Microsoft Project Tutorial ENG

August 17, 2017 | Author: cristiancristian | Category: Scheduling (Production Processes), Project Management, Databases, Software, Technology
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Microsoft Project: The Basics If you're new to project management or Microsoft Project, you may have questions about creating and managing a project. This tutorial provides information about basic project management and Microsoft Project concepts, and then leads you through lessons where you'll learn how to create a plan, track its progress, and communicate the results. Each lesson for creating your plan, tracking progress, and communicating results contains a set of step-by-step directions with simple navigation to lead you through the process. Click a lesson under The Basics or follow the link below to get acquainted with project management and Microsoft Project. To start building your project right away, click Create a plan on the menu at the left.

What is project management? Project management is the process of planning, organizing, and managing tasks and resources to accomplish a defined objective, usually within constraints on time, resources, or cost. A project plan can be simple, for example, a list of tasks and their start and finish dates written on a notepad. Or it can be complex, for example, thousands of tasks and resources and a project budget of millions of dollars. Most projects share common activities, including breaking the project into easily manageable tasks, scheduling the tasks, communicating with the team, and tracking the tasks as work progresses. And all projects consist of three major phases: 1 Build the plan 2 Track and manage the project 3 Close the project The more successful these phases are, the greater your chance of a successful project.

The project triangle If only you could foresee your project's future.... In a way you can, if you understand three factors that shape every project:  Time: The time to complete the project reflected in your project schedule.  Money: The project budget, based on the cost of the resources: the people, equipment, and materials required to do the tasks.  Scope: The goals and tasks of the project and the work required to complete them. This trio of time, money, and scope is the project triangle. Adjusting one of these elements affects the other two. While all three elements are important, typically one will have the most influence on your project. The relationship between these elements differs in every project and determines the kinds of problems you'll encounter and the solutions you can implement. Knowing where you're constrained or flexible makes it easier to plan and manage your project.

The Microsoft Project database As project manager, you have a lot to do. How does Microsoft Project help? First, it stores the details about your project in its database. And it uses that information to calculate and maintain the project's schedule, costs, and other elements, creating a project plan. The more information you provide, the more accurate the plan. Like a spreadsheet, Microsoft Project displays results of its calculations immediately. But the project plan isn't done until you enter critical information about all tasks. Only then do you see when your project will end or the dates when tasks are scheduled. Microsoft Project keeps the information you enter and the information it calculates in fields, which contain specific types of information, such as task names or durations. In Microsoft Project, each field usually appears in a column. Today, you're focused on deadlines. Tomorrow, costs. The project database contains a lot of information, but at any given time, you only need a portion of it. To get to information, use these tools:  Views present a subset of project information in a format that's easy to interpret. For example, the Gantt Chart displays basic task information in columns and a bar graph.  Tables define the columns displayed.  Filters focus on specific tasks or resources. Like TV channels, each view presents a different kind of information. Tables and filters fine-tune the information. Just as switching channels doesn't delete them, changing views, tables, or filters may hide information, but it doesn't delete it. It's still in the database and is still updated.

How Microsoft Project schedules How does Microsoft Project schedule a task's start and finish? It takes into account many factors, including task dependencies, constraints, and interruptions, such as holidays or vacation days. Most importantly, Microsoft Project schedules each task using the formula duration=work/resource effort, where:  Duration is the actual amount of time that passes before the task is done.  Work is the effort required over a period of time to do the task.  Resource effort is the amount of effort resources are assigned to the task and their allocation. For example, if:  Three painters work two days on a task, with an effort of 8 hours per day, the work for each resource is 16 hours: (2 days * 8 hours).  The total effort of the resources is 24 hours per day: (3 painters * 8 hours).  The total work for the task is 48 hours: (2 days * 8 hours * 3 painters).  The duration is 2 days: 48 hours / (3 painters * 8 hours). Understanding this formula is important to understanding how changes you make to tasks affect the project schedule.

Putting it together After you've created the task list and provided schedule information, your plan is built. You can see a full model of your project, including its finish date and the start and finish dates for every task. What's next?  Review critical paths for potential problems. A critical path is a series of linked tasks that must be done on time for the project to finish on time. If any task on a critical path is delayed, it can end up delaying the project's finish date.  



Evaluate and optimize the plan until you're satisfied. Before you start your project and periodically during the project, you'll need to evaluate and adjust the project plan. Consider scope, resources, and schedule. Update Microsoft Project about the progress of tasks. In return, it'll show you an updated project plan. You can update the plan yourself, or your team can, with Microsoft Project Central or electronic mail. After the plan is updated, review it to see the effect of changes. Is the project over budget? Is a team member now scheduled to work overtime? Is your project going to end late? Close the project. Evaluate the lessons learned and best practices.

Getting Help This tutorial will help you get started, but you'll find additional components of Help by clicking the Home button or by using the Help menu.  The Project Map. Click through the phases of a project to learn about all steps of project management, including project management concepts and practices, as well as how to use Microsoft Project.     

What's New. See What's New to learn about new features in Microsoft Project 2000. Quick Preview. Get an overview of the key parts of Microsoft Project 2000. The Office Assistant. The Office Assistant can answer your specific questions, leading you to the Help topics that best answer your questions. Reference. Click the Home button, and then click the Reference section for descriptions of all available views, tables, and filters; all fields; and project management concepts. Contents and Index. Choose Contents and Index from the Help menu to view an index of all Help topics.

Create a project plan When you have defined project goals and thought out the major phases of your project, it's time to begin creating your plan. First, enter and organize the list of tasks to be completed, along with each task's duration. Next, add people, equipment, and materials and their costs to your plan. Then assign these resources to tasks. With this information, Microsoft Project creates a schedule. You can verify the schedule and adjust it as necessary.

The lessons in this section guide you through creating your project plan.

Lesson: How do you set up a project? The first steps in creating a schedule are starting a new file, designating a project start or finish date, and entering general project information. When you've completed this lesson, you will have a Microsoft Project file containing the project name and other key information, the project's start or finish date, and the project calendar.

Create a new project When you start a new project in Microsoft Project, you can enter your project's start or finish date, but not both. It's recommended that you enter only your project's start date and let Microsoft Project calculate the finish date after you have entered and scheduled tasks. If your project must be finished by a certain date, enter only the project's finish date. Even if you initially schedule from the project finish date, it's best to schedule from the project start date after work begins on the project. 1

Click New . The New button may be temporarily hidden. It may not appear because there is not enough room to display all the buttons. Click More Buttons , and then click New .

2

In the Project Information dialog box, type or select a start date or a finish date for your project, and then click OK.

3

Click Save.

4 In the File name box, type a name for your project, and then click Save. Tip You can change your project information at any time by clicking Project Information on the Project menu.

Enter key project information Each project has a unique set of ingredients: the tasks involved, the people who do them, and the project goal. To help remember and communicate important details, enter information about the project and refer to it when necessary. 1 On the File menu, click Properties, and then click the Summary tab. 2

Enter any information you'd like about your project, such as the people who will manage it and maintain the project file, the project goal, any known limitations that may make it difficult to reach that goal, and other general project notes.

3 Click OK. Tip To look for a menu command that doesn't appear, click the arrows at the bottom of the menu. The menu expands to show more commands. You can also expand a menu by double-clicking it.

Set up the project calendar You can change the project calendar to reflect the working days and hours for everyone on your project. The calendar defaults are Monday through Friday, 8:00 A.M. to 5:00 P.M., with an hour off for lunch. You can specify nonworking times, such as weekends and evenings, as well as special days off, such as holidays. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

On the Tools menu, click Change Working Time.

3

Select a date on the calendar.  To change one day of the week for the entire calendar, for example, to have Fridays end at 4:00 P.M., click the abbreviation for that day at the top of the calendar.  To change all working days, for example, to begin working days Tuesday through Friday at 9:00 A.M., click the abbreviation (such as T for Tuesday) for the first working day of the week. Hold down SHIFT, and then click the abbreviation for the last working day of the week (such as F for Friday).

4

Click Nonworking time for days off, or Nondefault working time to change the hours worked.

5

If you clicked Nondefault working time in step 3, type the times you want work to start in the From boxes, and the times you want work to end in the To boxes.

6

Click OK.

Lesson: How do you enter and organize a task list? First, list the steps needed to accomplish your project's goals. Start with the large chunks of work and then break down each chunk into tasks with single deliverables. Add milestones. Finally, gather and enter duration estimates. After you enter task information, create an outline to help you see the project's structure. When you've completed this lesson, you will have a task list organized into summary and detailed tasks. This lesson has five procedures.

Enter tasks and their durations A typical project is a series of related tasks. A task represents an amount of work with a clear deliverable; it should be short enough to track its progress regularly. Tasks should generally be between one day and two weeks long. Enter tasks in the order they will occur. Then estimate how long it will take to complete each task, and enter your estimate as the duration. Microsoft Project uses durations to calculate the amount of work to be done on the task. Note Don't enter dates in the Start and Finish fields for each task. Microsoft Project calculates the start and finish dates based on how the tasks are related, information you'll enter in the next lesson. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

In the Task Name field, type a task name, and then press TAB. Microsoft Project enters an estimated duration of one day for the task followed by a question mark.

3

In the Duration field, type the amount of time each task will take in months, weeks, days, hours, or minutes, not counting nonworking time. You can use the following abbreviations: months = mo weeks = w days = d hours = h minutes = m Note To show an estimated duration, type a question mark after the duration.

4 Press ENTER. Tip You can also add a note about a task. In the Task Name field, select the task, and then click Task Notes . Type your information in the Notes box, and then click OK. Note The toolbar button you want may be temporarily hidden. It may not appear because there is not enough room to display all the buttons. Click More Buttons , and then click Task Notes .

Create a milestone A milestone is a task you use to identify significant events in your schedule, such as the completion of a major phase. When you enter a duration of zero days for a task, Microsoft Project displays the milestone symbol on the Gantt Chart at the start of that day. 1

In the Duration field, click the duration of the task you want to make a milestone, and then type 0d.

2 Press ENTER. Note Although a task with a duration of 0 is automatically marked as a milestone, you can make any task a milestone. To mark a task as a milestone, click the task in the Task Name field. Click Task Information , click the Advanced tab, and then select the Mark task as milestone check box. Tip To see all milestones, click Milestones in the Filter list. To see the entire project again, click All Tasks in the Filter list.

Create a recurring task Recurring tasks are tasks that repeat regularly, such as weekly meetings. A recurring task can take place daily, weekly, monthly, or yearly. You can specify the duration of each occurrence, when it will occur, and for how long or how many times it should occur. 1

In the Task Name field, click the row below where you want the recurring task to appear.

2

On the Insert menu, click Recurring Task.

3

In the Task Name box, type the task name.

4

In the Duration box, type or select the duration of a single occurrence of the task.

5 Under Recurrence pattern, click Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or Yearly. 6 To the right of Daily, Weekly, Monthly, or Yearly, specify the task frequency. 7

Under Range of recurrence, type a start date in the Start box and then select End after or End by.  If you selected End after, type the number of occurrences for the task.  If you selected End by, type the date you want the recurring task to end.

8

Click OK.

Tip To view all instances of a recurring task, click the plus sign next to the main recurring task.

Structure tasks into a logical outline Outlining helps organize your tasks into more manageable chunks. You can indent related tasks under a more general task, creating a hierarchy. The general tasks are called summary tasks; the indented tasks below the summary task are subtasks. A summary task's start and finish dates are determined by the start and finish dates of its earliest and latest subtasks. To organize your outline, use outline buttons: Indent Outdent Show Subtasks Hide Subtasks Show All Subtasks 1 On the View menu, click Gantt Chart. 2 Click the first task you want to make into a subtask. 3 4

On the Insert menu, click New Task. In the inserted row, type the name of the new summary task in the Task Name field.

5 In the Task Name field, select the tasks you want to make into subtasks. 6

Click Indent to indent these tasks.

Tip You can indent or outdent a task quickly with the mouse. Select the task, and then position the pointer over the first letter of the task name. When the pointer changes to a two-way arrow, drag right to indent the task or drag left to outdent the task.

Edit a task list As you create a task list, you will probably want to break large tasks into smaller tasks and rearrange tasks. You may want to copy, delete, or move tasks in your project. You can also easily rearrange project phases in an outlined schedule. When you move or delete a summary task, the subtasks associated are moved or deleted as well. 1

In the ID field (the leftmost field), select the task you want to copy, move, or delete.  To select a row, click the task ID number.  To select a group of adjacent rows, hold down SHIFT, and then click the first and last ID numbers of the group.  To select several nonadjacent rows, hold down CTRL, and then click the task ID numbers.

2

Copy, move, or delete the task.  To copy the task, click Copy.  To move the task, click Cut.  To delete the task, press DELETE.

3

To move the selection you cut or repeat the selection you copied, select the rows where you want to paste it. Be sure to select entire rows.

4

Click Paste . If there is information in the destination row, the new rows will be inserted above the destination row. Note The toolbar button you want may be temporarily hidden. It may not appear because there is not enough room to display all the buttons. Click More Buttons , and then click the button you want. Tip To add a new task between existing tasks, click a task ID number and then press the INSERT key. Tasks renumber automatically after you insert a new task.

Lesson: When will tasks start and finish? After you create and outline your task list, it's time to address how the tasks relate to each other and to specific dates. There are many types of task relationships, such as links that show one task starting as another finishes. These links are called task dependencies. Microsoft Project automatically determines the start and finish dates for tasks that have dependencies to other tasks.

The advantage of dependencies or "linked" tasks is that whenever a task changes, linked tasks are automatically rescheduled. You can refine task schedules using constraints, overlap or delay tasks, and split tasks when work stops temporarily. When you've completed this lesson, you will have a schedule for your project. This lesson has five procedures.

Establish relationships between tasks To establish relationships between tasks, use task dependencies. First, select the related tasks, link them, and then change the dependency type, if necessary. The task whose start or finish depends on another task is the successor. The task that the successor is dependent on is the predecessor. For example, if you link "Hang clock" to "Paint wall," then "Hang clock" is the successor and "Paint wall" is the predecessor. After the tasks are linked, changes to the predecessor's dates affect the successor's dates. Microsoft Project creates a finish-to-start task dependency by default. Because a finish-to-start dependency does not work in every situation, you can change the task link to start-to-start, finish-to-finish, or start-to-finish to model your project realistically. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

In the Task Name field, select two or more tasks to link in the order you want them linked. To select adjacent tasks, hold down SHIFT, and then click the first and last task you want to link. To select nonadjacent tasks, hold down CTRL, and then click the tasks you want to link, in order.

3

Click Link Tasks .

4

To change the task link, double-click the link line between the tasks you want to change. The Task Dependency dialog box appears. If the Bar Styles dialog box appears, you didn't click precisely on the task link and need to close this dialog box and click on the task link again.

5 In the Type box, select the task link you want, and then click OK. Note To unlink tasks, select the tasks you want to unlink in the Task Name field, and then click Unlink Tasks . The tasks are rescheduled based on existing links to other tasks, or constraints.

Overlap tasks or add lag time between them After you've sequenced tasks by linking them, you can overlap or delay them as well. In Microsoft Project, delay tasks by adding lag time to the predecessor task, and overlap tasks by entering lead time. You can also enter lead or lag time as a percentage of the task. 1

In the Task Name field, click the task you want to add lead or lag time to (it must have predecessors), and then click Task Information .

2

Click the Predecessors tab.

3

In the Lag column, type the lead time or lag time you want, as a duration or as a percentage of the predecessor task duration.  Type lead time as a negative number (for example, –2d for two days lead time) or as a percentage.  Type lag time as a positive number or as a percentage.

4

Click OK.

Tip To quickly add lead or lag time to a successor task, double-click the link line on the Gantt Chart, and then type the amount of lead or lag time in the Lag box of the Task Dependency dialog box.

Set a specific start or finish date for a task You can schedule your tasks most effectively by entering task durations, creating dependencies between tasks, and then letting Microsoft Project calculate the start and finish dates for you. However, you can set a specific start or finish date for a task if necessary. Task constraints that tie tasks to specific dates are called inflexible constraints; the most inflexible constraints are specific start or finish dates. Because Microsoft Project takes constraints into account when calculating your schedule, use these inflexible constraints only when tasks must start or finish on a specific date. 1

In the Task Name field, click the task you want to set a start or finish date for, and then click Task Information .

2

Click the Advanced tab.

3 In the Constraint type box, click a constraint type. 4 Type or select a date in the Constraint date box, and then click OK. Note If you select a start date for a task in the Start field of the Gantt Chart, or if you drag a Gantt bar to change the start date, Microsoft Project sets a Start No Earlier Than (SNET) constraint based on the new start date. If you select a finish date for a task, Microsoft Project automatically assigns a Finish No Earlier Than (FNET) constraint.

Add a deadline to a task When you set a deadline for a task, Microsoft Project displays an indicator if the task is scheduled to finish after the deadline. Setting a deadline doesn't affect how tasks are scheduled. It's just a way to have Microsoft Project inform you that a task will finish past its deadline. You then have the option of adjusting the schedule to meet that deadline. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 In the Task Name field, click the task that you want to set a deadline for. 3 Click Task Information and then click the Advanced tab. 4

Under Constrain task, type or select the deadline date in the Deadline box, and then click

OK. Tip You can drag the deadline symbol on the Gantt Chart to change the deadline date.

Split a task into segments You can split a task if work on the task is interrupted and then resumes later in the schedule. This is useful, for example, when you need to temporarily stop work on a task to work on another task. You can split a task as many times as necessary. Note that splitting a task into parts is not the same as entering a recurring task, a task that occurs at regular intervals, such as a staff meeting. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

Click Split Task .

3

On the task's Gantt bar, click the date where you want the split to occur and drag the second part of the bar to the date that you want work to begin again.

Tip You can remove the split by dragging a portion of a split task so that it touches another portion.

Lesson: How do you assign resources? You should assign resources to tasks when you want to: Track the amount of work done by people and equipment assigned to tasks or monitor materials used.  Have more flexibility in scheduling tasks.  Monitor resources with too little or too much work assigned.  Keep track of resource costs. If you don't enter resource information, Microsoft Project calculates your schedule using only task duration and dependencies. When you've completed this lesson, you will have added people, equipment, and materials to your project and assigned them to tasks. This lesson has five procedures. 

Create a resource list You can use the Resource Sheet in Microsoft Project to create a list of the people, equipment, and material resources that make up your team and carry out the project tasks. Your resource list will consist of work resources or material resources. Work resources are people or equipment; material resources are consumable materials or supplies, such as concrete, wood, or nails. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Sheet.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Entry. 3 In the Resource Name field, type a resource name. 4

To designate resource groups, in the Group field for the resource name, type the name of the group.

5

In the Type field, specify the resource type:  For a work resource (people or equipment), set the resource type to Work.  For a material resource (consumed throughout the project) set the resource type to Material.

6

For each work resource (people or equipment), type the number of resource units available for this resource in the Max. Units field, as a percentage. For example, type 300% to indicate three full-time units of a particular resource.

7

For each material resource (supplies consumed throughout the project), in the Material Label field, type a measurement unit for the material resource, such as ton.

Notes  Resource groups can be used for sorting, filtering, or grouping tasks by resources belonging to a particular group. You can use groups to indicate the department a human resource belongs to or to specify accounting codes for billing purposes.  You cannot assign resource groups to tasks. If you want to specify consolidated resources, such as "Carpenters" or "Editors" or "Engineers," enter that as the resource name, and then assign the consolidated resource name to tasks. Tip As you work in the Gantt Chart or other task views, you can enter additional resource names. To assign additional resources, click Assign Resources , and then type a resource name in the Name field. You can also click Address and select a resource from your e-mail address book.

Change the work schedule for a resource The working hours and days off defined in the project calendar are the default working hours and days off for each resource. When an individual resource works a different schedule entirely, or when you need to account for vacations or equipment downtime, you can modify an individual resource calendar. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Sheet, and then select the resource whose schedule you want to change.

2

On the Project menu, click Resource Information, and then click the Working Time tab.

3

On the calendar, select the days you want to change. To change a day of the week for the entire calendar, click the abbreviation for the day at the top of the calendar.

4

Click Use default, Nonworking time, or Nondefault working time. When you click Use default, the selected days return to the Microsoft Project Standard

calendar default, which is Monday through Friday, 8:00 A.M. to 12:00 P.M., and 1:00 P.M. to 5:00 P.M. 5

If you clicked Nondefault working time in step 4, type the times that you want work to start in the From boxes and the times that you want work to end in the To boxes.

6

Click OK.

Tip If a group of resources has the same special working hours and days off, you can create a new base calendar for them. On the Tools menu, click Change Working Time. Click New, and type a name for the new base calendar. Click Create new base calendar to begin with a default calendar. Or to base the new calendar on an existing calendar, click Make a copy of, and then click the calendar name of the existing calendar in the Calendar box. Click OK, and then modify the days and hours on the calendar. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet, and select the new base calendar in the Base Calendar field for each resource that you want to assign the calendar to.

Assign resources to tasks When you assign a resource to a task, you create an assignment. You can assign any resource to any task and change assignments at any time. You can assign more than one resource to a task and specify whether a resource works full-time or part-time on a task. If the work assigned to a resource exceeds the daily full-time allotment indicated in the resource's working times calendar, Microsoft Project displays the name of the overallocated resource in red in resource views. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

In the Task Name field, click the task to which you want to assign a resource, and then click Assign Resources .

3 In the Name field, click the resource you want to assign to the task. 4

To assign a resource part-time, type or select a percentage less than 100 in the Units column to represent the percentage of working time you want the resource to spend on the task.  To assign several different resources, hold down CTRL and click the names of the resources.  To assign more than one of the same resource (such as two carpenters), type or select a percentage greater than 100 in the Units column. If necessary, type the name of a new resource in the Name column.

5

Click Assign. A check mark to the left of the Name column indicates that the resource is assigned to the selected task.

6 Click Close. Tip You can replace one resource with another. Select the task whose resource you want to replace. In the Assign Resources dialog box, select the assigned resource and click Replace. Select one or more resources to assign, and then click OK.

Fix the duration of a task As you assign more resources to a task, Microsoft Project automatically decreases the duration of the task. For example, a task with a one-day duration and one assigned resource has 8 hours of work. With effort-driven scheduling, if you assign a second resource, the task still has 8 hours of work, but its duration is reduced to half a day. If you want to change the amount of work on the task instead, you can turn off effort-driven scheduling and assign another resource. The task will then have 16 hours of work and still have a one-day duration. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

In the Task Name field, select the tasks for which you want to turn off effort-driven scheduling.

3 Click Task Information , and then click the Advanced tab. 4 Clear the Effort driven check box, and then click OK. Now when you assign an additional resource, the task's duration will not change. Tip You can turn off effort-driven scheduling for all new tasks you create. Existing tasks will not be affected. On the Tools menu, click Options, click the Schedule tab, and then clear the New tasks are effort driven check box.

Check and edit resource assignments The Resource Usage view shows project resources with their assigned tasks grouped underneath them. Using the Resource Usage view, you can find out how many hours each resource is scheduled to work on specific tasks and see which resources are overallocated. You can also determine how much time each resource has available for additional work assignments. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Usage. To see different information about resource assignments, such as work and cost, point to Table on the View menu, and then click the table you want to see in the Resource Usage view.

2 In the Resource Name column, review the resource assignments. 3

To reassign a task from one person to another, select the entire row, position the pointer over the ID field (the leftmost column), and then drag the task to its new location. Notes  You can change the timescale to another scale, such as weeks, if that is more appropriate for your project. On the Format menu, click Timescale, and change the values in the Units boxes under Major scale and Minor scale.  Changing the view or table does not add information to or remove information from your project; it only changes the project information that is displayed.  If a resource name is red and bold, the resource is overallocated.

Lesson: How do you enter costs? Whether you need to account for each task's expenses or the overall cost of the project, entering rates for a resource's work on tasks or for fixed task costs enables you to see whether you are staying within budget.

You can choose when to accrue costs, enter per-use and overtime rates for resources, and plan for raises. When you've completed this lesson, you will have entered cost information for resources and tasks. If you don't need to keep track of costs in your project, click View the schedule at the left to go on to the next lesson. This lesson has five procedures.

Assign costs to resources Microsoft Project allows you to assign rates to human and material resources so you can manage project costs accurately. You can assign standard rates, overtime rates, or per-use rates to resources. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Sheet.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Entry. 3 In the Resource Name field, select a resource or type a new resource name. 4

In the Type field, click Work if the resource is a worker or machine, or Material if the resource is material or supplies (such as cement).

5

For a work resource, in the Std. Rate, Ovt. Rate, or Cost/Use fields, type the resource rates. For a material resource, in the Material Label field, type a measurement unit for the material resource (such as ton), and in the Std. Rate or Cost/Use fields, type a rate.

6 Press ENTER. Tip You can set the default standard and overtime rates for any new resources you enter. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the General tab. In the Default standard rate and Default overtime rate boxes, type the new rates. If you want to set this default for all future projects, click Set as Default. Note If the rate for a resource will change over the course of the project or if the resource will be paid at different rates for different assignments, or if you work with different grades of material, click Resource Sheet on the View menu. In the Resource Name field, select a resource and then click Resource Information . Then, enter the information on the Costs tab.

Set fixed task costs When you know an exact cost associated with a task, such as equipment costs, you can enter a fixed cost. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. 3 In the Fixed Cost field for the task, type the cost. 4 Press ENTER. Tip In the Cost table, you can also change when the fixed cost is accrued by selecting an accrual method in the Fixed Cost Accrual field.

Define when costs accrue In Microsoft Project, resource costs are prorated by default. Their accrual is distributed over its duration. You can, however, change the accrual method so that resource costs take effect at the start or end of the task instead. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Sheet.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Entry. 3 In the Accrue At field, click the accrual method you want to use. Notes  When you enter timephased rate changes for a resource and use the prorated cost accrual method, your costs will be calculated using the rates for the appropriate time periods and may change during the completion of the task.  You cannot prorate per-use resource costs or accrue them at the end of a task assignment. They always accrue at the start of the assignment.

See the cost of tasks or resources After you assign rates to resources or fixed costs to tasks, you may want to review the total cost of these assignments to make sure they fall within your expectations. If the total cost of a task or resource does not meet your budget, you may need to examine each individual task's costs and each resource's task assignments to see where costs can be reduced. 1

To see task costs, on the View menu, click More Views, and then click Task Sheet. To see resource costs, on the View menu, click Resource Sheet.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. Tips  You can also view how costs are distributed over a task's duration in the Task Usage view by displaying its cost details. On the View menu, click Task Usage. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Cost.



You can view resource costs in more detail by clicking Resource Usage on the View menu, pointing to Details on the Format menu, and then clicking Cost. You can also see resource cost totals displayed graphically by clicking Resource Graph on the View menu, pointing to Details on the Format menu, and then clicking Cost or Cumulative Cost.

See the cost of the entire project You can view your project's current, baseline, actual, and remaining costs to see whether you're staying within your overall budget. These costs are updated each time Microsoft Project recalculates your project. 1

On the Project menu, click Project Information.

2

Click Statistics.

3 Under Cost in the Current row, view the total planned cost of the project. Tips  

After you set a baseline and begin to track actual costs, you can compare the Baseline and Actual fields to see if total project costs are progressing as expected. As actual work progresses, you can also compare the variance between the Current and Remaining fields to see if you will have enough money to complete the project.

Lesson: How do you view the schedule and its details? After entering the basic project data, review it. Will you meet your deadlines? If not, examine the tasks leading up to milestones and make sure you have scheduled them efficiently.

First, look at the big picture: the start and finish date and the critical path. Then check the details. Display tasks and resources in views that you can change to suit your needs. When you've completed this lesson, you'll know how to see overall schedule information as well as details. This lesson has eight procedures.

See the entire project on the screen You can get an overview of your project's start and finish dates and see when major phases will occur by zooming in and out on the Gantt Chart.

1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 On the View menu, click Zoom, click Entire project, and then click OK. Tips  To see the Gantt bars on a larger or smaller timescale, click Zoom In or Zoom Out .  If you have to scroll down to see the project's finish date, and you have outlined tasks in a hierarchy, you can look at just the top-level summary tasks. Click the ID field heading (the left uppermost cell in the Gantt Chart) and then click Hide Subtasks .  To see tasks to a specific outline level, click the ID column heading (the left uppermost field in the Gantt Chart). Click Show , and then click the outline level you want.

Check the project's finish or start date You can review important project information, such as the finish date, to see if the project will meet your expectations as it is currently scheduled. 

On the Project menu, click Project Information, and then click Statistics. The project's start and finish dates are shown, as well as the project's total work and cost.

Identify the critical path The critical path is a series of tasks that must be completed on time for a project to finish on schedule. Most tasks in a typical project have some slack and can therefore be delayed a little without affecting the project's finish date. Those tasks that cannot be delayed without affecting the project finish date are the critical tasks. As you modify tasks to resolve overallocations or other problems in your schedule, be aware of the critical tasks; changes to critical tasks will affect your project finish date. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

Click GanttChartWizard .

3 Follow the GanttChartWizard instructions to format critical path tasks. Tips  You can filter your schedule so that only the critical tasks are displayed. On the Project menu, point to Filtered for, and then click Critical. Click All Tasks in the Filter list to display all the tasks again.  After filtering critical tasks, you can sort them by duration so that the critical tasks will be in order, from the longest to the shortest. Sorting the critical tasks helps you see where to put your efforts in shortening tasks.

Switch to a different view You can display project information in task views or resource views. Some task and resource views are in sheet views, containing columns (called fields) of related information. You can

change the table in a sheet view to see different fields of information. Other views show tasks or resource allocation graphically (such as the Calendar, Network Diagram, and Resource Graph views), or tasks and resources related to a timescale (such as the Task Usage and Resource Usage views). 

On the View menu, click the task or resource view you want. If the view you want to see isn't on the View menu, click More Views for more choices. Click a view in the Views list, and then click Apply. Note Changing the view neither adds information to nor removes information from your project; it only changes what is displayed.

See different fields in a view As you plan and track your schedule, it's useful to look at different combinations of information. By changing the table applied to a sheet view, you can change the fields of information displayed in that view. 1

If necessary, on the View menu, click the view you want. To use a view that is not on the View menu, click More Views, click the view you want in the Views list, and then click Apply.

2

On the View menu, point to Table, and then click the table you want to apply. To apply a table that isn't on the Table submenu, click More Tables, click the task or resource table you want, and then click Apply. Note that the field headings change as you switch between tables.

Display specific information by using a filter When you want to focus on certain tasks or resources in the current view, you can apply a filter to the view. You can specify that the filter show or highlight only those tasks or resources that meet the filter criteria. 1

On the Project menu, point to Filtered for, and then click the filter you want to apply. To apply a filter that isn't on the Filtered for submenu or to apply a highlighting filter, click More Filters.

2

Click Apply to apply the filter, or click Highlight to apply a highlighting filter.

3

If you apply an interactive filter, type the requested values, and then click OK.

4

To turn off a filter, point to Filtered for on the Project menu, and then click All Tasks or All Resources. Note You cannot apply task filters to resource views or apply resource filters to task views. Tip You can set an AutoFilter in many views to quickly find a subset of data in a field. On the Project menu, point to Filtered for, and then click AutoFilter. Click the arrow in the column that contains the information you want to display, and then click a value you want to use to filter the table. To turn off AutoFilters, point to Filtered for on the Project menu, and then click AutoFilter again.

Sort information in a view You can sort tasks or resources by criteria such as task name, finish date, and resource name. Sorting can be useful when you want to see tasks in sequence. For example, you can see which tasks should start or finish sooner. Sorting is maintained when you switch views and is saved when you close a project file. However, a custom sort cannot be saved. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 On the Project menu, point to Sort, and then click the sorting option you want. 3 To customize a sort, on the Project menu, point to Sort, and then click Sort by. 4

In the Sort by box, click the field you want to sort by, and then click Ascending or Descending to specify the sort order.

5

Specify sorting options.  To sort by an additional field, click the field in the first Then by box, and then click Ascending or Descending to specify the sort order.  To permanently renumber your tasks, select the Permanently renumber tasks check box.  To sort tasks within their outline structure so that subtasks remain with their summary tasks, select the Keep outline structure check box.  To reset the sort order back to the default sort order, click Reset. Note Clicking Reset only resets the sort options in the Sort dialog box to their default order. If your tasks were permanently reordered by using the Permanently renumber tasks check box, then clicking Reset will not reset the numbered order of the tasks.

Group information in a view In many views, you can group information for tasks or resources to compare and contrast data. For example, you may want to see all tasks that have a similar duration grouped together. 1

To group task information, on the View menu, click More Views, and then click Task Sheet. To group resource information, on the View menu, click Resource Sheet.

2

On the Project menu, point to Group by, and then click the group you want to apply. To apply a group that isn't on the Group by submenu, click More Groups. For example, for the Task Sheet, click Duration to see tasks grouped by duration. For the Resource Sheet, click Resource Group to see resources grouped by the information in the Group field.

3

To remove the grouping you applied, on the Project menu, point to Group by, and then click No Group.

Lesson: How do you adjust your schedule? If, after viewing your schedule, you find that you won't meet your project finish date, you can adjust tasks to shorten your schedule. Pay special attention to critical tasks because any changes to those tasks may affect the finish date. Can a task begin earlier? Use lead time. Is there a date that a task must absolutely start? Add a constraint. Are some resources overworked and others free? Reassign resources to shorten tasks. When you've completed this lesson, you'll have adjusted your schedule to meet the finish date. This lesson has five procedures.

Check and adjust a task dependency A task dependency describes how a task is related to the start or finish of another task. Microsoft Project provides four task dependencies you can use to connect a series of tasks in a schedule: finish-to-start (the most commonly used dependency), start-to-start, start-to-finish, and finish-tofinish. By using these dependencies effectively, you can modify the critical path and shorten your project schedule. Microsoft Project assigns a finish-to-start task dependency when you link tasks. If another relationship better models your tasks, change the dependency type. For example, when two tasks need to start at the same time, you can create a start-to-start link. When tasks need to finish at the same time, you can use a finish-to-finish link. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

Double-click the link line of the tasks you want to check. The Task Dependency dialog box appears. If the Bar Styles dialog box appears, you didn't click precisely on the task link and need to close this dialog box and double-click the task link again.

3

In the Type box, check the task dependency.

4 To change the dependency, in the Type box, click the task link you want to use. Tips  If you have tasks that can be worked on at the same time, you can shorten the critical path most by changing the task dependency. For example, if two tasks can be started at the same time, you can change the task dependency to start-to-start. If two tasks should finish at the same time, you can change the task dependency to finish-to-finish.  You can add lead or lag time to tasks to make their start or finish dates overlap each other or to delay a predecessor task. To quickly add lead or lag time to a successor task, doubleclick the link line on the Gantt Chart, and then type the amount of lead or lag time in the Lag box of the Task Dependency dialog box. Type lead time as a negative number (for example, –2d for two days of lead time) or as a percentage. Type lag time as a positive number or as a percentage.

Overlap tasks If you have tasks that can begin earlier than shown in your schedule, you can overlap (add lead time) to more accurately model how the work will be done. For example, if the electricians can begin wiring outlets before the walls are all finished, you can use time more efficiently by starting the "Wire outlets" task after half of the walls have been roughed in. To do this, you set up a lead time between the finish of the "Rough-in walls" task and the start of the "Wire outlets" task. In Microsoft Project, you type lead time as a negative number or as a negative percentage, such as –50 or –30%. 1 2

In the Task Name field, click the task you want, and then click Task Information . Click the Predecessors tab.

3 In the Lag field, type the lead time you want, as a negative number or as a percentage. Tips  You can quickly add lead time to a successor task by double-clicking the link on the Gantt Chart, and then typing the amount of lead time in the Task Dependency dialog box.  You can also delay tasks by adding lag time. For example, if you need a 2-day delay between the finish of one task and the start of another, double-click the link line on the Gantt Chart, and then type 2d in the Lag field of the Task Dependency dialog box.

Check and adjust constraints on tasks Task constraints can help you create a more accurate schedule by tying tasks to specific dates. For example, you can specify that a task must start no earlier than a particular date or finish no later than a particular date. You can change the constraint on a task from the default, As Soon As Possible, to seven other constraints or reset it to the default constraint to better reflect when the task will be done. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click More Tables. 3

In the Tables list, click Constraint Dates, and then click Apply. You may need to drag the divider bar to the right to view the Constraint Type and Constraint Date fields. The Constraint Dates table shows the task name, duration, constraint type for all constraints, and the constraint date, as applicable. If the field you want to see isn't visible, press TAB to move to it.

4

For each task with a constraint other than the default, As Soon As Possible, look at the predecessor tasks and successor tasks on the Gantt Chart to determine if you really need the constraint.

5

Change a constraint if necessary.  To change a constraint type, in the Constraint Type field, click the arrow, and then click the appropriate constraint.



To change a constraint date, type or select the date in the Constraint Date field.

Notes  If you type a start date for a task or drag a Gantt bar to change the start date, Microsoft Project sets a Start No Earlier Than (SNET) constraint based on the new start date. If you type a finish date for a task, Microsoft Project automatically assigns a Finish No Earlier Than (FNET) constraint.  If you're scheduling your project from a finish date, typing a start date for a task or dragging a Gantt bar to change the start date sets a Start No Later Than (SNLT) constraint. If you type a finish date for a task, Microsoft Project automatically assigns a Finish No Later Than (FNLT) constraint.

Make tasks shorter by adding more resources After you've assigned resources to a task, Microsoft Project recalculates the task's duration if you add or remove additional resources. For example, if you add another resource to an effort-driven task with a four-day duration and one assigned resource, the task will be shortened to two days. If you have more flexibility with your resource assignments than schedule deadlines, adding resources can be an effective way to shorten your schedule. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

In the Task Name field, click the task to which you want to assign more resources, and then click Assign Resources .

3 In the Name field, click the resource you want to assign to the task. If necessary, type the name of a new resource in the Name field. 4

Click Assign. A check mark to the left of the Name field indicates that the resource is assigned to the selected task. Note If the task duration isn't affected by adding resources, ensure the scheduling options are set to effort-driven scheduling. Click Task Information , and then click the Advanced tab. Be sure the Effort driven check box is selected and the task type is Fixed Units or Fixed Work. Tips  If you don't know which resources are available to take on more work, you can see current resource allocations by clicking Resource Usage on the View menu.  To assign a resource part-time, type a value less than 100 in the Units field to represent the percentage of working time you want the resource to spend on the task. To assign more than one of the same resource (such as two carpenters), type a percentage amount greater than 100 in the Units field.  To assign several different resources, hold down CTRL as you click nonadjacent resources or hold down SHIFT as you click adjacent resources.

Split a task into segments Splitting tasks may help adjust your schedule. You can split a task so that the task is interrupted, and then resumes later in the schedule.

Splitting tasks is useful when you need to stop work on a task temporarily to work on another task. You can split a task as many times as necessary. Splitting a task into parts is not the same as entering a recurring task scheduled to occur at regular intervals, such as a staff meeting. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

Click Split Task .

3

Move the pointer over the taskbar you want to split, and then click the taskbar where you want the split to occur. Note The toolbar button you want may be temporarily hidden. It may not appear because there is not enough room to display all the buttons. Click More Buttons , and then click Split Task . Tips  You can create a longer split by clicking and dragging the taskbar to the right.  You can remove the split by dragging a portion of a split task so that it touches another portion.

Lesson: How do you save the plan along the way? After you've entered task, resource, and cost information for your project, you can save a snapshot of your original plan, called a baseline. To save a checkpoint of actual progress on the project, you can save an interim plan and compare changes to your baseline plan. After the project is underway, you can enter actual information and compare that data to the baseline. When you've completed this lesson, you'll have a baseline of your project for future reference. This lesson has two procedures.

Save a baseline plan When you've entered all of your project information and you're ready to start actual work, you can save a baseline of your project's information to compare with the actual progress of your project. Using a baseline, you can track the progress of your schedule so you can make the necessary corrections. For example, you can see which tasks started later than planned, how much work resources performed, and whether your budget's on track. 1 On the Tools menu, point to Tracking, and then click Save Baseline. 2 Click Entire project to save a project baseline. Click Selected tasks to add new tasks to an existing baseline.

3 Click OK. Tip To create a budget, first assign resources and enter rate information or any fixed costs, and then save a baseline. The cost information in the baseline plan can serve as a budget. You cannot save this information in an interim plan. Note If you haven't yet entered all your basic project information when you first save your file, you can choose to save it without a baseline.

Save an interim plan After you save a baseline of your project's information, you can save up to 10 interim plans as checkpoints during the project. 1 On the Tools menu, point to Tracking, and then click Save Baseline. 2

Click Save interim plan.

3 In the Copy box, click the name of the current interim plan. 4 In the Into box, click a name for the next interim plan, or specify a new name. 5 Click Entire project to save an interim plan for the whole project. Click Selected tasks to save a portion of the schedule. 6 Click OK. Note An interim plan saves the tasks' start and finish dates into Start and Finish fields. You can display these interim plan dates by adding the Start and Finish fields to a table.

Track and manage progress When you manage a project, you need to monitor the elements of the project triangle: time, money, and scope. Adjusting one of these elements affects the other two. Events such as unexpected delays, cost overruns, and resource changes can cause problems in your schedule. If you keep your project information up to date, you can always see the latest status of the project. That way, you can identify problems early that might affect your project's success and use Microsoft Project to find solutions. The lessons in this section will show you how to track and manage work on your project.

Lesson: How do you track the actual progress on tasks? Once you've set up your project and work has begun, you can keep track of actual start and finish dates, tasks' percentage of completion, and actual work. Tracking actuals shows you how changes affect other tasks and, ultimately, the project's finish date.

When you've completed this lesson, you'll know how to enter actual task information and see its effects on the schedule. This lesson has seven procedures.

Check if tasks are progressing according to plan To keep your project on schedule, make sure that tasks start and finish on schedule. The Tracking Gantt view helps find trouble spots, tasks that vary from the baseline plan. You can then adjust task dependencies, reassign resources, or delete some tasks to meet your deadlines. The Tracking Gantt view pairs the current schedule with the original schedule for each task. When you've saved the project with a baseline, but before you've entered actual data on progress, the Tracking Gantt view shows tasks with the baseline bars and the scheduled or actual bars synchronized. As you enter actuals, the top bar may move to show a departure from plan. For example, if the start date of "Inventory artifacts" moves by two days and is over half complete at 55%, the red scheduled bar extends two days beyond the lower baseline bar. 1 2

On the View menu, click Tracking Gantt. To view the variance fields, on the View menu, point to Table, and then click Variance.

3 If necessary, press TAB to see the variance fields. 4 On the View menu, point to Toolbars, and then click Tracking. 5

Update the progress of the tasks in your project.  If the task has started as scheduled, click the task, and then click Update as Scheduled .  If the task is not progressing as scheduled, in the next lessons you'll learn how to enter actual start and finish dates, enter the actual duration of the task, or update a task's progress as a percentage. Note You must have saved a baseline in order to have variance information.

Enter actual start and finish dates for a task Tasks that start or finish late can throw an entire project off schedule by delaying the start or finish dates of related tasks. Tasks that start or finish early can free resources to work on other tasks that are behind schedule. Microsoft Project uses the actual values you enter to reschedule the remaining portions of your project. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

On the View menu, point to Toolbars, and then click Tracking if it is not already selected.

3

In the Task Name field, select the tasks you want to update. To select nonadjacent tasks, hold down CTRL, and then click the tasks. To select adjacent tasks, hold down SHIFT, and then click the first and last task to update.

4

Click Update Tasks .

5

Under Actual, type or select a date in the Start or Finish box. If you enter a finish date, make sure that the task is 100% complete; Microsoft Project will assume the date is correct and reschedule tasks accordingly.

6 Click OK. Note Entering an actual start date or actual finish date for a task changes the corresponding scheduled date for that task. Baseline dates, however, are not affected.

Enter the actual duration of a task If you know the number of days a task has been in progress and if it is progressing as planned, you can track progress by entering the duration that the resource has been working on the task. When you enter the actual duration of a task, Microsoft Project updates the actual start date, the task's percentage of completion, and the duration of the task remaining in the schedule. 1 2

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart. In the Task Name field, click the task for which you want to enter the actual duration.

3 On the Tools menu, point to Tracking, and then click Update Tasks. 4 In the Actual dur box, type the actual duration of the task. 5 Click OK. Tip If you think the task is going to be finished sooner or later than originally scheduled, you can enter a new value in the Remaining dur box. Note If you enter an actual duration longer than or equal to the scheduled duration, the task becomes 100% complete, and the scheduled duration then equals the actual duration.

Update a task's progress as a percentage You can indicate how much progress has been made on a task by entering the percentage of the task duration that is complete. For relatively short tasks, it may not be worthwhile to track progress in such detail; but for long tasks, indicating the percentage of completion for the task helps you track actual progress against the baseline plan. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart

2 In the Task Name field, click the task for which you want to update progress. 3 Click Task Information , and then click the General tab.

4 In the Percent complete box, type a whole number between 0 and 100. 5 Click OK. Notes  Microsoft Project calculates the summary task's percentage of completion based on the progress of its subtasks. You can also manually enter the summary task's percentage of completion, which Microsoft Project will use to calculate the percentage of completion for its subtasks.  By default, Microsoft Project indicates the task's percentage of completion as a thin, black line drawn horizontally through the middle of each Gantt bar on the Gantt Chart.  When you mark a task as 100% complete, Microsoft Project displays a check mark in the Indicators field. Tip You can use the buttons on the Tracking toolbar to update progress on a task and to perform other tracking activities. To view the Tracking toolbar, point to Toolbars on the View menu, and then click Tracking.

Update actual work by time period You can track actual work using the timephased fields in Microsoft Project. Tracking using the timephased fields helps you keep your project up to date periodically because you can enter information for a particular day in your schedule. 1

On the View menu, click Task Usage.

2 On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Actual Work. 3

In the timephased portion of the view, in the Actual Work field, type the actual work of each assigned resource. Tips  If it makes no difference which of the resources assigned to a task performs the work, in the Actual Work field for the task, type a value for the combined work done on the task by all the resources. Microsoft Project divides the actual and remaining work among the resources based on when they are scheduled on the task and the remaining work for each assignment.  You can also type actual work for a week at a time. On the View menu, click Zoom, and click 1 month to display the timescale in weekly increments. Then, type actual work for the week in the Actual Work field.

See if tasks have more or less work than planned If you're managing resource assignments in your project, you need to make sure resources complete tasks in the time scheduled. If you've saved a baseline for your project, you can check the variance information. Variances in your schedule can be good as well as bad, depending on the type and severity of the variance. A task with less work than planned, for example, is usually good news but may indicate that your resources are not allocated efficiently.

1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work. If necessary, press TAB to view the Actual field. 3

Compare the values in the Work, Baseline, and Actual fields. The values in the Variance field show the difference between the work scheduled and the originally planned amount of work saved in the baseline.

Compare actual task information to the baseline When you save a baseline plan and then update your schedule, you can compare the baseline plan to your actual progress to identify variances. Variances alert you to the areas of the project that are not going as planned. To keep your project on schedule, make sure that tasks start and finish on time as much as possible. Every project has variances, but it is important to find tasks that vary from the baseline plan as soon as possible so you can adjust task dependencies, reassign resources, or delete some tasks to meet your deadlines. 1

On the View menu, click Tracking Gantt. The Tracking Gantt view shows task variances graphically, making it easier to see variances in your schedule.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Variance. If necessary, press TAB to view the variance fields. Note You must update tasks' actual start and finish dates, actual work values, or actual durations before variances will appear. Microsoft Project calculates the other task information based on the information you enter.

Lesson: How do you track the actual work by resource? You may need to track how much work each resource on your project completes task by task or cumulatively for the project. Then you can compare the planned and actual amounts of work. This comparison can help you keep track of your resources' performance and plan workloads for future projects. When you've completed this lesson, you'll know how to enter actual work done by a resource and see the variance between a resource's planned and actual work. This lesson has three procedures.

Enter the total actual work done by a resource If you schedule tasks based on the availability of resources, track the progress of your tasks by updating the work completed on a task. Using this approach, you can track the work that each resource is performing. When you update the actual work a resource has done on a task, Microsoft Project automatically calculates the work remaining by subtracting the actual work done by the resource from the total work the resource is scheduled to do. 1

On the View menu, click Task Usage.

2

On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work. In the Task Name field, both task and resource names are listed. If necessary, press TAB to view the Actual field.

3

In the Actual field for each resource, type the updated work value and the duration abbreviation for the actual work of each assigned resource. Tip If it makes no difference which resource assigned to a task performs the work, then type a value for the combined work done on the task by all the resources in the Actual field for the task. Microsoft Project divides the actual and remaining work among the resources based on when they are scheduled on the task and the remaining work for each assignment.

Update a resource's actual work by time period You can track actual work for individual resources using the timephased fields in Microsoft Project. Tracking resources' actual work by using the timephased fields can help you keep your project up to date by time period because you can enter information for a particular day (or other time period) in your schedule. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Usage.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work. 3 On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Actual Work. 4 In the Act. Work field for the resource, type the actual work value.

See the variance between a resource's planned and actual work If you schedule tasks based on the availability of resources and you track actual work, you can analyze how much total work a resource is accomplishing by looking at the variance between the baseline work and actual work. You can also compare those figures to the baseline work and actual work over time to see how the resource's work is progressing in greater detail.

1

On the View menu, click Resource Usage.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Work. If necessary, press TAB to view the Baseline and Actual fields. 3 Compare the values in the Baseline and Actual fields for each resource. 4

Make sure the Work and Act. Work fields are displayed in the the timescaled portion of the view. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Work if it's not already selected. On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Actual Work, if it's not already selected, to display it as well.

5

In the timescale portion of the view, compare the Work and Act. Work fields for a daily summary of each resource's work.

Lesson: How do you compare actual costs to budget? You may want to track cost overruns in a phase of your project or learn how much a particular resource costs you on a certain day. Or you may simply need to see how much total cost has accrued. Tracking costs for your project can help you see where changes need to be made to finish your project on time and within budget and can help in planning budgets for future projects. When you've completed this lesson, you'll know how to enter and view actual costs. This lesson has five procedures.

Enter actual task costs manually Microsoft Project automatically updates actual costs as a task progresses based on the task's accrual method and the rates of the resources. But if you want to track actual costs separately from the actual work on a task, you can enter costs manually instead. To update costs manually you must first turn off the automatic updating of actual costs and then enter your own actual cost for an assignment after the remaining work is zero. 1 On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Calculation tab. 2 Clear the Actual costs are always calculated by Microsoft Project check box. 3

Click OK.

4

On the View menu, click Task Usage.

5 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Tracking. 6 If necessary, press TAB to view the Act. Cost field.

7 In the Act. Cost field, type the actual cost for the assignment whose costs you are updating. Tips  You can set the fixed cost for a task to accrue at the beginning or the completion of a task or to be prorated for the length of the task. Click Gantt Chart on the View menu. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. In the Fixed Cost Accrual field, type or select the accrual method you want.  In addition to a standard rate, sometimes assignment costs include a fixed amount charged for a resource each time the resource is assigned to a task, such as equipment costs, setup charges, delivery, or rental fees. You can enter this per-use cost by clicking Resource Sheet on the View menu, and then typing a new cost in the Cost/Use field for the resource whose per-use cost you want to change.

Update actual costs by time period You can track actual costs using the timephased fields in Microsoft Project. Tracking actual costs using the timephased fields can help you keep your project up to date by time period because you can enter information for a particular day or other time period in your schedule. 1

Microsoft Project automatically updates actual costs as a task progresses based on the accrual method you set. You must first turn off the automatic updating of actual costs to edit actual costs. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the Calculation tab.

2 Clear the Actual costs are always calculated by Microsoft Project check box. 3

Click OK.

4

On the View menu, click Task Usage.

5 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. 6 On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Cost. 7 On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Actual Cost. 8

To enter actual cost values for a task, select a day or other time period in the timescale portion of the view, and then type a value into the Act. cost field for the task. To enter actual values for a resource, select a day or other time period in the timescale portion of the view, and then type a value into the Act. cost field for the resource. Tip You can enter actuals in other time increments, such as weeks. On the View menu, click Zoom, and click the increment you want.

See if tasks cost more or less than budgeted If you assign fixed costs to tasks or specify wages for resources, you may want to see tasks that cost more than budgeted. By creating a budget using a baseline plan and closely tracking your project costs, you can catch cost overruns early and adjust either your schedule or your budget accordingly.

Microsoft Project calculates the cost of each resource's work, the total cost for each task and resource, and the total project cost. These costs are considered scheduled or projected costs, which reflect the latest cost picture as the project progresses. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. If necessary, press TAB to view the Total Cost and Baseline fields. 3 Compare the values in the Total Cost and Baseline fields. For the cost variance, look at the value in the Variance field. Tips  To see the total cost, baseline, and variance information for the entire project, you can display the project summary task. On the Tools menu, click Options, and then click the View tab. Under Outline options, select the Project summary task check box, and then click OK.  You can view the resources assigned to a task and the resource costs related to that task. On the View menu, click Task Usage. On the View menu, point to Table, and then click Cost. Drag the divider bar to the right and compare the values in the Total Cost, Baseline, Actual, and Remaining fields for the resources assigned to that task.

See the total project costs You can view your project's current, baseline, actual, and remaining costs to see whether you're staying within your budget. These costs are updated each time Microsoft Project recalculates your project. 1 2

On the Project menu, click Project Information. Click Statistics. The current, baseline, actual, and remaining costs are displayed in the Costs column.

Analyze costs with the Earned Value table When you want to compare your expected progress with the actual progress to date, you can use the Earned Value table. It compares, in terms of costs, each task's baseline schedule with the actual schedule. You can also use the Earned Value table to forecast whether the task will finish under or over budget based on the cost incurred while the task is in progress. For example, if a task is 50% complete and the actual cost incurred to date is $200, you can see if $200 is more than, less than, or equal to 50% of the baseline (or budgeted) cost. The VAC field displays the variance at completion between baseline cost and scheduled cost for a task. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2 On the View menu, point to Table, and then click More Tables. 3 In the Tables list, click Earned Value, and then click Apply.

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Drag the divider bar to the right to display all of the Earned Value table fields. The values are calculated based on the actual work and costs up through and including the current date. To change the calculation date, on the Project menu, click Project Information. In the Status date box, type the date you want to use, and then click OK. Tips  Move the mouse pointer over a field name to get a description of the field; for example, position the pointer over the VAC field and click Help on VAC for a description of the field.  In the Task Usage view, you can view earned value data over time periods such as daily, weekly, monthly, quarterly, or yearly. On the Format menu, click Detail Styles, and then click the Usage Details tab. In the Available fields list, hold down CTRL, click the earned value fields you want to display (such as ACWP, BCWP, CV, or SV), and then click Show. Double-click the timescale to change the time periods that you see.  To see cost variances for the entire project, you can display the project summary task. On the Tools menu, click Options. Click the View tab and under Outline options, select the Project summary task check box.

Lesson: How do you balance a resource's workload? You should check your schedule for resources with too much or too little work. If some resources are overallocated, see if adding more resources to a task or reassigning a task will give you the results you want. If this doesn't work, you can delay tasks assigned to an overworked resource until later in the schedule or reduce the amount of work for tasks. When you've completed this lesson, you'll know how to manage workloads. This lesson has five procedures.

Find overallocated resources and their task assignments People and equipment are overallocated when they are assigned more work than they can complete in their scheduled working hours. Before you can resolve overallocations, you must determine which resources are overallocated, when they are overallocated, and what tasks they are assigned to at those times. To resolve the problem, the people and equipment must be allocated differently or the task must be rescheduled to a time when the resource is available. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Usage. The Resource Usage view shows the total hours the resource is working, the total hours the resource is working on each task, and the hours worked per time period on the timescale.  Resources with no tasks yet assigned do not have tasks listed under their names.  Tasks with no resources assigned are listed under Unassigned in the Resource Name field.

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On the Project menu, point to Filtered for and then click Overallocated Resources. Any work resources that are overallocated are displayed and highlighted. Tips  If you see number signs (##) in the timescale portion of the Resource Usage view, the columns in the timescale are not wide enough to display the information. To change the width of the columns, click Timescale on the Format menu, and then increase the value in the Size box.  You can see how much of a resource's work is allocated to particular tasks and per time period. On the Format menu, click Detail Styles. Click the Usage Details tab and in the Available fields list, click Percent Allocation, and then click Show.

Reduce a resource's work After you've assigned a resource to a task, you can change the total work values for the resource's work on the task or change work values for a specific time period when the resource works on the task. Tailoring work values this way can make your schedule more accurate at a finer level of detail. 1 On the View menu, click Task Usage. Resources are grouped under the tasks they are assigned to. 2

In the table (left) portion of the view, enter a new value in the Work field to change the total work value for an assignment. Tip You can also use the Resource Usage view to see and edit work values for tasks grouped under the resources are assigned to them. On the View menu, click Resource Usage. Note You can also change the individual work values (or hours) for the assigned resources on the timescale portion of the view.

Reassign work to another resource If you have tried to resolve a resource overallocation using other methods and the overallocation persists, it may be time to reassign the task to another resource with more time. This is an alternate method of manually leveling your schedule by reassigning work rather than delaying work. 1

On the View menu, click Resource Usage.

2 On the Format menu, point to Details, and then click Overallocation. 3

Look at the timescale on the right and, for each highlighted overallocation, examine the availability of other resources on that day.

4 Click the ID field to select the entire row of the task you need to reassign. 5 Drag the task to the resource that you want to reassign it to.

Delay a task A simple way to resolve a resource overallocation is to delay a task assigned to the resource until the resource has time to work on it. You can add delay to a task, check the effect on the resource's allocation, and then adjust the delay further if necessary. Delaying a task also delays the start dates of its successors and can affect the finish date of your schedule. To avoid this, delay tasks with free slack first (noncritical tasks) and only delay them up to the amount of slack that is available for each task. Experiment with adding delay to different tasks to see the effect on your schedule. 1

On the View menu, click More Views.

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In the Views list, click Resource Allocation, and then click Apply.  In the timephased portion on the top right, overallocation for a resource is displayed in red.  In the bar chart below, slack for tasks to which the resource is assigned appears graphically as a thin slack bar adjoining the regular Gantt bar.

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In the Resource Name field in the top left portion of the view, click the resource name for the overallocated resource with a task you want to delay.

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In the Leveling Delay field (bottom left portion of the view) for the task you want to delay, type the amount of time that you want the task to be delayed. To ensure that successor tasks are not affected, do not enter more lag than the amount of free slack for that task.

5 To return to a single view, on the Window menu, click Remove Split.

Change a resource's working days and hours The project calendar designates the default work schedule for the project, but you can create a resource calendar to indicate work hours, vacations, leaves of absence, and sick time for individual resources. 1

On the Tools menu, click Change Working Time.

2 In the For box, click the resource whose calendar you want to change. 3

On the calendar, select the days you want to change. To change a day of the week for the entire calendar, select the day at the top of the calendar.

4 Click Use default, Nonworking time, or Nondefault working time. 5

If you clicked Nondefault working time in step 4, type the times you want work to start in the From boxes and the times you want work to end in the To boxes.

6 Click OK. Tip If a group of resources will have the same special working hours and days off, you can create a new base calendar for them. Click New in the Change Working Time dialog box, and type a name for the new base calendar. Click Create new base calendar to begin with a default calendar.

Or, to base it on an existing calendar, click Make a copy of, and then click the calendar name in the Calendar box. Click OK, and then modify the days and hours on the calendar. On the View menu, click Resource Sheet, and select the new base calendar in the Base Calendar field for each resource you want to assign it to.

Communicating results To manage a project effectively, you need to communicate and distribute project information. You might prepare reports or presentations; publish information on a Web site; or use Microsoft Project Central to communicate with your workgroup on the Web. With Microsoft Project, you can format and publish views and print reports to meet the needs of a particular person or group. You can publish the information in Web format (HTML) or include it in a presentation using a program such as Microsoft PowerPoint. The lessons in this section show how to communicate and distribute results on your project.

Lesson: How do you format the schedule to look the way you want? When you have a large task list, it can be difficult to focus on areas that concern you. To emphasize what you need to see, you can customize the format of the task list and the Gantt bars. You can format categories of information, such as all tasks that must end by a certain date. You can also make some tasks bold or use a different font for them. This lesson has four procedures.

Use the GanttChartWizard for easy formatting The GanttChartWizard is a series of interactive dialog boxes containing options that you select to format the Gantt Chart, such as highlighting the critical path. When you finish selecting the options you want, the GanttChartWizard formats your Gantt Chart for you. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

Click GanttChartWizard .

3 Follow the GanttChartWizard instructions. Tip To undo the formatting you chose with the GanttChartWizard, click GanttChartWizard and reapply the default options by clicking Next for each step to return the Gantt Chart to its default settings.

Format a category of Gantt bars To call attention to all tasks of a certain category, you can change the format of the Gantt bars that represent that category on the Gantt Chart. A category can, for example, include specific task types such as milestones or critical tasks or tasks that have finished.

Instead of selecting Gantt bars manually and applying formatting to them, you can create or modify a bar style. Any change you make to the style will affect all bars in the category. 1

On the View menu, click Gantt Chart.

2

On the Format menu, click Bar Styles.

3 To modify an existing style, in the Name field, click the name of the bar style. 4 Click the Bars tab in the bottom portion of the Bar Styles dialog box. 5

To create a new style, click in the Show For ... Tasks column, and then click the arrow next to the selection to select a new category (such as Critical or Finished).

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If you are creating a new style, type its name in the Name field, and then click the Bars tab.

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Under Start, Middle, and End, select shapes, patterns or types, and colors for the bar.

8 Click OK. Tip To change the formatting of an individual Gantt bar, select the task, and then click Bar on the Format menu. Click the Bar Shape tab, and format the Gantt bar.

Format a category of tasks in your task list To distinguish a category of tasks, such as critical tasks, from other tasks in your project, you can change the text formatting for all tasks in that category by modifying the text style. You can also change the look of row and column headings, the timescale, and Gantt bar text. You can change text styles in any view except the Network Diagram and form views. (In some views, however, not all formatting options are available.) Changes you make apply only to the current view. If certain information in your view requires urgent attention, such as the completion date of a slipped task, you can call attention to that information by formatting it individually. 1 On the View menu, click a sheet view such as the Gantt Chart. 2

On the Format menu, click Text Styles.

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In the Item to Change box, click the type of information you want to change, and then select formatting options for that information.

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To change the formatting of another type of information without closing the dialog box, click a new type in the Item to Change box, and then select formatting options for that information.

5 Click OK. Tips  To change the format of an individual task, select the task, click Font on the Format menu, and then select formatting options for that text.



To quickly copy the text formatting of one task to another, select the task with formatting you want to copy, click Format Painter , and then select the task to which you want to apply that formatting.

Format text If certain information in your view requires urgent attention, such as the completion date of a slipped task, you can call attention to that information by formatting it individually. In most views, you can change the font, font style, color, and size of the text. 

To change the font, font style, color, and text size, select the text you want to change, click Font on the Format menu, and then select the formatting you want to apply.  You can quickly apply character formatting such as bold, italic, or underlining by using the Formatting toolbar. Select the text you want to format, and then click Bold , Italic , or Underline .  To change text alignment, click Align Left , Align Center , or Align Right . Note This type of formatting won't change if you change the data later. You'll need to individually change the formatting you added.

Lesson: How do you print project information? After you've entered the basic information about your project, you may want to print it and review the plan. To make it easy to identify your project, you can add headers, footers, and page numbers. If you want to review certain areas of the plan, you can change to another view, customize the view to show only the information you need, and print it. When you've completed this lesson, you'll know how to print the information you want. This lesson has four procedures.

Add a title, page number, or other project information You can add project information to the header, footer, or legend of a view. The project information can be data you entered (such as your company's name or manager's name) or data provided by Microsoft Project (such as the page number or project finish date). You can choose the project information that adds the most impact to your printed view. 1

On the File menu, click Page Setup.

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Click the Header, Footer, or Legend tab.

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Click the Left, Center, or Right tab.

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In the text box, place the insertion point where you want to add the project information.

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In the General and Project fields boxes, click each type of information you want, and then click Add.

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Microsoft Project will use the information you typed into the Project Information and Properties dialog boxes to fill in each type of information. Note To format project information, you need to select the ampersand (&) that precedes it, or select the entire line, and then click Format Text Font . Select the font, font style, size, and color you want; select the Underline check box if you want; and then click OK.

Preview the printed schedule Before printing a view, it is useful to see what the information will actually look like when printed. You can adjust the page orientation and size, edit headers, footers, and legends, and set print options. 

To see what a project view will look like when printed, click Print Preview

Print the view that appears on the screen Most often, a printed view includes only the information that's displayed on your screen when you use the Print command. When you want to print what you see on your screen, print a view. You can print sheet views, graph views, and most chart views, that is, any view except form views and the Relationship Diagram view.  Tips 

To print a view using the default settings, click Print .

To change options, such as printing notes or a specific number of columns, click Page Setup on the File menu, click the View tab, and then select the options you want.  If you preview a view and then decide to change the appearance of the view pages, click Page Setup in the Print Preview window, and then make the changes you want. To return to the Print Preview window, click Print Preview in the Page Setup dialog box. Note To change the default print settings, click Print on the File menu, and then specify the printer and printer properties, the print range, the number of copies, and the date range. To see the results of your changes immediately, click Preview in the Print dialog box.

Print a standard report A report is a predefined set of detailed information about a specific part of your plan. Microsoft Project provides more than 20 predefined reports; for example, the Who Does What report automatically includes each resource's task assignments, as well as the work, delay, and start and finish dates for each assignment. 1

On the View menu, click Reports.

2 Click the report type you want, and then click Select. 3 Click the specific report you want to print, and then click Select. 4 Click Print. Tips  You can change the appearance of your report pages and see the results before you print. Click Page Setup in the Print Preview window, make the changes you want, and then click Print Preview to return to the Print Preview window. You can switch between Print Preview and Page Setup as many times as necessary before printing your report.  You can print any report without using Print Preview. On the View menu, click Reports, click Custom, and then click Select. In the Reports list, click the report you want to print, and then click Print. Make any necessary changes to the print options, and then click OK.

Lesson: How do you distribute project information online? Microsoft Project puts the communication potential of the World Wide Web at your fingertips with a variety of Internet and intranet features. With Microsoft Project, you can take advantage of the power of the Web by:  Communicating project plans and collecting project information from team members.

Set up a workgroup system A workgroup system allows you to electronically link team members in tightly knit workgroups, making it easier for team members to exchange information about your project. In Microsoft Project there are two ways to set up workgroup systems: using the Web with Microsoft Project Central, or using e-mail to communicate basic task information and update tasks. Using the Web: Microsoft Project Central is a Microsoft Project companion product that enables in-depth collaborative planning among workgroup members, project managers, and other stakeholders. Microsoft Project Central offers additional benefits and much more flexibility than an e-mail based workgroup system:  Workgroup members can view tasks for all of their projects at once. Workgroup members can see their tasks in a Gantt Chart and can group, sort, and filter their tasks.  Workgroup members can view the latest information for the entire project, and not just their assigned tasks.  Workgroup members can create new tasks and send them for incorporation into the project file, as well as delegate tasks to other workgroup members.  Project managers can request, receive, and consolidate status reports.  Project managers can establish message rules to automatically accept updates from workgroup members.

Anyone working with Microsoft Project Central needs a Microsoft Project Central license; however only the project manager/administrator is required to have a Microsoft Project 2000 license when maintaining a Microsoft Project Central database. All users must use duly licensed copies of either Microsoft Project 2000 or Microsoft Project Central. Using e-mail: Once connected electronically and linked, a workgroup can use special e-mail to:  Assign tasks.  Accept or decline task assignments.  Request and submit status reports.  Send and receive task updates. While the requirements vary, to communicate on an e-mail system the project manager and all workgroup members must:  Be connected to a network.  Use a MAPI-compliant, 32-bit e-mail system.  Install WGsetup.exe on their computers. For more information on using Microsoft Project Central or e-mail for your workgroup, see All about Microsoft Project Central, or All about workgroup messaging.

Publish information in Web format You can include information from a Microsoft Project schedule in an HTML document for the World Wide Web. Microsoft Project uses import/export maps to determine which fields are exported to HTML format and may use a template to determine how and where the information is displayed in the HTML file. You can create or edit both the HTML import/export maps and the HTML templates. 1

On the File menu, click Save As Web Page.

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If necessary, type a name for the exported file in the File name box, and then click Save.

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In the Import/export map list, click the name of the map you want to use for exporting your data, such as Export to HTML using standard template. Note You can define a new map or edit an existing map by clicking New Map.

4 Click Save. Note You can edit the sample templates that Microsoft Project provides for creating formatted HTML files from exported data or you can create your own templates. For more information on using sample HTML templates, see HTML export templates and tags.

Publish information as a graphic You can copy information as a static picture from the active Microsoft Project view and paste it into any program capable of displaying graphical information as images. You can also save the picture in a Web-compatible file format for use on the Web. In many views, you can copy a picture of the entire view or select and copy a portion of the view. 1

Select the rows in your project you want to copy or display the area you want to copy on your screen.

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On the Edit menu, click Copy Picture.

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Under Render image, specify how you want the image rendered:  To copy the information for display on a screen, such as for a Microsoft PowerPoint slide, click For screen.  To copy the information as it would be printed, click For printer.  To copy the information as a GIF image file, for use in a Web page or in other programs, click To GIF image file, and then specify the path and file name you want to copy the image to.

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Under Copy, click Rows on screen to copy all visible portions of your plan, or click Selected rows to copy only the row you have selected.

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To copy information for a range of dates other than those currently displayed in the timescale, under Timescale, enter a starting and ending date in the From and To boxes.

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Click OK.

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Switch to the program where you want to paste the Microsoft Project information, and then paste the picture using the program's Paste command.

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