Microbiology Mnemonics

August 10, 2017 | Author: Annapurna Dangeti | Category: Streptococcus, Pneumonia, Bacteria, Clinical Medicine, Clinical Pathology
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Microbiology Mnemonics

Meningitis: most common organisms NHS: Neisseria meningitidis Hemophilus Influenzae Streptococcus pneumonia ·The cause of the most Severe meningitis is Streptococcus. · Note: NHS is an acronym for National Health Service in several countries.

Syphilis vs. H. ducreyi (chancroid): which ulcer is painful "In du-crey-i, you do cry (because it is painful)": In H. ducreyi, the ulcer is painful, in syphilis the ulcer is painless.

Diphtheria toxin properties ABCDEF: A/B-type toxin. Made by Corynebacterium diphtheriae, which binds to EF-2 (elongation factor 2).

RNA viruses: negative stranded "Always Bring Polymerase Or Fail Replication": Arena Bunya Paramyxo Orthomyxo Filo Rhabdo · Note: Negative RNA viruses need there own polymerase.

Picorna viridae: members PEECoRnA (Picorna is pronounced 'pee-corna') Poliovirus Echovirus Enterovirus Coronavirus "R'novirus" (Rhinovirus) Hepatitis A

Streptococcus pneumoniae: diseases caused COMPS: Conjunctivitis Otitis media Meningitis Pneumonia Sinusitis

Catalase positive organims SPACE: Staphylococcus aureus Pseudomonas Aspergillus Candida Enterobacter

Urease positive organisms PUNCH: Proteus (leads to alkaline urine) Ureaplasma (renal calculi) Nocardia Cryptoccocus (the fungus) Helicobacter pylori

Vaccines: types STARK: Subunit Toxoid Attenuated [live] Recombinant Killed [inactivated]

AIDS pathogens (T-cell suppression) worth knowing "The Major Pathogens Concerning Complete T-Cell Collapse": Toxoplasma gondii M. avium intracellulare Pneumocystis carinii Candida albicans Cryptococcus neoformans Tuberculosis CMV Cryptosporidium parvum

Tetanus: treatment for infection SAD RAT: Sedation Antitoxin Debridement Relaxant Antibiotic Tracheostomy

Placenta-crossing organisms/ antenatal Infections STARCH: Syphilis Toxoplasmosis AIDS (HIV) Rubella

CMV Herpes/ Hepatitis

Typhus: Epidemic Typhus: etiologic agent, vector ePidemic typhus: Etiological agent: Rickettsia Prowazekii. Vector: Pediculus corporis (human body louse). · This is in contrast to Endemic typhus.

Capsulated bacteria "Some Bacteria Have An Effective Paste Surrounding Membrane Yielding Pseudo Fort, Bypassing Killing": Strep pneumonia Bacteroides H. influenza Anthrax (B. anthracis) E. coli Pasteurella Salmonella Menigitidis (N. Menigitidis) Yersinia pestis Pseudomonas Francisella Brucella Klebsiella

Hepatitis: transmission routes "Vowels are bowels": Hepatitis A and E transmitted by fecal-oralroute.

Capsulated microbes "Some Nasty Killers Have Some Capsule Protection": Streptococcus pneumoniae Neisseria meningitidis Klebsiella pnemoniae Haemophilus influenzae Salmonella typhi Cryptococcus neoformans Pseudomanas aerigenosa

Pneumonia: causes: gram negative vs. gram positive Gram Negatives (eg coliforms) are responsible mainly for Nosocomial pneumonia. Gram positives (eg strep pneumonia, staph) are thus more responsible for community acquired pneumonia.

Influenza infection: clinical manifestations "Having Flu Symptoms Can Make Moaning Children A Nightmare": Headache Fever Sore throat Chills Myalgias Malaise Cough Anorexia Nasal congestion

UTI-causing microorganisms KEEPS: Klebsiella Enterococcus faecalis/ Enterobacter cloacae E. coli Pseudomonas aeroginosa/ Proteus mirabilis Staphylococcus saprophyticcus/ Serratia marcescens

Psedomonas aeruginosa: features AERUGINOSA: Aerobic Exotoxin A Rod/ Resistance UTIs, burns, injuries Green-blue dressings Iron-containing lesions Negative gram Odor of grapes Slime capsule sometimes (in CF pt) Adherin pili

Toxoplasma gondii: manifestations "My Cat Eats Mice": Mononucleosis-like illness Chorioretinits/ Congenital infection Encephalitis Myocarditis

Chlamydia: elementary vs. initial body location Elementary: Extracellular Initial: Intracellular

Trypanosoma brucei: disease caused "I went on a TRYP to AFRICA": TRYPanosoma brucei causes AFRICAn sleeping sickness

RNA enveloped viruses FORT ABC, Puerto Rico: Flavivirus/ Filo Orthomyxo Retro Toga Arena Bunya Corona Paramyxo Rhabdo

Teratogens: placenta-crossing organisms ToRCHeS: Toxoplasma Rubella CMV Herpes simplex, Herpes zoster (varicella), Hepatitis B,C,E Syphilis · Alternatively: TORCHES: with Others (parvo, listeria), add HIV to H's, Enteroviruses.

E. coli: major subtypes, key point of each "HIT by E. coli outbreak": EnteroHemorrhagic: · HUS from Hamburgers EnteroInvasive: · Immune-mediated Inflammation EnteroToxigenic: · Traveller's diarrhea

Obligate anaerobes: members worth knowing ABC: Actinomyces Bacteroides Clostridium

Common cold: viral causes "Common cold (acute infectious rhinitis, coryza) is PRIMArily caused by": Paramyxoviruses Rhinoviruses Influenza viruses Myxoviruses Adenoviruses

Streptococcus pyogenes: diseases caused NIPPLES: Necrotising fasciitis and myositis Impetigo Pharyngitis Pneumonia Lymphangitis Erysipelas and cellulitis Scarlet fever/ Streptococcal TSS

Picornavirus: features PICORNAvirus: Positive sense ICOsahedral RNAvirus

Neisseria: fermentation of N. gonorrhoeae vs. N. meningitidis Gonorrhoeae: Glucose fermenter only. MeninGitidis: Maltose and Glucose fermenter. · Maltose fermentation is a useful property to know, since it's the classic test to distinguish the Neisseria types.

RNA viruses: negative stranded "Orthodox Rhabbi's Party Around Fine Bunnies": Orthomyxo Rhabdo Paramyxo Arena Filo Bunya

RNA viruses: positive stranded "Pico Called Flavio To Return Renzo's Corona": Picorna Calici Flavi Toga Retro Reo Corona

Endocarditis: lab results suggesting it "High Tech Lab Results Point At Endocarditis": Hematuria Thrombocytopenia Leukocytosis, -penia Red blood cell casta Proteinuria Anemia Elevated ESR

Endocarditis: causes of culture negative endocarditis "With Negative Tests, Investigators Should Focus Attention Somewhere Meaningful":

Wrong diagnosis Noninfectious endocarditis Timing (cultures drawn at end of chronic course) obligate Intracellular organisms Slow growing fastidious organisms Fungal infection Antibiotic used previously Subacute right-sided endocarditis Mural endocarditis

Endocarditis: indications for surgery PUS RIVER: Prosthetic valve endocarditis (most cases) Uncontrolled infection Supporative local complications with conduction abnormalities Resection of mycotic aneurysm Ineffective antimicrobial therapy (eg Vs fungi) Valvular damage (significant) Embolization (repeated systemic) Refractory congestive heart failure

Meningitis: risk factors "Can Induce Severe Attacks Of Head PAINS": Cancer Immunocompromised state Sinusitis Age extremes Otitis Head trauma Parameningeal infection Alcoholism Infections (systemic, esp. respiratory) Neurosurgical procedures Splenectomy

HIV infection: high-risk groups HIV: Homosexuals/ Hemophiliacs IVdrug abusers

Trichomaniasis: features · 5 F's: Flagella Frothy discharge Fishy odor (sometimes) Fornication (STD) Flagyl (metronidazole) Rx

Nematodes: ones spreading by egg ingestion "ATE eggs": Ascaris Lumbricoides Trichuris trichuira Enterobius vermicularis spread by ingestion of eggs (vs skin invasion or insect bite)

Food poisoning: bugs inducing "Eating Contaminated Stuff Causes Very Big Smelly Vomit": E. coli O157-H7 [undercooked meat, esp. hamburgers] Clostridium botulinum [canned foods] Salmonella [poultry, meat, eggs] Vibrio parahaemolyticus [seafood] Bacillus cereus [reheated rice] Staphylococcus aureus [meats, mayo, custard] Clostridium perfringens [reheated meat] Vibrio vulnificus [seafood]

B19 virus: at-risk groups B19 affects 3 B's: Babies (5th disease, infectiousum erythematosa)

Black Bleeders (sickle cell anemics - anaplastic anemic crisis) Bearing Babies [pregnant women] (hydrops fetalis)

IgA protease-producing bacteria "Nice Strip of Ham": Neisseria Streptococcus pneumonia Haemophilus influenza

Hemophilius: culture requirements Read Hemophilus as "HemoFive": · Needs Heme with Factors Fiveand Ten.

DNA viruses: morphology rule of thumb DNA: Double-stranded Nuclear replication 'Anhedral symmetry · Rule breakers: pox (cytoplasmic), parvo (single-stranded).

Streptococcus pyogenes: virulence factors SMASHED: Streptolysins M protein Anti-C5a peptidase Streptokinase Hyaluronidase Exotoxin DNAses

Gram positive stain Gram Positives Stain Purple (violet-blue) because of their thick Peptidoglycan layer

Gram+: bacterial cell wall · Gram+ has: +hick pepidoglycan layer. +eichoic acid in wall.

Listeria: motility Istanbul sounds like Listambul = list + tumble. Listeria has tumblingmotility.

Staphylococci: novobiocin test to distinguish coagulase negative staphylococci Staph epidermidis stays away from the novobiocin disc like an epidemic. · Therefore, epidermidis is sensitive to novobiocin. Staph saprophyticus, much friendlier, comes up to the disc and says, "'sap?'" [short for "whassup?", ie "what's up"]. · Therefore, saprophyticus is novobiocin resistant.

Acute post-streptococcal glomerulonephritis: classic presentation "Sore throat, Face bloat, Pi$$ coke": Sore throat: 1 week ago Face bloat: facial edema Pi$$ coke: coke-coloured urine · Alternatively, short version: "Throat, bloat and coke".

Streptococci: classification by hemolytic ability Gamma: Garbage (no hemolytic activity). Alpha: Almost (almost lyse, but incomplete). Beta: Best (complete lysis).

Streptococci: Quellung reaction: positive sign, Strep type confirmed "Quell-lung": Quell: Capsules swell [+ve test]. Lung: S. pnuemonia [type confirmed]. · You get pneumonia in your lung.

E. coli: diseases caused in presence of virulence factors DUNG: Diarrhea UTI Neonatal meningitis Gram negative sepsis · Dung, since contract E. coli from dung-contaminated water.

Streptococcus pyrogenes: antibody SPAM: Streptococcus Pyogenes: Antibody to Mprotein.

Staphylococcus aureus: diseases caused SOFT PAINS: Skin infections Osteomyelitis Food poisoning Toxic shock syndrome Pneumonia Acute endocarditis Infective arthritis

Necrotizing fasciitis Sepsis

Gram staining: mechanism "Murein gets the red out" [Allusion to an old eye-wash slogan]: Peptidoglycan (aka murein) remains purple during Gram staining. The Gram negatives, devoid of murein, are red. Thus, murein prevents redness and are purple (positive).

Entameoba histolytica: disease caused, action EntAmoeba causes Amoebic dysEntery. Action: histo (cell) lytic (burst), so it bursts cells.

Clostridium difficile: disease caused "Difficult to be in a Closet with someone having explosive foul smelling diarrhea, because it would smell and there would be no air in there. Clostridium Difficile causes explosive foul smelling diarrhea and is an anaeorbe (no air).

Pneumonia: acute pneumonia infiltrates from different causes "Pyrogenic=PMN, Miscellaneous=Mononuclear": Acute pneumonia caused by Pyogenic bacteria: PMN infiltrate. Acute pneumonia caused by Miscellaneous microbes: Mononuclear infiltrate.

Klebsiella details You tell the patient: "Get UPS you fat alcoholic": UTI Pneumonia Sepsis Fat capsule Get up=nonmotile since no flagella. Alcoholic=commonly seen in alcoholicand nosocomial patients.

Pseudomonas details · See diagram of patient. Patient: bug commonly infects nosocomial. Oxygen tank: oxidase positive. IV bag: has glucose and lactose, so its OK to give because its a nonlactose fermenter. Why giving oxygen? Because it commonly caused pneumonia. IV in the arm: supposed to signify sepsis. The foley: UTI. Burn on his foot: can infect burns.

Leprosy: early signs diagnostic criteria "LEProsy": Loss of sensation in affected skin/ Loss of function (paralysis) Enlargement of affected superficial nerves (tender too) Positive identification of M. leprae under microscope

Kidney transplant virus "Borrowed Kidney": BKvirus is associated with kidney transplants.

Endotoxin features ENDOTOXIN: Endothelial cells/ Edema Negative (gram- bacteria)

DIC/ Death Outer membrane TNF O-antigen X-tremely heat stable IL-1 Nitric oxide/ Neutrophil chemotaxis

Mycobacterium tuberculosis: culture identification "Rough, Tough, Buff": Rough: colony isn't smooth but rough like breadcrumbs. Tough: colony stuck to plate well, and tough to remove. Buff: buff is a color, a cream/coffee shade.

Vibrio: motility "Vibrio Vibrates": Vibrio is a genus of actively motile bacteria.

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