ME136P Lab Report 1
MAPUA INSTITUTE OF TECHNOLOGY SCHOOL OF MECHANICAL AND MANUFACTURING ENGINEERING
ME136P / A4 Engineering Materials, Processes and Testing
Experiment no. 1 Physical Study of Universal Testing Machine
Torralba, Refael Jan C.
Date Performed: August 4, 2015
Date Submitted: August 18, 2015
Engr. Rj Lawrence Tiu
Engr. Rj Lawrence Tiu OBJECTIVES To familiarize on the different parts and operation of the Universal Testing Machine. INTRODUCTION A universal testing machine, also known as a universal tester, materials testing machine or material test frame is a machine that is used to test the tensile strength and compressive strength of materials. Students should first be familiarized with the machines capabilities before performing an experiment to give them an idea on how it will be used to test the materials and also to be aware to the solutions of possible hazards that may occur during the experiment to prevent any accidents that may harm the students. Figure 1 shows the loading unit of UTM and Figure 2 shows the measuring unit of UTM.
Figure 1. Loading Unit of UTM
Figure 2. Measuring Unit of UTM
As a Mechanical Engineering student it is necessary to have knowledge of mechanical properties of engineering materials because it will be used in our future designs, fabrications and constructions. It is called universal testing machine because it can perform many different test such as tensile, compressive, bend, etc. for us to be able to examine the materials mechanical properties. It can perform these tests by applying external force to the material which has three main elements: loading unit, control measuring unit and hydraulic unit for loading. The results from the test are commonly used to know the application of the material and to predict how it will react under other types of force. Tensile test is clamping a single piece of material on each of its ends and pull it apart until it breaks. This measures how strong it is (tensile strength) how stretchy it is (elongation), and how stiff it is (tensile modulus). Compression test is the opposite of tensile test in which you compress an object between two level plates until a certain load or distance has been reached or the product breaks. The typical measurements are the maximum force sustained before breakage, or load at displacement, or displacement at load. The materials that can be used in the UTM operations are metal, rubber, plastic, leather, asbestos, PVC, paper, textile, wire, plywood, ceramics, resins etc. but not all kinds of these materials can be used in all UTM because there are different designs of UTM and each of which are specialize to test a different level of strength of the materials.
LIST OF APPARATUS/MATERIALS
Shimadzu Universal Testing Machine UH-A-C Series
Computer Controlled Hydraulic Servo System
PROCEDURES 1. Discussion of Mechanical properties of materials and parts of UTM 2. Be familiarized on the different parts of the Universal testing machine by labelling an actual picture of the UTM of Mapua Institute of Technology.
Figure 3. Control Measuring Unit with labelled parts
Figure 4. Loading Unit with labelled parts
FINAL DATA SHEET
Drive screw Tension nut cap Lower cross head
Upper crosshead Elevation motor Column
Table top protective mat
Bed cover Table cover
Table roller guide Loading cylinder Drive screw fixing nut
Load display meter
Manual Operation panel
Power control unit Automatic control panel
QUESTIONS WITH ANSWERS 1. Illustrate the Universal Testing Machine
2. Give the Functions of each single part. Parts of the UTM: Loading cylinder – Used to convert fluid power into mechanical motion. Ram – Where the load is applied. Bed – The base of the Loading Unit. Table – The place where the specimen that will be used for testing is placed. Lower crosshead – Used to clamp testing specimen from below. Upper crosshead – Used to clamp testing specimen from top. Drive screw – Provides a particularly favourable flow of force during the test, enabling direct load application to the specimen. Column – Usually have ball-screw drives to position the moveable crosshead. It can also be used to determine the force capacity of the machine. Tension nut cap – Controls the tension in the machine.
Drive screw fixing nut – A type of fastener, typically made of metal, and characterized by a helical ridge, known as a male thread (external thread) or just thread, wrapped around a cylinder Elevation motor – It allows the lower crosshead to move upward and downward allowing it to compress and rupture the material. Table roller guide – It allows you to place the material precisely. Table cover – Covers the table. Bed cover – Covers the bed. Table top protective mat – Protects the table from any debris that may cause scratches or damage to the table. Upper rear cover – Covers the upper part of the measuring unit. Lower rear cover – Covers the lower part of the measuring unit. Power switch – Turns the machine on and off. Casing – Contains most of the component of the measuring unit. Front cover – Covers the lower front of the universal measuring unit. Power control unit – Controls the power of the measuring unit. Manual operation panel – Controls the measuring unit operation manually. Automatic operation panel – Controls the measuring unit operation automatically. Zero span adjustment panel – Is the range of a physical property being measured which is correlated to a representative range of a signal or indicator. Load range selector panel – It allows you to control the amount or range of load that will be applied. Load display meter – It shows you the load that has been applied. Memory card – It stores all the data gathered by the machine. 3. Enumerate the uses of Universal Testing Machine.
To inspect the batch quality and consistency of material. To determine the properties of unknown material. It can measure the tensile strength, elongation and stiffness of material Measures the compressive strength of a material
DISCUSSION Universal testing machine (UTM) is named after the fact that it can perform many standard tensile and compression tests on materials, components, and structures. Tensile strength test is where you stretch a material until it breaks to measure how strong, stretchy, and stiff a material is.
Compression test is the opposite of tensile strength test where you compress the material until it breaks or a certain distance has been reach. Universal testing machine have two main parts Loading unit and Control/Measuring unit. Loading unit consists of two crossheads which are connected by drive screw and column with an elevation motor which helps the cross head to move upward and downward, a tension nut cap that is installed at the crossheads and all of these parts are mostly the upper part of the loading unit. The lower part mostly consists of ram, loading cylinder, table, bed and other protective equipment for the ram and loading cylinder. Control/Measure unit consists of 12 parts most noticeable are the load display meter, load range selector, power switch, etc. it is also where the load applied is recorded. UTM have many components and each of which are essential for the UTM to work in a very convenient way for us. CONCLUSION Universal testing machine is an invention of engineers to enable us to determine the materials tensile and compression strength and can help us predict the materials reaction to other external forces which is why we need to familiarize ourselves to this machine. One of the best ways that helped us familiarized ourselves to the Universal testing machine was by seeing and observing it closely. With the help of manual the universal testing machines different parts can easily be identified and observed and by doing so, we easily assumed some of its parts function in the operation of tensile and compression test. We easily familiarize ourselves to some of the UTM’s parts because of its size, for examples are the Crossheads, drive screw and column, these materials can easily be remembered due to the fact the when the UTM operates the most noticeable parts that moves are these three because it holds the material that is being compressed or stretched.
RECOMMENDATION To familiarize ourselves in a more interesting way, it is better if students will have the freedom to examine the machine on their own and answer every question they asked, telling the students some interesting facts about the UTM can increase their interest in the UTM and they can be more meticulous in observing the machines parts and operations. Allowing the students to bring their own material to test using the UTM can be a good and better way to enhance their knowledge about what will happen to the different materials and their strength, because surely the students will bring different materials that can be used for testing.
REFERENCES IndiaMART InterMESH Ltd. (2015) Retrieved July 19, 2015, from http://www.ets-testingmachines.com/universal-testing-machines.html Fuel Instruments & Engineers Pvt. Ltd. (2015) Retrieved July 19, 2015, from http://www.fuelinstrument.com/utm.pdf AzoM.com – an AZoNetwork Site (2015) Retrieved July 19, 2015, from http://www.azom.com/article.aspx?ArticleID=4148 ADMET Materials Testing System Manufacturer (2015) Retrieved July 19, 2015, from http://admet.com/blogposts/what-is-a-universal-testing-machine-2/ Aviso, J. M., Galera, T. F., Espinoza, S. W., & Ratay, M. R., Engineering Materials and Testing Laboratory Manual