer non-IP communication  Broadcasting,



Expand into not-yet computerized/connected area  Automotive

 

law enforcement, medical services

to clothing

Augmented Human Intelligence Health Care  Reduce

medial cost  From public health care to personal health service

Requirement   

 

Continuous flow of information Virtually limitless flow of information Bi-direction flow of information High value knowledge extraction from information Device-transparency

Mobile Cloud 

Cloud centric services are not sustainable  Too

much traffic between mobile network and IP backbone



Mobile backhaul will be a cloud network  Mobile

backhaul will be bigger than current cloud datacenter

Cloud Networking 

Cloud service = computing + networking



Diverse traffic characteristics 

Customer traffic Multimedia  Interactive service 



Infra traffic Short important messages  Bulk data transfer  Inter-data center traffic 

 

Data source is integrated with delivery channels Strong incentives on network innovation 

Network performance has huge impact on service quality

New Topology

Cloudservice provider (Naver, Google, …)

Future network

Current network

5G 예시 휴대전화

Future Radio Access for 5G Yoshihisa Kishiyama NTT DOCOMO, INC.

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

1

Network/Communication Society in 2020 and Beyond Extension/enrichment of wireless services

Everything Connected by Wireless Monitor/collect information & control devices Multiple personal devices

Transportation (Car/Bus/Train)

Deliver rich contents in real-time & ensure safety Video streaming

New types of terminal/HI

4K Interaction across multiple devices

Consumer electronics

Entertainment, Navigation Traffic information

Watch/jewelry/cloth s

4K/8K video resolutions Video on newspapers Background video

Healthcare

Human interface and healtchcare sensors

Remote operation using personal terminal

Education

Remote health check & counseling

House

Sensors

Cloud computing

Remote control of facilities House security

Smart power grid Agriculture and farming Factory automation Weather/Environment

All kinds of services supported by the mobile personal cloud

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

Glasses/Touch internet

Distance (remote) learning Any lesson anywhere/anytime

Safety and lifeline system

Prevention of accidents Robustness to disasters

2

FRA concept and requirements

• 500 -1000 x capacity/km2

• 100 x more connected devices • Lower overhead incl. reduced control signaling • Enhanced connectivity, e.g., deep inhouse

• 10-100 x higher user data rates • Reduced latency to < 1 ms • Support of high mobility • Terminal battery saving

• Very small/light BS with energy saving • Reduced network cost incl. backhaul • Automatic network optimization for diverse environments incl. emergency cases

Future Radio Access (FRA) will provide a total solution to satisfy the requirements by future drivers NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

3

Evolution paths for FRA •

Further LTE enhancements – Macro-assisted small cell enhancement (Phantom cell) – Further general LTE enhancements



Potential new RAT

Performance

– Should prioritize the achievement of more big gains over backward compatibility – Consider new spectrum allocations of WRC-15 and beyond – Some technical components may be applied to further LTE enhancements

Macro-assisted small cell enhancement (Phantom cell) LTE-Advanced

LTE

Rel-12/13 Rel-10/11

Rel-8/9 Pico/Femto

CA/eICIC/CoMP for HetNet

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

WRC-15

~2015

Future Radio Access (= Future IMT = 5G?)

Potential New RAT Big gain

Rel-14/15,… Further LTE enhancements WRC-18/19 ~2020

Year

4

Considerations on New RAT • New RAT should achieve significant gains • New RAT could be non-backward compatible to LTE Æ What is the major change that characterizes New RAT? – – – – – –



New numerology? New waveform? New frame structure? New idle mode? Other things? Or combinations of above?

New RAT should support all scenarios supported by LTE or not? Option 1

Option 2

– New RAT covers all LTE scenarios in addition to specific scenarios that LTE does not support

– New RAT covers part of LTE scenarios and specific scenarios that LTE does not support

New RAT

New RAT

LTE

LTE

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

5

Directions of evolution: “The Cube” A set of radio access technologies is required to satisfy future requirements Required performance Spectrum efficiency Traffic offloading TRx TRx TRx

WiFi

TRx TRx TRx TRx TRx

Non-orthogonal multiple access

Controller

3D/Massive MIMO, Advanced receiver

Network densification

Current capacity

Hotspot Dense urban Shopping mall

Study for new interference scenarios

Tx-Rx cooperative access technologies

Spectrum extension Existing cellular bands

Cellular network assists local area radio access

Higher/wider frequency bands Very wide

Super wide

New cellular concept for cost/energyefficient dense deployments

Frequency

Efficient use of higher spectrum bands NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

6

FRA technical concept Combined usage of lower and higher frequency bands Æ Higher frequency bands become useful and beneficial! Existing cellular bands

Higher frequency bands

(high power density for coverage)

(wider bandwidth for high data rate) Very wide (e.g. > 3GHz)

Super wide (e.g. > 10GHz)

9 No coverage issue any more 9 Can provide very high throughput using wider bandwidth 9 Big offloading gain from existing cellular bands

Frequency

FRA technical concept Further cellular enhancements al n o g tho ess r o Non le acc . ip c mult MA), et (NO

Exploitation of higher frequency bands t p e c on c l l e c m lit) o p t s n Pha U plane (C/

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

O, M I e M rame v i s Mas ology/f er c. t m e u , N gn desi 7

Phantom cell concept • Proposed architecture to utilize higher frequency bands “Phantom cell” – Split of C-plane & U-plane between macro and small cells in different frequency bands [1, 2] Macro cell

Upl an e

C- p

Phantom cell

lan e

Existing cellular bands

Higher frequency bands [1] NTT DOCOMO, 3GPP RWS-120010, June 2012. [2] H. Ishii et al., IEEE Globecom 2012 Workshop, Dec. 2012.

C-plane: Macro cell maintains good connectivity and mobility using lower frequency bands NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

U-plane: Small cell provides higher throughput and more flexible/costenergy efficient operations using higher/wider frequency bands 8

Massive MIMO • Massive MIMO – Beamforming using massive antenna elements in higher frequency bands – Essential technology to achieve effective cell range Example 2D antenna configuration d 20cm









LTE 3D-MIMO Massive MIMO

Antenna element spacing (d)

3.5 GHz (λ = 8.6 cm)

10 GHz (λ = 3 cm)

20 GHz (λ = 1.5 cm)

0.5 λ

16

169

676

0.7 λ

9

81

361

20cm

Æ Compensation of increased path loss & Improved spectrum efficiency Cell range extension by beamforming gain

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

Improved spectrum efficiency with (multi-user) spatial multiplexing

9

Massive MIMO & Macro-assisted

Massive MIMO Potential issue – Coverage for common channels (system information, paging, synchronization signal, etc.)

?

Small cell

Macro cell

The combination of Massive MIMO and Macro-assisted small cell will provide adequate cell coverage even with a high frequency NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

10

Non-Orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA) Processing power in Devices

Effort for Effort for Orthogonality Interference Mitigation Equalizer, FDMA,TDMA, MIMO CDMA, OFDMA Canceller

Exploitation of power-domain, path loss difference among users, and UE processing power NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

Intentional Non-orthogonality

NOMA Cell CellThroughput Throughput(Mbps) [Mbps]

f,t, code

f,t, code

25 OMA with frequency scheduling NOMA with wideband scheduling

20 30% gains

15 OMA with wideband scheduling

10 0

20 40 60 80 UEspeed[km/h] UE Speed(km/h)

100 11

Other potential technologies •

New numerology and frame structure for: – – – – –



Higher frequency bands Wider frequency bandwidths Small cells Reduced latency etc.

New waveforms – UL OFDM – FBMC, FTN, etc.



Contention based UL access for: – Lower overhead and reduced latency for small packets from, e.g. M2M terminals



Flexible NW for: – – – – – – – –

NW cost reduction Coverage enhancement Mitigation of fronthaul/backhaul bottlenecks QoE improvement Moving NW/mobile relay D2D Caching at base station/mobile terminal etc.

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

12

FRA Real-time Simulator „ The potential performance gains of applying key FRA technologies are demonstrated using FRA real-time simulator. „ Demo Scenario ¾ Spectrum extension x NW densification • Efficient exploitation of higher frequency bands using small cells

¾ Key technology for small cells • Massive MIMO

• Key technology for macro cells • Non-orthogonal Multiple Access (NOMA)

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

13

FRA real-time simulator 400 MHz [email protected] GHz Æ 600 MHz [email protected] GHz Æ With Massive MIMO

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

14

11 GHz Band 10 Gbps Field Experiments Specifications of off-line experimental system Transmission scheme

8x16 MIMO-OFDM

Transmit power per antenna

25 dBm

Occupied bandwidth

400 MHz

Subcarrier spacing

195 kHz

No. of active subcarriers

pilot: 32, data: 2000

Modulation scheme

64QAM

Channel coding

turbo code, R = 3/4 (11.8 Gbps)

MIMO detection

turbo detection

Transmitter inside MS

Measurement course (Ishigaki Island, Japan) MS with 8 transmit antennas

16 BS receive antennas: 65 degrees beam, 15 dBi

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

15

Measurement Results on Field Experiments Measured average SNR

Throughput Performance

Measured delay spread

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

16

Summary • We presented our views on vision, requirements and potential key techologies for Future Radio Access (FRA): – Macro-assisted small cell, i.e., Phantom cell, and Massive MIMO are promising in the long-term future for higher/wider frequency bands – Non-orthogonal multiple access (NOMA) is a promising technology for future cellular enhancements – Other technologies, e.g. new numerology/frame structure, new waveform, contention based UL and flexible NW need to be further studied

FRA technical concept Combined usage of lower and higher frequency bands

Further cellular enhancements al n o g tho ess r o Non le acc . ip c mult MA), et (NO

Exploitation of higher frequency bands pt e c n o c l l e mc lit) o p t s n Pha U plane (C/

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

O, M I e M rame v i s Mas ology/f er tc. m e u , n N g desi 17

NTT DOCOMO, INC., Copyright 2013, All rights reserved.

18

To Beyond 4G Mobile Communication and 5G

Pang-An, Ting ICL / ITRI September 2013

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

1

Outline  Perspective requirements in 2020  Technologies in beyond 4G (B4G)  Feasible technologies for 5G  ITRI’s planning on 5G system

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

2

Outline  Perspective requirements in 2020  Technologies in beyond 4G (B4G)  Feasible technologies for 5G  ITRI’s planning on 5G system

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

3

Progress of Telecommunication Era --- My Viewpoints Generations

5G 4G 3G 4G

Regard 3G as a platform of

3G

• Gossip

+ • Globalization

• Gaming • Girls

• Radio bands • Standard

+ • Growth • Gbps everywhere • Giga number of devices

Time 2000 Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

2010

2020 4

Definition of Beyond 4G 3GPP activities

LTE-Advanced (4G)

Source: “4G: LTE/LTE-Advanced for Mobile Broadband “ by Erik Dahlman etc.

LTE

B4G

Source : MTK

Rel-12 Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

5

Perspective Requirements at 2020 Demand of mobile data traffic

Spectrum supply and usage

Annual Traffic(ExaB) Source:NSN, Cisco, (Oct 2012)

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

Source:Rysavy Research (Oct 2012)

6

Perspective Requirements at 2020

(xMbps to xGbps) (x sec to x msec)

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

7

Perspective Requirements at 2020

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

8

Three Dimensions for Capacity Improvement Spectrum Efficiency

×

Spectrum Extension/ Utilization

×

Network Efficiency/ Density

=

1000x Capacity

Dimensions

Feasible technologies

Spectrum efficiency

• Interference management and traffic adaptation (IMTA) • Multiple antennas (MIMO) / Massive MIMO / Smart antenna

Spectrum extension

• • • • •

• • Network • configuration • & optimization • • Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

New Carrier Type (NCT) Carrier aggregation (CA) TV white space Visible Light Communication (VLC) Cognitive Radio (CR) Small cell deployment (relay / backhaul) Efficient machine type communication (MTC) Direct communication (D2D) Self-organizing network (SON) Heterogeneous network (HetNet) Software-defined network (SDN) 9

Outline  Perspective requirements in 2020  Technologies in beyond 4G (B4G)  Feasible technologies for 5G  ITRI’s planning on 5G system

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

10

LTE Release 12 and Beyond

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

11

LTE Release 12 and Beyond 

Bandwidth expansion 



Signaling supporting up to 100 MHz from carrier aggregation

Densification  



2 bps/Hz

HetNet interference management Mobility management

4x2

3 bps/Hz

2.8 bps/Hz

12%*

4x4

eMIMO CoMP

8x2

He tNe t (4

DL avg. cell throughput

LP

no

7%*

des

2.3%

) eICIC CoMP

Spectral efficiency 

 

10 bps/Hz 0.06 bps/Hz

0.09 bps/Hz

0.07 bps/Hz

4x2

4x4

(4 Net Het



CoMP MIMO More successful in fairness improvement than increasing spectral efficiency Managed to bend the curves somewhat, but haven’t been able to shift the curves much

2.7%

LP n s) ode

DL cell edge user throughput

8x2

4%

eICIC

10%* eMIMO

30%* CoMP

20%

CoMP

0.07 bps/Hz * w.r.t. 4x2 SU-MIMO Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

12 12

Potential Technologies Small Cell Enhancement

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

13

Potential Technologies LTE-WiFi Integration

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

14

Outline  Perspective requirements in 2020  Technologies in beyond 4G (B4G)  Feasible technologies for 5G  ITRI’s planning on 5G system

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

15

Two paths toward 5G : Revolution + Evolution Revolution path (Radio Access)

Evolution path (Network Architecture)

Peak Rate

System Performance

LTE-B,C enhanced Local Area Access

LTE-A LTE

Mbps

UMTS WCDMA

Rel-12/13 onward Kbps

CA/eICIC/CoMP

GSM

Rel-10/11

Pico/Femto Rel-8/9

bps

AMPS

Time Time

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

LTE OFDMA

1980

1990

2000

2010

16

Two paths toward 5G : Revolution + Evolution Evolution path

Cloud RAN Multi-RAT aggregation ( License / unlicensed bands )

(Bandwidth aggregation)

Carrier Aggregation

HetNet

Massive MIMO

3D antenna

Beam Forming with mobility

(New Carrier Type)

MMWave NCT

2012

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

2013

Revolution path

2014

2015

2016

17

Potential Technologies CA of Alternative Spectra 

Current Layer 2 structure has good flexibility and extensibility to aggregate 3GPP or non-3GPP families of technologies. Not much impact on Layer 2 and upper layers  Better resource management for both LTE and non-LTE carriers 



Continue the success and bring in more spectra Radio Bearers

Radio Bearers ROHC

...

ROHC

Security

...

...

ROHC

ROHC

...

ROHC

Security

Security

...

Security

Segm. ARQ etc

Segm. ARQ etc

...

Segm. ARQ etc

...

PDCP

RLC

RLC

Segm. ARQ etc

...

...

ROHC

ROHC

...

ROHC

Security

...

Security

Segm. ARQ etc

...

Segm. ARQ etc

...

PDCP Security

...

Security

Segm. ARQ etc

...

Segm. ARQ etc

...

CCCH BCCH PCCH

CCCH BCCH PCCH

Logical Channels

Logical Channels

Unicast Scheduling / Priority Handling

Unicast Scheduling / Priority Handling Multiplexing UE1

...

Multiplexing UEn

MAC

MAC

Multiplexing UE1

...

HARQ

Multiplexing UEn

HARQ

HARQ

...

HARQ

DL-SCH

DL-SCH

Layer 2 Structure for DL Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

HARQ

...

HARQ

Transport Channels

Transport Channels BCH

PCH

DL-SCH on CC1

DL-SCH on CCx

DL-SCH on CC1

DL-SCH on CCy

BCH

PCH

Layer 2 Structure for DL with CA 18 18

CA of Alternative Spectra Candidates for Further Aggregation  

3GPP family 

LTE + HSPA, LTE FDD + TDD



Unlicensed bands Visible Light Communication (VLC) ideal for LTE CA

Non-3GPP based technologies 



Integration of WiFi happening in different levels  

  

Utilize all available means of communication in a phone

IP layer at PDN Gateway outside of core network IP layer at nodeB or other nodes inside core network

ima ge s ens o

r

Elevated TSG SA working groups activities herald changes are coming RAN plays important role in 2nd level integration CA of WiFi can be a third and tightest level of integration

BW = 76 MHz SMH (TV bands) 700 MHz

BW = 140 MHz

BW = 90 MHz

BW = 97 MHz

BW = 530 MHz

BW = 8.64 GHz

Cellular

PCS

AWS

WLAN 802.11b/g/n

WLAN 802.11a/n/ac

Wireless Gigabit

Visible Light Communication

800 MHz

1900 MHz

2100 MHz

60 GHz

700 THz

BW = 50 MHz

2.4 GHz

5 GHz

Frequency

US spectrum map Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

19 19

Potential Technologies 3D Beamforming and Massive MIMO

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

20

Potential Technologies A Vision of Network Architecture beyond 4G

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

21

Potential Technologies Ultr-Dense Network

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

22

Potential Technologies Diverse Radio Access Technology Convergence

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

23

Potential Technologies Network Intelligence

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

24

Potential Technologies Device to Device Communication

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

25

Potential Technologies Wireless Transport Network

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

26

Potential Technologies Cloud Based Management & SON

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

27

Key Enablers

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

28

Outline  Perspective requirements in 2020  Technologies in beyond 4G (B4G)

 Feasible technologies for 5G  ITRI’s planning on 5G system

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

29

5G System Architecture (1/2) Global Control Local Data Scenarios

 

Salient Features Control plane is backward compatible to 4G access technology 5G access acts as a new carrier component of 4G

5G New Carrier Type (NCT) •

mmWave radio



Live-demo at peak data rate higher than 1Gbps by end of 2014



5G fast data transmission under 4G signaling & control

Wireless backhaul with low latency Aggressive module and system designs regarding massive MIMO technologies

Coverage up to 2Km



4G/5G multi-RAT / multi-mode Coexistence



Inter-BS wireless backhaul 4G LTE Carrier 5G New Carrier VLC Carrier

4G eNB

5G eNB

W ire d

RRH

ba ck ha ul

radio

backh aul

5G eNB

VLC b ackha ul

Activ e

`

Syste m

...

d ire W

Inter-eNB resource aggregation

RRH

Ante nna

ba ha ck ul

Spatial modulation

Massive MIMO D2D VLC Cell

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

30

5G System Architecture (2/2) Phase array design for multiple antennas 

Scenarios 

mm-Wave link between BS and UE for 1Gbps data rate



Coverage up to 2Km

Salient Features High resolution phase array using modified BUTLER matrix system Laser Induced Metallization process for high integrated and high gain UE antenna Beam-forming by massive MIMO with beam acquisition & tracking

6-sector mm-Wave Base Station

mm-Wave UE module Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

31

Baseband Requirements 

Requirements for advanced 5G access platform technology High sampling and data exchange rate for large bandwidth  High computing power capability for high throughput signal processing  Support for massive MIMO and hybrid beamforming 



Requirements for advanced 5G baseband signal processing technology High throughput modulator and de-modulator and MIMO detector  High throughput channel codec  3D hybrid beamforming and UE beam tracking optimization 

In-campus Prototyping and Deployment

UE

BS



Massive MIMO



Massive MIMO



Laser Induced Metallization process for high integrated and high gain UE antenna



6-sector MMWave



Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

Scenarios

 

mm-Wave link between BS and UE



5G New Carrier Type (NCT)

BW : scalable bandwidth up to 1GHz



mmWave radio



Live-demo at peak data rate higher than 1Gbps



Coverage up to 2Km



MMWave link



Massive MIMO



Carrier freq. : 24 GHz



Inter-BS wireless backhaul

Salient Features

 

High resolution phase array using modified BUTLER matrix system



Laser Induced Metallization process for high integrated and high gain UE antenna



Beam-forming by massive MIMO with beam acquisition & tracking 33

Conclusion My viewpoint on 5G



Driving Force as Bowstring





Take GROWTH as a key word



In terms of –

Capacity per area



Devices by IoT

Evolution Path as Bow





LTE/LTE-A supports infrastructure



Horizontal/Vertical HetNet

弓 Evolution Path

箭 Revolution Path

Revolution Path as Arrow





Take NCT as a good opportunity for 5G



Higher band radio such as millimeter wave technology



Massive MIMO radio such as phase array technology

Copyright 2013 ITRI 工業技術研究院

弦 Driving Force

34

Fast Moving Backhaul

ILGYU KIM Mobile GiGa Transmission Research Section Wireless Transmission Research Department Communications Internet Research Laboratory

0

Ⅰ Introduction Increase of mobile data traffic

bandwidth killer: portable and intellingent terminal

By Device Type Terabytes per Month Nonsmartphones Smartphones

=

(=X 24)

Laptops and Netbooks Tablets Home Gateways

=

X 515

=

X 122

M2M Other Portable Devices

2011.Feb., Cisco Visual Networking Index: Global Mobile Data Traffic Forecast Update, 2010-2015

1

Ⅰ Introduction Increase of data traffic at high speed transportation Most consumers uses high speed wireless internet services at “Low” or “high” mobility environments. 90% of traffic Big Bang comes from VoD and Cloud services

Wireless Internet use

Seamless service is required for 6.9 billion (BUS), 2.2 Billion (Subway), 1 Billion (train) users in Korea

Freedom of two hands !

Low

Medium

High mobility (above 100km/h )

2

Ⅰ Introduction Property of existing cellular systems Optimized for (low speed) pedestrian user Performance Characterization

0~15 km/hr

:

Optimal

15~120 km/hr

:

High

120 ~ 350 km/hr :

Functional

Existing cellular system cannot meet user requirement at high mobility !

Wireless Internet use

Velocity Range

Low

Medium

High mobility (above 100km/h )

3

Ⅱ MHN Project Goal Same QoS is provided for high speed mobile users compared to static/low-speed moving users Provide very high data rate (Gbps level) for wireless backhaul Target spectrum efficiency is 4 bps/Hz @ 400 km/hr

Wireless Internet use

MHN : Mobile Hotspot Network

Low

Medium

High mobility (above 100km/h )

4

Ⅱ MHN Project overview Development of a next generation mobile wireless backhaul system to provide gigabit mobile service to users on a high-speed transportation By using mmWave (SHF/EHF) Mobile Hot spot Network

SHF : Super-High Frequency (3 GHz – 30 GHz)

User Equipment

Smallcell

mTE

EHF : Extremely-High Frequency (30 GHz – 300 GHz)

3G/4G Network

Public Internet

WiFi Femto 4G & MHN Service

mRU

MHN Server

mTE

mDU

mTE

MHN Transport Network

mGW

mGW

* mGW: mobile gateway, mDU: mobile node-B digital unit, mRU: mobile node-B RF unit, mTE: mobile terminal equipment

5

Ⅱ MHN High-speed train usage case (Railways) • •

SHF : Super-High Frequency (3 GHz – 30 GHz) EHF : Extremely-High Frequency (30 GHz – 300 GHz)

mTE Device on the roof of the carriage top Inside : WiFi or Femto HSS

MME

PCRF

eNB

Public Internet

SGW

eNB

PGW

Cellular

Cellular

mDU

mGW

mDU mRU

mRU

mRU

SHF/EHF

mTE WiFi/Femto

WiFi/Femto

mRU

mTE WiFi/Femto

6

Ⅱ MHN High-speed bus/car usage case (Highways) • •

mTE Device on top of the bus Inside : WiFi or Femto HSS

MME

PCRF

eNB

SGW

Public Internet

eNB

PGW

Cellular

Cellular

mDU

mGW

mDU mRU

mRU

mRU

SHF/EHF mTE WiFi/Femto

mTE WiFi/Femto

mRU mTE WiFi/Femto

7

Ⅱ MHN Challenging development items Radio transmission technology optimized for wideband mmWave spectrum Technology to overcome high Doppler effect

 Efficient AFC algorithm both on downlink and uplink Technology to overcome high path loss of mmWave

 Fixed or Adaptive beamforming  DAS-MIMO Efficient handover protocol at high speed (@400 km/hr)

 No drop time, No data loss mRU

wireless backhaul

mTE

DAS : Distributed Antenna System AFC : Automatic Frequency Control 8

Ⅱ MHN Radio transmission bandwidth

Considering both of available frequency resources and technical issue  Basic : 125 MHz  carrier aggregation

125 MHz

Frequency

9

Ⅱ MHN OFDM Symbols

Considered 400 km/h speed at 27 GHz carrier center frequency Considered delay spread for 1 km cell radius  Subcarrier spacing 180 kHz and 1/8 CP

CP

CP

CP

CP

1 slot = 40 OFDM symbols = 250 us

6.25 us 0.69 us

5.56 us

10 10

Ⅱ MHN Multiple Access OFDM based structure for both downlink and uplink 

Spectral efficiency of 4 bps/Hz can be achieved at 400 km/h speed •

Multiple mTE can share the frequency time resources 1

2

3

4

5

6

7

8

9

.

.

.

33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40

12

11 10

50 RB (108 MHz)



Fast moving mTE can be served 2 Gbps services over 500 MHz full bandwidth

9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

slot

11 11

Ⅱ MHN AFC is important 

Doppler shift impairment  UL performance degradation fo feNB-TX

UE AFC

fUE-RX

feNB-RX

fo fUE-TX

feNB-RX

2fo

eNB

12

Ⅱ MHN Candidate frequencies Frequency Usage in Korea

13

Ⅱ MHN Beamforming Coverage (Highway case)  Cell radius (distance between mRUs) : 1 Km

z(높이)

y(도로폭) x(거리)

40m

1000m

Antenna beam pattern to cover service area (Elevation/Azimuth) 14 14

Ⅱ MHN DAS-MIMO/Multi-flow Multi-flow based on DAS-MIMO structure

mGW Optical fiber mDU #0

mDU #1 X2 interface

mRU #0

mRU #1

mRU #2

mRU #3

mRU #4

mRU #5

mTE

15

Ⅱ MHN Two types of HO mGW

Intra-site Multi-flow

mDU2

Inter-site Multi-flow

mDU3

mRU1

mDU1 mRU2

X2

X2

mTE

RU9

16

Ⅱ MHN HO with multi-flow

17

III Future Plans Project outline Phase 1 - Derivation of core technologies - Development of wireless access technologies - Prototype development

 1st year : Core technology development / Simulation verification

 2nd year : FPGA level 625Mbps verification / Indoor demonstration  3rd year : FPGA level 1.25Gbps verification / Outdoor demonstration Phase 2 - Technology advancement - ASIC level 2.5 Gbps verification - Commercialization 18

Thank you

19

Technology for the Networked Society Dongjoo Park ([email protected]) September 4, 2013

The starting point - 22 years ago GSM

Linus Torvalds Tim Berners-Lee

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 2

Result and a new starting point 2 B. Internet users

8 T. Sms sent 2011 Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 3

6 B. Mobile subscriptions

35 B. Application downloads

80% Population coverage

1,4 B. Social media users

INFLECTION POINTS DRIVING OUR BUSINESS THINGS

50 billion

Digital society Sustainable world

Personal mobile Inflection points

Global connectivity

1875

1900

PEOPLE 5 billion

PLACES 1 billion 1925

Source: Ericsson Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 4

1950

1975

2000

2025

Mobile traffic, voice and data M2M traffic to be added on top

Subscriber traffic in mobile access networks Monthy Petabytes (1015)

5 000

4 000 3 000

Mobile PC & Tablets

2 000 Mobile handheld 1 000 Voice 0 2008 2009 2010 2011 2012 2013 2014 2015 2016

Source: Internal Ericsson DVB-H, Mobile WiMax, M2M and WiFi traffic not included This slide contains forward looking statements

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 5

Moving to the Networked Society

By 2020, everything that benefits from a network connection will be connected. Foundation is Mobility, Broadband and Cloud

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 6

Technologies for The Networked Society

+

+ Broadband

Mobility

Cloud

Service Awareness Network and Services Exposure Services Evolution Network Enabled Cloud Capacity, Cost & Flexibility Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 7

Evolution of LTE › Enhanced performance and extended capabilities – Higher capacity, higher end-user data rates, improved energy efficiency, …

› New use cases – Local-area deployments, machine communication, NSPS, …

Improved Higher capacity energy efficiency

Mobile Broadband

Rel-8

LTE

Rel-9

Higher data rates Local-area enhancements New applications

Rel-10

LTE-A

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 8

Rel-11

Rel-12

Rel-13

Rel-14

5G Wireless access 1990

5G

= evolution of existing standards

2000

2010

2020

GSM Wi-Fi

3G 4G

+ complementary new technologies

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 9

New wireless technolo 5G

Future Wireless access Key challenges Massive growth in

Massive growth in

Wide range of

Traffic Volume

Connected Devices

Requirements & Characteristics

“1000x and beyond”

“50 billion devices”



Data rates



Latency



Reliability



Device energy consumption



Device cost



.....

Affordable and sustainable Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 10

Future (“5G”) radio access A set of integrated radio-access technologies jointly enabling the long-term Networked Society

Multi-hop communication

Device-to-device communication and cooperative devices

Ultra-dense deployments

Ultra-reliable communication

Inter-vehicular / vehicular-to-road communication Massive machine communication

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 11

METIS: Fact Sheet › An Integrated Project under EU Framework Programme 7 › Budget: 27 M€ › Project Length: 30 months (from 2012-11-01 to 2015-04-30) › Resource: ~ 80 persons working full time

› Contact & Information: www.metis2020.com facebook.com/metis2020 twitter.com/metis2020 Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 12

METIS: Objectives Lay the foundation & Ensure a global forum & Build an early global consensus for beyond 2020 “5G”mobile & wireless communications

Exploring new paradigms, fundamentals, system concepts

Optimisation / Standardisation

Beyon d 2020 system

Implementation

Further developments on fundamentals

2012 WRC’12

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 13

2015 WRC’15

2018 WRC’18

2020

METIS Structure WP7 Dissemination, Standardization and Regulation

WP5 Spectrum

Testbed

WP1 Scenarios, Requirements & KPIs

Testbed

WP4 Multi-RAT /Multi-layer Networks Propagation

Scenarios, KPIs

WP3 Multi-node/Multiantenna Transmissions

Testbed WP2 Radio Link Concepts Testbed

WP8 Project Management

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 14

Feedback

– WP1 (DoCoMo) – WP2 (Huawei) – WP3 (AlcatelLucent) – WP4 (NSN) – WP5 (Nokia) – WP6 (Ericsson) – WP7 (Ericsson) – WP8 (Ericsson)

Solutions

WP6 System Design and Performance

› Work Packages:

Concluding remarks › 5G system will meet our long-term vision of unlimited access to information and sharing of data available anywhere and anytime to anyone and anything › Technology coordination for a combination of integrated RATs, including evolved versions of LTE and HSPA, as well as specialized RATs for specific use cases

Vision and Technology trends for 5G | 2013-09-04 | Page 15

www.huawei.com

The Unlicensed Spectrum Usage for Future IMT Technologies Efficient LTE technologies enables better performance and experience Huawei Technologies Co., Ltd

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Content WHY - Plentiful Resources but low Efficiency WHAT – LTE on unlicensed spectrum How – Key Tech. and Industry Development

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Page 2

Plentiful Unlicensed spectrum assigned – Not Ignore !!

Others: Band

Frequency Range (MHz)

ISM

24000-24250

ISM

61000-61500

Unlicensed PCS

2390-2400



Currently, the amount unlicensed spectrum assigned > the amount of licensed spectrum



In the near future, more unlicensed spectrum are planned to be allocated

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Page 3

A Popular technology on unlicensed spectrum: WiFi vs. LTE Coverage comparison

Peak rate comparison

 TD-LTE 5.9GHz 20dBm(38m)  WIFI

 TD-LTE capacity is [email protected],4X4MIMO

Low

 WiFi capacity is [email protected],4X4MIMO

5.9GHz 20dBm(28m)

Protocol design

Low

Overhead

Low Efficiency than LTE

LTE Pros. :  Higher efficient scheduling mechanism  Better QoS insurance  Uniform OAM& SON  Better Security

Simple but limited

 Mobility and service continuity

DL resource efficiency  

WiFi : 52.4% to 4.8% TD-LTE:61.2% to 38.1%

 Better power saving

 

WiFi:40.4%, 68.1% TD-LTE:30.9%, 33.3%.

Low Efficiency  Unlicensed Spectrum is not fully used & Deployment is limited HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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High

Content WHY- Plentiful Resources but low Efficiency

WHAT – LTE on unlicensed spectrum How – Key Tech. and Industry Development

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Page 5

LTE on unlicensed spectrum - High Efficiency & Capacity complement  

The natural advantages of LTE can improve the usage of unlicensed spectrum • • • •

Higher coverage Higher peak rate Lower overhead Higher Tx efficiency

As a good complement for LTE capacity, LTE on unlicensed spectrum can provide a better aggregating solution •

Capacity Complement





High Efficiency



Unlicensed secondary carriers: as capacity/offload layers Control and management based on licensed primary carrier Inherit most of the merits of LTE: manageable/security/control/etc. Make it easy to adapt LTE into fully unlicensed utilization

Here, LTE on unlicensed spectrum is named to “U-LTE” HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Page 6

Focuses on the Prioritized scenarios: Operator and Enterprise Main Application Scenarios for Unlicensed Spectrum

Resident

Public

Local

personal

Operators

Enterprise

Solutions to be applied:

WiFi self-evolution

Carrier WiFi @unlicensed

LTE-Hi

As secondary CR system

@unlicensed

As an integrated part of LTE licensed network, U-LTE is used in scenarios deployed by operators and enterprises. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Content WHY- Plentiful Resources but low Efficiency WHAT- LTE on unlicensed spectrum How – Key Tech. and Industry Development

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Page 8

U-LTE: Basic Principles What to be inherited from the LTE merits    

Basic architecture: centralized scheduler & coordination between nodes Basic system BW, multiple access techniques (OFDMA on DL, SC-FDMA on UL) Basic numerology Basic mobility, security, QoS, etc.

Fit unlicensed: Self-Protection 

Guarantee its quality of communication coexists with the other unlicensed systems, such as WiFi, Bluetooth, • multiple nodes or devices of coexist closely without planning. •

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Fit unlicensed: Fairness Guarantee the spectrum usage by the other unlicensed systems as fair as possible 

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Page 9

U-LTE: Three Use cases Type 1: Pico with co-located Licensed & unlicensed CA

Type 2: Macro with co-located or inter-site (with RRH) Licensed & unlicensed CA

Type 3: Macro with co-located Licensed & unlicensed CA

unlicensed spectrum has smaller range than licensed spectrum

unlicensed spectrum has similar range with good Beamforming

Note: The node transmission power is based on regulation requirements of Co-existence and Radiation safety HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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U-LTE: An integrated part of LTE licensed network

1. Secondary Carrier design • Option 1: DL only unlicensed carrier (FDD Pcell or TDD Pcell ) • Option 2: DL+UL unlicensed carrier (FDD Pcell or TDD Pcell

2. Co-existence

Feasibility & Efficiency

• 2.1 Inter-operator interference • 2.2 Inter-RAT system: Mainly WiFi

Better Experience • Implement the LTE valuable features (Mobility, QoS, security, …) through Pcell • Explore the wide band resources on unlicensed spectrum • It is beneficial to be compatible with the design of residential scenarios

Note: Pcell is Primary Cell

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Page 11

Key point-1: Unlicensed Secondary carriers Design 

Option 1: DL only unlicensed carrier (FDD Pcell or TDD Pcell )



Option 2: DL+UL unlicensed carrier (FDD Pcell or TDD Pcell)



If the QoS can be guaranteed, it is inclined to occupy unlicensed spectrum first. HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Key Point-2.1: Inter operator interference Each operator has the equal right to access the unlicensed spectrum but without



coordinated geographical isolation among different eNodeBs.



Principal: Sensing or coordinating before using 

It is beneficial to coordinate the occupying and releasing spectrum among different operators



Solution: Over-the air seems the only feasible way for coordination 

X2 or wired line are not available between different operators



Static agreement can not be flexible

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Key Point-2.2: Principal on Coexistence with WiFi 

Capacity Analysis : When the load become higher, the throughput of standalone WiFi decreases while the throughput of standalone



LTE still increases due to the different scheduling mechanisms. 140 121

Http download (Mbps)

97

100 80

TD-LTE DL WiFi DL

73 63

60

51

45.8

46.1

3 UEs

4 UEs

40 20

Cell edge UPT (Mbps)

113

120

0 1 UE



2 UEs

Besides the difference of scheduling mechanisms, due to HARQ, link adaptation based on receivers’ SINR, and periodic transmission of common channels in LTE, it is deduced that if LTE directly coexists with WiFi on the same unlicensed carrier, LTE will finally kick WiFi off when load is high.

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Key Point-2.2: Suggestions on Coexistence with WiFi

Friendly relations

Protocol Changes Less

LTE directly on unlicensed spectrum

No change to current standard

LTE on unlicensed spectrum with resource releasing after satisfy its own requirements

Adaptive Cell on/off; Channel Hopping; Time muting;

LTE on unlicensed spectrum with voluntary sacrifice

Sensing and conflict resolution; Resource coordination ; Flexible common channels; Fine time domain scheduling; Loose relationship between consequent transmissions, etc.

More HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Industry Development: Business + Standardization + Chaining

LTE on unlicensed spectrum (U-LTE) Build a Healthy Industry ecosystem for U-LTE

Business:  Cooperation with operators  Make an available Business Model

Standardization:  Focus on 3GPP  Scope:



HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

RAN technologies changes based on LTE • RF coexistence study Timeline: Rel-13 •

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Chaining:  Cooperation with operators, infrastructure, chipset, terminal vendors etc.  Drive a mature industry chaining for U-LTE Page 16

Summary Scenarios





Technologies

Scenarios deployed by operators and enterprises are prioritized It is beneficial to be compatible with the design of residential scenarios

Aggregating unlicensed spectrum as the secondary component carriers with the licensed carriers  Both Self-Protection and Fairness should be guaranteed  LTE can provide configurable different level of fairness  Inter operator coexistence should be handled  Explore the wide band resources on unlicensed spectrum 

Industry







Make an available business model with operators Standardization on RAN and RF technologies in 3GPP Drive a mature industry with operators, infrastructure, chipset, terminal vendors etc.

LTE on unlicensed Spectrum (U-LTE) HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

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Page 17

Thank you !

HUAWEI TECHNOLOGIES CO., LTD.

Page 18

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