Medicinal Plants of Balochistan
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MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BALUCHISTAN
Qarshi Industries Pvt. Ltd
Asrar Muhammad Khan And
Project On Introduction of Medicinal Herbs and Spices as Crop Ministry of Food, Agriculture and Livestock Qarshi Industries (Pvt) Ltd
Introduction Pakistan is a country blessed with variety of climate, ecological zones and topographical region and every conceivable type of habitat. Therefore, the flora is diverse and highly fascinating. There are about 6,000 plant species (Shinwari 1996). Out of which only 1010 species are so far identified as having medicinal value. Of these 456 medicinal plants are traded in the domestic market and their sustainability and availability never cease to exhaust and form a potential source for the indigenous herbal industry (Usmanghani 2000).
MEDICINAL PLANTS OF BALUCHISTAN Baluchistan is the largest province representing 43.6 per cent of the land mass of Pakistan. The climate is arid to semi-arid, ranging from coastal tropical to cool temperate in the north. Major ecological zones are, Alpine Pasture, Dry Temperate Forest, Sub Tropical Forest, Tropical Dry Mixed Deciduous Forest, Desert and Mangrove Forest. The annual rainfall ranges from 100 mm along the Makran coast to 350 mm in the Northeast of Zhob. Most of the rains fall in winter and monsoon rainfall can be significant along the Southeastern rim of the province. Higher altitudes get snow as well. Summer temperature shoots up as high as 53 C and in winter the temperature falls to –18 C in Ziarat and Kalat. Humidity is generally less than 10 per cent it rises during rainy season. Thus, Baluchistan is blessed with diverse climate, flora and fauna. Balochistan is native home of some herbal plants. In Balochistan, various wild herbs have been collected and sold in the local market by local community. However, very limited scientific knowledge is available on the potential herbs, which can be cultivated and utilized for different purposes. The vulnerability of medicinal herbs and spices to overexploitation and extinction need to be dealt pragmatically. The concerns and issues relating the conservation of these plants could be addressed through a variety of activities involving pinnacle government and non-governmental organizations of the sector. The investments are needed for the development of appropriate conservation, cultivation and harvesting strategies. Coordinated efforts in the country need to be ensured in the field of conservation, preservation, documentation and application of local indigenous knowledge on the use of these resources. The conservation and sustainable use of the habitats of these plants as well as for ensuring continued availability of the basic ingredients could be addressed through domestication of high value plants. There is a growing demand today for plant-based medicines, health products, pharmaceuticals, food supplements, cosmetics etc. in the international market. The international market of medicinal plants is over 60 billion US dollar per year, which is growing at the rate of 7 percent per annum. Local health traditions are a valuable reference point and participation of local community, conservers, students, educators, and other stakeholders in the activities regarding the subject are very important. A clear
understanding of both the supply-side issues and the factors driving the demand and size of the medicinal plant market is a vital step towards planning in this regard. The MINFAL initiated a project captioned as “Introduction of Medicinal herbs and spices as crop (IMHSC)”. One of the objectives of this project is documentation of the indigenous knowledge of medicinal plants and spices. The work embodied in this monograph is a collaborative effort of Qarshi Industries (Pvt) Ltd and IMHSC. The data on medicinal plants contains information on Botanical names, English names, Local names, occurrence, a brief morphological & taxonomic characters, part used, active constituents, medicinal uses with special reference to Balochistan. It is a humble effort of the authors to put together the available information on about 80 medicinal plants of Baluchistan. Efforts are made to include maximum medicinal plants growing wild in Baluchistan province while cultivated species of medicinal herb and spices shall be dealt separately.
ACACIA NILOTICA (Linn.) Delice. (Syn. A. arabica (Lamk.) Willd, Mimosa arabica Lamk. Family: Mimosaceae Local Names: Babul, Kikar English Name: Gum arabica Parts used: Bark, leaves, pods & gum Flowering: June - January Occurrence: Bolan, Lasbela & Sibi districts ACHYRANTHUS ASPERA L. Family: Amaranthaceae Local Name: Charchuta, Obat kandri English: Amaranthus Parts used: Whole plant Flowering: September – April Occurrence: Lasbela District ACORUS CALAMUS L. Family: Araceae/Acoraceae Local Name: Kull (Baluchi) Bach English Name: Sweet flag, calamus, myrtle flag Parts Used: Rhizome, oil Flowering: May - September Occurrence: Jhalawan AEGLE MARMELOS (L.) Correa Family: Rutaceae Local Name: Bel, Belgri, Babbarto English Name: Bael, Bengal quince
April – May Nasirabad District
ALLIUM ASCALONICUM auctt. Ind. Family: Alliaceae Local Name: Khukhai Parts Used: Bulb Flowering: April – July Occurrence: Zhob District ARTEMESIA MARITIMA L. Family: Compositae/Asteraceae Local Name: Tarkhasperah zher English Name: Santonica, Wormwood Parts used: Leaves and Flowers Flowering: August - September Occurrence: All districts ASPARAGUS RACEMOSUS Willd. Family: Liliaceae Local Name: Satawar English Name: Shatavari Part Used: Rhizome Flowering: September – March Occurrence: Lower Baluchistan ASTRAGALUS STROBILIFERUS Royle ex Benth. Family: Papilionaceae/Leguminoseae Local Name: Kon, Jib English Name: Milk vetch Parts Used: Gum Flowering: April – June Occurrence: Shela Bagh & Wam AZADIRACTA INDICA (L.) Juss. (Syn. Melia Azadiracta L. & M. indica) Family: Meliaceae Local Name: Neem English Name: Margosa Parts used: Bark, leaves, twigs, seeds, sap Flowering: April – May Occurrence: Bolan District BERBERIS LYCIUM Royle Family: Berberidaceae Local Name: Karoski, Zarch, Zaralg Barberry English Name:
Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Root, leaves March – June Shahragh & Harnai Hills
BERBERIS DENSIFLORA Boiss & Bulse (Syn. B. vulgaris L.) Family Berberidaceae Local Name: Zrolg English Name: Berberry Parts used: Leaves, stem, root bark, roots, fruit Flowering: April - June Occurrence: Dobandi Kalan, Chaman, Zhob district, Ziarat hills, Sibi, huassan hills, Shahrig hills CANNABIS SATIVA L. (Syn. C. indica Lamk.) Family: Cannabinaceae Local Name: Bhang, Charas English Name: Marijuana Parts used: Leaves and Flowers Flowering: August - October Occurrence: Jhal CAPPARIS DECIDUA (Forssk.) Edgew. (Syn. C. aphylla) Roth Family: Capparaceae Local Name: Karar, Kaler, Khirar English Name: Capper Parts used: Whole plant Flowering: January – April Occurrence: Sibi, Shahragh, Jhal, Makran CAPPARIS SPINOSA L. Family: Capparaceae Local Names: Khaflhander, Kirap,Khawarg, Pahinro, Panetero English Name: Caper Parts used: Leaves, root, root bark, flowers buds Flowering: March – July Occurrence: Jhalawan CAPSELLA BURSA – PASTORIS (L.) Medic (Syn. Thlaspi bursa-pastoris L.) Family: Cruciferae Local Name: Chambraka English Name: Shepherd’s purse Parts used: Aerial parts, seeds Flowering: Spring Occurrence: Mastung, Kalat, Harboi hills
CASSIA FISTULA L. Family: Caesalpinaceae Local Name: Chhamkani, Chimkani, Chuntur (Amaltas) English Name: Golden shower, Pakistani Laburnum Parts used: Leaves, fruit, root bark Flowering: March – June Occurrence: Kachhi, Nasirabad Gardens CASSIA ITALICA (Mill) Lam. (Syn. C. obovata Collad.) Family: Caesalpinaceae Local Name: Dhidwal, Kaspind, Nilthak, Snakuri Parts used: Leaves Flowering: November – March Occurrence: Sibi, Kulanch, Ormara, Pab hills CATHARANTHUS Reichb.) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts Used: Flowering: Occurrence:
ROSEUS (L.) G. Don (Syn. Vinca rosea L.; Lochnera rosea (L.) Apocynaceae Ratanjot, Sadaphul Periwinkle Whole plant All year round Cultivated Nasirabad Garden
CHENOPODIUM ALBUM L. Family: Local Name: Parts Used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Chenopodiaceae Malerav, Torsang, Bathu Whole plant February – March Kharan, Chaman, Sibi
Brief Description: An erect somewhat mealy annual herb, leaves varying from rhombicovate to lanceolate, acute, toothed, flower in compact cluster to panicled spike; seeds round, compressed, smooth, black and shining. Constituents: Essential oil, triterpenoid, saponin, carotene and vitamin C. Medicinal Action & Uses: Plant is laxative, expels worms, used in hepatic disorder and enlarged spleen. Plant is used as food.
CICHORIUM INTYBUS L.
Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Compositae Kashin, Zral, Kasni Chicory Root, leaves, flowers March – June Quetta, Pishin, Loralai districts
Brief Description: An erect, small to medium sized perennial herb, stem angled, grooved; leaves radical, pinnately divided, lobes toothed; flowers blue in solitary terminal or axillary cluster heads. Constituents: Roots contains up to 58% inulin and sesquiterpene lactones as well as vitamins and minerals. Glucosides, chicorine, lactucin, intybin. Medical Actions & Uses: Kashin (Chicory) is excellent mild bitter tonic for the liver and digestive tract. Root supports the action of the stomach and liver and cleansing the urinary tract. It is also taken for rheumatism and gout.
CITRULLUS COLOCYNTHUS (L.) Schrad. (Syn. Cucumis colocynthis L.) Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Cucurbitaceae Kurkushta, Kulkush, Marghuni, Thruh, Darwarwal, Kherengiriri, Indrayan (Urdu) Root and fruit (no seeds) November – January Las Bela, Kharan, Sibi, Bolan, Harnai, Zhob districts
Brief Description: A small scabrid perennial creeping herb; leaves deeply dissected , pinnatifid; flowers yellow, monoecious, all solitary, male flower with 3 stamens, female flower with 3 stigma: fruit round, green with white stripes, smooth, pulp dry, spongy. Constituents: Colocynthin, colocynthin, cucubitacin glycosides with antitumor properties. Medical Actions & Uses: The bitter pulp is used as strong purgative. Root is given in jaundice, urinary disease and rheumatism. Fruit and root are considered as antidote to snake poison.
COMMIPHORA WIGHTII (Arnott) Bhandari (Syn.C. mukul (Hook., .ex. Stocks.) Engler Family: Local Name:
English Name: Parts Used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Gumgugul Gum December – April Las Bela
Brief Description: A large woody shrub and tree with sparingly leave or naked branches: leaves small alternate, simple trifoliate, leaflets smooth , shining, obovate, sessile, toothed; flowers sessile, small, brownish, unisexual. Stem and branches covered with wax. Constituents: Known to contain phytosterols, oil. Medical Actions & Uses: Gum demulcent, laxative, carminative, antiseptic, expectorant, aphrodisiac. Used for ulcer, chronic tonsilitis, pharyngitis, syphilis and other skin diseases. In Ayurvedic medicine it is used for menstrual problems and an aphrodisac. Note: Gum may not be easily absorbed by the intestines and so generally used in external treatment.
CRATAEGUS OXYCANTHA L. (Syn. C. monogyna: C. songrica C. Koch.) Family: Local Name: English Name: Flowering: Parts used: Occurrence:
Rosaceae Naguncha, Ghunza Hawthorn April – July , Fruit ripens in late summer Fruit, flowers Harboi hills, Mastung, Kalat, Kawas, Quetta districts, Chitral and Northern Areas
Brief Description: A shrub or small tree, branches thorny; leaves broader then long, pinnate, 5-7 lobed; flowers white in terminal cyme. Fruit globose-ovoid, scarlet, bright red. Constituents: Bioflavonoids (rutin, quercitin), Triterpenoids, Oligomeric procyanidin, Amines (triethylamine- in flowers only) polyphenols, coumarines, tannins. Plant contains oxalic acid, HCN-glucosides, crategin. Fresh fruit contains tartaric acid, citric acid, crataegus acid, pectin fatty oil, glucose & fructose.
Medicinal Actions & Uses: Hawthorn has been fairly researched. Its main benefit is due its bioflavonoid content. These constituents relax and dilate the arteries, especially coronary arteries that reduce symptom of angina. The bioflavonoids are also strongly antioxidant, helps to prevent or reduce degeneration of blood vessels. Cardiac herb: Trials in Germany showed hawthorn improved heart beat rate and lowered blood pressure. Traditional uses: Hawthorn is also used in Europe for kidney and bladder stones and as a diuretic. Heart remedy: Hawthorn is used today to treat angina and coronary artery disease. It is also useful for mild congestive heart failure and irregular heart beat. Blood pressure: Hawthorn is, not only, a valuable remedy for high blood pressure but it also raises low blood pressure, it restores blood pressure to normal Poor memory: Combined with ginkgo (Ginkgo biloba) hawthorn enhances memory. It works by improving the circulation of blood within the head, thereby increasing the amount of oxygen to the brain.
CUSCUTA REFLEXA Roxb. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Convolvulaceae Akash-bel, Amer-bel Dodder Whole plant January - February Lower Bauchistan
Brief Description: A leafless yellow plant, parasite on shrub and trees, stem long, branched, succulent, densely interlaced; flowers usually in many small cluster of recemes. Constituents: Cuscutin, amerbelin, cuscutalin Medicinal Actions & Uses: The plant is carminative, digestive, diuretic, support liver function and is taken for jaundice. Related Species: Cuscuta hyalina Roth also grows in lower Baluchistan and used for chest ailment.
CYPERUS ROTUNDUS L. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Cyperaceae Kabb, Motha Nut grass, sedge root, coco grass Rhizomes, roots, tubers May Loralai. Nasirabad
Brief Description: A straight, stoloniferous, perennial herb bearing hard, ovoid blank tuber; root covered with flexuosa hairs, leaves shorter or longer than the stem; flowers on spike 3-10, flowers compressed acute, reddish brown. Constituents: Essential oil, waxy substance, glycerol, limolenic, linolic, myristic and steric acids Medicinal Actions & Uses: Internally for digestive problems, menstrual complaints, astringent, diaphoretic, stomachic.
DATURA METEL L. (Syn. D. alba Nees) Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Solanaceae Dhatoora Seeds, leaves, root September – December Bolan, Sibi, Zhob district
Brief Description: A course spreading, annual or biennial herb, under shrub; leaves angular, ovate, acute, sub entire; flowers tubular, large, white, corolla funnel shaped; seeds many. Constituents: Plant contains 0.2-0.45% alkaloids, daturine, hyoscyamine, hyoscine, atropine, flavonoids, coumarins and tannins. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Seed, leaves, roots used in insanity (neuralgia), diarrhoea, and skindiseases. Directly applied to sores, boils, rheumatism, lumbago, ear ache, toothache, tumor, and gout.
DATURA STRAMONIUM L. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Solanaceae Shinah Azghi (Dhatoora) Thorn apple Whole plant March – June Loralai
Brief Description: A large robust annual herb, 1.5m tall; leaves ovate, coarsely and irregularly toothed; flowers white, corolla tubular, funnel shaped; seeds many, wrinkled, flattened. Constituents: Plant contains 0.2-0.45% tropane alkaloids (especially hyoscyamine and hyoscine, flavanoids, withanolides, coumarins, tannins. Medicinal Actions & Uses: At low doses it is a common remedy for asthma, whooping cough, muscle spasm and the symptoms of Parkinsonism. It relaxes muscles of intestine, bronchial and urinary tract. Externally, for rheumatism and neuralgia. Caution: Use under professional supervision. Subject to legal restrictions.
DESCURAINEA SOPHIA (L.) Webb (Syn. Sisymbrium sophis L.) Family: Local Name: English Name Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Cruciferae Khashi (Khubkalan) Flixweed Flower, leaves, seeds April – May All districts, Baluchistan
Brief Description: An erect medium size annual herb, smooth, velety, leafy, branched; leaves much divided segments short, linear; flowers small yellow, in loose bractless racemes. Constituents: Medicinal Action & Uses: Seeds are bitter, tonic, expectorant and restorative, useful in fever bronchitis and dysentery and for worms. Its constant use is advised in small pox and chicken pox or continued fever as a diluted decoction.
DOREMA AMMONIACUM D. Don Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Umbelliferae Ushak Ammoniacum Oleo-gum-resin February – March Quetta, near Murree Brewary
Brief Description: A tall perennial shrub, branched, woody, large, compound, radical leaves, oblong, obtuse, leaf base amplexicaul; umbels simple on branches; flowers white. Constituents: Plant contains resin (60-70%) gum, volatile oil (including ferulene and linalyl acetate), free salicyclic acid and coumarins. Medical Actions & Uses: Oleo-gum-resin is expectorant, antiseptic and stimulant, useful in asthma, chronic bronchitis, in enlargement of spleen and liver. Ammoniacum is similar to Ferula asa-foetida and F. gummosa. Related Species: D. aureum has the similar properties.
ECHINOPS ECHINATUS Roxb. Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Compositae Guraj, Chingam, Wali, (Unt-kantara, Astrakhar, in Urdu) Root, root bark, leaves, fruit October – January Las Bela, Ormara
Brief Description: An erect, branched annual, branches ascending from the base; leaves long, oblong, sessile, pinnately divided, lobes triangular, spinous; flower heads forming a white ball with stout spines, each head contains one flower. Constituents: Medicinal Actions & Uses: The plant is used as herb tonic, aphrodisiac, diuretic, digestive, recommended in scrofula, dyspepsia, hysteria, ophthalmia and hoarse cough. Powdered root is applied to wounds in cattle to destroy maggots and to hair to destroy lice.
ECLIPTA PROSTRATA L. (Syn. E. alba (L) Hassk.) Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Compositae Bhangra False daisy Whole plant May – October Las Bela and Sibi
Brief Description: A small multibranched, erect or sub erect annual herb; leaves opposite, sessile, linear or oblong- lanceolate, narrow at both end; flowers axillary, white. Constituents: the terthienylmethanol.
Medicinal Actions & Uses: The herb is tonic, decoction is used to invigorate liver, to prevent premature graying of hair, to stop bleeding specially from uterus, anti asthmatic, improves digestion, used for dropsy, rheumatism. Leaves are recommended in cough, headache, alopecia, for enlargement of spleen and jaundice. Externally applied to restore hair. Root is emetic, purgative and antiseptic; applied to wounds and ulcers of cattles. In Chinese tradition the herb is considered a yin tonic; in Ayurvedic medicine it is thought to prevent aging. In Caribbean, the juice is sometimes taken for asthma and bronchitis, enlarged glands, vertigo and blurred vision. Externally, for various skin problems. The herb contains a black pigment that has been used to colour the hair in India and to encourage hair growth. It has been used as ink for tattooing. The leaves are also eaten as vegetable.
ELAEGNUS ANGUSTIFOLIA L. (Syn. E. hortensis Bieb.) Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Elaegnaceae Sindid, Sanzalai, Sinjit Flowers, seeds April – May Quetta, Kalat, Mastung, Sibi, Zhob, Loralai, Kharan
Brief Description: A small tree, branches silvery with scales, often spiny, dark brown when older; leaves oblong, ovate, blunt, silvery beneath; flower yellow, silvery, bell shaped, stalked, fragrant, calyx toothed. Constituents: Bark contains elaegnine, and other viscous oily alkaloids and traces of essential oil.
Medicinal Actions & Uses: Oil from seed is used in catarrhal and bronchial infection. Juice of flowers is used for malignant fever in Spain.
EPHEDRA INTERMDIA Schrenk & Meyer Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Ephedraceae Parar, Ghat, Uman Whole plant May Ziarat, Harboi hills, Chaman, Quetta
Brief Description: The plant is shrubby, dwarf, stem tuberculate, branches numerous, whorled, erect, branchlets few; staminate strobili, numerous, whorled, bracts ovate, obtuse. Constituents: the plant contains alkaloids, ephedrine, pseudoephedrine, alkaloids contents 0.28-2.79%, saponin. Medicinal Action & Uses: Internally for asthma and hay fever, tincture is used as cardiac and circulatory stimulant. Decoction of stem and root is used for rheumatism and syphilis. Not given to patients with high blood pressure. Related species: Ephedra procera and E. gerardiana all have similar properties. EUPHORBIA THYMIFOLIA L. Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Euphorbiaceae Khiri (Choti dudhi) Whole plant July – October Nasirabad, Las Bela
Brief Description: A prostrate or divergent, pale green, pubescent annual herb with many long branches; leaves small, opposite, obliquely oblong, ovate, entire. Constituents: Plant contains essential oil and flavone. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Leaves and seeds laxative, stimulant and astringent, useful for bowel complaints, given in food poisoning. Root in amenorrhoea, plant juice for ringworm, skin diseases. Oil vermifuge.
FAGONIA CRETICA L.
Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Zygophyllaceae Dama, Kamatro, Dhramo, Kaskawa, Kandiro, Shurdo, Hinguna Cretan prickly clover Leaves, stem, juice October – January Las Bela, Kharan, Sibi, Ormara, Jhalawan
Brief Description: A common small annual green spiny herb with woody branches; leaves small leathery, 1-3 lobed, leaflets linear, short pointed; flowers small pale red or purple on solitary stalks. Constituents: Medicinal Action & Uses: Plant is astringent, febrifuge, prophylactic against small pox. Externally applied as paste on tumors and other swellings on neck. Leaves and twigs are used in snakebite.
FARSETIA JACQUEMONTII Hook. Fet Thom. Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Cruciferae Fraid buti, Lathia (Urdu) Whole plant December – January Harnai, Bolan Pass
Brief Description: A small erect rigid hairy perennial shrub; leaves linear, oblong; flowers large, bluish purple in spike, sepals 4, hairy pointed, petals 4 half long as the sepals with long stalks; stamens 6;pod flat. Constituents: Medicinal Action & Uses: Plant is considered as cooling medicine and is used for rheumatism. Related Species: F. hamiltonia.
FERULA ASSA-FOETIDA Regel. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Umbelliferae Hing, hinga, Raghband, Ushali, Ushi Devil’s dung Gum resin April – June All districts
Brief Description: An erect perennial monoecious herb with conical erect rhizome; stem furrowed, smooth, green, succulent; leaves terminately compound, leaflets on the margin are round, toothed, inflorescence compound umbel; flowers yellow; fruit cremocarp. Constituents: The plant contains volatile oil 6-17% containing pinene, organic disulphide and umbelliferon, gum 25%, resin 40-64%, resin contains sesquiterpenoid coumarins including foetidin. Medical Actions & Uses: The gum is used for simple digestion problems such as gas, bloating, indigestion and constipation. Also used in bronchitis, whooping cough, removal of thread worm and toothache. Related Species: F. jaeschkeana Vatke.
FUMARIA INDICA (Haussk) Pugsley (Syn. F. parviflora W & Anon Lamk.) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Fumariaceae Shatara, Kafutkawa Fumitory Flowering aerial parts December – February Cultivated land, Harnai, Harboi, Quetta, Pishin
Brief Description: A small, scandent, branched annual herb; leaves much divided; racemes lax flowered, flowers white or pinkish; fruit globose and rugose when dried Constituents: contains isoquinoline alkaloids, fumaric acid and fumarine. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Herb has stimulant action on liver and gallbladder and is chiefly used for skinconditions such as eczema. It is also diuretic and mildly laxative, also recommended for leprosy, scrofula and syphilis. Related Species: F. officinalis Caution: Herb is toxic in excessive doses. Use only under professional advice.
FOENICULUM VULGARE Mill. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used:
Umbelliferae Badian, Rizeh, Raz, Saunf Fennel Whole plant
March – April Cultivated Shahrig, Harboi hills, Kharan
Brief Description: An erect, medium sized to large sized biennial or perennial herb; leaves 2-4 pinnate, strongly scented when rubbed; flowers yellow in compound umbel; bract absent. Constituents: Seeds contain about 8% volatile oil, flavonoids, coumarines and sterols. Medical Actions & Uses: The primary use of fennel seed is to relieve bloating (gas) and it settles stomach pain, stimulate appetite, and are diuretic and anti-inflammatory. Root is purgative and seed oil is used as vermicide. Fennel increase milk production, used as an eye wash, gargle for sore throat and mild expectorant. Fennel is safe for children. Caution: Fennel is toxic in large doses. Do not take essential oil internally.
GALIUM APARINE L. Family: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Rubiaceae Cleavers, Goose grass Plant juice April – July Baluchistan, throughout Rawalpindi disrict plain & hills
Brief Description: A climbing annual, rough with reflexed hairs or prick; branches 4angled; leaves sessile 6-8 in whorl, linear; flowers minute, white tinged with green. Constituents: Herb contains irioides, polyphenolic acids, anthraquinones (only in root), alkanes, flavonoids and tannins. Asperuloside is mild laxative. Medical Actions & Uses: A valuable diuretic herb, it is often taken for skin diseases such as seborrhea, eczema and psoriasis, for swollen lymph glands and as a general detoxifying agent in serious illnesses like cancer. The plant is commonly prepared in the form of an infusion but for cancer it is best taken as juice, which is strongly diuretic. The juice and the infusions are also taken for kidney stones and urinary problems. An extract of the plant appears to lower blood pressure. Collection: It is gathered when it is just to flower in late spring.
GLYCYRRHIZA GLABRA L. Family: Local Name: English Name:
Papillionaceae Khwazha, Washdar Malkhugi, Mulathi Licorice
Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Root Summer Shahrig, Pishin, Chaman, Zhob
Brief Description: A branched perennial herb; leaves alternate, compound; leaflets 7-9 pairs, flowers in loose raceme, violet cream colour, legume compressed, seeds many. Constituents: Contains triterpene saponins (glycyrrhizin up to 6%), Flavonoids (isoflavones: liquitritin, isoliquitrin, formononetin), polysacchrides, sterols, coumarins, asparagins. Medicinal Actions & Uses: A very sweet, moist, soothing herb, anti-inflammatory, expectorant, controls coughing, demulcent, adrenal agent helps in Addison’s disease, mild laxative. Useful for peptic ulcer, asthma, bronchitis, and allergic complaints, externally for eczema, herpes and shingles. Caution: Not given to pregnant women and patient with high blood pressure, kidney disease. Economic: Root extract is used in candy, and dried to eat. A basis for most commercial laxatives. Extract flavours tobacco, bear, soft drinks, and pharmaceutical products and are used as a foaming agent in beers and fire extinguishers.
HYOSCYAMUS INSANUS Stock (Syn. H. muticus auct. Non L.) Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Solanaceae Koheebhang, Kohbanan Whole plant March – April Kachhi, Kharan, Pab hills
Brief Description: A herbaceous perennial, 30-90 cm tall; leaves oblong and ovate, entire or toothed, pubescent, stem leaves stalked; flowers bright yellow or white. Constituents: Contains alkaloids, especially hyoscyamine and hyoscine. Medical Actions & Uses: Herb is used to ease muscles and irritation of urinary bladder, it is sedative. Leaves are used as intoxicant.
HYSSOPUS OFFICINALIS L. Family:
Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Zufa, Zupa Hyssop Whole Plant March – May Ziarzt valley
Brief Description: A small smooth erect glabrous shrub; leaves 8mm long, sessile, lanceolate, entire; flowers bluish purple in axillary or terminal spikes. Constituents: Zufa contains terpenes (including marubiin, a diterpene), flavonoids, hyssopins, tannins and resin. Medicinal Actions & Uses: A bitter, aromatic, astringent herb that is expectorant, reduces inflammation and lowers fever, it has a tonic effect on digestive, urinary, nervous and bronchial system. Caution: Hyssop oil can cause epileptic seizures only be used under professional supervision.
INULA GRANTIOIDES Boiss. Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Compositae Naro, Kolmur Whole plant November – December Southern Baluchistan
Brief Description: A perennial shrub, glandular and hairy; stem stout woody; leaves 25cm long variably lobed; flower heads yellow, terminal and solitary. Constituents: volatile oil, flavonoids Medical Actions & Uses: The herb is recommended for asthma and bronchitis.
JUNIPERUS EXCELSA M. B. (Syn. J. macropoda Hk. F) Family: Local Name:
Cupressaceae Obusht, Oboshta, Apurs
English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Pencil Cedar Fruit, essential oil May – June Chiltan , Harnai, Quetta, Loralai, Chinar hills, Qalat, Khurasan hills, Zarghoon Range
Brief Description: A small medium sized tree, bark reddish brown, vertically fissured; leaves of two kinds, young seedlings and some of the lower branches subulate, pungent on most branches elliptic glands; flowers monoecious, male at the tip of branchlets; fruit globose, blue black, very resinous; seeds 2-5. Constituents: 1-2% essential oil consisting of more than 60 compounds also contains tannins, diterpenes, sugar, resin and vitamin C. Medicinal Use & Actions: A bitter aromatic herb, a tonic, diuretic, antiseptic, improves digestion, stimulates uterus and reduces inflammation. Taken internally or applied externally juniper is helpful for chronic arthritis, gout and rheumatic conditions. Internally, for cystitis, urethritis, rheumatism, gout, arthritis and poor digestion with flatulence and colic. Caution: Not given to pregnant women and patients with kidney kidney’s disease. Economic: Oil gives flavour to gin.
LINUM USITATISSIMUM L. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts Used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Linaceae Alsi Flax, Linseed, Lint, Lyne Whole plant, seed, bark, flower, Oil February – April Cultivated Loralai Dist.
Brief Description: A medium sized erect annual herb; stem cylindrical; leaves narrow, 3 nerved; flowers blue in terminal clusters; seed brown, flattened, shiny. Constituents: Seeds contain 30-40% fixed oil (including 36-50% linolenic acid, 6% mucilage, 25% protein), wax, sugar, resin, phosphate and a small quantity of glycoside linamarin. Medicinal Actions & Uses: A sweet mucilaginous herb that is laxative and expectorant, soothes irritated tissues, controls coughing and relieves pain. Externally for bronchitis, pleurisy, sore throat, boils, abscesses and ulcers.
LITHOSPERMUM ARVENSE L. Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Boraginaceae Rodinkawa, Piria darakht Leaves, root February – March Pab hills, Jhalawan, Harboi hills
Brief Description: An erect medium size annual herb; leaves lanceolate, oblong-ovate with broad tip; flowers 6mm long white, rarely blue on stalk in racemes, bract leaf like, calyx 5 lobed, linear; corolla hairy. Constituents: Plant contains alkaloid, cynoglossine. Little is known of chemistry of this genus. Medical Actions & Uses: Infusion of leaves is used as sedative in Spain. Related species L. erythrorhizon (L. officinalis) is used as contraceptive and has anticancer effect. The herb needs to be investigated.
LYCIUM DEPPRESSUM Stocks (Syn. L. barbarum (non L.) Clarke Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Solanaceae Koh-tori, Chirchita Chinese boxthorn, matromony vine Fruit (berries), Root bark October – November Qalat, Pishin valley, Makran
Brief Description: A glabrous thorny shrub; leaves variable in dry areas, small 1.2-2.5 cm long (in favourable conditions upto 6cm long), oblanceolate, linear oblong, subsessile or shortly petioled; flowers white or pale purple on slender pedicels, tubular; berry 6cm in dia., bright red when ripe. Constituents: Leaves contain poisonous alkaloids Medicinal Actions & Uses: Fruits produce a sweet, tonic decoction that lowers blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels, acting mainly on liver and kidneys. The bitter, cooling, antibacterial root bark controls coughs and lowers fever, blood pressure and blood cholesterol levels. Internally for high blood pressure, diabetes, poor eyesight,
vertigo, lumbago, impotence and menopausal complaints (fruits), chronic fevers, internal hemorrhage, nosebleed, tuberculosis, coughs, asthma, verrucas and childhood eczema (root bark). Externally, for genital itching. Caution: Leaves poisonous to livestock.
MATRICARIA RECUTITA (Syn. M.chamomilla, Chamomilla recutita) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Compositae Babuna German Chamomille Flowers February – April Quetta
Brief Description: A small erect, much branched annual or perennial herb; leaves twice pinnately divided, segment thread like; flowers inner tubular, yellow, outer ligulate white in solitary, long stalked heads. Constituents: Volatile oil, flavonoids, bitter glycosides, coumarins, tannins. Medicinal Actions & Uses: A bitter aromatic, sedative herb that relaxes spasm, reduces inflammation, relieves pain and promotes healing; help digestion and stimulates immune system. Internally for nervous digestive upset, insomnia, travel sickness, hay fever, asthma; children complaints like teething, colic. Externally, for wounds, sunburn, burns, hemorrhoids, mastites and leg ulcer. Economic: Added to cosmetics as an antiallergenic agent and to hair preparation as conditioner and lightener.
MENTHA LONGIFOLIA (L.) Huds. (Syn. M. sylvestris L.) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Labiatae Shinshobae, Velanae, Vialangi, wealni, podina Horsemint Leaves, oil February – May Bolan, Loralai, Quetta, Pishin, Zhob districts
Brief Description: An erect, medium size, strongly scented herb; leaves lanceolate, ovate or oblong, sharply toothed, nearly sessile, short pointed, gray velvety above, white felted
below; flowers small, lilac, in large cluster, crowded on axillary and terminal cylindric tapering spikes. Constituents: Volatile oil and flavonoids. Medicinal Action & Uses: Mainly in culinary, used in Asian cuisine. Herb is carminative and stimulant.
MYRTUS COMMUNIS L. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Occurrence:
Myrtaceae Mara Myrtle Leaves, fruit, Essential oil Bori Tehsil
Brief Description: Evergreen shrub growing to 10ft tall; dark green leaves; white flowers; purple black fruits. Constituents: Myrtle contains tannins, flavonoids and volatile oil mainly alpha pinene, cineol and myrtenole. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Myrtle leaves are astringent, tonic and antiseptic, They may be used externally to heal wounds, for acne, gum infection and hemorrhoids. Internally, for digestive and urinary disorder. The essential oil is antiseptic and decongestant, used for chest problem. Caution: Do not take essential oil internally without professional advice.
NERIUM INDICUM Mill. (Syn. N. odorum Soland.) Family: Local Name: English name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Apocynaceae Gadeli, Gander, Jaur, Kaner Oleander Leaves, seed, root April – October Baluchistan all districts
Brief Description: An erect glabrous ever green shrub with milky juice; leaves alternate sometime opposite, linear-lanceolate narrowed at both ends, thick, coriacious; flowers red, pink or white, fragrant in terminal panicles; bract long divided near to the base; corolla tube long cylindrical, hairy within, funnel shaped.
Constituents: Plant contains neriodorin, karbin, odorin Medicinal Action & Uses: The plant is poisonous. Root and root bark is powerful diuretic, resolvent, attenuate and cardiac tonic. Externally, applied to ulcer and cancer, oil is used in skin diseases and leprosy. Powder of root is rubbed on forehead to relieve headache.
OLEA EUROPEA L. Family: Common Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Oleaceae Zatoon Olive Bark, gum, oil February – March Cultivated Harnai, Zhob
Brief Description: An ever green branched tree, upto 8 m tall or more; leaves elliptic, oblong or lanceolate, dark green above, densely silvery beneath, panicles shorter than leaves; flowers fragrant; drupes subglobose to oblong, black and shiny when ripe. Constituents: Olive leaves contain oleoropine, oleosterol and leine. Olive oil contains about 70% oleic acid a monounsaturated fatty acid. Medicinal Action &Uses: Leaves antiseptic that lowers fever and blood pressure and helps to improve the function of circulatory system, mildly diuretic may be used to treat cystitis, used for diabetes. The oil is nourishing and improves the balance of fats within the blood. It is traditionally taken with lemon juice in teaspoonful for gallstone. The oil has generally protective action on the digestive tract and is useful for dry skin. Olive leave lowers blood pressure.
ONOSOMA HISPIDUM Wall. ex G. Don. (Syn. O. echinoides Linn) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Boraginaceae Ratanjot, Laljari King’s Dye Leaves, flower, root March – July Common in Baluchistan Harboi hills, Pishin
Brief Description: A small medium sized un-branched, hairy biennial; leaves oblong; flowers on forked raceme, yellow on one side; fruit long stony, shining white smooth, often speckled.
Constituents: Plant contains alkaloids. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Ratanjot is commonly used in external applications therefore in ointments applied as astringent and desiccative in chronic ulcers and buns, leucoderma, psoriasis, warts, carbuncles, herpes, bilious eruption and ulcerous wounds. Internally, root, flowers and leaves possess alterative and desiccative properties hence used in hepatic disorder (jaundice), pain in the spleen, liver, kidney, urinary bladder obstructions, stone, gout and in chronic fever. Flowers used as cordial in rheumatism and palpitation.
NASTURTIUM OFFICINALIS R.Br. (Syn. N. fontanum Ascher) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Cruciferae Pirya Halim Watercress Whole plant February – July Baluchistan
Brief Description: A small perennial aquatic plant found floating with long creeping stems; leaves 5-10cm, pinnate, leaflets sessile, entire or wavy; flowers white, raceme short petals longer than sepals, 4 each, pod oblong, slightly curved . Constituents: The herb contains vitamin A, B1, B2, C, and E, and minerals (especially iodine, iron, and phosphorus) Medicinal Actions & Uses: Watercress is a valuable source of vitamins and a good detoxifying herb. The high content of Vitamin C is a remedy for chronic illnesses. The herb is stimulant for appetite and relieves indigestion, helps in case of bronchitis and is a powerful diuretic.
NEPETA CATARIA L. (Syn. N. calaminthoides Benth.) Family: English Name: Part used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Labiatae Catmint Flower, leaves December – February Common in Baluchistan
Brief Description: An erect, medium size perennial herb with acutely 4-angled stem; leaves 2.5-7.5cm, ovate or ovate heart shaped, short pointed, coarsely round or sharp toothed; flower white dotted with purple dots on narrow terminal short stalked spike.
Constituents: Catmint contains iridoids, tannins and volatile oil.
Medicinal Action & Uses: Catmint helps digestion, sedative, reduces fever, suitable for cold, flue, fever in children, used in treating headache due to indigestion. Oil is used for rheumatic and arthritic joints and as ointment treats hemorrhoids. Related species: N. hindotana (Roth) Haines
OCHRADENUS BACCATUS Del. Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Resedaceae Kirmkush Twigs, leaves, flowers April – May Baluchistan
Brief Description: A shrubby, straggling or climbing on other bushes with slender green branch, 2-4 m high; leaves linear, narrow, alternate; flowers minute in terminal racemes, yellowish, uni or bisexual; 10-12 stamens; berry small, white with few large seeds. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Flowers, leaves twigs are fried, ground to powder and applied to wounds and sores to kill maggots etc. in Baluchistan. PAPAVER SOMNIFERUM L. Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Papaveraceae Doda, Post, Afim Opium Poppy Latex from fruit March – April Jhal, Kachhi
Brief Description: A medium size to large erect, smooth, often un-branched herb; leaves oblong, stem clasping, lobed and toothed; flowers large, whitish, purple or scarlet; sepals smooth, stigmatic rays 5-12, capsule round stalked; seed white or black and many. Constituents: Opium poppy contains more than 40 opium alkaloids, including morphine (up to 20%), narcotine (about 5%) codein (about 1%) and papaverine (about 1%). It also contains meconic acid, albumin, mucilage, sugars, resin and wax. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Opium (the dried latex) is potent narcotic, analgesic and antispasmodic and has been taken to relieve pain of all kinds. Morphine is extensively used in conventional medicine to relieve pain, especially in terminal illness. Codeine is a milder analgesic used for headaches and other pain.
Caution: Use opium poppy only under professional supervision. It is subject to legal restrictions.
PEGANUM HARMALA L. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Zygophyllaceae Harmal, Ispandan, Kasankur, Spand, Spanj, Harmar African rue Seed and root October – December All districts
Brief Description: A multi-branched, densely foliate shrub reaching 30-60 cm height; root perennial, leaves and stem annual; leaves much divided, lobes or segments linear, short pointed, stipules bristle like; flowers white and solitary, sessile or stalked, in the axils of branches; capsule with many seeds. Constituents: Harmala contains up to 4% indole alkaloids (including harmine, harmaline and harmalol. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Internally for stomach complaints, urinary and sexual disorders, epilepsy, menstrual problems, nervous and mental illnesses. Remedy for tape worms. Excess causes hallucinations and vomiting. Externally for hemorrhoids and baldness. Economic: Fruits yield a red dye and oil.
PHYLLANTHUS EMBLICA L. (Syn. Emblica officinalis Gaertn.) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering:
Euphorbiaceae Aonia, Amla Indian Gooseberry Fruit, flowers & seeds March – May
Brief Description: A medium sized deciduous tree; leaves distichious, deciduous, linear oblong, entire, glabrous, sub sessile; flowers without petals, yellow or greenish; fruit sub globose, succulent,; seed 6 ridged. Constituents: Fruit contains vitamin C, fixed oil , volatile oil and essential oil; root contains tannins.
Medicinal Actions & Uses: Fruit refrigrant, diuretic, laxative, acrid. Dried fruit is used in haemorrhage, dysentery, jaundice, dyspepsia and anaemia. Seeds are used in asthma, bronchitis and biliousness. Flowers are refrigrant, cooling and aperiant. Root bark is astringent. Amla is given to allay aging and to restore organs; fruit juice is given to strengthen pancreas of diabetics and also for joint pain.
PINUS GERARDIANA Willd. ex Lamb. Family: Local Names: Parts used: Occurrence:
Pinaceae Zhanghoza, Chilgoza Seed & seed oil Shinghar and Sulaiman Range
Brief Description: A medium size tree spreading at the top; branches irregular; bark grayish, thin: leaves in fascicles of 3; sheath deciduous; leaves stiff, sharp pointed, minutely srrulate; staminate cones 1-1.5cm long, ovulate cone 12-20cm long, 9-12cm broad; seed cylindric, 2-2.5 long. Constituents: Contains essential oil. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Seed are stimulant and anodyne, seed oil applied as dressing on wounds and headache. PISTACIA MUTICA Fisch. & Mey. Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Occurrence:
Anacardiaceae Bana, Khinjal Mastic Gum Mastich All districts of Baluchistan
Brief Description: A multi branched tree. Constituents: Resin contains masticoresins, tannins, pinene Medicinal Actions & Uses: Stimulant, diuretic, restorative, absorbent. Effective in toothache and bleeding.
PLANTAGO OVATA Forssk. (Syn. P. decumbens Forssk. P. ispaghula Roxb.) Family: Local Names: English Name:
Plantaginaceae Ispaghul, Sangpara, Shkampara, Khardanichk Plantain
Parts Used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Seeds and husk March – May All districts of Baluchistan
Brief Description: A sparsely or thickly stemless, herb, leaves 7.5-22cm long, narrow, filiform, lanceolate, acuminate, 5 veined, glabrous or pubescent; spikes 1.2-5cm long, ovoid, cylindric, bracts ovate, oblong, obtuse, glabrous; flowers 6mm long; seeds boat shaped. Constituents: Plants contains mucilage, seeds contain holoside planteose Medicinal Actions & Uses: Seeds are cooling, diuretic, demulcent, laxative, used for constipation and darrhoea.
PODOPHYLLUM EMODI Wall. (Syn. P. hexandrum Royle) Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Podophyllaceae Bankarki, Papra, Banwagan May Apple, Mandrake Rhizome, root May – June Ziarat 2500 – 3500M
Brief Description: An erect perennial herb, 15-30cm high; leaves peltate, orbicular, three lobed; flower usually solitary, white, sepals 3, petals 6, carpel 1, stigma large and sessile; fruit ovoid scarlet berry; seeds many. Constituents: Rhizome contains podophyllin, podophyllotoxin, flavonoids, resin and gum. Local species yield higher resin (10-12%) than compared to American (4%). Medicinal Actions & Uses: Rhizome and roots are hepatic stimulant in minute doses, vermifuge and liver tonic. Externally for removing warts.
POLYGALA SIBERICA L. (Syn. P. monopetala Camb.; P. vulgaris Thumb.) Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Polygalaceae Meradu Milkwort Aerial parts and root February – June Quetta, Ziarat above 3200M
Brief Description: A small to medium sized erect annual velvety herb; stem many from a perennial rootstock; leaves 1.2-5cm, circular or lanceolate, oblong, with rounded end, shiny; sepals winged, capsule broadly winged, smooth; seeds hairy with 3 appendages. Constituents: Plant contains triterpenoid saponin, volatile oil and mucilage. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Root is given in cold and cough, bronchitis, amnesia and sexual impotency and seminal losses.
POLYGONUM AVICULARE L. Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Polygonaceae Kesru, Bannali, Banduke Knotgrass Whole plant February – June Ziarat, Baluchistan
Brief Description: A prostrate medium sized, smooth annual herb; stem and branches 30-60cm long, grooved; leaves 1.2-2.5cm narrowly lanceolate, almost sessile; flowers small green with white or red tips; nut minutely wrinkled, ovate and flattened. Constituents: Plant contains tannins, flavonoids, polyphenols, silicic acid and mucilage. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Plant is used to treat diarrhea and hemorrhoids, to expel worms, to reduce heavy menstrual flow and to stop nosebleed. It is also taken for pulmonary complaints. Used for intestinal worms, and dysentrery.
PSORALEA CORYLIFOLIA L. Family: Local Names English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Papillionaceae Babchi Scurf pea Seeds April – May Baluchistan coast
Brief Description: An erect medium sized perennial herb growing to 1M, branches dotted with glands; leaves roundish with round-toothed margin; flowers yellow or whitetipped with purple; pod round, small smooth black. Constituents: Seeds contain psoraline, isosorlin and bavachin.
Medicinal Actions & Uses: Valued as a yang tonic and is taken in China to impotence and premature ejaculation and to improve vitality. Diuretic ‘Kidney deficiency’ such as lower back pain, frequent urination. Externally, to treat conditions such as psoriasis, alopecia (loss of hair), and vitiligo (loss of pigmentation). Tincture is used to treat rheumatism .
treat yang skin skin
RHAZYA STRICTA Dcne. Family: Local Names: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Apocynaceae Aishwarg, Rangobul, Urgalarm, Gandana Leaves and fruits December – March All districts of Baluchistan
Brief Description: A glabrous stout leafy shrub, 90cm tall; leaves spirally arranged, 710cm long, 1-2cm broad, linear, elliptic, yellowish, leathery; flower 3mm across, faintly scented, terminal and axillary cymes. Constituents: Leaves contain an alkaloid sewarine. Medical Actions & Uses: Leaves are bitter, juice is given in skin eruptions, boils, sore throat, fever and general debility. Leaves are considered to have anticancer properties.
RICINUS COMMUNIS L. Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Euphorbiaceae Arand, Harnauli, Bedanjir, Murgpad, Hirm Caster Bean Plant Seed oil, seeds Flowers various seasons All districts of Baluchistan; wild and cultivated
Brief Description: An evergreen soft wood shrub, occasionally a small tree; leaves alternate, medium sized, many lobed palmate, lobes acuminate and serrate, petiole stout; flower large in terminal subpanicled racemes, monoecious, apetalous, upper female, lower male stamens numerous up to 1000 in each flower; seeds oblong, mottled Constituents: The seed contains 40-50% fixed oil which consists mainly of glycerides of ricinoleic acid, recine a highly toxic protein, recinine (an alkaloid) and lectins. Caution: The seeds are highly poisonous – 2 seed are sufficient to kill an adult – toxins do not pass into the expressed oil. Do not ingest the seed these are extremely poisonous. Do not take castor oil during pregnancy or more often than once every few week as treatment for constipation.
Medicinal Actions & Uses: Oil is strong laxative, it is well tolerated by skin and some times used as vehicle for medicinal and cosmetic preparations. Poultice of seeds is used for joint pain.
RUBIA CORDIFOLIA L. (Syn. Rubia akane Nakai, Rubia cordifolia f. akane (Nakai) Kitmura Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Occurrence:
Rubiaceae Lewerand, Manjit Indian Madder Root, stem Muslim Bagh, Baluchistan
Brief Description: A climber with perennial root stock, stem stout, branches 4 angled; leaves heart shaped, ovate long pointed, long stalked in circle of four; flower minute, dark red, crowded in terminal raceme; fruit round, two seeds; juice red. Constituents: Plant contains glycosides munjistin. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Root is astringent, tonic and alterative, analgesic, anodyne, diuretic. Stem is used in snake and scorpion bites. Red dye is made from root. Related species: Rubia tinctorum contains alizarin, purpurin, resin and calcium. Rarely employed to treat kidney and gall bladder stone.
SOLANUM MINIATUM Benth. ex Wild. (Syn. Solanum nigrum L. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Solanaceae Angun, Kamuri,Mako Black Night shade Leaves and berries All the year round Loralai, Sibi districts
Brief Description: An erect, medium size, leafy perennial herb; leaves lobed or coarsely toothed, ovate or oblong, narrowed at both ends; flowers white on nearly umbelled short stalk, corolla 5, anthers united; berry 6-8mmin dia. red or black, rarely yellow, rounded; seed 1-2mm, discoid, many. Constituents: Berry contains steroidal alkaloid solanine and solaidine, sponin and tannins.
Medicinal Actions & Uses: The herb is alterative, diuretic, sedative and anodyne, expectorant, tonic laxative. Leaves are used as poultice on inflamed joints. Berries are used in inflammation of liver and abdominal viscera, piles gonorrhoea.
SOLANUM SURRATTENSE Burm. (Syn. Solanum xanthocarpum Schrad. & Wendl.) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Solanaceae Bandanshan, Bhatkatiya Kantakari Whole plant June – November Bolan, Lasbela, Jhalawan districts
Brief Description: A thorny more or less prostrate annual herb with star shaped hair; leaves 5-10cm oblong, pinnate with prickles; flowers blue, solitary in small clusters; berry round, yellow or whitish with green blotches. Constituents: Plant contains steroidal alkaloids including solacarpine. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Plant is bitter, digestive, expectorant, seed may relieve asthma and to clear bronchial mucous. The root is used for snake and scorpion bite. Caution: Use only under professional directions.
SOPHORA MOLLIS (Royle) Baker var. hydaspidia Baker (Syn. S. grifithii Stock) Family: Local Names: English Name: Flowering: Parts used: Occurrence:
Papillionaceae Shampastirs, Zamherab, Kathi (Punjabi) Himalayan laburmum March-April Root, seed, juice Quetta, Qila Saifullah, Sharig, Kohlu
Brief Description: A small erect deciduous shrub; twigs densely hairy; leaves 10-20 cm long, stipule minute; leaflets opposite; flower yellow in pedunculate raceme. Flowers 1.8 cm long, pods persistently silky. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Decoction of root is applied warm to relieve headache. Juice is used in sore eyes. Powdered seed mixed with oil is used to kill lice.
SYZYGIUM CUMINI (L) Skeel (Syn. Eugenia jambolina Lam.
Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Myrtaceae Jamun Black berry, jambul Bark, root, fruit, seed March – May Las Bela, Nasirabad, Sibi
Brief Description: A large evergreen tree: light gray smooth bark; leaves opposite, variable, lanceolate, elliptic, oblong , acuminate, smooth; flowers dirty white, fragrant; fruit succulent, dark purple, edible, one stone. Constituents: Seed contains glucosides and essential oil, ellagic acid, alkaloid jambosine. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Seeds are used in diabetes; fruit useful in diarrhoea, Bark is astringent used in mouthwash.
TEUCRIUM STOCKSIANUM Boiss. Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Occurrence:
Labiatae/Lamiaceae Kalpira, Karpola Germander Aerial parts/ stem and leaves Quetta, Loralai, Pishin, Sibi districts
Brief Description: Perennial herb, small; dark green oval toothed leaves, flowers in spike, woody root. Constituents: Herb contains iridoid glycosides, volatile oil and tannins. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Gemander is used to relieve stomach gas, itching related with malaria and typhoid. Used for cough and cold, to treat diabetes, to strengthen heart function also useful for jaundice and as general tonic. Burnt aerial part in mustard oil is useful against skin irritation.
THYMUS SERPYLLUM Linn. Family:
Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Tor mauri, Hasha Wild Thyme Whole plant above ground May – October Near Ziarat, Northern area above 2000-5000 m
Brief Description: A small slender, aromatic, much branched herb, clothed with short hairs; leaves opposite, ovate, oblong, entire, dotted with glands; petiole short; flowers small, corolla gland dotted on spike, mauve colour; stamens 4; nutlet smooth. Constituents: Thyme contains volatile oil (thymol, linalool, tannins and resin). Medicinal Actions & Uses: Wild thyme strongly antiseptic and antifungal. As infusion or syrup for flu and colds, sore throats, coughs, whooping cough, chest infection and bronchitis. It has decongestant properties and helps clear a stuffy nose, sinusitis, ear congestion and related complaints. With honey and lukewarm water it proves useful antispasmodic in paralysis and facial paralysis, amnesia, tetanus and epilepsy, used in coughs and asthma, relieves flatulent colic, loss of appetite, stomach debility and assists digestion, diuretic and useful in relieving period pain. It has been used, with caution, to expel threadworms and roundworms in children. Reputedly effective in treating alcoholism. Not given to pregnant women. Externally, for minor injuries, mastitis (inflammation of the breast), rheumatism, sciatica and mouth, gum and throat infections. Mosquito repellent. Used in herbal baths and pillows. Being an antiseptic useful against eczema, psoriasis, ringworm, alopecia. TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI (L.) Sprague (Syn. T. copticum (L.) Link, Carum copticum (L.) Benth. & Hooker) Family: Local Names: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Umbelliferae Ajwain, Sperkai Bishop’s weed, Ajowain seeds Seed and oil March – April Wild and cultivated; Barkhan, Bori, Kohlu, Loralai, Shahrig
Brief Description: An erect medium size annual herb, root spindle shaped, ultimate segments of leaves linear, finely divided pinnate leaves; flowers white, bracts many divided into bracteoles. Constituents: Seeds contain essential oil. Medicinal Actions & Uses: An aromatic, bitter, warming herb, diuretic and expectorant effects. It relaxes spasm improves digestion, increases perspiration and is strongly antiseptic. Internally for colds, coughs, influenza, asthma, diarrhea, cholera, colic, indigestion, flatulence, edema, arthritis and rheumatism. Patients with hyperacidity should avoid. Externally, for rheumatism.
Culinary: Seeds are used to flavour dishes.
ONOSOMA BRACTEATUM Wall Syn.Trichodesma indicum (L.) R. Br. (Syn. Borago indica Linn.) Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Boraginaceae Gaozaban Whole plant August – October Las Bela
Brief Description: A small hairy rough, annual herb; leaves sessile, lanceolate, stem clasping, often alternate; short pointed; flowers solitary, on drooping, axillary stalks pale blue turning to pink and white; fruit oblong with rounded ends. Constituents: Contains mucilage, tannins and prolizidine alkaloids that are toxic to liver. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Plant used as diuretic, emollient poultice for inflamed skin. Powdered root with water used for dysentery. Soothes respiratory problem. Flower encourages sweating and leaves diuretic. Seed oil used to treat premenstrual complaints, rheumatic problems, eczema and other chronic skin diseases.
TRIBULUS TERRISTERIS Linn. Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Zygophyllaceae Bhakhra, Gobind, Gokhru Caltrop, Puncture vine Fruit August – November All district of Baluchistan & through out Pakistan
Brief Description: A prostrate hairy annual or biannual herb, branches silky; leaves abruptly pinnate, leaflets 5-7 pairs; flowers yellow, solitary on stalks shorter than the leaves; seeds 2 in each cell. Constituents: Plant contains alkaloid, a fixed oil and an essential oil, resins and nitrates. Medicinal Action & Uses: Gokhru is cooling, diuretic, demulcent, tonic and aphrodisiac. Fruit is recommended for urinary diseases such as chronic cystitis, gonorrhoea and painful micturition. It is useful in inflammatory conditions of genito-urinary system. Seeds are recommended in hemorrhages, diseases of the bladder, kidney stone and gout.
VIOLA CINEREA Boiss.
Family: Local Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Violaceae Banafsha Whole plant March – May Harnai district
Brief Description: A common small, smooth spring herb; stem sometimes branched; leaves oblong ovate or laceolate, stipule leafy, fringed; flowers axillary; rhizome short and thick; capsule rounded, few seeded. Medicinal Actions & Uses: Herb is diaphoretic, reduces fever. Flowers are demulcent, astringent, diuretic and used for skin disease.
VITEX PSEUDO-NEGUNDO (Hussak.) Hand. (Syn. V. agnus-castus L.) Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Occurrence:
Verbenaceae Gwanik, Maramandai, Panj-angusht Chaste tree, Whole plant, leaves, seeds, root, flower and bark Baluchistan, all districts
Brief Description: A large shrub; leaves opposite, 5 foliate, leaflets lanceolate; flowers in cylindric panicles, bright violet flowers; cold and drought resistant. Medicinal Action & Uses: A pungent, bitter sweet, slightly astringent, relaxant herb that regulates hormonal functions, promotes lactation, and relieves spasm and pain. Internally for menopausal and menstrual complaints and premature ejaculation.
WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (L.) Dunal Family: Local Name: English Name: Parts used: Flowering: Occurrence:
Solanaceae Baibru, Bodmar, Lakri, Asgand Winter cherry, Ashwaganda Root All year round Bolan, Sibi, Jhalawan, and throughout Pakistan
Brief Description: An evergreen under shrub, branches round grayish green; leaves ovate, subacute, entire, thin, base narrowed into a petiole; flowers greenish yellow, axillary sessile or shortly stalked, solitary or clustered; berries round, red smooth; seeds yellow,many.
Constituents: Apart from nicotine plant contains six new alkaloids, sominine, somniferine, somniferinine, withanine, withananine, withananinine. An antibiotic has also been isolated from the leaves. Medicinal Actions & Uses: A bittersweet, astringent warming herb. It mainly acts on reproductive and nervous system, has sedative, rejuvenative and aphrodisiac effects. Internally for debility, convalescence, nervous system, insomnia, geriatric complaints, impotence, infertility, joint and nerve pains and multiple sclerosis. Usually given as milk decoction with raw sugar and honey.
Bibliography: Anonymous. List of Potential Medicinal Plants of Baluchistan, Chief Conservator of Forests, Quetta. Baquar,S.R. 1989. Medicinal and Poisonous Plants of Pakistan. Printas Karachi, Pakistan pp.489. Brown, Deni 1995. The Herb Society of America, Encyclopedia of Herbs & Their Uses. Dorling Kindersley Ltd London U.K. pp. 424. Chevallier, A.1996. The Encyclopedia of Medicinal Plants. Dorling Kindersley Ltd London, U.K. pp.336. Khan Usmanghani, Aftab Saeed & M.T. Alam, 1997. Indusyunic medicine,Traditional Medicine of Herbal, Animal and Mineral Origin in Pakistan. Dept. Pharmacology, Uni. Karachi, Pakistan pp 577 Shinwari, Z.K. 1996. Ethnobotany in Pakistan: Sustainable and Participatory Approach. In Proceeding of First Training Workshop on Ethnobotany and its application to Conservation. Edit. Z.K. Shinwari, B.A. Khan & Ashiq Ahmad Khan. National Herbarium/PARC, Islamabad