Hindawi Publishing Corporation Journal o Composites Volume ����, Article ID ������, �� ������, �� pages pages http://dx.doi.org/�� http://dx.doi.org/��.����/����/������ .����/����/������
Review Artic Article le Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete Raman Bedi,1 Rakesh Chandra,1 and S. P. Singh 2 � �
Department of Mechanical Engineering, Dr. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar ������, India Department of Civil Engineering, Dr. B R Ambedkar National Institute of Technology, Jalandhar ������, India
Correspondence should be addressed to Raman Bedi; [email protected]
Received �� August ����; Revised � November ����; Accepted � November ���� Academic Editor: Hui Shen Shen Copyright © ���� Raman Bedi et al. Tis is an open access article distributed under the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited. Polymer Polym er co concr ncretewas etewas int introd roduce uced d in the lat latee �� ����s ��s an and d bec became ame wel welll kno known wn in the ��� ����s �s o orr it itss use in rep repair air,, thi thin n ov overl erlay ayss and�oors and�oors,, and precast components. components. Because o its properties like high compr compressive essive strength, ast curing , high speci�c strength, and resistance to chemical attacks polymer concrete has ound application application in very specialized domains. Simultaneously these materials have been used use d in mac machin hinee co const nstruc ructio tion n als also o whe where re the vib vibrat ration ion da damp mping ing pr prope operty rty o pol polyme ymerr co concr ncret etee hasbeen exp exploi loited ted.. Tisreview dea deals ls with the eﬀorts o various researchers in selection o ingredients, processing parameters, curing conditions, conditions, and their eﬀects on the mechanical properties o the resulting material.
1. Introduction Polymer concrete is a composite material which results rom polymerization o a monomer/aggregate mixture. Te polymerized monomer acts as binder or the aggregates and the resulting composite is called “Concrete.” Te developments in the �eld o polymer concrete date back to the late ����s when whe n the these se ma mater terial ialss wer weree dev develo eloped ped as rep replac laceme ement nt o cement concrete in some speci�c applications. Early usage o polymer concrete has been reported or building cladding and an d so o ort rth. h. La Late terr on bec becau ause se o ra rapi pid d cu curi ring, ng, ex exce celle llent nt bo bond nd to cement concrete and steel reinorcement, high strength, and durability durability,, it was exten extensive sively ly used as repa repair ir mate material rial [�]. Precast polymer concrete has been used to produce a variety o products like acid tanks, manholes, drains, highway median barriers, and so orth. Te pr prope opertie rtiess o pol polyme ymerr con concr crete ete diﬀ diﬀer er gre greatl atlyy depe dependnding on the conditions o preparation. For a given type o polymer concrete, the properties are dependent upon binder content, aggregate size distribution, nature and content o the micro�ller, curing conditions, and so orth [ �]. Te most commonly used resins or polymer concrete are unsaturated polyester polye ster resin, meth methyl yl methac methacrylate, rylate, epoxy resi resins, ns, uran resins, polyurethane resins, and urea ormaldehyde resin [ �]. Generally, more than ��–��% volume in polymer concrete is occ occupi upied ed by the agg aggreg regat ates es and �ll �llers ers.. Te aggr aggrega egates tes
are normally taken as inert materials dispersed throughout the polymer matrix. Normally aggregates are added in two size groups, that is, coarse aggregates comprising material o mor moree tha than n � mm siz sizee and �ne aggr aggrega egates tes having having size lesss tha les than n � mm. Te gra gradin dingg o aggrega aggregates tes in the case o polymerr concr polyme concrete ete is nons nonstanda tandardiz rdized ed till dat datee and varies widely rom system to system. In addition to the coarse and �ne aggregates, micro�llers are also added sometimes to the polymer concrete system mainly with an aim to �ll the microvoids. Similar to the conventional concrete, polymer concrete can also be reinorced or improving its mechanical prope pr opertie rtiess wit with h diﬀ diﬀer erentkinds entkinds o �br �bres. es. Te use o st steel eel,, glas glass, s, polypropylene, and nylon �bres has been reported in the literature. Te import importance ance o resea research rch on polyme polymerr conc concrete rete materials ria ls ha hass bee been n re reco cogn gniz ized ed as ea earl rlyy as in �� ���� �� wi with th th thee setting up o ACI Committee ���—Polymers in Concrete. Te Committee has been responsible or developing a large database on properties o polymer concrete. Te Committee has also issued state-o-the-art reports and user guides on polymer concrete. RILEM (International Union o esting and Research Laboratories or Materials & Structures) with setting up o echnical Committee C-���-CPC (Concrete Polymer Composites) and C-���-CP (est Methods or Concrete Concr ete Pol Polymer ymer Compos Composites ites)) has been instru instrumenta mentall in
� preparing various test methods or these materials. Society o Material Science Japan (JSMS) has also contributed towards the development o polymer concrete materials with the help o Synthetic-Resins-or-Concrete Committee. Society o Material Science Japan has also published design recommendations or polyester concrete structures as well as a mix design guide. Amongst the countries which are using polymer concrete composites, the standardization work on various test methods and applications has been taken up mainly by Japan, United States, United Kingdom, Germany, and erstwhile Soviet Union. Owing to their superior properties like rapid curing, high compressive strength, high speci�c stiﬀness and strength, resistance to chemicals and corrosion, ability to orm complex shapes, excellent vibration damping properties, and so orth, polymer concrete materials have also been extensively used or applications other than or which these were originally developed. Use o polymer concrete has been reported in electrical insulation systems [�, �] as well as machine tool applications since late ��s wherein these have been used to replace traditional materials like cast iron or machine tool bases [�–��]. Lot o research has been carried out in last ew decades to develop promising applications o polymer concrete, that is, its use in machine tool structures [ ��– ��]. However, beore the potential o these materials as an alternative material canbe ully harnessed, a methodology or assessment o the long term properties must be available.
2. Factors Affecting Properties of Polymer Concrete Polymer concrete is prepared by mixing a polymeric resin with aggregate mixture. Micro�llers are also employed sometimes to �ll the voids contained in the aggregate mixture. Polymeric resinsthat are commonly used in polymer concrete are methacrylate, polyester resin, epoxy resin, vinylester resin, and uran resins. Unsaturated polyester resins are the most commonly used resin systems or polymer concrete because o their low cost, easy availability, andgood mechanical properties [��]. Furan resins are also used to a great extent in European countries. MMA has got a limited application because o its higher �ammability and disagreeable odour; however, it has received some attention because o its good workability and low temperature curability [�]. Te choice o particular type o resin depends upon actors like cost, desired properties, and chemical/weather resistance required. Epoxy resins are preerred over polyester because o their better mechanical properties as well as better durability when subjected to harsh environmental actors, but higher cost is a deterrent in their widespread acceptance. A comparative study on the properties o epoxy and polymer concrete states that traditionally epoxy concrete has better properties than polyester concrete, but the properties o polyester concrete can be enhanced up to the same level by addition o micro�llers and silane coupling agents [��]. Te resin dosage reported by various authors mostly lie in the range o �� to ��% by weight o polymer concrete. Early studies on polyester resin concrete while taking resin content
Journal o Composites as a variable reported that compressive strength o polymer concrete is dependent upon the resin content [ ��]. Both the compressive strength and �exural strength increase with the increase in polymer content. Afer reaching the peak these either decrease or remain unchanged with urther increase in the resin content. Te lowest polymer content at which the properties are maximum will represent the optimum resin content or the system under study. It is observed that both �exural and compressive strength attain the maximum value between �� and ��% resin content by weight. Further studies in this area have also provided similar results. Variation o compressive strength o polymer concrete or various types o resins and their dosage has been reported in the literature [��]. It was observed that the highest strength was obtained in all types o resins at a resin dosage o ��%. For two types o epoxy resins, the strength decreased by increasing the resin content to ��%, whereas, or polyester resin, it almost remained constant. Te optimum resin content or a particular polymer concrete system is also dependent upon the nature o aggregate used in the system. Higher resin dosage is recommended when using �ne aggregate, because o the large surace area o these materials [ ��–��]. Varioustypes o aggregate materialshave been used by the researchers, most o these based upon the choice o locally available materials to reduce the cost. River sand [ ��, ��], oundry sand [��, ��, ��], crushed stone [��, ��], quartz, granite [��–��], and gravel are some o the materials reported by various authors. A large number o studies have been reported regarding the eﬀect o reinorcement o polymer concrete by addition o various types o �bers. Steel �bers, g lass �bers, carbon �bres, and polyester �bres have been added in polymer concrete in varying quantities or enhancement o its properties. Most o the studies have reported the addition o glass �bres in the range o � to �% by weight o polymer concrete. It has been reported that addition o glass �bres improves the postpeak behaviour o polymer concrete. Te strength and toughness o polymer concrete also increase with addition o �bres. Few studies on silane treatment o glass �bres beore their use in polymer concrete report an enhancement in mechanical properties up to the extent o ��% [ ��]. able � provides the details o the various types o reinorcements and their eﬀect on the properties o polymer concrete as reported by various researchers. A micro�ller is also ofen added to polymer concrete mix to reduce the void content in aggregate mixture and thereby increase the strength o polymer concrete. Te micro�ller is a �ne powder with a particle size less than �� microns. Use o calcium carbonate, �y ash, and silica ume has been reported in literature. Fly ash is a by the product o the coal burning in power plants and is used as a �ller because o its easy availability and because its usage in polymer concrete is reported to yield better mechanical properties as well as reduced water absorption [ ��]. Addition o �y ash also improves the workability o resh polymer concrete mix resulting in products with excellent surace �nish [ ��]. Studies have shown that small size o spherical particles also contributes to a better packing o the aggregate materials which reduces porosity and hinders the penetration o
Journal o Composites
� ���� �: Fibre reinorcements and their eﬀect on polymer concrete.
Author Broniewski et al. [��]
Valore and Naus [��]
Polyester, vinylester, epoxy
Fibers addition Steel �bers o �.��mm diameter and �� mm length, added in � to �.�% by weight
Nylon, glass, aramid, steel �bers o length ��.� to ��.� mm
Properties evaluated Brie �ndings Flexural strength, creep
Compressive strength, Young’s modulus, split tensile strength, and density
(i) Steel �bres o Compressive strength, �.� mm diameter, �–�% �exural strength, and (ii) Glass �bres o split tensile strength ��.� mm length, �–�%
Brockenbrough Methacrylate [��]
Vipulanandan et al. [��]
(i) Epoxy (ii) Polyester
Ottawa sand, blasting sand
Glass �bres, �–�%
Compressive strength, �exural strength, and split tensile strength
Vipulanandan and Mebarkia [��]
Glass �bres, �–�%
Mebarkia and Vipulanandan [��]
Glass �bers o �� mm length, �–�%
Gravel, dried sand
Steel �bers o �.� mm diameter and �� mm Compressive strength length, �–�% by weight
Sett and Vipulanandan [��]
Compressive strength, Glass �bers and carbon tensile strength, and �bers, �–�% by weight damping ratio
Addition o �.�% steel �bers increases the �exural strength by ��%. (i) Compressive strength increases as unction o density. (ii) Flexural strength is related to compressive strength (inPsi) as = 25√ � psi. (iii) Fiber addition increases �exural strength and ductility. (iv) Longer �bers have better eﬀect on compressive strength. (i) Addition o steel �bers increases the compressive strength, whereas the addition o glass �bers decreases the compressive strength. (ii) Flexural strength o polymer concrete is observed to increase by addition o both steel and glass �bers. (i) Maximum compressive and �exural strength are reported at ��% resin content. (ii) Addition o glass �bers increases the �exural strength, compressive strength. (iii) Silane treatment increases the �exural strength by ��%. (i) Flexural strength increases with increase in resin content. (ii) Addition o glass �bers is reported to enhance the strength and toughness o polymer concrete. (iii) Silane treatment o aggregate and �bers also enhanced the �exural strength. (i) For ��% resin and �% glass �ber content, an increase o ��% in compressive strength was reported over unreinorced polymer concrete. (ii) Failure strain and toughness increase with addition o �bers. (i) An optimum mix having ��% resin, ��% gravel, ��% dried sand, and ��% �y ash was reported. (ii) Polymer concrete achieves around ��% o the ��-day strength in one day. (iii) Addition o steel �bers beyond �.�% increases the compressive strength o the specimens rom �� MPa to ��� MPa. (iv) Steel �bers also increase the ductility o the polymer concrete which results in a better postpeak behavior. (i) Compressive strength and the ailure strain are reported to increase by ��% by addition o �% o glass �bers. (ii) Carbon �bers do not have any signi�cant eﬀect on the compressive properties. (iii) It was urther observed that damping ratio o polymer concrete increased with addition o glass �bers and carbon �bers.
Journal o Composites ���� �: Continued.
Laredo Dos Reis [��]
Glass �bers & carbon �bers, �–�% by weight
Jo et al. [��]
Pea gravel and siliceous river sand
Xu and Yu [��]
Copper coated stainless steel �bers, �/� ratio o ��
Glass �bers o �–�� mm length, added � to �% by weight
Bai et al. [��]
aggressive agents, thus considerably improving the chemical resistance o polymer concrete [ ��]. Addition o �y ash has been reported by a number o researchers which not only results in improvement in the workability o the polymer concrete mix but also has a signi�cant eﬀect on the mechanical properties. Enhancement in compressive strength up to ��% has been reported by addition o ��% �y ash in polymer concrete [��]. Addition o �y ash is also reported to have better perormance enhancement when compared to addition o silica ume as a �ller [ ��]. Heat assisted drying o the aggregates beore mixing with resin has been suggested by most o the researchers. It has been reported that water content o the aggregate has a remarkable in�uence on the strength o polymer concrete and thereore the water content shall be limited to �.�% [ ��]. It has been recommended by various researchers later on that the moisture content o the aggregate shall not exceed rom �.�% to �.�% or better mechanical properties [��, ��–��]. Various curingregimes havebeen reported by researchers like room temperature curing, high temperature curing, water curing, and so orth. Curing time studies on polymer concrete have established that it achieves around ��–��% o its strength afer a curing o one day at room temperature [��, ��, ��], whereas normal Portland cement concrete usually achieves about ��% o its��-day strength in oneday. Te early strength gain is important in precast applications because it permits the structures to resist higher stresses early due to orm-stripping, handling, transportation, and erection operations. It is observed that compressive strength o polymer concrete almost becomes constant afer dry curing or a period o � days [��].
Properties evaluated Brie �ndings (i) Addition o �bers increases the compressive strength by ��–��% or glass �bers and ��–��% increase or carbon Compressive strength �bers. (ii) Ductility o polymer concrete improved with addition o �bers. (i) Polymer concrete mix was obtained using ��% resin content, ��% coarse aggregates, ��% �ne aggregates, and ��% Flexural strength, CaCO� . split tensile strength (ii) It was ound that �exural strength and split tensile strength increase with addition o nanoparticles. (i) Addition o steel �b ers improves the properties o polymer concrete. Compressive strength (ii) Compressive strength o steel �ber reinorced polymer concrete is higher than that o plain polymer concrete. (i) Granite mix is the most important parameter controlling the damping. (ii) Highest damping is reported or mix Damping containing ��% epoxy resin, �% glass �bers, and granite mix having high proportion o �ne aggregate.
Te in�uence o the aggregate grading on the properties o polymer concrete has been long known. Te coarse and �ne aggregate should be proportioned in such a way that aggregate mixture has minimum void content and maximum bulk density. Tis minimizes the amount o binder required to assure proper bonding o all the aggregate particles. Normally, the binder content ranges rom �% to ��% o the total weight but i the aggregate mix is �ne, it may even require up to ��%binder. Very ew studies have beenreported in the literature regarding the proportioning o the aggregate mix in polymer concrete. Earlier studies in this regard have reported that polymer concrete made with aggregate grading according to Fuller’s curve had the highest strength [��, ��]. Further it was reported that use o gap graded aggregate resulted in minimum void content. An empirical relation has also been suggested in the literature, which can be used to determine the proportions o coarse and �ne aggregates o least-void content[��]. Later studies suggest the optimum mix composition o aggregate or minimising the void content based on design o experiments approach [ ��]. Te mix composition suggested was again based upon the use o gap graded aggregates. Since, or the cost considerations, the binder content used in polymer concrete materials is quite low, the adhesion o aggregates takes place through a �ne layer o resin around the aggregates. A larger contact area is, thereore, desirable which necessitates a proper space �lling o the gaps by smaller aggregates or micro�ller particles. Use o a silane coupling agent (which strengthens the adhesion between the resin and the aggregates) improves the adhesion and thus the ultimate strength o the polymer concrete. Adhesion at
Journal o Composites
the interace, in absence o any chemical bonding, may be suﬃciently good even when it is due to secondary orces between two phases. Te use o silane coupling agents, which may provide chemical bonding between the two phases, considerably improves the interacial adhesion and thereore enhances the mechanical properties o these materials. A ew studies on the use o various types o silane coupling agents have been reported in the literature. Various methods o application o silane agents like integral blend method and surace treatment method have been compared [ ��, ��, ��]. It has been reported that when using integral blend method o silane addition, �% silane by the weight o resin gives optimum results [��, ��]. Compressive strength and �exural strength o polymer concrete containing silane coupling agents are �� to ��% higher than those o normal polymer concrete [��]. �.�. Characterization of Mechanical Properties of Polymer Concrete. Tere have beena loto studies reported on characterization o mechanical properties o polymer concrete since early ����s. able � summarizes the eﬀorts o various authors and the major conclusions drawn based upon these studies. �.�. Fatigue Studies on Polymer Concrete (PC). Studies on atigue behaviour o polymer concrete are very scarce in the literature. Te two million cycle atigue endurance limit has been reported as a stress level o ��%, very similar to that o cement concrete [��]. A study to evaluate the eﬀect o requency o testing concluded that requency o testing shall be taken as a parameter or atigue testing o polymer concrete. Fatigue behaviour o polymer concrete has been described based upon S-N relationships. Tese relationships are based upon the basic power law unctions. Te research hasshown that the empirical equationsused to predict atigue behaviour o plain concrete �t well or polymer concrete also [��]. Equation (�) as described or cement concrete was applied to atigue data o polymer concrete [ ��]:
� = (10)−�� (log ) ,
where � is the probability o survival, � is the stress level, is number o cycles to ailure, and , , and are experimental constants. Failure probability has been incorporated in the S-N relationships or polymer concrete to take care o the stochastic nature o atigue [��].
3. Discussion Polymer concrete has initially been developed as an alternative material in the domain o civil engineering but over a period o time, owing to its superior properties, has ound avour as a replacement material in machine building applications. Rapid curing, high compressive strength, high speci�c stiﬀness and strength, resistance to chemicals and corrosion, ability to mouldintocomplex shapes, and excellent vibration damping properties are mainly responsible or its use in these applications. It has been observed that
the properties o polymer concrete depend upon various parameters like type and amount o resin/polymer used, type and mix proportioning o aggregate, moisture content o aggregate, nature and content o reinorcing �bers, addition o micro�llers, curing conditions, use o silane coupling agents, and so orth. Epoxy resins provide better mechanical and durability properties than polyester, vinylester, uran, and methacrylate resins, but there is inherent high cost associated with these materials. Te properties o polyester concrete can also be enhanced to the level o epoxy concrete by addition o micro�llers and silane coupling agents. Te resin dosage reported by various authors mostly lies in the range o �� to ��% by weight o polymer concrete. Higher resin dosage is recommended when using �ne aggregate, because o the large surace area o these materials. Te studies to �nd the optimum resin dosage or maximizing the mechanical properties have yielded diﬀerent results depending upon the speci�c type o resin and aggregate used. It is observed that initially strength increases with increase in resin dosage, but, afer reaching the peak, the same either decreases or remains unchanged with urther increase in the resin content. Most o the researchers have reported maximum strength or resin dosage in the range o ��–��% by weight o polymer concrete. Addition o various types o �bers like glass �bers, steel �bers, and carbon �bers in polymer concrete enhances its mechanical properties such as toughness, compressive strength, �exural strength, and atigue strength. Te usual range o �ber addition in polymer concrete is up to �% by weight o polymer concrete. It was observed that silane treatment o �bers beore addition into polymer concrete urther enhances its mechanical properties. Addition o micro�llers like �y ash, silica ume, calcium carbonate, and so orth in polymer concrete has been reported not only to enhance the mechanical properties but also to improve the workability o mix. Enhancement in compressive strength up to ��% has been reported with addition o ��% �y ash in polymer concrete. Various types o aggregate materials have been used by the researchers, most o them based upon the choice o locally available materials to reduce the cost. Te use o river sand, oundry sand, crushed stone, quartz, granite, and gravel has been reported. ill date no standard mix proportion and aggregate grading criterion are available or polymer concrete and, thereore, a number o optimized mix proportions are reported in the literature. Tese mixes are based upon various optimization criteria like Fuller’s curve, and maximum bulk density, and minimum void content and have been developed or various types o locally available aggregates. Almost all the studies are in agreement that use o gap graded aggregate results in better mechanical properties. A ew empirical relations are provided in the literature to determine the proportion o coarse and �ne aggregates or obtaining least void content, but their application in various other aggregate types is still to be evaluated. It is recommended that aggregate mix having maximum bulk density and having least void content shall be used along with optimum polymer content or achieving maximum strength. Moisture content in the aggregate has a deleterious eﬀect on
Journal o Composites ���� �: Summary o mechanical properties o polymer concrete.
Okada et al. [��]
Kobayashi and Ito [��]
Mani et al. [��]
Vipulanandan and Dharmarajan [��]
Vipulanandan et al. [��]
Vipulanandan (i) Epoxy, and Paul [��] (ii) polyester
Aggregate and Variables Properties evaluated micro�ller used Compressive strength, �exural strength, and so orth Resin content, ��–��%; Crushed stone, river �ller content, ��–��%; Compressive strength, sand, and calcium temperature o test, � to tensile strength carbonate ��∘
Crushed stone, �ne sand
Crushed quartzite, siliceous sand, and calcium carbonate
Compressive strength and tensile strength decrease with temperature.
Silane treatment, resin content, � to ��%
(i) Resin content does not have much eﬀect on compressive strength. (ii) emperature rise was observed or requency range o Compressive strength, ���–��� Hz. compressive atigue (iii) Addition o �% silane agent increases the load or withstanding � million cycles rom ��% to ��% o ultimate strength.
Resin type, silane treatment, and micro�ller addition
(i) Epoxy concrete has much superior properties than the polyester concrete. (ii) Compressive strength goes up by ��% or the polyester Compressive strength, concrete and ��% or the epoxy �exural strength, and concrete by incorporation o a split tensile strength silane coupling agent. (iii) Te compressive and �exural strengths o the polyester concrete are greatly improved on incorporation o the micro�ller.
(i) Maximum �exural and compression modulus are observed between �� and ��% resin content by weight. emperature, strain rate, void content, Compressive strength, (ii) Strain rate was ound to have very limited eﬀect on the �exural method o preparation, �exural strength behaviour. and resin content (iii) Compaction moulding was ound to have better results than vibration moulding.
Ottawa sand, blasting sand
(i) Maximum compressive and �exural strength were reported at ��% resin content. Resin content, silane Compressive strength, (ii) Addition o glass �bers treatment, compaction, �exural strength, and increases the �exural strength, and glass �ber content split tensile strength compressive strength. (iii) Silane treatment increases the �exural strength by ��%.
Ottawa sand, blasting sand
emperature, strain rate, aggregate type, and curing conditions
(i) Compressive strength increases with curing temperature. (ii) Maximum strength was Compressive strength, obtained or one-day room split tensile strength temperature curing ollowed by one-day curing at ��∘ C. (iii) Use o gap graded aggregate resulted in highest compressive strength.
Journal o Composites
���� �: Continued. Author
Vipulanandan Polyester and Paul [��]
Varughese and Chaturvedi [��]
Maksimov et al. [��]
Abdel-Fattah and El-Hawary [��]
Ribeiro et al. [��]
Aggregate and micro�ller used
Granite aggregate con�rming to ASM mesh No-�–��, river sand, and �y ash
��% crushed granite, ��.�% sand, and ��.�% calcium carbonate
��% coarse aggregate and ��% �ne aggregate
Clean sand, oundry sand, and CaCO�
Clean sand, oundry sand, and CaCO�
Curing conditions, silane treatment, and rate o loading
Fly ash and river sand contents have been varied in ull range o �–���% o �ne aggregate to study the replacement o river sand with �y ash
Compressive strength, tensile strength, and stress strain relationship
(i) Maximum compressive strength was obtained or a resin content o ��%. (ii) �-day room temperature curing ollowed by �-day curing at ��∘ C increased the compressive strength by around ��% as compared to �-day curing at room temperature. (iii) Compressive strength and modulus increase with increase in strain rate. (iv) Silane treatment o aggregate increases the compressive strength by around ��%.
(i) Fine aggregates in combination with �y ash and river sand show synergism in strength behaviour and resistance to water absorption up to the level o ��% by weight o �y ash. (ii) At the higher level o �y ash, properties decline as the mix becomes unworkable due to the act that pure �y ash, because o large surace area, does not mix with resin binder eﬀectively.
Compressive strength in the Compressive strength, range o ��–��� MPa has been �exural strength reported.
Resin content, micro�ller content, mixing method, and type o sand
Resin content, micro�ller content, type o sand, and curing cycle (� days at ��∘ C and � hrs at ��∘ C)
(i) Maximum compressive strength was achieved at ��% resin content or all types o Compressive strength, resins. �exural strength (ii) Highest modulus o rupture was also obtained at ��% resin content, which was almost � times that o cement concrete. (i) Best results were obtained or ��% resin content. Tree-point bend (ii) Clean sand gives better tests on specimens o properties with low resin content 40 × 40 × 160 mm as oundry sand has high speci�c surace. (i) Curing cycle o � hrs at ��∘ C gives almost the same results as � days at �� ∘ C curing. (ii) Epoxy resin gives better Tree-point bend properties with oundry sand as tests on specimens o aggregate, whereas polyester 40 × 40 × 160 mm gives better properties with clean sand because o the higher capacity o epoxy to wet the aggregates.
Journal o Composites
���� �: Continued. Author
Rebeiz et al. [��]
Bˇarbut¸aˇ and Epoxy Lepˇadatu [��]
Haidar et al. [��]
Aggregate and micro�ller used
Pea gravel as coarse aggregate and sand as �ne aggregate, �y ash
River gravel o �–� mm size and �–� mm size, silica ume (SUF)
Gravel o �–� mm, gravel to sand ratio o �.�� used or optimum packing density
Fly ash content
(i) Replacing ��% by weight o sand with �y ash results in ��% increase in compressive strength. (ii) Caution should, however, be exercised when using a relatively Compressive strength high loading o �y ash, because the high surace area o the material would make the mix become too sticky and thus unworkable.
Resin content, micro�ller content
(i) Compressive strength varies rom ��.� to ��.�MPa and Compressive strength, �exural strength varies rom �exural strength, and ��.�� to ��.� MPa. split tensile strength (ii) Resin content o ��.�% was ound suitable or almost all the properties o polymer concrete.
Resin content, curing conditions
(i) Maximum compressive strength and �exural strength were reported or a resin content Compressive strength, o ��%. �exural strength (ii) Maximum compressive and �exural strength were obtained afer � days o curing.
Kim et al. [��] Epoxy resin
Polyester resin rom PE waste
Andesite, river sand, and calcium carbonate
Sand > mesh no. � and pebble