Methods of Research Chapter 3

October 16, 2017 | Author: Cherry Mae L. Villanueva | Category: Sampling (Statistics), Statistics, Experiment, Reliability (Psychometrics), Correlation And Dependence
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Thesis Guide Parts of Chapter 3 1. Research Design 2. Study Locale 3. Population and Sampling 4. Research Instr...


Report in Methods of Research by: Cherry Mae L. Villanueva, RN and Mary Aretha D. Rocha, RM, RN

How to Write Chapter 3: Research Methodology (Methods and Procedures)  Parts of Chapter 3 of a research paper (thesis, dissertation, or project research) 1. Research Design 2. Study Locale 3. Population and Sampling 4. Research Instrumentation (Data Gathering Instruments) 5. Research Procedure (Data Gathering Procedure) 6. Statistical Design (Statistical Treatment of Data)

1. Research Design    

is a master plan specifying the methods and procedures for collecting and analysing the needed information used to study a problem or an issue includes the description of the methodology the researcher used the researcher justifies why he chose this method and cites the sources Types of Research Approaches a. Qualitative Research  is a research relying primarily on the collection of qualitative data  qualitative data refers to attributes or characteristics of the population  examples of qualitative research are:  historical research  phenomenological research  ethnographic research  grounded-theory research  case study research  philosophical research b. Quantitative Research  is a research that relies primarily on the collection of quantitative data  quantitative data refer to numerical information about the population

 examples are:  correlational research  experimental research  causal-comparative research  epidemiological research c. Combined Research  is the mixture of qualitative and quantitative researches  example is descriptive research 

Types of Research Method a. Descriptive Research Method  is a type of research that focuses on providing an accurate description or picture of the status or characteristics of a situation or phenomenon  Types of Descriptive Research  Case Study Research  Survey Research  Development Study Research  Comparative Study Research  Ex Post Facto Research  Documentary Analysis Research  Test Scores Analysis Research  Population Census Studies Research b. Experimental Research Method  is a research in which the researcher manipulates the independent variable  the researcher attempts to maintain control over all factors that may affect the result of the experiment  by doing so, the researcher attempts to determine or predict what may occur  Types of Experimental Research Method  Single-group Design  Two-group Design  Two-pair Design  Parallel-group Design  Solomon 4-group Design (R.L. Solomon Design)  Pre-test-Post-test Design  Counter Balanced or Latin Square Design

SCIENTIFIC RESEARCH  relies on the application of scientific methods based on scientific paradigm  this research provides scientific information and theories for the explanation of the nature and properties of humans.  makes practical applications possible  is funded by public authorities, by charitable organizations and private groups, including many companies  can be subdivided into different classifications  Steps involved in conducting an Experimental Study  Identify and Define the Problem  Formulate hypotheses and deduce their consequences  Construct an experimental design that represents all the elements, conditions, and relations of the consequences  select sample of subjects  group or pair subjects  identify and control non-experimental factors  select or construct, and validate instruments to measure outcomes  conduct pilot study  determine place, time and duration of the experiment  Conduct the experiment  Compile raw data and reduce to usable form  Apply an appropriate test of significance c. Quasi-experimental Research  is an experimental research that does not provide for full control of potential confounding variables primarily because it does not randomly assign participants to comparison groups d. Historical Research Method  is a research about events in the past  it is a process of systematically examining past events or combinations of events to arrive at an account of what happened in the past  Types of Historical Research Method  Deliberate Historical Research  Incidental Historical Research  comprises the techniques and guidelines by which historians use historical sources and other evidence to research and then to write history

 there are various history guidelines commonly used by historians in their work, under the headings of external criticism, internal criticism, and synthesis  this also includes higher criticism and textual criticism  the following concepts are usually part of the most formal historical research  identification of origin date  evidence of localization  recognition of authorship  analysis of data  identification of integrity  attribution of credibility e. Developmental Research Method  its purpose is to investigate patterns and sequences of growth and/ or change as a function of time  Types of Developmental Research  Longitudinal Research (synchronic)  data are collected at multiple time points and comparisons are made across time  Cross-sectional Research (diachronic)  data are collected at a single point in time  Cross-sequential Research (both)  combination of longitudinal and cross-sectional research f. Case and Field Research Method  aims to study intensively the background, current status and environmental interactions of a given social unit  an individual, a group, an institution or a community  it is a form of qualitative research that is focused on providing a detailed account and analysis of one or more cases g. Correlational Research Method  is a form of non-experimental research in which the primary independent variable of interest is a quantitative variable  it aims to investigate the extent to variations in one factor correlate with variations in one or more other factors based on correlation coefficient h. Causal-Comparative (“ex post facto”) Research Method

 is a form of non-experimental research where the primary independent variable of interest is categorical.  aims to investigate possible cause and effect relationships by observing some existing consequence and looking back through the data for plausible causal factors i. Action Research  aims to develop new skills or new approaches and to solve problems with direct application to the classroom or other applied setting  is a reflective process of progressive problem solving lead by individuals working with others in terms or as part of a “community” of practice to improve the way they address issues and to solve problems j. Observational Research  Empirical Research  a research method which employs observation, that is essentially a technique for gathering data about the subjects involved in the study  is a research that bases its findings on direct or indirect observation as it’s test of reality k. Educational Development Research  or Educational Research and Development  also called Research Based Development  is a process used to develop and validate educational products l. New product Development Research  is a research based product development process used to develop and validate food or commodity product for the market

2. Study Locale 

refers to brief description of the specific place where a study is conducted

3. Population and Sampling 

includes the description and the number of samples, subjects or respondents or research participants considered or chosen for the purpose of the study POPULATION  means the complete set of cases

 it is the large group to which the researcher wants to generalize the sample results SAMPLE  is the set of elements taken from a larger population  a subset of cases drawn from a population SAMPLING  is the process of measuring a small portion of something and making a general statement about the whole thing  is the act, process, or technique of selecting a suitable sample, or a representative part of a population for the purpose of determining parameters or characteristics of the whole population 

Techniques of Sampling a. Scientific Sampling (Probability Sampling)  any sampling method in which every unit in the population has a chance (greater than zero) of being selected in the sample, and this probability can be accurately determined  the combination of this traits makes it possible to produce unbiased estimates of population totals, by weighing sampled units according to their probability of selection  Random Sampling  Stratified Random Sampling  Cluster Sampling  Systematic Sampling  Multi-stage Sampling b. Non-scientific Sampling (Non-probability Sampling)  any sampling method where some elements of the population have no chance of selection  the probability of selection can’t be accurately determined  involves the selection of elements based on assumptions regarding the population of interest, which forms the criteria for selection  non-probability sampling does not allow the estimation of sampling errors because the selection of elements is nonrandom  information about the relationship between sample and population is limited, making it difficult to deduce from the sample to the population  Purposive Sampling  Incidental Sampling  Quota Sampling

      

Census Sampling Convenience Sampling (Grab or Opportunity Sampling) Networking or Snowball Sampling Mechanical Sampling Line-intercept Sampling Panel Sampling Event Sampling

SLOVIN’s Formula  the formula used in selecting the sample size

n = N/ (1 + Ne2 ) where: n = small sample N = Total Population or population Size e = desired margin of error allowable error: 1% (0.01) 5% (0.05) 10% (0.10)

4.Research Instrumentation (Data Gathering Instruments)     

includes the description of the adoption, construction and administration of instruments instruments include questionnaire, interview guide, documentary analysis and others also includes discussion on the validity, reliability and usability of the instrument when using standardized instruments in a study mention how and why it is utilized a standard questionnaire or any other instrument used need to be validated when modifications were made and the author or owner of the instruments should be acknowledged Examples of Research Instruments a. Questionnaire b. Interview & Interview Guide c. Observation d. Rating Scale e. Score Card f. the Scaled Specimen g. Opinionnaire or Attitude Scale h. Sociometry

i. “Guess Who” Technique j. Social Distance Scale k. Psychological Tests and interventions, Mechanical Tests such as medical, dental and surgical tests, -- the most reliable research instruments  Types of Psychological Test and Inventories  Performance Test (Paper-and-Pencil Test)  Power Test versus Timed or Speed Test  Non-standardized, Teacher-made Tests and Standardized Test  Achievement Test  Aptitude Test  Interest Inventories  Personality Test/ Measure (or Scales)  Projective Devices/ Projective Tests

5. Research Procedure (Data Gathering Procedure)   

includes the details of procedures followed in conducting the study also describes the techniques, devices and procedures used experimental procedure for experimental research

6. Statistical Design (Statistical Treatment of Data)   

describes briefly how the data collected are to be processed it mentions statistical techniques used also called Statistical Analysis or Statistical Framework

Statistical Measures include the following: a. Central Tendency Statistics (Measures of Central Tendencies)  Mean – the most stable measure of central tendency  Median  Mode b. Variability/ Dispersion Statistics (Important Measures of Variability)  Range  Variance  Mean Deviation  Standard Deviation (the most stable Measure of Variability) c. Correlation Statistics (Measures of Correlations/ Relationship)  Pearson-Product-Moment Correlation

    

Spearman Rank Correlation Coefficient or Spearman rho Goodman’s and Kruskal’s Gamma (G) Lambda Correlation Kendall-Rank-Order Correlation (Tau) Point-Biseral Correlation

d. Significant Difference Statistics (Measures of Significant Differences)  t-Test (Independent t-Test and Dependent t-Test)  One-way analysis of Variance (ANOVA-1)  Two-way Analysis of Variance (ANCOVA)  Sandler’s A test  Analysis of Co-Variance (ANCOVA)  Wilcoxon Test  Mann-Whitney Test  Kruskal-Wallis Test  Jonkheere Trend Test  Friedman Test  Page-S-L Trend Test e. Association Statistics (Measures of Association)  Chi-Square Test (x2)  Tetrachoric Correlation  Phi Correlation  Rank Biserial Correlation  Point Biserial Correlation f. Agreement Statistics (Measures of Agreement)  Coefficient of Concorddance g. Confidence Statistics (Measure of Confidence)  Z-test h. Forecasting and Projection Statistics  Unweighted Average Forecasting  Weighted Forecasting Average  Moving Average Forecasting  Forecasting by the use of Exponential Smoothing  Forecasting by Trend Projection i. Validity and Reliability Statistics  Validity Measures  Content Validity  Face Validity (Format/ Procedure Validity)  Judgemental Validity

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Construct Validity (Convergent and Discriminate or Divergent Validity) Concurrent Validity Predictive Validity Criterion-related Validity

 Reliability Measures  Test-retest Method (Stability Reliability)  Split-half or add even reliability (Equivalency Reliability)  Parallel Forms  Internal-Consistency Method  Kuder-Richardson Formula 20 Steps  Interrater Reliability j. Some well-known statistical test and procedures for research observations are:  Student’s t-Test  Chi-square Test  Analysis of Variance (ANOVA)  Mann-Whitney U  Regression Analysis  Factor Analysis  Correlation  Pearson-product-moment Correlation Coefficient  Spearman’s Rank Correlation Coefficient

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